This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
Under the Guidance of:
Mr.Abhishek Sharma HOD ECE deptt. RIMT IET Mandi Gobingarh Mr.Ravinder pal Singh Lecturer ECE Deptt RIMT IET Mandi Gobindgarh
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering RIMT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
This is to certify that the project report entitled “ADVANCED BIOMETRIC SECURITY SYSTEM which has been completed and submitted by Group - 4, B.Tech (E.C.E), 4 TH year towards the partial fulfillment of the requirement for award of the degree of 1
Bachelor of Engineering in ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION, is the bonafide work by them and has been completed under my guidance and supervision.
Training Incharge Mr. Abhishek Sharma (Head of ECE Department)
Guided By Mr.Ravinder Pal Singh Mr. Ashok Arora
Chapter No. Name of the Chapter Page No.
Acknowledgement Introduction to Biometric System
1.1 Technology Used 1.2 Block Diagram and its Description 1.3 Application Area
7 14 15
PCB Designing and its Fabrication
2.1 PCB Designing 2.2 PCB Fabrication
Components Detail and Working
3.1 Resistors 3.2 Capacitors 3.3 Transistors 3.4 Push Buttons 3.5 Light Emitting Diodes 3.6 Optocouplers 3.7 Microcontroller 3.8 Induction Motor 3.9 Liquid Crystal Display 3.10 Power supply 3.11 Crystal Oscillator 3.12 Connectors 3.13 Fingerprint Scanner
39 47 52 58 60 65 69 79 84 91 97 100 103
4.1 Programs 4.2 Burning Process
Technical Drawing Obsolescence
First of all.” Here. we found this golden chance to acknowledge all those people who had blessed.Mandi Gobindgarh) for providing help and giving us a chance for showing our skills through continued support and cooperation during this project. We extend our fort right thanks to our family and friends for their moral support and encouragement throughout the project.RIMT-IET. The report of “ADVANCED BIOMETRIC SECURITY SYSTEM” undertaken by “RIMT-IET” is a learning experience for us.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT “If practical knowledge carves and sharps the career of a person.Ravinder Pal Singh of RIMT-IET to undergo this training under his concern.Abhishek Sharma (HOD ECE Department. practical experience polishes it and adds luster and brilliance to it. We are also grateful to Mr. we would like to pay our immense gratitude to Mr. 5 . We thank almighty God for giving us this opportunity to express gratitude to all those who helped us in our project. encouraged and supported us technically and morally through all the phases of our project.
documents. TECHNOLOGY USED Personal Safes are revolutionary locking storage cases that open with just the touch of your finger. jewelry.CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION TO BIOMETRIC SYSTEM 1. These products are designed as secure storage for medications. These utilize fingerprint recognition technology to allow access to only those whose fingerprints you 6 . and other valuable or potentially harmful items. weapons.1.
Now the micro controller will send the ADD command to the module and the module will add it in memory. Also the fingerprint ID is displayed over the LCD display. In this project the fingerprint module from Mixes Biometrics is used.choose.1. In the 21st century the use of biometric based systems have seen an exponential growth. or locks that can be picked. These eliminates the need for keeping track of keys or remembering a combination password. cars and many other security concerned things. press the Identify button and if the finger matches then the Relay is complemented. To identify the finger. To delete the finger follow the same as above. To add a fingerprint. or PIN. It can only be opened when an authorized user is present. This is all because of tremendous progress in this field making it possible to bring down their prices. offices. 1. cellular phones . since there are no keys or combinations to be copied or stolen. easiness of use and its diversified use in everyday life. Stored fingerprints are retained even in the event of complete power failure or battery drain. You can add a fingerprint. It can be controlled through its serial port. just show the finger on the module and press the ADD key. Since biometric identifiers are associated permanently with the user they are more reliable than token or knowledge based authentication methods.1BIOMETRICS: Biometrics is the science of verifying the identity of an individual through physiological measurements or behavioral traits. It contains all the necessary electronics to allow you to store. The micro controller AT89S52 interacts with the module. and verify fingerprints with just the touch of a button. Biometric have brought significant changes in security systems 7 . Delete a fingerprint and identify the fingerprint. Biometrics is becoming new state of art method of security systems. laptops . delete. It can store up to 750 finger prints on its own memory. Biometrics are used to prevent unauthorized access to ATM.
Here each individual has a single unique ID and it can’t be shared with any other individual.1.1 ADVANTAGES OF BIOMETRICS: Biometrics offers several advantages over traditional security measures. Biometric based security system doesn’t allow such a crime.1.1. They have changed the security system from fingerprints 1.1. For example a password based security system has always the threat of being stolen and accessed by the unauthorized user. efficient and cheap.making them more secure then before. Thanks to biometrics!!! They give us a system in which an individual can’t possess multiple IDs and can’t change his ID through out his life time. Multiple IDs: Traditional security systems face the problem that they don’t give solution to the problem of individuals having multiple IDs. multiple individuals: In traditional security systems one ID can be used by multiple individuals. ●One individual. Some of them are presented below ●Accuracy and Security: Biometrics based security systems are far most secure and accurate than traditional password or token based security systems.2 BIOMETRIC CATEGORIES Biometrics can be categorized in various categories as follow. Physical biometrics involves measurement of physical characteristics of individuals. For example in case of a password based security system a single password can be shared among multiple individuals and they can share the resources allotted to a single individual. Further more the traditional security systems are always prone to accuracy as compared to biometrics which is more accurate. 1. Each individual is identified through a unique Biometric identity throughout the world. 8 . For examples a person having multiple passports to enter a foreign country. ●One ID.
and active capacitance). Face recognition 3. Hard bit and more But we are using Fingerprints for making this project Fingerprints recognition has been present for a few hundred years. and then exit the other side of the finger. Fingerprint recognition or fingerprint authentication refers to the automated method of verifying a match between two human fingerprints. passive capacitance. rise in the center forming an arc. Retina 4. Fingerprints are one of many forms of biometrics used to identify individuals and verify their identity.1.2PATTERNS The three basic patterns of fingerprint ridges are the arch. and whorl: • arch: The ridges enter from one side of the finger. ultrasonic. loop. For this reason these systems are becoming more widespread in a variety of applications.The most prominent of these include 1. It is also necessary to know the structure and properties of human skin order to successfully employ some of the imaging technologies. which are aggregate characteristics of ridges. These include patterns. Due to tremendous research this field has reached such a point where the purchase of fingerprint security system is quite affordable. Fingerprints 2. which are unique features found within the patterns. and minutia points. 1. This article touches on two major classes of algorithms (minutia and pattern) and four sensor designs (optical. 9 . The analysis of fingerprints for matching purposes generally requires the comparison of several features of the print pattern.
When a finger is kept at the finger print reader. operating on 10 . leading to the belief that these patterns are inherited. • Scientists have found that family members often share the same general fingerprint patterns. software driven. The whorl pattern The loop pattern. And if the information provided by the user is incorrect or mismatch in finger prints is detected then access is denied. autonomous. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Embedded System is a combination of hardware and software used to achieve a single specific task. or human or network interactive. whorl: Ridges form circularly around a central point on the finger. Finger print reader and the microcontroller unit are connected using serial interface. and then exit on that same side.• loop: The ridges enter from one side of a finger. it will give the information accordingly to microcontroller by sending appropriate commands to the reader and which is displayed on the LCD. 1.1. An embedded system is a microcontroller-based.3. The arch pattern. real-time control system. reliable. form a curve. If the information matches with the one within the device then the DC motor interfaced to the microcontroller responds accordingly.
An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to perform a dedicated function.3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS: An embedded system is any computer system hidden inside a product other than a computer There will encounter a number of difficulties when writing embedded system software in addition to those we encounter when we write applications 11 . or the systems controlling nuclear power plants. Since the system is dedicated to specific tasks. Unlike a general-purpose computer. to large stationary installations like traffic lights. an embedded system performs one or a few pre-defined tasks. design engineers can optimize it. Mobile phones or handheld computers share some elements with embedded systems. such as a personal computer. and often includes task-specific hardware and mechanical parts not usually found in a general-purpose computer. with a single microcontroller chip. peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure. but are not truly embedded systems themselves because they tend to be more general purpose.diverse physical variables and in diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market. embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players. Embedded systems are often mass-produced. such as the operating systems and microprocessors which power them. In terms of complexity embedded systems run from simple. 1.1. benefiting from economies of scale. Physically. factory controllers. allowing different applications to be loaded and peripherals to be connected. reducing the size and cost of the product. usually with very specific requirements. to very complex with multiple units.
and the software in these systems must conserve power Processor hogs – computing that requires large amounts of CPU time can complicate the response problem Cost – Reducing the cost of the hardware is a concern in many embedded system projects. software often operates on hardware that is barely adequate for the job.Throughput – Our system may need to handle a lot of data in a short period of time. 12 . screens or disk drives. They usually do not have keyboards. finding out what the software is doing wrong (other than not working) is a troublesome problem Reliability – embedded systems must be able to handle any situation without human intervention Memory space – Memory is limited on embedded systems. Response–Our system may need to react to events quickly Testability–Setting up equipment to test embedded software can be difficult Debug ability–Without a screen or a keyboard. Some have a serial port or a network connection. Embedded systems have a microprocessor/ microcontroller and a memory. and you must make the software and the data fit into whatever memory exists Program installation – you will need special tools to get your software into embedded systems Power consumption – Portable systems must run on battery power.
2 BLOCK DIAGRAM AND ITS DESCRIPTION MICROCONTROLLER POWER SUPPLY INDUCTION MOTOR A T 8 9 13 S 5 2 LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (16*2) THUMB SCANNER .1.
BLOCK DIAGRAM The block diagram and its brief description are explained in block wise and this consists of following blocks: Power Supply Microcontroller Liquid crystal display Induction motor Fingerprint Scanner
1.2.1. POWER SUPPLY: 14
The Entire Project needs power for its operation. However, from the study of this project it comes to know that we supposed to design 5v and 12v dc power supply. So by utilizing the following power supply components, required power has been gained. (230/12v (1A and 500mA) – Step down transformers, Bridge rectifier to converter ac to dc, booster capacitor and +5v (7805) and +12v (7812) regulator to maintain constant 5v & 12 supply for the controller circuit and Fingerprint module). 1.2.2 MICROCONTROLLER AT89S52: The major heart of this project is AT89S52 microcontroller, the reasons why we selected this in our project? The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, onchip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con-tents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset. 1.2.3 LCD: A liquid crystal is a material (normally organic for LCDs) that will flow like a liquid but whose molecular structure has some properties normally associated with solids. The Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) is a low power device. The power requirement is typically in the order of microwatts for the LCD. However, an LCD requires an external or internal light source. It is limited to a temperature range of about 0C to 60C and lifetime is an area of concern, because LCDs can chemically degrade There are two major types of LCDs which are: 1. Dynamic-scattering LCDs 2. Field-effect LCDs
Field-effect LCDs are normally used in such applications where source of energy is a prime factor (e.g., watches, portable instrumentation etc.).They absorb considerably less power than the light-scattering type. However, the cost for field-effect units is typically higher, and their height is limited to 2 inches. On the other hand, light-scattering units are available up to 8 inches in height. Field-effect LCD is used in the project for displaying the appropriate information. The turn-on and turn-off time is an important consideration in all displays. The response time of LCDs is in the range of 100 to 300ms.The lifetime of LCDs is steadily increasing beyond 10,000+hours limit. Since the color generated by LCD units is dependent on the source of illumination, there is a wide range of color choice. 1.2.4 INDUCTION MOTOR: In this project DC motors can be used to drive the gates. There are always two options in front of the designer whether to use a DC motor or a stepper motor. When it comes to speed, weight, size, cost... DC motors are always preferred over stepper motors. There are many things which you can do with your DC motor when interfaced with a microcontroller. For example you can control the speed of motor; you can control the direction of rotation. In this part of tutorial we will learn to interface and control of a DC motor with a microcontroller.
