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Industrial Training Report

Industrial Training Report

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Industrial training report

PREFACE During my industrial training period of past 4 months, I was cherished with practical experiences, knowledge on site procedures and general knowledge on industry. My training establishment was Sanken Construction (Pvt) Ltd and Isuru Engineering (Pte) Ltd. I am very much pleased in presenting this report on which I gained there. The period that I spent with Sanken Lanka as a trainee was diametrically different from the life in ICBT. But during that short period I gained a lot of experiences on civil engineering construction, realized the value of having a balanced theoretical and practical knowledge and realized about the expected role of engineers from the industry. What I observed about the organization, what I gained as practical experiences and my opinions on training are agglomerated in this report. First elaborates about my training establishment- Sanken Construction (Pvt) Ltd and Isuru Engineering (Pte) Ltd. The most important thing is what I gained during the training period all those things are summarized in this report. I included there what I have done, what I have seen and what I have come to know during that period. Site procedures including store procedures, safety functions and financial procedures are mentioned that I observed there. Technical experiences that I gained there are described. Functions and duties that I was involved and technical and social matters raised are also included. What I have gained during past 4 months physically and spiritually, my attitudes regarding industrial tanning and the training establishment, my overall assessment on this training session and my own suggestions to improve the training to give more effective training to future batches are also presented.

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 1

Industrial training report

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Theory without practice is not lead to success. The industrial training program organized by ICBT mount campus is highly appreciated because this was a golden opportunity to me as an undergraduate. First of all, I would like to thank Mr. Gamini Rajakaruna for taking a few moments of his valuable time to guide me and support me throughout the course of this project. He all the time encouraged us to work on this module and appreciated our good work is well. He gave us excellent feedbacks and motivated us more on this industrial training. He did a greatest dedication regarding industrial training and encouraged us to get maximum use of industrial training. I would also like thank our site manager Eng. Anurudhdha. I would also thank project Engineers Eng. Kapila Weerasinghe, Eng. H.L.N Priyadharshani, Eng. Samitha Saparamadu and all the other staff members of project who provided me such a good training and assisted me in many ways. And finally my thanks also tend to my parents, family members, my colleagues and all the others who helped me to have a successful training period.

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 2

Industrial training report

Table of content
Page Number Preface………………………………………………………………………..…….01 Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………….…02
A) Profile of the Project………..………….……………………………………….04

B).Description Of the Project...…………………………………………………….09 C).Experience Gained...………………………………………………………..…...24 D).Observations Made.…………………………………………………………..…54 F).Any problems encountered and solutions found… …………………………..…56 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………….59 Reference……………..………………………………………………………….…60

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 3

Industrial training report

A) Profile of the Project

Sanken construction (Pvt) Ltd About Sanken Construction Formation Sanken construction traces its roots back to their joint venture with Mitsui Construction Company of Japan. Mitsui Construction Company commenced their operation in Sri Lanka in 1977 with a Branch office in Colombo. In May 1984, a Company by the name Mitsui construction Company Lank (Pvt.) Ltd. was incorporated under FIAC authorization to undertake Civil and Building construction work. This was extended in December 1985 to include, the Leasing and Hiring of Industrial equipment. Four years onwards, a name change from Mistui construction Company Lanka (Pvt) ltd took place. Additionally in March 1991, approval was obtained for the sale of Ready mixed concretea pioneering venture of construction Industry in Sri Lanka. In 2011 Sanken Lanka (Pvt) Ltd changed its name to Sanken Construction (Pvt) Ltd in Sri Lanka. Affiliation  Sanken Construct in one of the highest ranked construction companies (ICTAD – C1 Grade)  Sanken Construction is a member of National Construction Association of Sri Lanka (NCASL)  Sanken Construction is ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System Certified Company. Awards
HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 4

Industrial training report

ICTAD Construction Excellence Award (2007) for the construction of “Capitol Residencies” luxury Apartments.

Bronze Award for Export of Business and Professional Services by National Chamber Of Exporters of Sri Lank in (2007 and 2008)

Construction Excellence Award for Buildings (National) by National chamber of Construction of Sri Lanka (2007).

Merit Award in Education and Training on Special projects by Ceylon Chamber of Commerce (2008).

