# 114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems

Author: Sagar Sonker

ℵ Numbers ℵ H.C.F & L.C.M of Numbers ℵ Surds & Indices ℵ Percentage ℵ Profit & Loss ℵ Ratio & Proportion ℵ Partnership ℵ Chain Rule ℵ Time & Work ℵ Pipes & Cisterns ℵ Time And Distance ℵ Trains ℵ Boats & Streams ℵ Alligation or Mixture ℵ Simple Interest ℵ Compound Interest ℵ Logarithms ℵ Area ℵ Volume & Surface Area ℵ Stocks & Shares ℵ True Discount ℵ Banker’s Discount ℵ Copyright Notice

com . (13 + 23 + 33 + … … … + n3) = [n(n + 1)] / 2 = [n(n + 1)(2n + 1)] / 6 = [n2(n + 1)2] / 4 Page 2 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. … … …. ar. Sn = n/2 (First Term + Last Term) 16. (a3 – b3) = (a + b)(a .ab + b2) = (a . Results on Division: Dividend = Quotient × Divisor + Remainder 15. P. Tn = arn-1 Sum of first ‘n’ terms Sn = [a(1 . ar3.(a . (1 + 2 + 3 + … … … + n) 18. (a + b)2 . or 8 2. if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9 6. A number is divisible by 4. 2.b)2 = 2(a2 + b2) 11. ar2.b)(a2 + ab + b2) 14. A number is divisible by 3. A number is divisible by 11. [(a + 2d)]. if. (a + b)2 8. P.b) = (a + b)(a2 . 4. An Arithmetic Progression (A. if its unit’s place digit is 0. if the number formed by its last two digits is divisible by 4 4. starting from the RHS.) with first term ‘a’ and Common Ratio ‘r’ is given by: a. [a + (n .1)d Sum of first ‘n’ terms.1)d] nth term. [(a + d)].b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 = a2 . (12 + 22 + 32 + … … … + n2) 19. A number is divisible by 2. A Geometric Progression (G.sonker. Tn = a + (n . (Sum of its digits at the odd place) – (Sum of its digits at even place) is equal to 0 or 11x 7.2ab + b2 9. (a3 + b3) 13.) with first term ‘a’ and Common Difference ‘d’ is given by: [a]. (a + b)2 + (a .rn)] / [1 . A number is divisible by 9.r] 17. arn-1 nth term.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Numbers 1. (a . if the number formed by its last three digits is divisible by 8 5. … … ….b)2= 4ab 10. (a2 – b2) 12. if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3 3. A number is divisible by 8.

a0 26.C. If ‘A’ is R% more than ‘B’. we have a / b = (a / b × 100) % 34. C. × Their L. If ‘A’ is R% less than ‘B’. am / an 23.sonker. (a / b)m 25. 29.C. then ‘B’ is more than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity decreases by R%.n) = a mb m = an / bn =1 = a1/n = (a1/n)n =a = = )m = = Percentage 32. ( 31. we have x% = x / 100 33. not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 + R] } % 35. 30. . then ‘B’ is less than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity increases by R%.R] } % 36.F & L. C. (ab)m 24. am × an 22. then its population after ‘N’ years is P (1 + R/100)N Page 3 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. M. then the reduction in consumption. then the increase in consumption. F. = a(m + n) = a(m . To express x% as a fraction.M of Numbers 20.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker H. To express a / b as a percent. Surds & Indices 21.com / 28. not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 . If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. Product of two numbers = Their H. 27.

then its population ‘N’ years ago is P / [(1 + R/100)N] Profit & Loss 38. c. Product of extremes = Product of means 43. then its value ‘N’ years ago at a depreciation of ‘R’ p. The compounded ratio of the ratios (a : b). b. 53.d) / d.Loss%) × Cost Price] / 100 Ratio & Proportion 41. a1/3 : b1/3 is a sub-triplicate ratio of a : b 49. Selling Price = [(100 + Gain%) × Cost Price] / 100 = [(100 . the first and fourth terms are known as extremes. we write a : b :: c : d and we say that a.c. then. (c : d). : is a sub-duplicate ration of a : b 47.R/100)N] 40. (a . 51.R/100)N 39. If a / b = c / d. then its value after ‘N’ years at a depreciation of ‘R’ p.b) / b = (c .c. If a / b = c / d. which is called the componendo & dividendo. If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year. 52. then.a is P / [(1 . The equality of two ratios is called a proportion.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker 37. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. (e : f) is (ace : bdf) 45. Page 4 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. Also.p.a is P (1 . then. a2 : b2 is a duplicate ratio of a : b 46. In a proportion. Variation: We say that x is directly proportional to y if x = ky for some constant k and we write. Mean proportion between a and b is 44. which is called the dividendo. (a + b) / b = (c + d) / d. (a + b) / (a . while the second and third are known as means.p. 50. we say that x is inversely proportional to y if x = k / y for some constant k and we write x α 1 / y. d are in proportion. 42. a3 : b3 is a triplicate ratio of a : b 48.sonker.b) = (c + d) / (c .d). If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year. If a / b = c / d. which is called the componendo.com . If a : b = c : d. x α y.