1.2.5 FINGERPRINT SCANNER: In this project DC motors can be used to drive the gates. There are always two options in front of the designer whether to use a DC motor or a stepper motor. When it comes to speed, weight, size, cost... DC motors are always preferred over stepper motors. There are many things which you can do with your DC motor when interfaced with a microcontroller. For example you can control the speed of motor; you can control the 16
1. It contains all the necessary 17 .3 APPLICATION AREA 1. Here we utilize fingerprint recognition technology to allow access to only whose fingerprints you choose. Door lock system: Security has become one of the main concerns of everyday life. Security is the condition of being protected from loss or danger. In this part of tutorial we will learn to interface and control of a DC motor with a microcontroller.direction of rotation.
and others in charge of large groups the ability to know who is in attendance at any given point in time. Whether it be for business or law enforcement. These products are designed as "access denial" secure storage for medications. A biometric marker cannot be forged or faked in some way. you can make sure someone is in attendance at any given point in time by having them use a hand or thumb print to verify their identity every so often. accurately. since there are no keys or combinations to be copied or stolen. and keeps voting fraud to a minimum. delete. weapons. Even the government has found a use for biometric methods of taking attendance. or PIN. delete. and when they were doing it. Stored fingerprints are retained even in the event of complete power failure or battery drain. These eliminates the need for keeping track of keys or remembering a combination password. 18 . and verify fingerprints with just the touch of a button. and other valuable or potentially harmful items. or locks that can be picked. Stored fingerprints are retained even in the event of complete power failure or battery drain. Safe box: Personal Safes are revolutionary locking storage cases that open with just the touch of your finger. 2. jewelry. Some governments are now using physical markers to identify who is voting in elections. Attendance System: These technologies allow an employer an unparalleled means of knowing who was doing what.electronics to allow you to store. This is important in the days when people are beginning to question the methods of ensuring the validity of election data. Biometrics can be used to ensure that a given person is where they are supposed to be. and verify fingerprints with just the touch of a button. It can only be opened when an authorized user is present. 3. It contains all the necessary electronics to allow you to store. These utilize fingerprint recognition technology to allow access to only those whose fingerprints you choose. This lets the government know who is attending. documents. It becomes much easier to keep track of a prisoner on parole when they must check in at given intervals through the use of unique physical markers.
That means a PCB = PWB (printed wiring board) is the platform upon which electronic components such as integrated circuit chips and other components are mounted. Printed circuit board (PCB) provides both the physical structure for mounting and holding the components as well as the electrical interconnection between the components.CHAPTER-2 PCB DESIGNING AND ITS FABRICATION 2.1 PCB DESIGNING PCB stands for “PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD”. A PCB consists of a non-conducting substrate (typically fiber glass with epoxy as resin) upon which the conductive pattern or circuitry 20 .
Double sided PCBs: . The size of board is small in this case but it is costlier than that of above. 1.As the name suggest in these designs the conductive pattern is only at in one side. They are some times referred to as the base line in electronic packaging. The size of this PCB is smaller than that of double sided PCB but it is very costly. And also the size is large in these case but these are cheap. Multilayer PCBs: .1 TYPES OF PCB PCB may be of different types:1) Single-sided 2) Double-sided 3) Multilayer Single sided PCBs: .is formed.2 FUNCTIONS OF PCB Printed circuited boards are dielectric substrates with metallic circuitry formed on that. 2. Electronic packaging is fundamentally an inter connection technology and the PCB is the baseline building block of this technology.In this case the board consists of alternating layers of conducting pattern and insulating material.3 TECHNIQUES USED FOR PCB DESIGNING There mainly two techniques which are use for the PCB designs. Copper is the most prevalent conductor although nickel. also called PRINTED CIRCUIT ASSEMBLY.1. or the combination of two (rigid-flex).These are the PCBs on which the conductive pattern is in on both sides.1. 2. the combination of PCB and components is an electronic assembly. This assembly is the basic building block for all the electronic appliances such as television. 2. flexible. The conductive material is connected across the layers through plated through holes. PCBs may also be either rigid. computer and other goods. When the electronic components have been mounted on the PCB. silver and tin are also used in some cases.1. Hand Taping 21 .
semi-circular at different angles. 2) We cannot generate NCD files for CNC drilling. CAD system for PCB designing requires following: o A computer system. o Provides physical design reuse modules o Electrical rule check (ERC) o All the layers are generated from the same design by giving different options. 3) Difficult to modify the design in the designing process or after designing. PCB design using hand taping is the process of technical drawing. 22 . optimization of tracks can be done. In hand taping method layout should be prepared on grid paper. 3. Protel. o PCB design software like OrCad. 2. o A photo plotter for art work generation. There are many enhanced features in electronics design automation tools which not possible in the hand taping. Computer Aided Design 1) PCBs using Hand Taping: 1. components pads can be prepared by using black pads. Routing of the board can be done by tapes with different widths. In hand taping. o Bill of material can be generated which contains number of different components used. 2) PCB DESIGNING USING CAD All the above difficulties can be removed by using CAB system. The main advantages are given below: o Auto placement o Auto routing o After routing. Mentor etc. DISADVANTAGS OF HAND-TAPING FOR PCB DESINING: 1) Each layer has to be designed separately. TANGO.2. CADSTAR. 4. o We can draw conductors as an arc. 4) Difficult to get good design overview.
Artwork generation. BASIC DESIGN STEPS IN CAD.o Design Rule Check o Advanced CAD systems have high speed analysis. Routing of the board using manual routing tools or auto router Design rule check physical and electrical. A TRADITIONAL DESIGN FLOW IN CAD. • • • • • Net list file creation. CAD system provides all NCD files and Gerber data files for photo plotting. Placement of components manually or automatically.SYSTEM The following design steps are very common while designing a PCD in CAD: ● Entry the schematic diagram.SYSTEM 23 .
OrCad Capture® design 24 . and exceptional value.4 OrCad Design Environment OrCad has a long history of providing individuals and teams with a complete set of technologies that offer unprecedented productivity.5 releases continue that tradition. New 10. Therefore the use of EDA tools has become increasingly important as product lifecycles have become shorter and shorter. Modern electronic design automation (EDA) tools are beginning to support a more efficient and integrated approach to electronic. Some of them are given below:- • OrCad • CADSTAR • Protel • TANGO • Mentor The most commonly software which are used for PCB design in India are Protel and OrCad 2. Today's lower cost and yet highly sophisticated electronic design automation systems have created a unique challenge to nearly every engineering department.1. seamless tool integration.Capture Gerber tools Gerber and plotter drawing Libraries Footprint libraries Layout Gerber and drill files Overview of PCB Design Software There many soft wares which are used for PCB designs.
or designing a digital block diagram with an HDL module. modify and verify the design for PCB. revising schematic diagram for an existing PCB. 25 . OrCad Layout ® offers PCB designers and PCB design teams the power and flexibility to create and share PCB data and constraints across the design flow. OrCad Capture provides simple schematic commands you need to enter. The ease-of use and intuitive capabilities of OrCad Layout provides for quick startup and rapid learning right out of the box. OrCad Layout delivers all the capabilities to designers need from netlist to place and route. to final output. Whether you're designing a new analog circuit.entry is the most widely used schematic entry system in electronic design today for one simple reason: fast and universal design entry.
1. 26 .2. So that one can parts. The schematic page editor has a tool palette that you can use to draw and place everything you need to create a schematic page. The entry of schematic diagram is the first step in PCB design using OrCad.5 PCB DESIGN STEPS IN OrCad 10. buses and draw graphics.5 ENTRY OF SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM Schematic diagram provides the functional flow and the graphical representation of an electronic circuit. or from the project window. wires. capacitors etc. A schematic diagram consists of:- • Electrical connections(nets) • Junctions • Integrated circuits symbols • Discrete components symbols like resistors. One can print from within the schematic page editor. • Input / output connectors • Power and ground symbols • Buses • No connection symbols • Components reference names • Text THE SCHEMATIC PAGE EDITOR: The schematic page editor is used to display and edit schematic pages.
• Create and edit power and ground symbols. THE SESSION LOG: The session log lists the events that have occurred during the current Capture session.THE PART EDITOR: The part editor is used to create and edit parts. and its drawing tools to draw parts and symbols. put the cursor in the error message line in the session log press F1. off-page connector symbols. then store in new or existing libraries. includes message resulting from using capture’s tools. From the view menu of the part editor you can choose either part or package. In part view one can:- • Create and edit parts and symbols. and title block • Use the tool palette’s electrical tools to place pins on parts. 27 . To display context-sensitive help for an error message.
Your tab setting are saved and used each time you start capture.The ruler along the top appears in either inches or mill meters. THE TOOLBAR: Capture’s toolbar is dock able (that means you can select and drag the toolbar to new location) as well as resizable. 28 . depending on which measurement system is selected in the window panel. which is useful when working with Orcad’s technical support to solve technical problems.TXT. One can search for information in the session log using the find command on the Edit menu. If tool button is dimmed. The default filename is SESSION. by choosing a tool button you can quickly perform a task. you can’t perform that task in the current situation. You can also save the contents of the of the session log to a file. and displays tool tips for each tool.
or group them in to a single object. one can perform operations on it. each tool palette has different electrical tools after you choose a tool. THE PART EDITOR TOOL PALETTE: The first group of tools on the part palette is electrical tools. THE TOOL PALETTE: Capture has two tool palettes: one for the schematic page editor and one for the part editor. cutting. You can hide the toolbar. resizing. One can also select multiple. used to place electrical connectivity objects. or editing. and you press the right mouse button to display a context. mirroring. used to create graphical objects without objects any electrical connectivity and is described: Pin Tools: Place pins on part Pin Array: Place multiple pins on part SELECTING AND DESELECTING OF TOOL PALETTE: Once one selects an object. objects and edit them. For hiding select from the schematic page editor’s view menu. The drawing tools on the two tool palettes are identical. THE SCHEMATIC PAGE EDITOR TOOL PALETTE: The first group of tools on the tool palette is electrical tools. The second group of tools is drawing tools. They have been already explained above within the schematic page editor tools. include moving. while others give you a choice of either operating on what is selected or expanding the scope to entire project. however. used to create graphical objects without electrical connectivity. They can also display tool tips that identify each tool.sensitive pop-up menu. used to place pins and symbols. 29 . Both tool palettes are dock able and resizable. then display it again when u need it.Some of the tools operate only on what you have selected. Grouping objects maintain relation ship among them while one moves them to another location. The second group of tools is Drawing tools. choose TOOLBAR. copying. rotating.
CREATING NETLIST FILE: Net-list file is a document file which contains information about the logical interconnections between signals and pins. Before one create a net list file, be sure one’s project is completed, annotated and it is free from electrical rule violations. A net list file consists of nets, components, connectors, junctions, no connection symbol, power and ground symbols. CREATION OF NETLIST IN CAPTURE: Select your design in the project manager.
• From the tools, choose create net list. The net list dialog box displays. • Choose a net list format tab. • If necessary, set the part value and PCB foot print combined property strings to
reflect the information you want in the net list.
• Click ok to create the net list. • In the net list file text box, enter a name for the output file. If the selected format
creates an additional file, enter its file name in the second text box. PLACEMENT OF LAYOUT PLUS What is Layout Plus? Layout plus is one part for the PCB design in which we place as well as route the components an set unit of measurement, grids, and spacing in OrCad. Within other soft wares you also have to place and route the components in similar way. For the placement and routing of the components we normally use auto-placement and auto-routing. Unfortunately, in a lot of soft wares some critical signals have to be routed manually before auto-routing. In layout plus we also define the layer stacks, pad stacks and via's. STEPS FOR BOARD DESIGN:
• At first, we have created a net list from our schematic diagram by using capture. • Layout plus includes design rules in order to guide logical placement and routing.
That means, load the net list into layout to create the board. At the same time you have to specify the board parameters.
• Specify board parameters: Specifying global setting for the board, including nits
of measurements, grid, and spacing
• Place components: Use the components tool in order to place manually the
components which are fixed by the system designer on the board or otherwise use auto-placement.