Sanken Lanka Vision VISION “To be Sri Lanka’s Premier construction service provider”

Sanken Lanka Vision

MISSION “To provide Quality professional services, exceeding customer expectations, by effective utilization of all resources within the best practices of the industry”

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 5

Industrial training report

Quality Policy At Sanken Construction (Pvt) Ltd are a team committed to provide a quality product and services at affordable price, on time, In the execution of construction projects and the manufacture of related products, with the support of our valuable suppliers and in total harmony with society and the environment. Sanken Construction is further committed, to satisfy our customer whilst improving the quality of life of our organization. Sanken Construction value the team work, efficiency, responsibility and responsiveness to achieve these goals through optimization of resources and continual improvement of their systems, At all levels of operations, to further enhance the quality of their products and services. Services         Construction contracts Property development Ready mixed concrete Hiring of scaffoldings Design and build contracts Consultancy Hiring and leasing of machinery Trading
Higher National Diploma in Civil

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Page 6

Industrial training report

Sanken Construction (Pvt) Ltd Established : 23rd May 1984

Previous Registration No : N (PVS) 1109 Present registration No New date of registration In Sanken Lanka a) Project Name. On 320 Residential Apartment : PV 9889 : 14-10-2011

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

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Industrial training report

b) Name of the Client: John Keels Residential Properties (pvt) Ltd

c) Name of the Consultant: Surath Wickramasinghe Associates

d) Name of the Contractor: Sanken Construction (pvt) Ltd

e) Duration of the Project: 3 years

f) Estimated Cost: Rs. 5, 548, 275, 000.00
HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

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Industrial training report
g) Type of Contract: Lump sum

h) Defect Liability Period: 1 year

i) Percentage of Retention: 5% j) Performance Security: 5%

B).Description Of the Project:

In Sanken Lanka a) Project Location- No 320, Union Place, Colombo 02

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

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Industrial training report

Escape, whilst in the hustle and bustle of town. Centrally located in the heart of Colombo’s commercial and business hub, “OnThree20” is just minutes, if not seconds away from hotels, schools, recreational centers, supermarkets, department stores, cinemas, restaurants and clubs

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 10

Industrial training report

b) Organization chart
Executive Director DGM (projects) Manager (projects) HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

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Industrial training report
Project Manager

Site Manager I Site Engineer II Project Engineer Assistan t Engineer Trainee Engineer I Project Engineer Assistan t Engineer Trainee Engineer II Project Engineer Assistan t Engineer Technical officer I

Site Manager II Site Engineer II Project Engineer Assistan t Engineer Trainee Engineer III Project Engineer Assistan t Engineer Trainee Engineer IV Project Engineer Assistan t Engineer Technical officer II

Site Manager III Site Engineer III Project Engineer Assistan t Engineer Trainee Engineer V Assistan t Engineer Trainee Engineer VI Project Engineer Assistan t Engineer Technical officer III

Supervisor I

Supervisor I

Supervisor I

Supervisor I

Supervisor I

Supervisor I

Supervisor I

Workers

Workers

Workers

Workers

Workers

Workers

Workers

c) Overall Scope of the project. 3 Towers of 38 Storeys with 475 Apartment Units Over half an acre of landscape garden on the podium level, 2,000 sqft Gymnasium, 40 Visitor parking lots, Large club house, Multi-purpose function rooms, BBQ pits, Business center, Squash Court, Steam Room and Indoor Games Rooms.
HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 12

Industrial training report

Facilities and Finishes Apartments        Air Conditioning for Living / Dining Area and Bedrooms Pantry Cupboards with Hob & Hood Maid's Room(Available in some Apartments / Optional) Balcony for the living area Intercom system Porcelain Tiled floor with wooden skirting Veneered finish doors
Higher National Diploma in Civil

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Page 13

Industrial training report
    Aluminum Glazed windows & Sliding doors Central Gas system Hot Water (Geyser) in Bathrooms and Kitchen MATV System

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 14

Industrial training report

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 15

Industrial training report

Common Areas  Covered Car parking for each apartment plus an option to purchase additional car parks (based on availability)        Building Management System Standby Power Broadband Infrastructure Separate Entrance Lobbies in each Tower Over half an acre of landscape garden on the podium level Swimming pool, Lap pool & Kiddies pool 2,000 SqFt Gymnasium
Higher National Diploma in Civil

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Page 16

Industrial training report
       40 Visitor parking slots Large Club house and 2 multi-purpose function rooms BBQ Pits Business Centre Squash Court Steam Room Indoor Games Room

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

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Industrial training report

A) Profile of the Project: In Isuru Engineering (PTE) LTD Isuru Engineering (PTE) LTD, popularly referred in the Construction sector as ISURU (IEL), true to its' vernacular meaning having achieved popularity among clients. Isuru Engineering (PTE) LTD, popularly referred in the Construction sector as ISURU (IEL), true to its’ vernacular meaning having achieved popularity among clients, commenced its construction activities in 1993 and became a member of the National Constructors Association of Sri Lanka. Dedication and Commitment to high ideals helped IEL to achieve ICTAD M1 Category in Building Construction, within a very short span through the support of our professional staff consisting of a dedicated team of highly skilled and qualified Engineers and Technical Officers trained in the latest technology.

