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HISTOIRE

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6 f.N.""'POrOr: <PP. rOITEN. H sO)~, LO tpyo, 11 1tOX~ :E.I.z(lX(lp61toUA.o~, Ae~v(l 1999, creA..649 (r:r.M.).

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1826), "COUonoiou T] npo<JillffiKO'tT]'W uniJp~ avafl<Pi~oAa AlyO'tpo <JT]flavnKi] ano 'tillV cruyxpoVillV"COU, penl va 8illpi'tat ill<;0 n bT]fltOUPYO<;'tT]<;YPflav1Ki]<; pOflavnKi]<; onpa<;. Eivat 0 npw"CO<; ou n 8a nU'Vl va naipvl 'W 8efla'tu 'tou ano 'tT]v KAamKi] flu80Aoyia Kat 8a a<JxoA118i fl' Evav xwpo, 0 KapA-Mapia rpov Bip:n:ep onoio<; fleXPl 'to't beY ciX yiVl avnKciflvo epcuva<; ano "COU<; floumKou<;. IIpoKl'tat yta "CO xwpo 'tT]<;napUbO<JT]<;, "COU flU<J'tl1piou Kat "COU fl<JatillvlKOU unp<pumKou nou Au'tpcuav Ol POflavnKoi. H floumKi] "COU napayillyi], av Kat nptOpl<JflvT] <J ap18flO epyillV, anobcix8T]K Eva<; aA1181VO<;811<Jaupo<;, "COVonoio Kfl'talliu8T]KaV OAOl Ol (JUv8e't<; 'tou atwva "COu.0 EAcu8po<; LKoncu'ti]<; iVat flia KillfllKi] onpa, <J'tT]Vonoia napfl~aivouv 11<pav'ta<Jflayopia Kat nOAA<;<JKT]ve<; illplKWV. H Eupuuv8T] civat flu81X <J't0Pl1fla l7l:nOnKo nou eXl flAOnOl118i Kat ava<pep'Wl <J
7. f.N.L'>POLOL: <I>pav'tc; Al(H, 11 ~(j)~, 'to P'Yo, 11 E1toxil 'tOU. EKM(mc; L.I.Zaxap61toUAOC;, Ae~va 2002 (L.'t.M.).

KunOla l1Pilliba 'tou Mwaiillva. 0 OflnPOV ivat Eva flayunKo 8eafla, <J"CO onoio Ol uV'tP<; npo<J'W'tcUOV'Wl ano evav fluyo-~amA1U. OAa au'tu ~a<Jisov'tat <J Eva pnp'toptO 8flu'tillV Kat noumillbWV Ka'ta<J'tU<JillV nou ~Ai<J<JOV'Wl fle<Ja <J lPillV1KO 7l:VUfla, aya7l:T]'to KiVT] 'tT] noxi], aMU nOAuXPl1mflOnOlT]flEvO Kat Xillpi<; eYbla<pepov <J'tT]v moxi] fla<;: <J'tOlXlillflEva ba<JT], flaY1Ku Aa<poKepa'ta, fl<pUVl<Jl1unp<pumKwv KaKonOlwv, ve<; KoneAc<; av'tlfl'tilln<; fl XiAtOu<; K1VbUVOU<;, ]PilllKOi l7l:no't<;, antAT]nKU 'tepa'ta, flaYlT KU baxwAibta K.An. 01.0<; 0 YPflaV1KO<;pOflaV'tl<Jflo<; ~pi<JK'tat bW Kat av 0 MnouaAvne (<<AcuKi] Kupia), 0 MeypflnP (<<Po~ep"CO<;0 blU~OAO<;), 0 PO<JiVl (<<rOUAleAfl0<; TeAAo<;) i] 0 XUpOAV't (<<ZUflna) fl'ta~u UMillV fl7l:VcU<J'tT]KaV 'W epya "COu<; ano 'toy flaY1KO KO<JflO"COU Beflnp, civat <Jill<J'tO va npo<J8e<Joufl on 0 BUyKVp beY 8a i]'tav au'to nou uniJp~ av 0 Beflnp beY "COU iX avoi~l 'to bPOflO. Ta floumKu fle<Ja nou XPl1mflOnOli 0 Beflnp ~unl1P"COuvaKpl~w<; n<; np08e<J1<; "COU.H ypa<pi] 'tou iVat Ka8api] Kat "COAcKnKo 'tou lbiillfla, onill<; 'to fl'ta<pepl (J'tT] floumKi] "COU,uKOAOVOl1"CO. .\iVl <J'tT]Vopxi]<J'tpa "COUuno~AT]nKou<; L xpillflan<Jflou<; nou uno~0T]80uv "CO8auflumo <JKT]V1KOrUvoc 1.0. Xpl1mflonOli 'tT]V'txv1Ki] "COUAal't flO'ti~, floumKo navaAafl~avofleYo 8efla, Yla va ffiKaAc<J8i nuv'W 'ta ibla npo<Jillna i] 'tl1V ibla lbea. IIpoKl'tat Yla "COibtO aKpl~w<; Aal't flO'ti~, "CO onoia 0 BUyKVp 8a m~pya<J'ti ava~l~usOv'tu<; "CO(J't0 u'V1<J't0 <JT]flcio 'tT]<;'txv1Ki]<; Kat crufl~OA1Ki]<; nOAunAOKT]<;floumKi]<; bl1fltOUpyia<;8.
8. f.N.~POLOL: PlXcipooc; BciyKVEp: H ~(j)~, 'to P'Yo, 11 mom EKMcrElC;L.I.Zaxap61toUAoC;, Ae~va 1997 (L.'t.M.). 'tOU.