Time taken to cover a distance is inversely proportional to the speed of the car. If A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n. then Share Of Partner = (Total_Profit × Part_Share / Total_Share) Chain Rule 55. Time taken to cross each other is [(x + y) / (u + v)] hrs 66. If A can do a piece of work in n days. If a pipe can fill a tank in ‘x’ hours and another pipe can empty the full tank in ‘y’ hours (where y > x). The work done is directly proportional to the number of men working at it. Ratio of times taken by A & B to finish a work = 1 : 3 Pipes & Cisterns 62. The time (number of days) required to complete a job is inversely proportional to the number of hours per day allocated to the job. moving at ‘u’ kmph and ‘v’ kmph (where. 57.v)] hrs 65. Suppose a man covers a distance at ‘x’ kmph and an equal distance at ‘y’ kmph. Time & Work 59. the net part of the tank filled in 1 hour is (1/x – 1/y) Time And Distance 63.com . Lengths of trains are ‘x’ km and ‘y’ km. Page 5 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. then on opening both the pipes. u > v) in the same direction. 60. 56. The cost of articles is directly proportional to the number of articles. then the time taken y the over-taker train to cross the slower train is [(x + y) / (u . 61. then A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n. then: Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1. If two trains start at the same time from two points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b hours in reaching B and A respectively.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Partnership 54.sonker. If A is thrice as good a workman as B. then A can finish the work in n days. 58. If a number of partners have invested in a business and it has a profit. then average speed during his whole journey is [2xy / (x + y)] kmph Trains 64.

Mean Price: The cost price of a quantity of the mixture is called the mean price. Alligation: It is the rule that enables us to find the ratio in which two or more ingredients at the given price must be mixed to produce a mixture at a given price. If the speed downstream is a km/hr and the speed upstream is b km/hr. .I. Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years.v) km/hr.I. Then. S. ) / ( P × T ). We represent the above formula as under: 75. Alligation or Mixture 71.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Then. 70. Boats & Streams 69.c) Simple Interest 76.m) : (m . 73. c. Page 6 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. y metres/sec = (y × 18/5) km/hr. 74.com . P R T = ( P × R × T ) / 100 = ( 100 × S. a. = ( 100 × S.I. d. Let Principle = P.I.: (Cheaper quantity) : (Dearer quantity) = (d .b) km/hr.sonker. 68. then: Speed downstream = (u + v) km/hr. x kmph = (x × 5/18) m/sec. then: Speed in still water = ½ (a + b) km/hr. ) / ( P × R ). = ( 100 × S. If the speed of a boat in still water is u km/hr and the speed of the stream is v hm/hr. b. Rate of stream = ½ (a . Rule of Alligation: If two ingredients are mixed. 72. ) / ( R × T ). Speed upstream = (u . A’s speed : B’s speed = ( 67. then: : ).

sonker. then we write m = loga x and say that the value of log x to the base a is m. Let Principle = P. I. R2%. it is taken as 10 i. 2nd. loga 1 e. Then. Log of 1 to any base is 0) = p loga x = 1 / logx a = logb x / logb a = log x / log a (Change of base rule) d. The logarithm of a number contains two parts. but the time is in fraction. Logarithms to the base 10 are known as common logarithms j. The integral part is known as characteristic and the decimal part is known as mantissa. say R1%. loga (xy) b. Amount = P (1 + R/100)N II. R3% for 1st. Amount = P (1 + R1/100) (1 + R2/100) (1 + R3/100) 80. When base is not mentioned. Properties of Logarithms: a.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Compound Interest 77. Logarithm: If a is a positive real number. Amount = P (1 + R/100)3 × (1 + ⅞R/100) 79. loga x h. loga (xp) f. logx x = loga x + loga y = loga x . Then. loga (x/y) c. Page 7 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. other than 1 and am = x. When interest is compounded Half-yearly: Amount = P (1 + R/2/100)2N III. loga x g. 82. Present worth of Rs.com . When interest is compounded Annually. and 3rd year respectively. say 3⅞ years.e. Then. x due n years hence is given by: Present Worth = x / (1 + R/100)n Logarithms 81. Log of any number to its own base is 1) = 0 (i. Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years.loga y = 1 (i. namely characteristic and mantissa.e. When Rates are different for different years. When interest is compounded Quarterly: Amount = P (1 + R/4/100)4N 78. When interest is compounded Annually.