Vision of Isuru Engineering (PTE) LTD

VISION To be the best service provider in construction industry for Sri Lanka.

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 18

Industrial training report

Mission of Sri Lanka Ports Authority

MISSION To provide comprehensive, state-of-the-art services in Construction Industry, using latest technology together with competent service personnel to meet the highest standards of the Construction Industry with honesty and integrity.

Company History IEL commenced its operations in 1993 with Chairman/Managing Director and a Director. A small Team of Engineers provided the support services at the inception. IEL received Membership of National Construction Association of Sri Lanka in January 1997. Since then it has undertaken Construction work in Sri Lanka and the Republic of Maldives. Through perseverance and dedication, and with the gradual build up of the Engineering team, it managed to rise to the highest ICTAD Grading within a short period of 4 years. Similarly upgrading was possible in the fields of Water Supply & Drainage, Highways and Bridge Construction. IEL has been admitted to the Dun & Bradstreet Global Database. IEL has been assessed and certified for meeting the requirements of ISO 9001-2000 by SGS, United Kingdom, and has reached a prime position in the construction field through its highly successful operations in Sri Lanka and abroad.
HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 19

Industrial training report

Achievement   National Construction Association of Sri Lanka Membership was awarded to Isuru Engineering (Pte) Ltd in 1997 Institute for Construction Training and Development (ICTAD) awarded higher grading Building Construction, Water Supply & Drainage, Road Works etc in   1997 Admitted to the Dun & Bradstreet Global Database in 2003 Awarded ISO 9001-2000 System Certification in 2008

Machinery and work shop IEL maintains a large contingent of machinery, equipment and vehicles and has access to machinery and equipment to undertake the following works:             Earth excavation Earth haulage Earth compaction Road Construction Water Supply and Drainage Work Water Retaining Structures High Elevation Water Towers Sumps Sewer Treatment and Disposal Facilities Road construction Fabrication of steel structures School Buildings, Hotels and Multi Storey Buildings
Higher National Diploma in Civil

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Page 20

Industrial training report

a) Project Name. Proposed Office complex

b) Name of the Client: Mrs.V.J Neththikumara

c) Name of the Consultant: Mr. T.P Weerasinghe

d) Name of the Contractor: Isuru Engineering (PTE) LTD

e) Duration of the Project: 6 months

f) Estimated Cost: Rs 23,556,852/=

g) Type of Contract: Lump sum

h) Defect Liability Period: 6 month

i) Percentage of Retention: 5% j) Performance Security: 5%

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 21

Industrial training report

B).Description Of the Project: In Isuru Engineering (PTE) LTD a) Project Location- Nawala road, Nugegoda

b) Organization Chart

Project Manager

Site Engineer

Technical Officer

Trainee Engineer

Store keeper

Watcher

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 22

Industrial training report
Workers

Project manager Project manager is responsible for overall administration of the site. Co-ordination with different persons involved in project, personnel management at site, take heed of financial matters and quality control are done by project manager. All the officers employed in the site are under project manager’s control.

Site engineer Site engineer is responsible for all the construction works carried out at site and relevant instructions should be given to work supervisors by site engineer. Works according to drawings and specifications should be carried out and payments to sub contractors also should be done under his inspection. Checking bar bending schedules, checking financial aspects of the site, involving in ordering material, machinery and equipments from suppliers and participating in progress meetings are done by site engineers. Work supervisor Giving relevant instructions to workers, getting the plans from site engineers, controlling laborers at work site, issuing materials to the site under approval of site engineers and supervise the works done by workers should be done by site supervisor. Quantity surveyor
HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 23

Industrial training report
Quantity surveyor is involved in preparing quantities of work done by measuring them, preparing bills for sub contactors, preparing material comparisons and preparing cost break downs. Store keeper Store keeper is responsible for all affairs of site stores. Most often financial aspects of stores were conducted by store keeper in these sites. Cash floats, expenditure of the site, pay sheets for the casual staff etc. were maintained by him. Store helper Stores helper maintains the stores properly with records of receiving and issuing of materials, tools, machinery and other inventory items. Making labour records is also done by him. Watcher Watcher is responsible in site security.

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 24

Industrial training report

C).Experience Gained
During my industrial training period of 4 months worked under the supervision of Eng. Kapila Weerasinghe –one of the site Engineers in On Tree 20 Project. The training experiences are spread to a large area because this project is a huge project. The experiences including the duties and functions which I had to perform can be categorized as follows.