• Route the board: Use different routing technologies to route the board and take
advantage of push and shove (a routing technology), which moves track you are currently routing as well as you can also auto route the board.
• Provide finishing of the board: Layout supplies an ordered progression of
commands on the auto menu for finishing your design. These commands include design rule check, cleanup design, rename components, back annotate, run post processor, and create reports. THE DESIGN WINDOW: The design window provides a graphical display of printed circuit board, it is primary window you use when designing your board. It also provides tools to facilitate the design process such as to update components and design rule violation.
MAIN WINDOW: Method to create a board with Layout Plus:
• Ensure that net list with all footprints and necessary information has been created. • Create a directory in which the schematic design, net list, and boar will co-exit
and put the schematic design and net list. OrCad provides a directory for this purpose.
• From the layout session frame’s file menu, choose New. The load template file in
the dialog box displayed.
DESIGN WINDOW: • Select the technology template (. SETTING BOARD PARAMETERS: There is some parameter which should be set before placing the components on board. They are as follows:- • Set Datum 33 . • Draw the board outline by using the obstacle tool in the tool bar. respond to link footprints to component dialog. • Then apply the auto ECO. then choose the open button and load the net list in other box. • If necessary.TCH).
A designer should follow the following steps before going for it:- • Optimize the board for component placement. • Optimize placement using various placements Components can be placed by using two techniques:1) Manual placement of components 2) Auto placement of components Choose the components tool bar button. PLACEMENT OF COMPONENTS: Placement of components means that to place the components in designed box. One may route board manually or automatically by auto router. • Load the placement strategy file. place it there.• Create a board outline • Set units of measurements • Set system grid • Add mount holes CREATING BOARD OUTLINE: Board outline is the graphical representation of the size of the actual PCB board. to draw the board outline of the actual size of PCB board. Enter the reference designator of the components that you want to place in the appropriate text box. Drag the components to desired location. ROUTING IN LAYOUT: After placing all the components the other main step is to route the board from the electrical connections between the components. From the pop up men. So it is the main step in layout. 34 . • Place components on the board. choose the queue for placement. The components selection criteria dialog box appears. and click ok.
The common way is still a process to generate GERBER data and NCD files which can be used for photo plotting and for steps of CNC manufacturing and PCB. land-to-hole-ratio. a designer has again to verify the PCB in order to find out errors. hole sizes. After completing the design of printed circuit board with the help of an EDA-Tool.drilling.100% auto routing can be achieved only when components are placed in the order of functional flow of flow:electronic circuit. board areas to be free of components. 35 . positional accuracy and of course electrical interconnections had tad to be personally reviewed with a great deal of care. clearance to the edges. The main routing tool available in OrCad is as • Add/edit route mode • Edit segment mode • Shove track mode • Auto path route mode DESIGN RULE CHECK: In manual designs every thing was checked as a possible source of error. conductor widths and clearance. Components sizes. Such type of verifications/design rule check contains beside the general verifications commonly two types:- • Physical verification • Electrical verification POST PROCESSING: Post processing can be done once the design is completed in all aspects.
Check the circuit for Design rules or implement Design Rule Check.mnl SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM DESIGN RULE CHECK (DRC) NO YES CREATE NETLIST 4. Draw the schematic design as per the required circuit in capture CIS. Save project as . 36 . 3.max extension i. Create the Netlist file with extension . layout file. 5. Open the LAYOUT.e.2 PCB FABRICATION NEW PROCESS: 1. 2.2. Load the desired mnl file.
Select the component footprints as per the component size and then place the components. 8. 9. Set Print Plot as a force flag print and tick on the keep drill hole open tab and then press print. Select Bottom layer and then place the components. 7. After this left click the mouse button. 37 . Convert printing file to mirror image and invert the colors. In layout draw the board size and then place the components. Select the bottom layer and right click on it.6. Go to Project manager window . Select the show track mode to route the tracks. Click on the print plot. 11. Select the track to be routed and press the enter key 10.
CHAPTER-3 COMPONENTS DETAIL AND WORKING 38 .
The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude.1.3. particularly analog devices. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications. the required precision of the resistance may require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor. and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. RESISTORS A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power 39 . Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films. Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. and this can be assumed to be a constant (independent of the voltage) for ordinary resistors working within their ratings. When specifying that resistance in an electronic design. V is the potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts. Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits. such as nickelchrome). according to its specific application. The ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current in the circuit is called its resistance. This relationship is represented by Ohm's law: I=V/R where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy.
attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the resistor. Another common practice is to use the letter E for resistance in ohms. For example.1.1. 120 000 Ω is represented as 120k. In a low-noise amplifier or pre-amp. The unit for measuring resistance is the OHM. (a) resistor. The letter R can also be used. while 1 200 000 Ω is represented as 1M2. American-style symbols. a value such as 8 or 120 represents a resistance in ohms. excess noise. A family of discrete resistors is also characterized according to its form factor.called Omega). Resistors with higher power ratings are physically larger and may require heat sinks. For example. In a high-voltage circuit. Practical resistors have a series inductance and a small parallel capacitance.electronics applications. In some circuit diagrams. The unwanted inductance. and (c) potentiometer 40 . 120E (120R) stands for 120 Ω. The dot is generally omitted as it can easily be lost in the printing process. (the Greek letter Ω . that is. Higher resistance values are represented by "k" (kilo-ohms) and M (mega ohms). ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS The symbol used for a resistor in a circuit diagram varies from standard to standard and country to country. 3. (b) rheostat (variable resistor). the size of the device and the position of its leads (or terminals) which is relevant in the practical manufacturing of circuits using them. 1E2 stands for 1R2 etc. these specifications can be important in high-frequency applications. the noise characteristics of a resistor may be an issue. Two typical symbols are as follows. They are not normally specified individually for a particular family of resistors manufactured using a particular technology. and temperature coefficient are mainly dependent on the technology used in manufacturing the resistor.
3.IEC-style resistor symbol The notation to state a resistor's value in a circuit diagram varies.R 41 . Additional zeros imply tighter tolerance.2. For example. THEORY OF OPERATION The hydraulic analogy compares electric current flowing through circuits to water flowing through pipes.1. an 'R' is used instead of the decimal separator.2 Ω. for example 15M0. The use of a SI prefix symbol or the letter 'R' circumvents the problem that decimal separators tend to 'disappear' when photocopying a printed circuit diagram. and 18R indicates 18 Ω. 1R2 indicates 1. 8k2 in a circuit diagram indicates a resistor value of 8. OHM’S LAW: The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified by Ohm's law: V=I. The European notation avoids using a decimal separator.2 kΩ. and replaces the decimal separator with the SI prefix symbol for the particular value. it takes a larger pressure to achieve the same flow of water. When a pipe (left) is filled with hair (right). Pushing electric current through a large resistance is like pushing water through a pipe clogged with hair: It requires a larger push (voltage drop) to drive the same flow (electric current). too. For example. When the value can be expressed without the need for an SI prefix.
The potential difference (voltage) seen across the network is the sum of those voltages. Equivalently. The conductance of the resistors then add to determine the conductance of the network. Thus the equivalent resistance (Req) of the network can be computed: 42 . the current through all of the resistors is the same. Resistors in a parallel configuration are each subject to the same potential difference (voltage). This is directly used in practical computations. however the currents through them add. but the voltage across each resistor will be in proportion to its resistance. is given by NR. if a 300 ohm resistor is attached across the terminals of a 12 volt battery. Ohm's law can be stated: I=V/R This formulation states that the current (I) is proportional to the voltage (V) and inversely proportional to the resistance (R). where the constant of proportionality is the resistance (R). For example. the resistance of N resistors connected in series. SERIES AND PARALLEL RESISTORS In a series configuration. then a current of 12 / 300 = 0. thus the total resistance can be found as the sum of those resistances: As a special case.04 amperes (or 40 milliamperes) flows through that resistor.Ohm's law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to the current (I). each of the same resistance R.
this can be calculated using: As a special case. For the case of two resistors in parallel. some complex networks of resistors cannot be resolved in this manner. A resistor network that is a combination of parallel and series connections can be broken up into smaller parts that are either one or the other. each of the same resistance R. requiring more sophisticated circuit analysis. each edge of 43 . For instance. consider a cube. However. in case the keyboard or font lacks the vertical line symbol. For instance.The parallel equivalent resistance can be represented in equations by two vertical lines "||" (as in geometry) as a simplified notation. is given by R/N. the resistance of N resistors connected in parallel. Occasionally two slashes "//" are used instead of "||".
are generally referred to as power resistors. The total amount of heat energy released over a period of time can be determined from the integral of the power over that period of time: Resistors are rated according to their maximum power dissipation. the two other forms can be derived. and power amplifiers. or 1/4 watt. Using Ohm's law. POWER DISSIPIATION The power P dissipated by a resistor is calculated as: The first form is a restatement of Joule's first law. power conversion circuits. Resistors required to dissipate substantial amounts of power. this designation is loosely applied to resistors with power ratings of 1 44 . are typically rated as 1/10. the Y-Δ transform.which has been replaced by a resistor. This can also be used to obtain a resistance with a higher power rating than that of the individual resistors used. it can be shown that the corner-to-corner resistance is 5⁄6 of the individual resistance. particularly used in power supplies. the power rating of the individual resistors is thereby multiplied by N. 1/8. including most of the packages detailed below. Such resistors in their discrete form. In the special case of N identical resistors all connected in series or all connected in parallel. What then is the resistance that would be measured between two opposite vertices? In the case of 12 equivalent resistors. One practical application of these relationships is that a non-standard value of resistance can generally be synthesized by connecting a number of standard values in series or parallel. Most discrete resistors in solid-state electronic systems absorb much less than a watt of electrical power and require no attention to their power rating. or matrix methods can be used to solve such a problem. More generally.
The fourth band indicates the tolerance. RESISTOR MARKINGS: Resistance value is marked on the resistor body.watt or greater. The first two bands provide the numbers for the resistance and the third band provides the number of zeros. Excessive power dissipation may raise the temperature of the resistor to a point where it can burn the circuit board or adjacent components. this is distinct from the reversible change in resistance due to its temperature coefficient when it warms. Since poor air circulation. Most resistors have 4 bands. Tolerance values of 5%. permanently altering its resistance. 2%.1 W x1W x 10 W x 100 W 45 TOLERANCE TC ±10% ±5% ±1% ±2% ±100*10-6/K ±50*10-6/K 0 1 2 . high altitude. or even cause a fire. Some types and ratings of resistors may also have a maximum voltage rating. There are flameproof resistors that fail (open circuit) before they overheat dangerously. If the average power dissipated by a resistor is more than its power rating.3. resistors may be specified with higher rated dissipation than will be experienced in service. and external packages described below. this may limit available power dissipation for higher resistance values. color codes. damage to the resistor may occur. The following table shows the colors used to identify resistor values: COLOR Silver Gold Black Brown Red DIGIT MULTIPLIER x 0. 3. and 1% are most commonly available. or high operating temperatures may occur. Power resistors are physically larger and may not use the preferred values.01 W x 0.1.
Coefficient.7 kΩ ±15*10-6/K ±25*10-6/K ±0.Orange 3 x 1 kW Yellow 4 x 10 kW Green 5 x 100 kW Blue 6 x 1 MW Violet 7 x 10 MW Grey 8 x 100 MW White 9 x 1 GW ** TC .25% ±0. only for SMD devices In this project we have used the following resistors: ●1 kΩ ●10 kΩ ●220 Ω ●390 Ω ●4.5% ±0.Temp.1% ±10*10-6/K ±5*10-6/K ±1*10-6/K 46 .
2. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value. In practice. capacitance. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely. 47 . causing positive charge to collect on one plate and negative charge on the other plate. hence capacitor conductors are often called plates. one common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. a static electric field develops across the dielectric. resulting in a breakdown voltage. referring to an early means of construction. while the conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance.3. measured in farads. The capacitance is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor. the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength limit. CAPACITORS: A capacitor (originally known as condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. for example.
vacuum. the dielectric is just an electrical insulator. defined as the ratio of charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them: 48 . paper. Examples of dielectric media are glass. THEORY OF OPERATION A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region. An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C. and even a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. with no net electric charge and no influence from any external electric field.2.Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. In SI units. in electric power transmission systems for stabilizing voltage and power flow. air. and for many other purposes 3. In simpler terms. The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. in filter networks.1. A capacitor is assumed to be self-contained and isolated. The conductors thus hold equal and opposite charges on their facing surfaces and the dielectric develops an electric field. The nonconductive region is called the dielectric. for smoothing the output of power supplies. in the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies. a capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the device.