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Kat npoXffipEi npu uno 'tte; yvcOm;le; TIle; noxile; TOU. al LnouDe; Kat La IIpA.oUDlU TOUyLUmuvo iVat pyu nA.OUmu O nplliX0/-lCVO Kat USlOA.OYUuno nA.wpUe; <P0P/-lac;. al TOXOl lXUV /-l TOV MntrplX LfJIro.va (1824-1884) Kat TOVAvroVlV NrfJ6p(aK (1841-1904) Duo KnpoocOnoue; TIle; 8vl1Gle; TOUe;'tXV11e;.a L/-l'tuvu ivat 0 nlO UU8VUKOe; A.UtKOe; ouv8TIle; (<<MoA.86.~ue;), OU/-l<pffiVlK1'] oA.iDu, (<<IIoUA.lll-lvll MV110'ti]), yoll'tu'ttK1'] onpu nou SXClA.iSl uno 'tll <pPOKUDU 'tlle; sffii]e; 'tffiV XffiplKcOV. H /-loumK1'] 'tou ivat SffillPi], uu80P/-lllMntrplX Lfltro.va 'tll, ouxvu UnA.OtKi] onffie; /-liu yOll'tuuK1'] lKoVOYPU<Plloll, vcO TOU N't~OPSUK (<<LU/-l<pffiViu'tOu Nou Koo/-lou), (<<Kovop'tO YlU ~lOA.OV'tOA.o) iVat ~uPlU A.OYffi/-llUe;PllTOplK1']e; UPK'tU nllPWo/-lV11 uno 'to u<poe; 'tOu Mnpu/-le;, npuY/-lu nou 'tlle; u<patpi TO O'tOlXEio 'tOu uu80p/-lllUO/-lOU Kat 'tllV TOn08'tci UVU/-lOU O Mo YVll xffipie; KUVVU uno uu'tU VU ivat unoA.U'tu npOODlOplO/-lVo. a N't~OPSUK Dcv KU'top8ffiO VU ~Pl 'to UKpl~e; /-lOUmKO lDiffi/-lU 'tffiV PYffiVnou m8u/-louo VU OUV80l Kat 8u XUpUKTIlpiSOVLaV yLU TIlV unA.OTIl'tu TOUe;. AA.A.Olouv8'te; TO nwxuv KUA.U'tpu, xffipie; vu 7l:11pw080uv uno UYVffiO'te;'tXVO'tpomce;. 'E't(Jl, 0 Nop~llyoe; EvrfJa.pvr rKpy/YK (1843-1907) OXl'tOOO USlOEvrfJapvr TKp1JYK