Backfilling: Backfill material shall be clean earth fill composed of sand, clay and sand, sand and rock, crushed rock, or an approved combination thereof. Backfilling shall be divided into three specified areas: First, from trench grade to a point 12 inches above the top of the utility, called initial backfill; second, from the top of the pipe zone to the bottom of the subgrade called final backfill; and third, from the bottom of the replacement base course to the replacement surface. Where encasements or other below grade concrete work have been installed, backfilling shall not proceed until the concrete has obtained sufficient strength to support the backfill load.

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 25

Industrial training report

Initial Backfill Granular material shall be carefully placed and tamped around the lower half (springline) of the utility. Backfilling shall be carefully continued until the fill is 12 inches above the top of the utility in layers not exceeding 6 inches (uncompacted thickness), using the best available material from the excavation, if approved. The material shall be lowered to within two feet above the top of pipes before it is allowed to fall, unless the material is placed with approved devices that protect the pipes from impact. Initial backfill shall exclude stones, or rock fragments larger than one inch for either ductile iron. HDPE or PVC pipe. Compacting each lift shall be equal to 100% of maximum density as determined by AASHTO T-99.

C. Final Backfill: The remainder of the trench, above initial backfill and below the subgrade, shall be backfilled and compacted in layers not exceeding 12 inches (uncompacted thickness), except that the last two lifts shall not exceed six inches
HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 26

Industrial training report
(uncompacted thickness) per lift. Compaction of each lift shall be equal to 100% of maximum density as determined by AASHTO T-99.

Shoulder Restoration: All shoulder restoration shall be in accordance with the applicable permit requirements of the agency having jurisdiction. In excavated locations outside a 2(horizontal) to 1(vertical) slope downward from the shoulder line or the back of the curb, backfill (initial and final) shall be compacted to a density equal to 95% of maximum density, as determined by AASHTO T-99, or to natural existing density of the adjacent undisturbed trench embankments, whichever is greater. Protective Concrete Slab: Protective concrete slabs shall be installed over the top of trenches, where required, to protect the installed utility against excessive loads, or when insufficient cover exists. Compacting: Compaction Methods: Specified compaction shall be accomplished using accepted standard methods (powered tampers, vibrators, etc.), with the exception that the first 12 inches of backfilling over the pipe shall be compacted by hand-operated tamping devices. Flooding or puddling with water to consolidate backfill is not acceptable, except where sugar sand is encountered and the operation has been approved by the Engineer of Record Location of Density Tests: Density tests for determination of the specified densities shall be made every 1000 feet parallel to roadways and at least one test location under each perpendicular roadway cut. Reference the standard construction details for density test requirements for trenches at flexible pavement.
HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 27

Industrial training report
Test backfill compaction at each specified location, at the finished backfill surface elevation and at a point 12 to 16 inches beneath the finished surface elevation. Density Tests: Density tests for determination of the above-specified compaction shall be made by a qualified testing laboratory. If any test results are unsatisfactory, the Contractor shall re-excavate, recompact the backfill, and retest, at his expense until the desired compaction is obtained. Additional compaction tests shall be made to each side of an unsatisfactory test, as directed, to determine the extent of re-excavation and re-compaction necessary. Test results shall be made available to SLCU for their records. Applying Screed concrete

Brick work

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 28

Industrial training report
Walls were constructed by burnt clay bricks using 1:5 cement sand mortar. External walls were constructed into 225 mm thickness and internal walls into 112.5 mm thickness.

Setting out for brick work

Setting out for brickwork Above figure elaborates how setting out lines should be marked for brickwork. Two offset lines should be marked on either sides of brick wall. When the wall plaster is done, correct measurements can be taken from those offset lines. 25 mm allowance should be left on both sides of a door or an opening.

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 29

Industrial training report

Construction of brick walls 1:5 cement sand mortar was used here. 225 mm thick walls were constructed in English bond and 112.5 mm thick walls in stretcher bond. Concrete floor was wetted with water before laying bricks. Column surfaces that contact with brick wall were chipped and a grout paste was applied on that. Verticality of brick wall should be checked while constructing. Mortar layers should be 10 mm in thickness but practically it was higher than that. That causes to over consumption of cement and sand as I studied in my work study on brick work. The walls will be carried out uniformly in all cases where the mature of the work admits it. The work will not be built higher than 1.5m in a day. The courses will be kept perfectly horizontal and every course will be checked for level and plump.
HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 30

Industrial training report
Bricks should be wetted with water before use in brickwork. If the bricks are not wetted the brick will absorb all the water in mortar. So that no water will be left for hydration of cement in the water. The blocks should not be wetted before use. Wetting will produce moisture expansion in the block, which will subsequently increase the shrinkage of the wall. Verticality of walls is checked with the plumb bob and straight edge. In usual practice we have certain restriction for the proper vertical alignment. 1. Un-uniformity brick sizes. 2. When aligning the top course of the brick, bottom brick alignment deviate. 3. Careless of masons and lack of supervision. 4. Tools error.