2. Their capacitances add up. it is apparent that each capacitor contributes to the total surface area. NETWORKS For capacitors in parallel Capacitors in a parallel configuration each have the same applied voltage.2. 49 . causing its capacitance to vary.Sometimes charge build-up affects the capacitor mechanically. In this case. capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes: 3. Charge is apportioned among them by size. Using the schematic diagram to visualize parallel plates.
In such an application. The capacitors each store instantaneous charge build-up equal to that of every other capacitor in the series. the plates and dielectric are 50 . if capacitance and leakage currents for each capacitor are identical.For capacitors in series Connected in series. and a dielectric film of impregnated paper or plastic – these are rolled up to save space.2. The entire series acts as a capacitor smaller than any of its components. on occasion series strings are connected in parallel. The voltage ratings. the schematic diagram reveals that the separation distance.2. For small values of capacitance (microfarads and less). 3. Larger value capacitors usually use a metal foil or metal film layer deposited on the surface of a dielectric film to make the plates. with wire leads bonded to the coating. ceramic disks use metallic coatings. not the plate area. Capacitors are combined in series to achieve a higher working voltage. add up. adds up. To reduce the series resistance and inductance for long plates. Larger values can be made by multiple stacks of plates and disks. forming a matrix. STRUCTURE The arrangement of plates and dielectric has many variations depending on the desired ratings of the capacitor. The goal is to maximize the energy storage of the network without overloading any capacitor. which are based on plate separation. some safety considerations must be applied to ensure one capacitor failing and leaking current will not apply too much voltage to the other series capacitors. for example for smoothing a high voltage power supply. For high-energy storage with capacitors in series. The total voltage difference from end to end is apportioned to each capacitor according to the inverse of its capacitance.
Additionally. not at the ends of the foil or metalized film strips that comprise the plates.staggered so that connection is made at the common edge of the rolled-up plates. with bolted terminals and bushings for connections. Large capacitors for high-voltage use may have the roll form compressed to fit into a rectangular metal case. Larger capacitors like electrolytic usually display the actual capacitance together with the unit (for example. temperature and other relevant characteristics. 3. Modern paper or film dielectric capacitors are dipped in a hard thermoplastic. where the numbers show the capacitance in pF (calculated as XY × 10Z for the numbers XYZ) and the letter indicates the tolerance (J. Example: 51 . The assembly is encased to prevent moisture entering the dielectric – early radio equipment used a cardboard tube sealed with wax. however. The dielectric in larger capacitors is often impregnated with a liquid to improve its properties. 220 μF).3CAPACITOR MARKINGS: Most capacitors have numbers printed on their bodies to indicate their electrical characteristics. K or M for ±5%. Smaller capacitors like ceramics. the capacitor may show its working voltage. ±10% and ±20% respectively).2. use a shorthand consisting of three numbers and a letter.
a transistor can amplify a signal.3.A capacitor with the text 473K 330V on its body has a capacitance of 47 × 103 pF = 47 nF (±10%) with a working voltage of 330 V.7 µf 10 µf 3. 3. and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. Following are the capacitors used in this project: 33 pf 1 µf 4. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power. TRANSISTORS A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power.3. Today.1. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. OPERATION 52 . It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. some transistors are packaged individually. but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.
A small current at the base terminal (that is. the terminals are labeled gate. which have slight differences in how they are used in a circuit. A bipolar transistor has terminals labeled base. Charge will flow between emitter and collector terminals depending on the current in the base. Alternatively. There are two types of transistors. that is. and drain. Since internally the base and emitter connections behave like a semiconductor diode. a 53 . the transistor can be used to turn current on or off in a circuit as an electrically controlled switch. . and a voltage at the gate can control a current between source and drain. For a fieldeffect transistor. it can act as an amplifier. The image represents a typical bipolar transistor in a circuit. source. collector. This property is called gain.The essential usefulness of a transistor comes from its ability to use a small signal applied between one pair of its terminals to control a much larger signal at another pair of terminals. and emitter. flowing between the base and the emitter) can control or switch a much larger current between the collector and emitter terminals. where the amount of current is determined by other circuit elements. A transistor can control its output in proportion to the input signal.
thus avoiding the problem of micro phonics in audio applications.2 ADVANTAGES The key advantages that have allowed transistors to replace their vacuum tube predecessors in most applications are • Small size and minimal weight. high-frequency operation. • • • • • • • • 3. Insensitivity to mechanical shock and vibration. No warm-up period for cathode heaters required after power application. Highly automated manufacturing processes.3LIMITATIONS • Silicon transistors typically do not operate at voltages higher than about 1000 volts (SiC devices can be operated as high as 3000 volts). allowing the development of miniaturized electronic devices.3.voltage drop develops between base and emitter while the base current exists. • High-power. Lower possible operating voltages. is better achieved in vacuum tubes due to improved electron mobility in a vacuum. and is referred to as VBE 3. Higher reliability and greater physical ruggedness. resulting in low per-unit cost. In contrast. something not possible with vacuum tubes. such as that used in over-the-air television broadcasting. Extremely long life. 54 . batterypowered applications. The amount of this voltage depends on the material the transistor is made from. making transistors suitable for small. Some transistorized devices have been in service for more than 50 years. Complementary devices available.3. Lower power dissipation and generally greater energy efficiency. vacuum tubes have been developed that can be operated at tens of thousands of volts. facilitating the design of complementarysymmetry circuits.
to control the MOSFET electrical behavior. Vacuum tubes create a distortion. as this means that less power is required to "drive" the transistor. impurity level. electric field. The density of mobile carriers in the channel of a MOSFET is a function of the electric field forming the channel and of various other phenomena such as the impurity level in the channel. and sundry other factors. Silicon (Si) types currently predominate but certain advanced microwave and high performance versions now employ the compound semiconductor material gallium arsenide (GaAs) and the semiconductor alloy silicon germanium (SiGe). these parameters will vary with increase in temperature. the so-called tube sound. called dopants. In some circuits special compensating elements must be used to compensate for such changes.1 mV/°C. The current increase exponentially as the junction forward voltage is increased. Rough parameters for the most common semiconductor materials used to make transistors are given in the table to the right. 55 . strain. For a typical silicon junction the change is −2.4 CONSTRUCTION: The first BJTs were made from germanium (Ge). are introduced deliberately in making a MOSFET. The lower the junction forward voltage the better. Sensitivity to radiation and cosmic rays (special radiation hardened chips are used for spacecraft devices). The junction forward voltage is the voltage applied to the emitter-base junction of a BJT in order to make the base conduct a specified current. The junction forward voltage for a given current decreases with increase in temperature.• Silicon transistors are much more vulnerable than vacuum tubes to an electromagnetic pulse generated by a high-altitude nuclear explosion. that some people find to be more tolerable to the ear • • 3.3. Some impurities. Single element semiconductor material (Ge and Si) is described as elemental. The values given in the table are typical for a current of 1 mA (the same values apply to semiconductor diodes).
The electron mobility and hole mobility columns show the average speed that electrons and holes diffuse through the semiconductor material with an electric field of 1 volt per meter applied across the material. Al–Si junction refers to the high-speed (aluminum–silicon) metal–semiconductor barrier diode. HEMTs are used in satellite receivers working at frequencies around 12 GHz. a given bipolar NPN transistor tends to be swifter than an equivalent PNP transistor type. ●it has relatively high leakage current. However. ●it is less suitable for fabricating integrated circuits. GaAs has the highest electron mobility of the three semiconductors. Because of their high speed and low noise. The table indicates that Ge is a better material than Si in this respect. commonly known as a Schottky diode. the higher the electron mobility the faster the transistor can operate. A relatively recent FET development. Because the electron mobility is higher than the hole mobility for all semiconductor materials. This is included in the table because some silicon power IGFETs have a parasitic reverse Schottky diode formed between the 56 . ●it cannot withstand high voltages. Max. Ge has four major shortcomings compared to silicon and gallium arsenide: ●Its maximum temperature is limited. the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). It is for this reason that GaAs is used in high frequency applications. Junction temperature values represent a cross section taken from various manufacturers' data sheets. has a heterostructure (junction between different semiconductor materials) of alluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs)-gallium arsenide (GaAs) which has twice the electron mobility of a GaAsmetal barrier junction. This temperature should not be exceeded or the transistor may be damaged. In general.
In this project we use the following transistors: BC548 BC547 BC557 ●BC548: 57 . but sometimes it is used in the circuit.source and drain as part of the fabrication process. This diode can be a nuisance.
In industrial and commercial applications. such as press. The part number is assigned by Pro Electron. so as to be easily depressed or pushed. PNP. A small current at its base controls a larger current at collector & emitter terminals. BC547 is mainly used for amplification and switching purposes. ●BC547: BC547 is an NPN bi-polar junction transistor. which allows many manufacturers to offer electrically and physically interchangeable parts under one identification. Buttons are most often biased switches. It has maximum VCE rated at -65V and can sink maximum current of -98mA. PUSH BUTTONS: A push-button (also spelled pushbutton) (press-button in the UK) or simply button is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process. kitchen appliances. 3. though even many un-biased buttons (due to their physical nature) require a spring to return to their un-pushed state.The BC548 is a general purpose epitaxial silicon NPN bipolar junction transistor found commonly in European electronic equipment. mash. push-button telephones. The "push-button" has been utilized in calculators. push buttons can be linked together by a mechanical linkage so that the act of pushing one button causes the other button to be 58 . bipolar junction transistor. home and commercial. stands for transfer of resistance. It has a maximum current gain of 800. A transistor. and punch. Different people use different terms for the "pushing" of the button. ●BC557: The BC557 is general purpose silicon. It can give gain more than 200.4. The surface is usually flat or shaped to accommodate the human finger or hand. Its equivalent transistors are BC548 and BC549. It has typical power dissipation of 495mW. and various other mechanical and electronic devices. is commonly used to amplify current. Buttons are typically made out of hard material. usually plastic or metal. depress.