A.oyoe; /-lOUmKOe;,'tOu onolou O/-lffie;Ol NoP~llYlKoi Xopoi Kat TO npi<pll/-lO KOVOPTO yLUmuvo, uU'tO nou ycvvi]811K uno TO owl... 'tOu <l>pUV'te;AlO't, KnpOOffinouv TOV XUpUKri]pU TIle; xcOpue; TOUe;/-l TIl <pPOKUDU,TIlV unA.OTIlLa, TIlV ato8lluK1'] yoll'tiu Kat 'tll ~~atU nOlll'ttK1'] TOU uvUnoA.llOll al Ionuvoi npoopisOVLaV vu 8PLU/-l~UOOuv 0't0 nuvopu/-lu 'tffiV 8vlKcOV oxoA.cbv /-loumK1']e; XUPll 0Tllv noA.u/-lop<piu Kat O'tU sffillPU XPcO/-lu'tu 'tlle; A.UtK1']e; 'toue; 'tXV11e;.E'tm A.omov ' o Iaaax AA.J1nVlf) (1860-1909), 0 EvpiKe rKpawivroc; (18681916) ~pi]KUV CVO'ttK'tffiDcOe; 'tXVlKU /-lOUnou XPlUsOVLaV 'tU YlU VU K<ppuoouv /-l TIlv 'tXV11'toue; 'tOy XUpUKri]pU TIle; A.UtK1']e;/-lOUOlK1']e; at 'to La/-lnpU/-lv'tO 'tffiV IonuvcOv. BpioKOUK /-lE O'tU Pyu 'tOue; wnOnOlll/-lVo 'to sunU'tEUV'tO (XW7l:11/-lU 'tffiV LaKODVlcOV), TIl /-lUKpoouP'tll /-lEA.ffiDiu'tou <pA.U/-lVKO, TrlV mKUplUPxiu 'tou pu8/-lou, 'tOY at0811mUO/-l0 TIle; /-lEA.ffiDiue;. al xopoi 'tou AA./-lnVl8, 11 oouiTu TOU I/-lnpLU, Vue; niVUKUe; onffie; 11 BEiu EUXUplO'tiu 0Tll LE~iA.A.ll XODV /-lLU ouvupnuouK1'] MVU/-lll nou OE KUVEl VU uvunoA.eie; <pffie;Kat xpcO/-lULa. al rKOYtOKUe; nou unO'tEA.OUV Pyu /-l7l:VEUO/-lvu uno 'tOue; niVUKEe; TOU rKOyLU Kat Ol Xopoi 'tou rKpUVUVTOe;XODVDLU<pOPE'ttKO XUpUK'ti]pU. a rKpUVUV'toe; EiVat mo UTOVOe;,mo nA.oumOe; OE up/-loviu Kat KUA.A.tnElU,EiVat vue; P0/-lUV'ttKOe; /-l at0811muK1'] /-lEA.uyxoA.iu. II8uvE OE llA.lKiu OUPUVLa OK'tcOXPOVffiVKU'tU TO VUUUYlOTOU LUOESI3 a MavovJ.. vre <Pillza (1876-1946) Orn/-lU'tisEl /-lC TOUe; AA./-lnvl8 Kat rKpUVUV'toe;, 'tffiV onoiffiV ~LaV oUyxpOVoe;, TIlV 'tpluPXiu nou UnOKaA.U\jlEOTOVKOO/-lOLa nA.ouTIl TIle; xcOpue;
13. To aTllonAolO "I:aae~"TOpmAiaTIlKe ano yepllavlKo uno~puxlO TO 1916 Kat ~USiaTIlKe napacrUpovTac; aTO SaVaTO TOV[KpaVaVTOC; (I:.T.M.).

'rou. E~exouaa 1tpoaroltlKoTI1'ta, apXOVnKtl Kat aaKllnKtl <pumoyvro/-lia, ~;ne~aAc /-lia 'teXVll 1tOU OtaKptVO'tUVyta TIlVKO/-l'l'0TIl'tU,TII Arn'tOTIl'tu, TII SroV'tavta Kat 'to <pADyepo 1ta80e;. H e8vtKou xapaKt"i]pa eK<ppaml 'tou oev ~acrise'tat ae e~O)'teptKa a'totxeia, aM.fJ. 1tUvro ae Eva <m>A.,ae Eva 1tpoaroltlKO U<poe;Kat /-lia \jIUxoAOYUGlf-l8'ta<popa 'tou 'toMavave). vu: <Pillla vou 1tOUuvu'l'cOvet'rO 81ti1teoo'trov epyrov 'tou. IItKpo, 0l1KUKO, e/-l<popouf-leYo a1to 1ta80e;, 'to epyo 'tou ~e1t8pvaet 'to ypa<ptKO Kat a1tOKaAUmet 'to ~a80e; TIle;\jIUxtle; TIle;Ia1taviae;. Ta /-l1taAe'ta'tou TptKopvo Ka1teMo, Mayoe; 'Epro'tae;, NuX'tee; <J'toue;Ktl1tOUe; Ile;Ia1taviae; yta ltlUvO Kat T oPxtla'tpa, 'to Kovaep'to yta KAa~eaev, 'tU a~w8au/-laa'tU E1t'ta AatKa 'tpayouota 'tou a1to'teADuv /-lta ao<pi] aA118tvi] 'teXVIl ~ama~ ae <poAKAoptKa a'totxeia TIle; xcOpac; 'tou 1tOU /-lapwpouv TIlv U'l'l1Ai] 1tot0TIl'ta TIle;e/-l1tVwmle; 'tou. Xropie; va 1tpoxropi]aou/-le /-lexpt TIlV e1toxi] /-lae;, 11o1toia exet va eltloei~et 1tapa 1tOAAOUe; ruv8e'tee; 1tOUe~epwvouv 'toy c XcOpo 'tou <poAuop, ae; Bu/-l1180u/-le 'toy <l>pav'te; At<J't, 0 01toioe; ane; OuyyptKee; Pa'l'rooiee; 'tou XP11m/-lo1toi11ae 1tpO<P11nKa 'tU 'tpayouota Kat 'toue; AatKOUe; pu8/-loue; /-le KAamKO 'tp01to. Eivat 0 1tPOOpO/-lOe;'roU M1teAa M1tap'toK, 01troe; 0 iowe; 'to avayvcOptae. TeAoe; 0 nav ElfL7T:t2lOVr:; (1865-1957) eivat 0 /-leyaAoe; eBvtKOe;cruv8eTlle; TIle;<l>tvAavoiae;, 0 o1toioe; a1to'teAci 'tOY Kav'rOpa 't11e;, xropie; va xpeta<J'tel va 1tpo<J'tpe~et ae AatKa a'totXela, aAAa a1tAcOe;/-le 'to va 81ttKaAw8ei 't11V'l'Uxi] 'roU