Construction of columns Setting out for columns Setting out for columns was done using theodolite and steel tape. Marking lines was done using marking chord. It is very important to set out columns accurately otherwise they can be buckle or fail due to excentric loads applied on them.

Laying kickers After setting out was done, kickers were laid in to 75 mm thickness. Steel kicker boxes or plywood sheet boxes were used for its formwork. Grade 40 concrete was used there. Curing kickers should be done at least for 7 days. Reinforcement for columns
HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 31

Industrial training report
Overlapping and cranking main bars and tying stirrups into correct spacing are main functions of column formwork. Column reinforcement and dimensions were different by place to place according to loads applied on them. It should be checked whether correct bar type is used, correct spacing were left between stirrups, lap length and crank length is correct and good quality reinforcement is used. Column formwork required 30 mm covering. Lap length (LL) = D2 x 50 Crank length (CL) = (D1 + D2+ 5) x 10 Formwork for columns Column formwork was fixed to kickers. Steel column boxes or formwork done by plywood sheets were used. Sponge sheets were placed in joints of formwork to avoid leakage of grout. Before fixing formwork internal surfaces of formwork were covered with form oil. After fixing jacks and props, laying electrical conduits and placing cover blocks were done. Then verticality of column formwork was checked. Checking verticality was done at two edges of each face, to avoid twisting of column.

Concerting columns Existing surface of concrete should be made rough in order to have strong bond between newly concreted part and older part. Existing surface was also wet with grout for same purpose. Concreting was done using grade 25 machine-mixed concrete. Since free fall

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

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Industrial training report
height of concrete should not be higher than 1200 mm, each lift of column concreting was not exceeded that height. Poker vibrator was used for compact concrete well.

Lap length & Crank length

Striking column formwork & curing Column formwork was removed after a day (24 hr) from concreting. Then curing was done for 7 days applying moist gunny bags.

Construction of beams and slab Setting out for beams & slab

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 33

Industrial training report
1000 mm height level of columns was marked on column surfaces. Level instrument was used there. Level of beam bottom was marked using that level.

Formwork of beams and slab

Formwork for beam & Slab Beam and column formwork was fixed using plywood sheets, 2” x 2” wooden bars, galvanized iron pipes, separates, p-cones and form ties. Props were placed at 600 mm x 600 mm distances to support beam and slab formwork. A “U-head” was placed on each prop and then galvanized iron pipes were laid horizontally and tied them. Power saw was used for cutting plywood sheets and then fixed side boards for beams and formwork for slab. Verticality of side boards and dimensions of formworks should be checked. Painting form oil was done on formwork. Form ties, P-cones and separates were placed at 600 mm distance, after laying reinforcement.

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 34

Industrial training report
Reinforcement for beams and slab Tor steel bars for beam reinforcement were re-bended and tied in another place. They were placed on 2” x 2” wooden bars laid at beam formwork and they were jointed at columns. They were lowered in to beam formwork after tying cover blocks. Slab reinforcement was laid on slab formwork. Stools (bent tor steel bars) were placed to keep space between top and bottom layers.

Slab & beam reinforcement; Stop board is set at 2/3 of span and sponge sheets are used for prevent leakage.

Level check for beams & slab

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 35

Industrial training report

Level check of slab & beams Leveling the slab and beam formwork should be done after laying reinforcement. Although slab and beams were fixed to right level, it can be deviated due to loads applied and exposure to bad weather conditions. Level check is done using level instrument and inverted staff. According to the figure 2.2, Instrument reading = b Then, 1000 mm + a + b = (floor to floor height) - (thickness of plywood sheet) + 5 mm b = [(floor to floor height) - (thickness of plywood sheet) + 5 mm- (1000 mm+ a)] Jacks are tightened and loosen until slab and beams are leveled (until value “b” is achieved). 5-mm clearance is left to be settled when laying concrete.