As an aid for operators and users in industrial or commercial applications.released. In popular culture. Commonly used colors are red for stopping the machine or process and green for starting the machine or process. This large mushroom shape can also be found in buttons for use with operators who need to wear gloves for their work and could not actuate a regular flush-mounted push button. 59 . Pushbuttons are often color-coded to associate them with their function so that the operator will not push the wrong button in error. Red pushbuttons can also have large heads (called mushroom heads) for easy operation and to facilitate the stopping of a machine. In this way. These pushbuttons are called emergency stop buttons and are mandated by the electrical code in many jurisdictions for increased safety. The source of the energy to illuminate the light is not directly tied to the contacts on the back of the pushbutton but to the action the pushbutton controls. This method of linkage is used in simple manual operations in which the machine or process have no electrical circuits for control. a pilot light is commonly added to draw the attention of the user and to provide feedback if the button is pushed. a stop button can "force" a start button to be released. In this way a start button when pushed will cause the process or machine operation to be started and a secondary contact designed into the operation or process will close to turn on the pilot light and signify the action of pushing the button caused the resultant process or action to start. the phrase "the button" (sometimes capitalized) refers to a (usually fictional) button that a military or government leader could press to launch nuclear weapons. Typically this light is included into the center of the pushbutton and a lens replaces the pushbutton hard center disk.
with very high brightness. 3. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. Indicators. Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962. Selector Switches. lighted and non-lighted Switches. and infrared wavelengths. An LED is 60 . but modern versions are available across the visible. releasing energy in the form of photons. electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device. ultraviolet. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting.5 LIGHT EMITTING DIODES: A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source.Push Button Switches are manually operated switches that are available in many different types: Switches with round or square bodies for mounting in round or square holes. and more. early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light. When a light-emitting diode is forward-biased (switched on).
current flows easily from the p-side. and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. DVD players. improved physical robustness. general lighting. and traffic signals. it falls into a lower energy level. LEDs have allowed new text. and sensors to be developed. because these are indirect band gap materials. or cathode. advertising. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. The wavelength of the light emitted. which produces no optical emission. to the nside. the electrons and holes recombine by a non-radiative transition. longer lifetime. while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology. and faster switching. Charge-carriers — electrons and holes — flow into the junction from electrodes with different voltages. automotive lighting. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting. and thus its color depends on the band gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction. smaller size. and other domestic appliances. but not in the reverse direction. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions.often small in area (less than 1 mm2). The LED consists of a chip of semiconducting material doped with impurities to create a p-n junction. or anode. As in other diodes. video displays. The materials used for the LED have a 61 . and releases energy in the form of a photon. In silicon or germanium diodes. When an electron meets a hole. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption.
which is the time it will take a given LED to reach 70% and 50% light output respectively. emitting light in a variety of colors. LIFETIME AND FAILURE Solid state devices such as LEDs are subject to very limited wear and tear if operated at low currents and at low temperatures. Thus. Many of the LEDs made in the 1970s and 1980s are still in service today. LEDs are usually built on an n-type substrate. although rare. Early red LEDs were notable for their short service life. To quantitatively classify useful lifetime in a standardized manner it has been suggested to use the terms L70 and L50. This means that much light will be reflected back into the material at the material/air surface interface. occur as well. Typical lifetimes quoted are 25. This causes stress on the material and may cause early light-output degradation. 62 . especially GaN/InGaN.direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared. also use sapphire substrate. LED development began with infrared and red devices made with gallium arsenide.000 to 100. or near-ultraviolet light. can occur as well. With the development of highpower LEDs the devices are subjected to higher junction temperatures and higher current densities than traditional devices. Advances in materials science have enabled making devices with ever-shorter wavelengths. Many commercial LEDs. while less common. Sudden failures. The most common symptom of LED (and diode laser) failure is the gradual lowering of light output and loss of efficiency. light extraction in LEDs is an important aspect of LED production.000 hours. with an electrode attached to the p-type layer deposited on its surface. Most materials used for LED production have very high refractive indices. visible. subject to much research and development. P-type substrates. but heat and current settings can extend or shorten this time significantly.
some LED lighting systems have been designed with an added heating circuit at the expense of reduced overall electrical efficiency of the system. Most manufacturers' published ratings of LEDs are for an operating temperature of 25 °C. could result in low signal intensities or even failure. they are an energy-efficient technology for uses such as in freezers and refrigerators. because they emit little heat. Similarly. LEDs used outdoors. this lack of waste heat generation has been observed to sometimes cause significant problems with street traffic signals and airport runway lighting in snow-prone areas. and that are utilized in climates where the temperature within the luminaire gets very hot. ice and snow may build up on the LED luminaire in colder climates. However. research has been done to develop heat sink technologies that will transfer heat produced within the junction to appropriate areas of the luminaire. voltage drop and material: Wavelength [nm] Voltage drop [ΔV] ΔV < 1. additionally. LED technology may be a good replacement in uses such as supermarket freezer lighting and will last longer than other technologies.Like other lighting devices. In response to this problem. LED performance is temperature dependent. Thus. depending on type.63 Color Semiconductor material Gallium arsenide (GaAs) Infrared λ > 760 Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) Gallium (AlGaInP) Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) 63 arsenide gallium phosphide indium (GaAsP) phosphide Aluminium Red 610 < λ < 760 1. COLORS AND MATERIALS: Conventional LEDs are made from a variety of inorganic semiconductor materials. such as traffic signals or in-pavement signal lights. The following table shows the available colors with wavelength range. Because LEDs emit less heat than incandescent bulbs. LED light output rises at lower temperatures. at around -30 °C.03 .63 < ΔV < 2. leveling off.
Gallium Orange 590 < λ < 610 2.7 Silicon gallium carbide nitride (SiC) as (InGaN) substrate Silicon (Si) as substrate — under development Violet 400 < λ < 450 Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) Dual blue with blue/red red LEDs.4 Aluminium Aluminium (AlGaInN) — down to 210 nm Blue with one or two phosphor layers: Pink multiple types ΔV ~ 3. 64 .7 2.18 (AlGaInP) Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) Indium gallium nitride Gallium(III) Green 500 < λ < 570 1. or white with pink pigment or dye.3 yellow with red.10 < ΔV < Aluminium 2. orange or pink phosphor added afterwards.48 < ΔV < 3.76 < ΔV < 4.10 (AlGaInP) arsenide gallium phosphide indium (GaAsP) phosphide 2. nm) nm) (AlGaN) nitride Purple multiple types or white with purple plastic Diamond (235 Boron nitride gallium gallium (215 nitride indium Ultraviole t λ < 400 3.0 2.1 < ΔV < Aluminium nitride (AlN) (210 nm) 4.0 Aluminium (AlGaInP) gallium nitride phosphide indium gallium indium (GaAsP) phosphide (InGaN) / (GaN) (GaP) phosphide Aluminium gallium phosphide (AlGaP) Zinc selenide (ZnSe) Blue 450 < λ < 500 2. phosphor.03 < ΔV < Aluminium Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) Gallium arsenide phosphide Yellow 570 < λ < 590 2.48 < ΔV < Indium 3.9 < ΔV Gallium(III) < 4.
or modulates electric current flowing 65 . OPTOCOUPLER: In electronics. almost always a near infrared lightemitting diode (LED).” Commercially available opto-isolators withstand input-to-output voltages up to 10 kV and voltage transients with speeds up to 10 kV/μs.5 Blue/UV diode with yellow phosphor 3. The main purpose of an opto-isolator is "to prevent high voltages or rapidly changing voltages on one side of the circuit from damaging components or distorting transmissions on the other side.6. An opto-isolator contains a source (emitter) of light. is "an electronic device designed to transfer electrical signals by utilizing light waves to provide coupling with electrical isolation between its input and output". that converts electrical input signal into light. also called an optocouplers. which detects incoming light and either generates electric energy directly. photo coupler. a closed optical channel (also called dielectrical channel).White Broad spectrum ΔV = 3. or optical isolator. an opto-isolator. and a photo sensor.
 A circuit can also incorporate high voltages by design. a photodiode. Remote lightning strikes can induce surges up to 10 kV. A slotted optical switch contains a source of light and a sensor. The sensor can be a photo resistor. reliable means of interfacing its high-voltage components with low-voltage ones 66 . but its optical channel is open. one thousand times more than the voltage limits of many electronic components. Because LEDs can sense light in addition to emitting it. bidirectional opto-isolators is possible. radio frequency transmissions.from an external power supply. allowing modulation of light by external objects obstructing the path of light or reflecting light into the sensor. a silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) . in which case it needs safe. switching pulses (spikes) and perturbations in power supply. ELECTRICAL ISOLATION: Electronic equipment and signal and power transmission lines can be subjected to voltage surges induced by lightning. electrostatic discharge. usually a complementary pair of MOSFETs. An optocoupled solid state relay contains a photodiode opto-isolator which drives a power switch. construction of symmetrical. a phototransistor.
reliable means of interfacing its high-voltage components with lowvoltage ones. testing and approval of opto-couplers are regulated by national and international standards: IEC 60747-5-2. which use inductive coupling between galvanically isolated input and output sides. A circuit can also incorporate high voltages by design. optocouplers let you send digital (and sometimes analog) signals between circuits with separate grounds. Or. this function was delegated to isolation transformers. electrostatic discharge. so that a surge in one part of the system will not disrupt or destroy the other parts. EN (CENELEC) 67 . one thousand times more than the voltage limits of many electronic components.Planar (top) and silicone dome (bottom) layouts . Relative sizes of LED (red) and sensor (green) are exaggerated." Historically. Transformers and opto-isolators are the only two classes of electronic devices that offer reinforced protection — they protect both the equipment and the human user operating this equipment. Remote lightning strikes can induce surges up to 10 kV. Safety. "in a nutshell. Electronic equipment and signal and power transmission lines can be subjected to voltage surges induced by lightning. according to the authors of The Art of Electronics. They contain a single physical isolation barrier. in which case it needs safe. switching pulses (spikes) and perturbations in power supply. but provide protection equivalent to double isolation. radio frequency transmissions.cross-section through a standard dual in-line package. The main function of an opto-isolator is to block such high voltages and voltage transients.
For example. 68 . etc. the useful absorption spectrum of the sensor must match the output spectrum of the LED.08 mm thick. opto-isolators can pass DC or slow-moving signals and do not require matching impedances between input and output sides. the clear polyimide sheet in the Avago ASSR-300 series is only 0. Safe design rules require a minimal clearance of 25 mm/kV for bare metal conductors or 8. opto-isolators are unidirectional (see exceptions) and they cannot transmit power. Opto-isolator specifications published by manufacturers always follow at least one of these regulatory frameworks. The sensor is covered with a sheet of glass or clear plastic. Unlike transformers. sends it across the dielectric channel. Both transformers and optoisolators are effective in breaking ground loops. which almost invariably lies in the near infrared.75 kV and transients of 1 kV/μs. CSA Component Acceptance Notice #5. which pass energy in both directions with very low losses. caused by high or noisy return currents in ground wires. UL 1577. To minimize losses of light. Typical optoisolators can only modulate the flow of energy already present on the output side. common in industrial and stage equipment. captures light on the output side and transforms it back into electric signal. Unlike transformers. which is topped with the LED die. The LED beam fires downward. a six-pin or a four-pin dual in-line package). It transforms useful input signal into light. The sensor die is mounted directly on the lead frame of its package (usually.60747-5-2. An opto-isolator connects input and output sides with a beam of light modulated by input current. The physical layout of an opto-isolator depends primarily on the desired isolation voltage. Devices rated for less than a few kV have planar (or sandwich) construction. Real in-circuit isolation voltage is further reduced by creepage over the PCB and the surface of the package. to be rated for short-term voltages of 3. Breakdown voltages of planar assemblies depend on the thickness of the transparent sheetand the configuration of bonding wires that connect the dies with external pins.3 mm/kV for coated conductors. The optical channel is made as thin as possible for a desired breakdown voltage.
[ We have used two EL8178041 Optocouplers for this project. the LED and sensor dies are placed on the opposite sides of the package.5 to 6 kV employ a different layout called silicone (sic) dome. Program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is 69 . memory. minimizing losses in a relatively long optical channel. 3. the sensor and the gap between them are encapsulated in a blob. The dome acts as a reflector. of transparent silicone.Opto-isolators rated for 2. The LED. uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core. In double mold designs the space between the silicone blob ("inner mold") and the outer shell ("outer mold") is filled with dark dielectric compound with a matched coefficient of thermal expansion. retaining all stray light and reflecting it onto the surface of the sensor. the LED fires into the sensor horizontally. or dome. and programmable input/output peripherals.7 MICROCONTROLLER A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated µC.  Here.
office machines. The majority of microcontrollers in use today are embedded in other machinery. many have minimal requirements for memory and program length. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor. implantable medical devices. screen. memory and peripherals and can be used as an embedded system. Embedded systems usually have no keyboard. where they may need to act more like a digital signal processor (DSP). such as automobiles.1. and sensors for data such as temperature. EMBEDDED DESIGN A microcontroller can be considered a self-contained system with a processor. They will generally have the ability to retain functionality while waiting for an event such as a button press or other interrupt. While some embedded systems are very sophisticated. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications. appliances. microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. telephones. power tools. and low software complexity. in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications. relays. with higher clock speeds and power consumption. toys and other embedded systems. radio frequency devices. light level etc. Typical input and output devices include switches. or 70 . Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices. as well as a typically small amount of RAM. making many of them well suited for long lasting battery applications. Some microcontrollers may use four-bit words and operate at clock rate frequencies as low as 4 kHz. Other microcontrollers may serve performance-critical roles. 3. disks. such as automobile engine control systems. LEDs. with no operating system. and input/output devices. remote controls. printers. memory.also often included on chip. solenoids. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common. small or custom LCD displays. appliances. for low power consumption (milliwatts or microwatts). integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems. power consumption while sleeping (CPU clock and most peripherals off) may be just nanowatts. humidity. and peripherals for computer systems.7.