Aaou LOU, 'roue; a1tepav'toue; i]pe/-lOue; opisov'tee; ":le; XcOpae; LOU 'trov xtAirov At/-lvcOv, ne; ava1toAi]aete; 1tOU eyytsouv 't11v KapOta 'trov <l>tvAavocOv. 0a /-l1topouaa/-le va ~exaaou/-le evoeX0/-levroe; 'to Au1t11'tepo BaAe;,1tOU eytve otaa11/-lo y~a va 1tpo~aAou/-le ne; E1t'ta ~u/-l<provtee; 'roU 1tOU 1tapa/-levouv axe06v ayvro<J'tee; ane; AanvlKee; XcOpee;, aAAa yvroa'tee; <J'toue; AyYAoaa~ovee; Kat a'toue; [ep/-lavoue;, 'tCOVo1toicov KaAu1t'touv 'to /-l0umKO youa'to, eKel 01tOU Ka'texouv 1tepio1t't11 8ea11 'ro /-luaTllPtcOoee; Kat 'to 1tapaAoyo. To AanvlKo Kotvo avas11'tel /-lia otaAeK'ttKtl, /-lia <p0p/-la Kt evav ouva/-lw/-lo. 'O'tav Ka1tOta /-loumKtl atcopei'tat, ava, 1toAci i] eltl~aAAet a1tAa Kat /-lOVO FlaV Ll/17CeAlOVC; /-lia Ka'tua'tUa11, KtvOUVeUet va yivet ~ape'ti]. Amo e~l1yei TIl ouaKoAia yta opta/-leva epya va 1tepuaouv a1to Eva cruyKeKpt/-leVO KotVO ae KU1tOtOaAAo. Au'ti] 11xpuml avaKaAu'l'l1 'roU AatKou 811aaupou 8a e1tllpeaaet 011.11 Il /-loumKtl 1tapaycoyi]. !lev u1tapxet XcOpa 01tOU T oev 8a 'tpa~i]~et 'ro evota<pepov TIle; A1to 'to'te, cvaCO/-la'tcof-lEY11aTllv Ka8api] /-loumKtl, 11<pOAKAOptKtl/-loumKtl 8a ~POa<pepet Eva veo a'totXelO 1tAou'tou. [Vcopisouf-l8 'to 'tt ~a 1tape~ a1to au'ti]v 0 M1tap'toK. ~av avn<J'ta8/-lta/-la apKe'ta cruX\lo aTllv w'topia, 11/-loumKTl 'rOU 190u atcOva 1tOUeytve 1tOAUao<pi] Kat Ka8apa opa/-lauKtl 8a avaKaAume aTllv u1ta,t8po ~te; 1tllyee; /-ltae; a1tAi]e;1tot/-levtKTle;'teXVlle;Kat /-ltae; aA118t';le; sco11~. Me TIl cruvU1tap~l1 amcOv 'tcov <J'totXelCOV, 1 /-l0umKll 'tou 'te1 Aoue; 'tou 190u atcOva 8a avaveco8ei KU'ta Eva /-lepoe; TIle;

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