Concreting beams and slab

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 36

Industrial training report
Concreting slab and beams was done using ready mix concrete. Supplier was ELS Constructions (Pvt) LTD. Ready mix concrete is used when concreting is done in large scale. Concrete is mixed at batch plant and then transported to site by truck mixers with rotating drum. Pumping concrete up to slab is done by a pump car. Slump test and preparing concrete cubes to test compressive strength are done for concrete transferred by each truck mixer. Retarders have been added to concrete not to be hardened until it is transported to the destination. Generally pump car is provided with a flexible hose / pipe to drive concrete. A grout mixer is driven through the pipe in order to lubricate the internal surface. Concrete should be poured not to be segregated and should be compacted well and leveled in to relevant thickness before it is hardened. Advantages of ready mix concrete, Labour associated with mixing concrete is saved. There will not be wastage of basic materials. Noise and dust pollution created at site is reduced. Ready mix concrete has better quality.

   

Striking beam and slab formwork & curing

The striking time of formwork depends on type of cement, grade of concrete, dimension of the section and the temperature of the concrete. High striking time requires in cold weather. Minimum striking time for side formwork of beams, under side formwork of slabs according to its span is mentioned in table 2.1. Curing was done for slab and beams for 7 days using moist gunny bags.
HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 37

Industrial training report

Sticking time of formwork
Type of formwork Side formworks of beams, columns or walls Slab formwork up to 4.5 m span 7 days Striking time 24 hr

Slab formwork above 4.5 m span & under side of beams up to 6 m span Under sides of beams and arches over 6 m and up to 9 m span Cantilever slab and beams

14 days

21 days

21 days

Safety Procedures

HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 38

Industrial training report
Introduction According to the Health and Safety Policy statement of the company there are several objectives as follows • • • • • Preventing accidents Maintaining site safety at reasonably high standards Providing appropriate training to workers Supplying adequate resources to work in safety Auditing the effectiveness of the safety management system regularly

In the site there were workers with different educational and social levels. Sometimes they got quick decisions which create huge accidents. An accident is an unpredictable event or steps of events, with a result of a personal injury or property damage. The situations and places which essential to insert risk analysis can be listed as follows. It is the responsibility of the safety management board to minimize the risks of this kind of situations. 1. Working at high places or confined places 2. Falling objects from high places 3. Working with fire 4. Preparing for a blasting operation 5. Working on temporary scaffolds and platforms 6. Using temporary access and ladders 7. Operating machinery with temporary electrical installations 8. Places of excavation
HND/CV/MT/02/24
Engineering
International College of Business and Technology

Higher National Diploma in Civil

Page 39

Industrial training report
9. Working in underground 10. Using chemicals and hazards substances In this project the safety rules and regulation that the authorities have taken can be categorized as general site rules, specific safety rules and personal protective equipments and Safety Promotion and Communication Methods.

General site rules  Persons under 18 years old should not be employed in the site
 At the site all the persons should wear safety helmets and other personal

protective equipments  Any person who enter to the site without permissions, is not allowed  No allowance to enter into confined places in the site without permissions  Using of alcohol, drugs are prohibited in the site  The working place and the environment should be cleaned  All persons in the site have same right to report any accidents, incidents or unsafe conditions immediately

Specific safety rules

There were specific safety rules for special works like fire work, electrical work, scaffolding work, welding work, machinery work, marine work, and works of confined

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work etc. These rules should be communicated the relevant working people in a simple manner. Following the safety rules are highly affected to minimize the accidents.

Personal protective equipments (PPE)

1. Safety helmet All the persons who entered into the site and working areas should wear as a protection against injuries to head from falling objects. 2. Eye goggles It should be wear in the process of material grinding, chipping, and breaking. 3. Ear protectors Ear protectors should be worn when participate the noisy operations above 85 dB 4. Safety shoes Safety shoes and boots should be worn when instances like slab concreting is going on, as the cement can adversely affect the human skin, when walking on grounds having harmful particles such as unwanted nails, parts of steel bars etc. 5. Reflective vests

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Industrial training report
It should be worn the workers who are working in tunnels, near the temporary roads, near to blasting places for easily identifications. 6. Gloves • • • Cotton gloves should be worn when operating and handling of general equipments and materials. PVC gloves should be used when handling of chemical substances. Leather gloves should be used when handling of hot working processes and machineries like drilling machines. 7. Face masks When doing the operations like grinding, breaking processes or working at dusty conditions masks should be worn. 8. Safety belts It is a must when working in higher elevations.

Safety Promotion and Communication Methods
 Safety notice boards  Safety posters
 Safety warnings and alarm tones – specially in blasting operations

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Industrial training report
In addition to above methods the contractor of the project has been provided one first aid box for every 50 workers in the site. And first aid box is placed accessible location and has marked “FIRST AID”.

Financial Procedures

The financial procedure Of Sanken Lanka development project is Measure and Pay method. They measure the quantities according to the standard drawings and pay money according to the unit rates in BOQ. I also involved in calculating quantities by referring relevant drawings. The financial procedure of Tank farm project which is a simultaneous project of and construction is Lump-sum method.