the characteristic is one less than the number of digits in the left of decimal point in the given number.sonker.234 0.g. Square: a.com . Parallelogram/Rhombus/Trapezium: a.456 2. Area of a square = ½ (diagonal)2 85. where s = ½ (a + b + c). Area of 4 walls of a room = 2 (length + breadth) × height 86. Rectangle: a.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker I. we look through the log table.34 0. Area of square = (side)2 b. and a.00234 III. Area of an equilateral triangle = / 4 × (side)2 d. Area of a triangle = ½ × base × height b. Antilog: If log x = y. In this case. Area of a triangle = . then antilog y = x. Case 1: When the number is greater than 1. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2 (length + breadth) 84. Area 83. the characteristic is one more than the number of zeroes between the decimal point and the first significant digit of the number and it is negative. Radius of circumcircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 87. Triangle: a.0234 0. Area of a parallelogram = Base × Height Page 8 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. Characteristic 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 For mantissa. Radius of incircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 2 e. c are the sides of the triangle c.56 23. Area of a rectangle = (length × breadth) b. e. Number 234. b. In this case. Case 2: When the number is less than 1. IV. II.

units b. units = units d. Curved Surface Area = (2πrh) sq.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker b. Then. Cone: Let radius of base = r & height = h. units =( × a) units Diagonal = (l × b × h) cu units = 2 (lb + bh + hl) sq. Area of a rhombus c. Volume b.com Total Surface Area = 2πr(r + h) sq. Diagonal = a3 cu units = 6a2 sq. Then. = ½ × (Product of diagonals) The halves of diagonals and a side of a rhombus form a right angled triangle with side as the hypotenuse. breadth = b & height = h units Then. Circumference of a circle = 2πR c. Then. = ½ × (sum of parallel sides) × (distance between them) d. Cuboid: Let length = l.sonker. Circle/Arc/Sector. a. Surface Area c. Surface Area c. Length of an arc = Ө/360 × 2πR = ½ (arc × R) = Ө/360 × πR2 Volume & Surface Area 89. 90. units . where R is the radius of the circle: a. Cylinder: Let radius of base = r & height (or length) = h. 92. Volume b. Area of a sector 91. Area of trapezium 88. Cube: Let each edge of a cube be of length a. a. a. Area of a circle = πR2 b. Volume = (πr2h) cu. Page 9 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. units c.

When the stock is sold. Then. Volume = (2/3 πr3) cu. 800.W. True Discount (T. Volume b. 156 after 4 years and the rate of interest is 14% per annum. By ‘a Rs. 100.) = Rs.W. if S. units = (4πr2) sq. annual interest is 9% of the face value and the market price of a Rs. True Discount 100. Volume c. a. 98.) Page 10 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker a. 100 now will clear off the debt of Rs. units Curved Surface Area = (πrl) sq. is more than Rs. 156 due 4 years hence. 96. is Rs. 95.) = Rs. 100. The selling price of a Rs. Then. 156 in 4 years. 99. So. 100 stock is Rs. Hemi-sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r. Clearly. 156 due 4 years hence. Total Surface Area = (3πr2) sq. if S. units c.P.P. units 93. Sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r. below par (or at discount).P. a. Total Surface Area = πr(r + l) sq. 100. at par. if S. is less than Rs. units d. l b. units = (4/3 πr3) cu. 100 at 14% will amount to Rs. Slant height. Rs. When stock is purchased. brokerage is added to the cost price.com . Curved Surface Area = (2πr2) sq. 100 exactly. 100 stock is said to be: a. We say that: Sum due = Rs.sonker. units b. Present Worth (P. above par (or at premium). 97. = units = (⅓ πr2h) cu. Suppose a man has to pay Rs. 9% stock at 95’.D. Surface Area 94. the payment of Rs. units Stocks & Shares 95. c. 800. we mean a stock whose face value is Rs.100) = (Sum due) – (P. Brokerage: The broker’s charge is called brokerage. brokerage is subtracted from the selling price. b. (156 .