The ISR will perform any processing required based on the source of the interrupt before returning to the original instruction sequence. memory. When certain events occur. Compilers and assemblers are used to convert high-level language and assembler language codes into a compact machine code for storage in the microcontroller's memory. Depending on the device. completing an analog to digital conversion. Possible interrupt sources are device dependent. Originally these included EPROM versions that have a "window" on the top of the device through which program memory can be erased by ultraviolet light. since it would be costly to provide a system with external. a logic level change on an input such as from a button being pressed. and data received on a communication link. or "interrupt handler"). an interrupt system can signal the processor to suspend processing the current instruction sequence and to begin an interrupt service routine (ISR. ●Interrupts: Microcontrollers must provide real time (predictable. EPROM versions are rare and have 71 . read-only memory that can only be programmed at the factory. and may lack human interaction devices of any kind. ready for reprogramming after a programming ("burn") and test cycle. Since 1998. expandable. or program memory may be fieldalterable flash or erasable read-only memory. Where power consumption is important as in battery operated devices. interrupts may also wake a microcontroller from a low power sleep state where the processor is halted until required to do something by a peripheral event.other recognizable I/O devices of a personal computer. ●Programs Typically microcontroller programs must fit in the available on-chip program memory. and often include events such as an internal timer overflow. Manufacturers have often produced special versions of their microcontrollers in order to help the hardware and software development of the target system. though not necessarily fast) response to events in the embedded system they are controlling. the program memory may be permanent.
For example. peripherals and interfaces that are adapted to the requirements of the application. Configured to the output state. which are easier to use (can be erased electronically) and cheaper to manufacture. When GPIO pins are configured to an input state. Where hundreds of thousands of identical devices are required. at the same time. These "mask programmed" parts have the program laid down in the same way as the logic of the chip. Programmable memory also reduces the lead time required for deployment of a new product. they are often used to read sensors or external signals. GPIO pins can drive external devices such as LEDs or motors. 72 . ● Other microcontroller features Microcontrollers usually contain from several to dozens of general purpose input/output pins (GPIO). the AT91CAP from Atmel has a block of logic that can be customized during manufacturer according to user requirements.been replaced by EEPROM and flash. The use of field-programmable devices on a microcontroller may allow field update of the firmware or permit late factory revisions to products that have been assembled but not yet shipped. using parts programmed at the time of manufacture can be an economical option. A customizable microcontroller incorporates a block of digital logic that can be personalized in order to provide additional processing capability. however these are becoming increasingly rare due to the widespread availability of cheap microcontroller programmers. Other versions may be available where the ROM is accessed as an external device rather than as internal memory. GPIO pins are software configurable to either an input or an output state.
overflowing to zero. resistive loads. the heater on. Once it reaches zero. 8051 family. i. The AT89S52 is a low-power. A PIT may either count down from some value to zero. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. which periodically test the temperature around them to see if they need to turn the air conditioner on. Since processors are built to interpret and process digital data. etc. The device is manufactured using 73 .. or up to the capacity of the count register. they are not able to do anything with the analog signals that may be sent to it by a device. 1s and 0s. So the analog to digital converter is used to convert the incoming data into a form that the processor can recognize. many embedded microprocessors include a variety of timers as well. commonly with the following features: We are using AT89S52 MICROCONTROLLER WHICH BELONGS TO Atmel . Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) block makes it possible to receive and transmit data over a serial line with very little load on the CPU. A dedicated Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) block makes it possible for the CPU to control power converters.Many embedded systems need to read sensors that produce analog signals. A less common feature on some microcontrollers is a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) that allows the processor to output analog signals or voltage levels. Dedicated on-chip hardware also often includes capabilities to communicate with other devices (chips) in digital formats such as I²C and Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). without using lots of CPU resources in tight timer loops. motors.e. it sends an interrupt to the processor indicating that it has finished counting. In addition to the converters. This is useful for devices such as thermostats. etc. This is the purpose of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC). A micro-controller is a single integrated circuit. One of the most common types of timers is the Programmable Interval Timer (PIT).
The program written on this microcontroller can be carried to any base. and interrupt system to continue functioning. Program Compatibility 3. a sixvector two-level interrupt architecture. timer/counters. two data pointers. Rewritability The 89s52 microcontroller has an excellent software compatability. on-chip oscillator. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer . the software used can be applicable to any other microcontroller. a full duplex serial port. Software Compatibility 2.Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pinout. 32 I/O lines. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con-tents but freezes the oscillator. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM. the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The program can be reloaded and changed for nearly 1000 times. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash. serial port. Program compatibility is the major advantage in 89s52. disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset. the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. three 16-bit timer/counters. and clock circuitry. The program can be used in any other advanced microcontroller.7. 3. Watchdog timer.2FEATURES: • Compatible with MCS-51® Products 74 . In addition.e. i. The main advantages of 89s52 over 8051 are 1. 256 bytes of RAM. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip.
3.• 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory • 4. A89S52 PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE 75 .7.0V to 5.5V Operating Range • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz • Three-level Program Memory Lock • 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM • 32 Programmable I/O Lines • Three 16-bit Timer/Counters • Eight Interrupt Sources • Full Duplex UART Serial Channel • Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes • Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode • Watchdog Timer • Dual Data Pointer • Power-off Flag 3.
7.4. PIN DESCRIPTION: 76 .A89S52 microcontroller architecture 3.
77 . Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In this mode. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins. Port 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. P0 has internal pull-ups. External pull-ups are required during program verification. When 1s are written to port 0 pins. each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. the pins can be used as highimpedance inputs. As inputs. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory.Pin diagram VCC: Supply voltage. GND: Ground. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. Port 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. As an output port.
P1. As inputs. In this application. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs.In addition. Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. they are pulled high by the inter-nal pull-ups and can be used as inputs.0 and P1. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. respectively.1/T2EX). This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. as shown in the following table. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. In the default state of bit DISRTO. Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. RST: Reset input. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memories that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled. Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1. As inputs. During accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI). When 1s are written to Port 2 pins. In normal operation. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. ALE is emitted at a constant 78 . Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups.
When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory. however. PSEN: Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. however. If desired. the pin is weakly pulled high. Note. that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. EA/VPP: External Access Enable. With the bit set. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH.rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note. PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle. XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. EA will be internally latched on reset. rather than a commutator or slip rings as 79 . EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. that if lock bit 1 is programmed. ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise. INDUCTION MOTOR An induction or asynchronous motor is a type of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic induction.8. 3.
Single-phase versions are used in small appliances.in other types of motor. By contrast. In a synchronous motor. The ratio between the rotation rate of the magnetic field as seen by the rotor (slip speed) and the 80 . the rotation rate of the magnetic field in the rotor increases. the stator is powered with alternating current (polyphase current in large machines) and designed to create a rotating magnetic field which rotates in time with the AC oscillations.8. As the speed of the rotor drops below synchronous speed. so to oppose this the rotor will start to rotate in the direction of the rotating stator magnetic field. although variable speed versions. The most common type is the squirrel cage motor. particularly polyphase induction motors. using variable frequency drives are becoming more common. the rotor turns at the same rate as the stator field. Their speed is determined by the frequency of the supply current. Since rotation at synchronous speed would result in no induced rotor current. so they are most widely used in constant-speed applications. or the magnetic field would not be moving relative to the rotor conductors and no currents would be induced. the speed of the physical rotor must be lower than that of the stator's rotating magnetic field ( ). The rotating magnetic flux induces currents in the windings of the rotor similar to a transformer. The rotor has windings in the form of closed loops. inducing more current in the windings and creating more torque. These motors are widely used in industrial drives. The rotor accelerates until the magnitude of induced rotor current and torque balances the applied load. because they are rugged and have no brushes. The difference between actual and synchronous speed is called "slip" and in practical motors vaires from 1 to 5% at full load torque. an induction motor always operates slower than synchronous speed. Therefore the magnetic field through the rotor is changing (rotating). that react against the stator field. 3. the direction of the magnetic field created will be such as to oppose the change in current through the windings. Due to Lenz's law. in an induction motor the rotor rotates at a slower speed than the stator field. These currents in turn create magnetic fields in the rotor. The cause of induced current in the rotor is the rotating stator magnetic field. OPERATION In both induction and synchronous motors.1. For these currents to be induced.
which is proportional to s in the formula at left).8. divided by the absolute rotation rate of the stator magnetic field 81 . the speed drops and the slip increases enough to create sufficient torque to turn the load. For example. induction motors are sometimes referred to as asynchronous motors. or it can be unrolled to form the linear induction motor which can directly generate linear motion. which means p = 1. SYNCHRONUS SPEED The synchronous speed of an AC motor is the rotation rate of the rotating magnetic field created by the stator. 3. SLIP Typical torque curve as a function of slip (slip is represented by g here. The synchronous speed ns in revolutions per minute (RPM) is given by: where f is the frequency of the AC supply current in Hz and p is the number of magnetic pole pairs per phase. 3. relative to the rotor.3. each powered by one phase of the supply current. Under load. An induction motor can be used as an induction generator.rotation rate of the stator's rotating field is called "slip". and for a line frequency of 50 Hz the synchronous speed is 3000 RPM. Slip s is the rotation rate of the magnetic field.2. It is always an integer fraction of the supply frequency. use 120 as constant instead of 60. a small 3-phase motor typically has six magnetic poles organized as three opposing pairs 120° apart. So there is one pair of poles per phase. When using total number of poles.8. For this reason.
Finally at a slip of around 20%the motor reaches its maximum torque. the torque goes to zero at 100% slip (zero speed). V. the torque decreases. increases in slip provide less additional torque. Note the interleaving of the pole windings and the resulting quadrupole field. called the "breakdown torque". In 3-phase motors the torque drops but still remains high at a slip of 100% (stationary rotor).5-2% for large motors. but still around 300% of rated torque. As the load increases above the rated load. Over a motor's normal load range. so induction motors have good speed regulation and are considered constant-speed motors. 82 . Slip is zero at synchronous speed and 1 (100%) when the rotor is stationary. In 2-pole single-phase motors.5. W). so the torque is proportional to slip. so these require alterations to the stator such as shaded poles to provide starting torque. the motor will stall. The slip determines the motor's torque.where is the rotor rotation speed in rpm. a small slip induces a large current in the rotor and produces large torque. the torque line is close to a straight line. 3. The starting torque of an induction motor is less than other types of motor. Since the short-circuited rotor windings have small resistance. 3. At full rated load.4. 4 pole motor (phases here are labelled U. If the load torque reaches this value. At values of slip above this. typical values of slip are 4-6% for small motors and 1.8. CONSTRUCTION Typical winding pattern for a 3 phase. so these motors are self-starting.8. so the torque line begins to curve over. TORQUE CURVE The torque exerted by the motor as a function of slip is given by a torque curve.