Financial matters were mainly conducted by store keeper under the inspection of site engineer. Payments for sub contractors Work done by each sub contractor is measured and quantities are calculated. Prepared bill for that quantity is sent to the base office and payment is done by the base office. Petty cash payment Expenditure for daily conduct of site is recorded and cash float is sent to base office with bills. Generally cash float is sent when cumulative cost reaches to Rs. 25,000. Then the payment is done from the base office.
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Plant, equipment & machinery

Backhoe loader Backhoe loader is a most commonly used engineering vehicle which can be used for excavation of soil, light transportation of material, breaking asphalt etc. It consists of a shovel in front side and a back hoe in back side. At work sites where I worked we hired backhoe loaders when they were needed. Concrete mixer Concrete mixer is used to combine cement, water, fine aggregate (sand) and coarse aggregate to form concrete. It is a portable machine driven by a diesel engine. Concrete mixer contains of a revolving drum to mix components. Generally cement of one cement bag with aggregate and water in relevant proportions could be mixed in one turn to be well mixed. Vibrating rammer Vibrating rammer is usually used for compact soil in small scale. The base plate at the bottom vibrates when operating.

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Vibrating rammer

Plate vibrator Plate vibrator also used for compaction. But it doesn’t give heavy compaction strength as vibrating rammer

Angle grinder Angle grinder can be practically used for many purposes such as grinding surfaces, cutting steel bars, cutting tiles, wire brushing etc

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Plate vibrator

Electric drill Electric drill contains of removable bit from which drilling can be done. This can be used for drill wood, concrete etc. Bits can be fixed according to the purpose.

Electric drill

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Poker vibrator Poker vibrator is a machine powered by petrol, and consists of a cable with vibrating edge. Vibrating cable is put in to green concrete to be compacted it well. Circular power saw Power saw is an electric machine that is used for cutting wood. It consists of a rotating serrated circular blade.

Bar cutter Bar cutter is also an electric machine from which steel bars can be cut efficiently.

Bar cutter Sander Wooden surfaces can be grinded using sander. This also is an electric machine.

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Sander

Field Tests
a) Slump Test The slump test was conducted to examine the workability of the concrete in fresh stages. As the apparatus for the test, a conical shaped mould and a tamping rod were used.

Tamping rod 100mm

600mm Mould

300mm Plate
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200mm

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Slump Test Apparatus

The concrete was poured into the mould in three layers and 25 blows were applied for each layer using the tamping rod. Then the mould was removed and let to concrete behave itself. Then the decrease in the height of the center of the slumped concrete was measured to nearest 5 mm as the slump value. According to the shape of the concrete after removing the mould the slump was called as a true slump, shear slump and collapsed slump.

Laboratory Tests
There were several tests in the site laboratory which were done by the contractor’s engineers.

a) Cube crushing Casting tests cubes were conducted also in site laboratory at least one sets of cubes for each continuous operation and any event of concreting more than 75 m3. I examined the casting of cubes using vibrators. The moulds of 150 mm × 150 mm × 150 mm were used for casting cubes and vibrating period was 60 s for one set. Six cubes were
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Cubes Testing Machine
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Industrial training report
included for one set of cubes and they were marked at the same time. For identification of the cubes the date casting, the grade of the concrete and a symbol to identify the relevant concreting at the site were marked. After 24 hours of casting the moulds were removed.

The testing of cubes was carried out after 7 days and 28 days of casting using Cube Testing Machine and with software called “Super Test 5”. Using the software is very convenience to get results quickly and accurately. It shows a relevant graph of Time Vs Applied load for each cube. And it also clearly indicates the crushing point of the cube. As the results we can obtain the force applied (kN), force applying rate (kN/s), strength of the concrete cube (MPa) and average strength.

Concrete Core Testing The Concrete Core Testing is done if there was an unexpected failure in test cubes without reaching the required strength. Cylindrical core specimen with a diameter of 100mm and a depth of 100 mm are taken out from the hardened concrete of relevant location. And it is examined and tested by engineers.

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Some picture of On three20 site

Anti termite for Screed concrete

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Arrangement of column form work

Concrete curing
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Industrial training report

Arrangement of form work for slab
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Industrial training report

Applying concrete for lift wall and stair case area

Concrete chipping
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Arrangement of Slab reinforcement
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D).Observations made: Major delay cause in this project

 

Weather Main problem sites was flood and heavy rain. Sometimes we couldn’t even reach to the site due to flood.

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       

Lack of labors Lack of subcontractor’s skill Design changes Additional works / Quantity variation Unclear site drawings supplied to the contractor Lack of labor Absence of consultant’s site staff. Lack of experience on the part of the consultant.