However. 3. see: Copper die-cast rotors. By varying the line frequency with an inverter. the windings are distributed in slots around the stator.The stator of an induction motor consists of poles carrying supply current to induce a magnetic field that penetrates the rotor. Induction motors are most commonly run on single-phase or three-phase power. but cannot produce a rotating field in the motor. with the magnetic field having the same number of north and south poles. Many single-phase motors having two windings can be viewed as two-phase motors. since a capacitor is used to generate a second power phase 90 degrees from the single-phase supply and feeds it to the second motor winding. and fixed line frequencies and other start up schemes are often employed instead. in theory. but two-phase motors exist.6. For information on die-cast copper rotors in energy-efficient induction motors. SPEED CONTROL Typical torque curves for different line frequencies. 83 . so they must incorporate some kind of starting mechanism to produce a rotating field. induction motors can be kept on the stable part of the torque curve above the peak over a wide range of rotation speeds.8. and solid core rotors made from mild steel. slip ring rotors with windings connected to slip rings replacing the bars of the squirrel cage. There are three types of rotor: squirrel cage rotors made up of skewed (to reduce noise) bars of copper or aluminum that span the length of the rotor. the inverters can be expensive. Single-phase power is more widely available in residential buildings. To optimize the distribution of the magnetic field. induction motors can have any number of phases.
induction motors are usually run so that in operation the shaft rotation speed is kept above the peak torque point. the speed tends to be unstable and the motor may stall or run at reduced shaft speed. 3. The motor start rotating if the password and the fingerprints are matched. and squirrel-cage induction motors were mainly used in fixed speed applications. Some very large slip-ring motor drives recovered energy from the rotor circuit. Before the development of semiconductor power electronics. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY 84 . it was difficult to vary the frequency. depending on the nature of the mechanical load. The most common and efficient way to control the speed of asynchronous motors is using power inverters and that. is the only significant disadvantage of this kind of motors. in fact. Below this point. allowing considerable range of speed control.9. then the motor will tend to run at reasonably constant speed. because inverters are rather expensive and usually less reliable than motors themselves.When driven from a fixed line frequency. rectified it. Many DC motor variable-speed applications can now be served by induction motors and accompanying inverters in industrial applications. Applications such as electric overhead cranes used wound rotor motors with slip rings to allow an external variable resistance to be inserted in the rotor circuit. and returned it to the system using an inverter. 12 V Induction motor is used by us in this project. When used in this way. loading the motor reduces the rotation speed.
calculators. worldwide sales of televisions with LCD screens exceeded annual sales of CRT units. such as preset words. however. LCDs are. Liquid crystals were first developed in 1888. They are common in consumer devices such as video players. watches. and have replaced cathode ray tube (CRT) displays in most applications. It is an electronically modulated optical device made up of any number of segments filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome. gaming devices. electronic visual display. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment. the CRT became obsolete for most purpose 85 . By 2008. LCDs are available to display arbitrary images (as in a general-purpose computer display) or fixed images which can be displayed or hidden. and signage.A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display. they do not suffer image burn-in. clocks. LCDs are used in a wide range of applications including computer monitors. and 7segment displays as in a digital clock. or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals do not emit light directly. and telephones. susceptible to image persistence. instrument panels. They are available in a wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays. while other displays have larger elements. digits. The LCD is more energy efficient and can be disposed of more safely than a CRT. televisions. They use the same basic technology. aircraft cockpit displays. except that arbitrary images are made up of a large number of small pixels. and since they do not use phosphors.
Hardware Diagram 16 x 2 Char LCD A K D7 D0 EN RW RS Vf GND ACK Vcc D0 – D7 R1 R2 86 .
and then send one character at a time. When the LCD is initialized. the display requires a +5V supply plus 11 I/O lines. When the LCD display is not enabled. 87 . The LCD also requires 3 "control" lines from the microcontroller. it is ready to continue receiving data or instructions. first we need to set up the starting address. When we want to write a string of characters.LCD pin configuration For an 8-bit data bus. For a 4-bit data bus it only requires the supply lines plus seven extra lines. If it receives a character. The Cursor marks the next location where a character will be written. data lines are tri-state which means they are in a state of high impedance (as though they are disconnected) and this means they do not interfere with the operation of the microcontroller when the display is not being addressed. it will write it on the display and move the cursor one space to the right.
So that LCD can recognize the operation to be performed based on the bit status. RS RS = 0 = 1 => => Command Data RW (Read / Write): 88 .PIN DESCRIPTION Table :pins for LCD Logic status on control lines RS (Command / Data): This bit is to specify weather received byte is command or data.
Typical instructions sent to LCD display after a reset are: turning on a display. When ever controller wants to write some thing into LCD or READ acknowledgment from LCD it needs to enable the LCD. but control line R/W has to be high. ACK = 1 => => Not ACK ACK ACK = 0 Reading data from the LCD is done in the same way. turning on a cursor 89 .RW bit is to specify weather controller wants READ from LCD or WRITE to LCD. When we send a high to the LCD. RW = 0 RW = 1 => => Write Read EN (Enable LCD): EN bit is to ENABLE or DISABLE the LCD. The READ operation here is just ACK bit to know weather LCD is free or not. it will reset and wait for instructions. EN EN = 0 = 1 => => High Impedance Low Impedance ACK (LCD Ready) ACK bit is to acknowledge the MCU that LCD is free so that it can send new command or data to be stored in its internal Ram locations.
If the password is matched after entering the “PASSWORD MATCHED” Message is displayed on the screen. Once the address of DD RAM is set. The LCD controller needs 40 to 120 microseconds (uS) for writing and reading. But this is not so. 90 . the program must set the DD RAM address. We can solve this in two ways. This is 8 bit. a new written character will be displayed at the appropriate place on the screen. Characters that can be shown on the display are stored in data display (DD) RAM. so a program needs to know when the LCD is busy. This is not the best method because LCD's can get stuck. LCD is used to display the required information.and writing characters from left to right. We have used 16 pin LCD in our project. Until now we discussed the operation of writing and reading to an LCD as if it were an ordinary memory. Before we access DD RAM after defining a special character. The size of DDRAM is 80 bytes. During that time. The delay has to be long enough for the LCD to finish the operation in process. The other way is to introduce a delay in the program. At the beginning we mentioned that we needed 11 I/O lines to communicate with an LCD. Other operations can take up to 5 mS. As we switch on the project “ENTER PASSWORD” is displayed on the LCD. and program will then stay forever in a loop checking the BUSY bit. However. Thus we can reduce the total number of communication lines to seven.One way is to check the BUSY bit found on data line D7. Writing and reading data from any LCD memory is done from the last address which was set up using set-address instruction. we can communicate with an LCD through a 4-bit data bus. The password is displayed as”*****”. the microcontroller can not access the LCD. When we enter the password as the single digit is pressed using push button the”*” appears on the display.
If the fingerprint does not matches it displays “FINGERPRINT NOT MATCHED”. If the fingerprint matches it displays “FINGERPRINT MATCHED ID: 00”. It displays the name of Project “FINGER PRINT BASED SECURITY SYSTEM”. 91 . After pressing the key LCD displays “SHOW YOUR FINGER”.If the password is not matched after entering the “PASSWORD NOT MATCHED” Message is displayed on the screen.
c voltage. POWER SUPPLY The input to the circuit is applied from the regulated power supply. input i.Regulator unit v) Output filter 92 .c voltage. Now.3. this voltage is given to a voltage regulator to obtain a pure constant dc voltage.. The a.10.e. BLOCK DIAGRAM 230 AC 50Hz DC OUT PUT Step down transformer Bridge rectifier filter Regulator Power supply unit consists of following units i) Step down transformer ii) Rectifier unit iii) Input filter iv). The output obtained from the rectifier is a pulsating d. 230V from the mains supply is step down by the transformer to 12V and is fed to a rectifier.c. the output voltage from the rectifier is fed to a filter to remove any a.c components present even after rectification. So in order to get a pure d.
Step down transformers can step down incoming voltage. we will need a step down transformer. which decreases the incoming electrical voltage to be compatible with your 12 volt equipment. thus it is stepped down. it is very inefficient if used for power transfer. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly. For example. RECTIFIER UNIT: The Rectifier circuit is used to convert the AC voltage into its corresponding DC voltage. The simple function of the diode is to conduct when forward biased and not to conduct in reverse bias. To reduce or step down the voltage. either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed. This conversion is achieved by using the Rectifier Circuit/Unit. which enables you to have the correct voltage input for your electrical needs. The Transformer consists of primary and secondary coils. Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output. The most important and simple device used in Rectifier circuit is the diode. or with three diodes in a three-phase supply Bridge Rectifier 93 . Full-wave rectifier 3. if our equipment has been specified for input voltage of 12 volts. Half-wave rectification can be achieved with a single diode in a one phase supply. Half-wave rectifier 2. Bridge rectifier Half-Wave Rectifier In half wave rectification.STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER: The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. The output from the secondary coil is also AC waveform. the transformer is designed to contain less number of turns in its secondary core. Now we are using three types of rectifiers. Thus the conversion from AC to DC is essential. and the main power supply is 230 volts. while the other half is blocked. They are 1.
As and then the AC voltage changes. Thus the output is free from ripples. The primary action performed by capacitor is charging and discharging. REGULATOR UNIT: Regulator regulates the output voltage to be always constant. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output. Also when the internal resistance of the power supply is greater than 30 ohms. the DC voltage also changes. A diode bridge or bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four diodes in a bridge configuration that provides the same polarity of output voltage for either polarity of input voltage. resulting in lower cost and weight as compared to a center-tapped transformer design. INPUT FILTER: Capacitors are used as filter. And also these capacitors are used to reduce the harmonics of the input voltage. both with individual diodes wired as shown and with single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally. A bridge rectifier provides full-wave rectification from a two-wire AC input.A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge arrangement to achieve full-wave rectification. It charges in positive half cycle of the AC voltage and it will discharge in negative half cycle. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. The output voltage is maintained irrespective of the fluctuations in the input AC voltage. When used in its most common application. This is a widely used configuration. The Forward Bias is achieved by connecting the diode’s positive with positive of the battery and negative with battery’s negative. Thus to avoid this Regulators are used. This filter is fixed before the regulator. The output voltage of the rectifier is in rippled form. The circuit used for removing the ripples is called Filter circuit. it is known as a bridge rectifier. The ripples from the DC voltage are removed and pure DC voltage is obtained. the output 94 . the ripples from the obtained DC voltage are removed using other circuits available. The efficient circuit used is the Full wave Bridge rectifier circuit.
the 7805 is a positive voltage DC regulator that has only 3 terminals. 95 . output pin It regulates the negative voltage. Fixed Regulators An assortment of 78xx series ICs "Fixed" three-terminal linear regulators are commonly available to generate fixed voltages of plus 3 V. or 15 V when the load is less than about 7 amperes. and plus or minus 5 V. 9 V. 7805 Voltage Regulator The 7805 provides circuit designers with an easy way to regulate DC voltages to 5v. Thus this can be successfully reduced here. Encapsulated in a single chip/package (IC). Ground. ii) Negative regulator 1. input pin 3. The regulators are mainly classified for low voltage and for high voltage. They are: Input voltage. input pin 2. Output Voltage. output pin It regulates the positive voltage. Further they can also be classified as i) Positive regulator 1. ground pin 3. 12 V.gets affected. ground pin 2.
the output voltage before the load is removed and the current through the inductor times the characteristic impedance of the output filter. 10. then the solution for the final voltage Vf is: 96 . 15. Zo = (L/C)^1/2. Capacitor is most often used as filter. 12. Equating the two energies. since the load is no longer taking energy from the system. substituting zero current for the final inductor current. This can be derived from conservation of energy considerations. 18. It charges during the positive half cycle of the AC voltage and discharges during the negative half cycle. 24V Thermal Overload Protection Short Circuit Protection Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection Output Filter The Filter circuit is often fixed after the Regulator circuit. 8. 9. The two energies are equal when the load is removed. The output voltage overshoots when the load is removed or a short clears. This filter is fixed after the Regulator circuit to filter any of the possibly found ripples in the output received finally. The principle of the capacitor is to charge and discharge. When the load is removing from a switching mode power supply with a LC lowpass output filter. The output at this stage is 5V and is given to the Microcontroller.1µF capacitor. The magnitude of the overshoot is the vector sum of two orthogonal voltages. Here we used 0. The energy that is stored in the output filter inductor is dumped into the output capacitor causing a voltage overshoot.General Features: Output Current up to 1A Output Voltages of 5. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. the only thing the control loop can do is stop the switching action so no more energy is taken from the source. 6.
where I can be very large.The problem becomes worse if the current in the inductor is established by a short circuit on the output and the short circuit clears.This is the orthogonal vector sum of the output voltage and the load current times the characteristic impedance and is illustrated in Figure . In this case. 97 . the initial voltage is zero (short circuit) and the overshoot is I*Zo. resulting in a ruinous overshoot.
since all objects have natural resonant frequencies of vibration. signal generators. to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits. such as those used in digital watches. For example. molecules. shape. When a crystal of quartz is properly cut and mounted. and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. or ions are packed in a regularly ordered. Quartz crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to tens of megahertz. such as counters. radios. and cellphones. Quartz crystals are also found inside test and measurement equipment. computers. High-frequency crystals are typically cut in the shape of a simple. a low-cost ceramic resonator is often used in place of a quartz crystal. For applications not needing very precise timing. Most are used for consumer devices such as wristwatches. the quartz will generate an electric 98 . When the field is removed. with appropriate transducers. and oscilloscopes. The resonant frequency depends on size. clocks. rectangular plate. A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms. More than two billion crystals are manufactured annually. repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. but other piezoelectric materials including polycrystalline ceramics are used in similar circuits. Low-frequency crystals. and the speed of sound in the material. steel is very elastic and has a high speed of sound. This property is known as piezoelectricity. CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal.3. It was often used in mechanical filters before quartz. are typically cut in the shape of a tuning fork. Almost any object made of an elastic material could be used like a crystal. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartZ wristwatches). it can be made to distort in an electric field by applying a voltage to an electrode near or on the crystal. elasticity.11.
14. divided by three. as its 4. from a few kilohertz up to several hundred megahertz.318182 MHz. frequency multipliers and phase locked loop circuits. 99 . and 40 MHz.579545 MHz) is used in computer video displays to generate a bitmapped video display for NTSC color monitors.734475 MHz. 14. such as 3. 20 MHz. so hundreds of standard crystal frequencies are made in large quantities and stocked by electronics distributors.318182 MHz.318182 MHz (four times 3. it is practical to derive a wide range of frequencies from one reference frequency. The popularity of the 3.734475 MHz values are used in PAL color television equipment and devices intended to produce PAL signals. capacitor and resistor. 10 MHz. Many applications call for a crystal oscillator frequency conveniently related to some other desired frequency. Crystals can be manufactured for oscillation over a wide range of frequencies. such as the CGA used with the original IBM PC. 11. 17. COMMONLY USED CRYSTAL FREQUENCIES: Crystal oscillator circuits are often designed around relatively few standard frequencies. The result is that a quartz crystal behaves like a circuit composed of an inductor. 4. 33.433619 MHz and 17.0592 MHz.433619 MHz.77 MHz clock source. 11.579545 MHz crystals is due to low cost since they are used for NTSC color television receivers. with a precise resonant frequency.) The 4. Using frequency dividers. and this can generate a voltage. using one crystal for two purposes.0592 MHz is popular due to it cleanly dividing standard RS232 baudrates (300 being a factor). (The IBM PC used 14.579545 MHz.33 MHz.field as it returns to its previous shape.
crystal frequency. C1. the actual exchange of crystal equivalent circuit shown in Figure 1b. Some crystal by the applied voltage can also be adjusted within a certain range of frequencies. which is the role of voltage-controlled mechanism.In this project we use 11. Here I will introduce the specific role of crystal. easy to synchronize the various parts. known as voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). If different sub-systems need a different clock signal frequencies can be used with the same crystal connected to a different phase-locked loop to provide. tends to be used with different varactor reverse bias voltage to achieve. crystal oscillator in the microcontroller the role of the system is very large. RR is the crystal equivalent circuit. is a combination of MCU's internal circuitry. full name is called the crystal oscillator. Crystal is usually used in conjunction with the phase-locked loop circuit to provide the required system clock frequency. the ordinary crystal oscillator frequency absolute accuracy of up to 50 millionths. as well as the principle of crystal commonly used in Figure 1a. the crystal clock frequency to provide higher speed and that the sooner SCM. Crystal is a circuit element commonly used in the clock. In normal working conditions. the crystal equivalent circuit instead of crystals shown in Figure 1c. Some of the fundamental frequency communication systems and RF using a different crystal and electronic means to adjust the frequency to keep pace. three-terminal type capacitor (Colpitts) to exchange the equivalent oscillation circuit. single-chip implementation of all directives are built on this basis. Usually systems share a single crystal. 100 . which Cv is used to adjust the oscillation frequency. Crystal with a can into electrical energy and mechanical energy between the crystal in the resonant mode of operation in order to provide stable and accurate single frequency oscillation. L1. Crystal's role is to provide the basic system clock signal. High-level precision. Where Co.0592 Mhz. resulting in the need microcontroller clock frequency.
The latter form is often used to connect two boards together. but these are normally just called "header connectors". on dual row pin headers the pins are simply bent outwards. the PTH variant is often chosen for ease of manual assembly. pin headers often also function as recipients for jumpers. It consists of one or more rows of pins typically spaced 0.27 mm) is used as well. rather than being used as a connector on the outside of the device. In addition to being used to connect to a ribbon cable connector. On single row pin headers the pins are bent alternating to one side or the other. often associated with ribbon cable connectors.3. Headers are often sold as long strips (typically 40 pins for the dual row versions) which can easily be broken off to the right number of pins. but sometimes 2 millimetres (0. 101 . Pin headers with a plastic guide box around them are known as "box headers" or "shrouded headers" and are normally only used in combination with a ribbon cable connector. though 2 millimetres (0. In the latter case the solder sides of the pins are simply bent on a 90 degree angle so as to be soldered to a solder plane. Pin header connectors are thus "male" connectors (female counterparts do exist.12. without "pin") and are mostly used inside equipment.05 inches (1. Pin headers can be either straight or angled. Pin headers are cost-effective due to their simplicity. but surface-mount technology (SMT) versions of one and two row pin headers also exist. Normally pin headers are pin through hole (PTH) devices.079 in) is sometimes used in smaller products. A notch (key) in the guide box normally prevents placing the connector (polarised by a "bump" on one side) the wrong way around.079 in) or 0.54 mm) apart.1 inches (2. The most common jumper spacing is 0. If pin headers are optional.54 mm) spacing.CONNECTORS A pin header (or simply header) is a form of electrical connector.1 inches (2.
of a PTH header. is square rather than round) otherwise consult the user manual. one or more pins in the header may be removed or clipped to indicate a key for correct orientation.In absence of a pin one designation on the header. 2 PIN CONNECTOR WITH HEADER: 4 PIN CONNECTOR WITH HEADER : 102 . (often the solder pad around the hole of pin-1. If a designation is missing from the header. then examine the PCB for markings.
8 PIN CONNECTOR WITH HEADER : 16 PIN HEADER: 103 .
to determine whether the employee trial and stored templates match.13. The Microcontroller is programmed to do necessary tasks. The device then compares the trial fingerprint template with this person’s reference template. Before entering an organization the employee provides his ID and fingerprint device is used to scan the fingerprint of he or she enrolled with. I n this user mode this FIM10 (Fingerprint Device) is interfaced with the Microcontroller A89S52. Position of the fingerprint In order to capture the most minutiae. The Fingerprint sensor is scans the Fingerprint and convert that Fingerprint image to an equivalent 16 byte template. Password (16 bytes) is stored in the Flash Memory. which was stored in the device memory during enrollment. FINGERPRINT SCANNER Fingerprint Recognition Device is used for scanning the finger fingerprint image. ID (10 bytes). Figure shows the correct positioning of the fingerprint on the input window. generating a trial template. maximize the surface area of the fingerprint on the fingerprint input window. This information is reported to the Microcontroller. the low power dissipation and the RS-232 serial interface with the simple protocol for easy integration into a wide range of applications. For each user two Fingerprint images each of size 16 bytes. It has a in built Flash Memory which has a capacity of storing 100 users. It provides the high recognition performance.3. 104 .
Figure 3. 105 .1 Correct positioning of fingerprint on input window Figure Common mistakes Allowable angle of fingerprint rotation FIM10 allows up to 45 degrees for input fingerprint rotation.4. as illustrated in Figure. Figure The allowable angle of fingerprint rotation.
CHAPTER-4 SOFTWARE MODULE 106 .
4.1. PROGRAMS 107 .
We simply need to connect the programmer hardware and the microcontroller can be programmed from the compiler itself. To program a microcontroller. A compiler is software which provides an environment to write.4. test and debug a program for the microcontroller. we need a device called a burner/programmer. The programmer and the compiler differ for microcontrollers from different companies. Finally the compiler generates a hex file which contains the machine language instruction understandable by a microcontroller. 109 . The program for a microcontroller is generally written in C or assembly language.2 BURNING PROCESS Burning a microcontroller means to transfer the program from the compiler to the memory of the microcontroller. A programmer is a hardware device with dedicated software which reads the content of the hex file stored on the PC or the laptop and transfers it to the microcontroller to be burned. It is the content of this hex file which is transferred to the memory of the microcontroller. In some cases the compiler has programmer software inbuilt in it. It reads the data of the hex file by connecting itself to the PC via a serial or USB cable and transfers the data to the memory of the microcontroller to be programmed in accordance with the protocols as described by the manufacturer in the datasheet. it then works in accordance with the program. Once a program is transferred or written in the memory of the microcontroller.
CHAPTER-5 TECHNICAL DRAWING 111 .
1 Fingerprint Capture Workflow and Functionality is Complex 118 . and can create differences in performance. workflow. but this builds redundancies into the software application. the software application can only function properly with a software component provided by the hardware provider Over time. quality thresholds. this can mean losing access to a competitive marketplace offering a growing variety of devices because you can't keep up with Better performance Durability New features Lower price points Applications can use software from multiple hardware vendors. and look and feel that depend on which device is used.“Obsolescence” is a term used to describe the eventual unavailability of products due to introduction of new products intended for the same purpose How Does Obsolescence Affect Biometrics? Capture devices are accompanied by a software component and interface that is used by the application layer to control the device When a proprietary software interface is used.
or “slaps”. must yield independent images for each finger.●Images must not be too light or too dark ●Images must have sufficient “ridge flow” ●Images should not deviate significantly from 90 degrees ●Images must consist of flat impressions or “rolls” of the central region of ridge flow on the finger pad ●They should not consist of partial prints or side impressions ●Multi‐finger images. That is. they must be properly “segmented” ●Fingerprint images must not be touching the edge of the sensing area of the scanner ●The source of each fingerprint image must be properly identified →Which hand →Which finger Hardware obsolescence contributes unpredictable costs and risks to the ongoing maintenance of a complex biometric system Driver‐level abstraction of capture hardware devices can mitigate these costs by eliminating interdependencies between the user interface and the devices This enables a much higher degree of flexibility in selecting device vendors and models as devices fail over time 119 .
CONCLUSION AND REPORT SUMMARY 120 .
In this project we are using fingerprint module. If the information matches with the one within the device then the DC motor interfaced to the microcontroller responds accordingly. Finger print reader and the microcontroller unit are connected using serial interface. Interfacing between all sections required for system and microcontroller A89S52 has been done successfully. system refuses access and displays message “FINGERPRINT NOT MATCHED”. Doors opening and closing has been achieved successfully. When a finger is kept at the finger print reader. Authentication and Setup of Security system. And if the information provided by the user is incorrect or mismatch in finger prints is detected then access is denied.The project has been successfully implemented. For registration interfacing between biometrics module and personal computer has also been done successfully. Project deals with Microcontroller as central controlling units for various other sections like Biometrics Module. ”FINGER PRINT BASED SECURITY SYSTEM” is used to provide security and authentication for an organization using finger prints as forgery of that is not possible. Compare to normal security system it is better and in this we can further to implement in every office that module contains total information of employeEs. In future this system is used to provide security and authentication for an organization using finger prints as forgery of that is not possible. it will give the information accordingly to microcontroller by sending appropriate commands to the reader. For the person who is registered with the system can get access through doors according to their designation. 121 .e. When a new person who is not registered with the system try to have access. LCD etc. This project is depend on the biometrics i. It is very easy to implement because Each person has his own fingerprints with the permanent uniqueness. It is most widely used for security purposes. The project report began with the introduction to the basic functioning of Microcontroller based Identification. fingerprint. In conclusion.
APPENDIX A 122 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?