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F).Any problems encountered and solutions found:
 Identification of weather pattern in the early stage of the project will help in prepare accurate time schedules for the project work that might be affected due to bad weather. The planer will be able to identify and sequence the activities accurately. Also daily or weekly planning can be carried out according to the weather pattern. For example finishing work and plastering work of a building project can be carried out in rainy days while excavations work can be carried out during dry periods.  To prevent frequent or late changes at critical stages of design and construction, all parties involved must know what’s going on with each phase of the project. With thousands of documents and pieces of correspondence that flow between participants, it’s easy to have misunderstandings and errors. One way to keep track of everything is by having a collaborative information management system that everyone involved has access to.  Ensure the document is easily understood and all points are clear. Once the contract is drafted, ensure that the project team is familiar with all the details of the contract and that everyone (contractor, client, financier, etc.) is fully aware of their obligations. “As the work progresses, make certain that the procedural requirements under the contract are followed,” Always Associates adds. The same meticulousness for detail should be applied to plans and specifications.  Build an ideology for project manager, engineers, architects etc so that they can recognize delay problems which will lead to large losses as well as the project completion on time. Simultaneously, top management should establish a fair reward and punishment policy which has to be strictly applied.

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 The working conditions should be improved gradually aiming at building proper working atmosphere; this will help work done more effectively.  The human resource training towards professionalism in the management and professional ethic improvement need to be set out and prioritized. If the consultant’s managerial skill is weak; it is not be able to satisfy the size and the demand of project. It is not only necessary to promote professionalism in the work of quantity estimates and design, but also very strict in choosing the consultant, designer and the basic of collecting consultant must rely on their capacity. Simultaneously, the responsibility must be assigned to definite individual. Get early warning of delays due to the client. Client delays arise because they change their minds, give their instructions too late or are slow in approving drawings etc. To overcome this issue contractor and client should have proper coordination and understanding.

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CONCLUSION In retrospection of past 4 months when I had industrial training I think it was a precious era of my life. I was involved in three construction sites during the industrial training period. I think each and every thing that I gathered there widened my knowledge and also my experiences. I could realize the worth of practical knowledge against theoretical knowledge. As it is not worthwhile theoretical knowledge without practical experiences, it is also not worthwhile practical experiences without theoretical knowledge. There must be a good combination of both those aspects to be a good civil engineer. Being exposed to supervision of works done at site, doing setting outs etc, I could grasp many things regarding technical side. I also could get a good practice on using theodolite and level instrument. Labour management at site and work studies improved the management skills in to a considerable state. I could recognize many people in the industry and also could realize the roles played by persons from upper levels to the lower level of organization structure. I noticed about the duties and responsibilities of each personnel in organization structure. I observed the conduct of them, how they motivate personnel under them and how they carry out works. Those good features may cherish my future career. Getting an idea about site engineer’s role was important to me since I didn’t have a clear idea about that before. Training site was a pleasant place for me since all the staff members treated me in a friendly manner. The establishment denoted a good attitude on trainees. Site engineers gave me valuable advices and helped to widen my knowledge. Work supervisors also helped to gather experiences on technical aspects. Works that were given to me were interesting. I was given freedom to learn there. It was trainee’s responsibility to get maximum use of training period. Considering my own experiences, I recommend Sanken construction (Pvt) Ltd as a good training establishment for future trainees.

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I have got the real vision on civil engineering construction from this industrial training. The experiences gained there, focused me to my future ambition – to be a salutary good civil engineer and serve to my motherland. So I think arranging a training session at the end of the level 2 is good since it will be a real motivation to undergraduates for their further studies. If the semesters containing subjects relevant to construction management were sandwiched between two industrial training sessions, it would be easy to grasp the scope of those subjects. In overall assessment regarding my industrial training, I can satisfy with things what I have gained. Gained a good experience on technical matters and had an idea about site management. It is very important to know the interaction between theory and its application. Designing should be done through a good practical knowledge. I learnt many things that should be grasped only through practical experiences. I could capture the real picture of civil engineering construction during this period. As a civil engineering undergraduate, I got an idea about WHAT should I practice and WHY should I do that. Good attitudes were created towards the industry. So the industrial training period worthwhile to me as it gave me a confidence to fulfill my future ambitions - to be a good civil engineer and also a salutary person to the country.

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Industrial training report

REFERENCE        Contract Document of the project Method Statements Drawings Official web page of Sanken construction (Pvt) Ltd Official web page of “On three20” Official web page of Isuru Engineering (Pvt) Ltd Lecture Notes of Soil Mechanic

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