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5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 75% 80%
THE LEARNING PYRAMID
Level of Memory 10% 20% 30% 50% 70% 90%
If you read If you listen If you see If you listen and see If you say
If you say and do
Philips, P.J. (1950)
Stimuli Taste 1.0% 1.5% 3.5%
Smell Hear Visual
TELL ME AND I‟LL LISTEN SHOW ME AND I‟LL UNDERSTAND INVOLVE ME AND I‟LL LEARN .
I LISTEN THEN I FORGET I SEE THEN I REMEMBER I DO THEN I UNDERSTAND .
They are either trying to avoid in-class work or they want to fool around in the hall or washroom. How do you stop or prevent abuse of washroom privileges while allowing for genuine needs in this area? . You. as a lecturer.The Classic Five-Minute Washroom Control Technique Problem 1: Most students who ask to leave the class to use the washroom facilities genuinely do need to. there are a few students who ask to go to the washroom who do not need to go at all. are in doubt bind situation here. You have no way of telling whether a student really needs to go or not. however. To deny a request for washroom privileges could spell disaster as you well know and by the same token to let a student wander the halls avoiding work is also wrong.
This is perhaps the hardest task for all of us in the area of teaching. How can we keep students‟ attention at a high level? .The Stick Jar Problem 2 You want to keep all students on their toes. We want our audiences to pay attention to us one hundred percent of the time because we give one hundred percent effort in our presentations.
Green (1970s) .WHY TEACHING ? Change the behavior and character of students through the acquisition of knowledge and belief. Thomas F.
TEACHING CONCEPT Assessing Planning Knowledge & Skill Organizing Facilitating Implementing .
TEACHING CONCEPT Four Groups of Ideology: 1. Behaviorists – Parlov. Gagne. Skinner .learning is a change of behavior stimulus vs response 2.Focus on mental ability . Cognitive – Kohler. Bruner. Thondike. Piaget . Ausubel.
Social – Neobehavior The combination of behavior and cognitive Teaching through modeling. Therefore teaching strategy must follow the development of students‟ emotion 3. Humanist – Students‟ learning depends on their feeling and emotion. Learning through observation 4. .
Propagating Physical Punishment Training Through Conditioning Mental Intelligence Instructing through Indoctrination Threat .
MEANING OF TEACHING • • • • • • Must create student‟s interests Facilitate them Help them to solve problems Provide learning materials Increase student‟s ability to derive skills Guide them towards positive learning attitudes .
implementing.MEANING OF TEACHING • Process – Systematic planning. . assessment • Communication/Interaction • Science – Teaching based on theory given by educational expertise systematic • Arts – Apply teaching strategy appropriately.
narration or demonstration -Students listen until they understand and then they record .TEACHING MODEL Learning and teaching theories are formulated by educationists to form teaching model Expository Teaching Model: -Direct explanation.
3. Types of Inquiry Model 1. 2.Inquiry Teaching Model: Contain questionnaire and procedure to derive answer and make conclusion from proposed questions. Scientific Social Juris-Prudential Suchman‟s . 4.
Discussion Model: Teacher Students Conversation Plan – Introduction – Discussion – Wind-up .Conclusion .
debate or forum . seminar.Academic Discussion: • What to learn? • Why it should be learned? • How it can be learned? Strategy: • Socratic – a series of questions to clarify the ideas • Didactic – Dialogue.
CONCEPT OF PEDAGOGY • Pedagogy (ped-a-go-je) means the arts and science of educating children • Came from the word pedagogue (Greek) which means a tutor or talented educator who is able to teach efficiently. • Pedagogy is an art of teaching that involves the use of methods and technique of teaching .
Pedagogy Individual differences Methods & Techniques Interest IQ Talent .
. critics and penalty.WHY PEDAGOGY? • • • • • • • Select appropriate methods and techniques Select suitable teaching aids Encourage student-centered approach Active participation from students Attractive set induction Variation of methods Understand the importance of formative evaluation • Incentive. appreciation and empathy rather than punishment.
INDUCTIVE APPROACH Concept It is the process of collecting and interpreting information then make generalization or conclusion .
.Method Suitable for all subjects especially technical subjects which always involved inquiry-discovery method.
At the beginning of TL process.The principles of using inductive approach 1. It must be followed by questions to help students to draw conclusion 2. a teacher should provide examples to enable students to make conclusions. But guide them so that they can draw conclusion themselves . Do not explain the content related to the conclusion.
theorem. principles or regulations and apply it to a specific example. Sometimes these are used to make a new conclusion .DEDUCTIVE APPROACH Concept The use of conclusions. laws.
theorem.Method • Required in-depth understanding and able to summarize principles. regulations etc and apply to specific examples • Students are guided to create a new formulation . laws.
Aims of deductive approach • • • Problem solving To create a new generalization To proof hypothesis .
INTEGRATION The absorption of various kinds of skills in one teaching event. It is not a mere integration of languages. of skills from various . but also an integration subjects/disciplines.
The Characteristics of Integration • It is the integration of skills within single subject or a number of subjects • Integration occurs holistically • There is one focus skill .
Implementing Integration • Identify the main skill then followed by „the by-side skills‟ • Focused skill should be emphasized in the TL process – development stage • This strategy must be planned based on lesson objectives. performance and the ability of students .
strategy means the ability to select suitable approach in teaching by means of using appropriate methods and techniques .Concept of Strategy • Proper/systematic plan aims to achieve the goal • In education.
Homogenous – heterogeneous Types of lesson activities ex. Discussion (domain cognitive) Based on students‟ capability ex.CRITERIA FOR SELECTING T-L STRATEGY • • • • Refer to the subject that will be taught Based on the objective of the lesson ex. Looking for decision – questioning tech .
• Selecting methods and techniques based on teaching approach • Arrange methods and techniques systematically • Distribute materials and organize time wisely • Class management .
SELECTING T-L STRATEGY Consider two factors: • • Classroom environment Teaching-learning activities .
SELECTING T-L STRATEGY • • • Teacher-Centered Material-Centered Student-Centered .
Teacher-Centered • A teacher controls the class • One-way approach . lecture. group teaching .demo. story telling.
Characteristics of Teacher-Centered • In TL activities. a teacher plays an important role – students as spectators • One way communication – students as listeners • Autocratic • The teaching strategy mainly to achieve teachers‟ objectives .
Characteristics of Teacher-Centered
• Exclude human value and emotional development • Prime concern is given to students achievement through tests and examination • Memorization rather than interpretation • No student interactions – poor interpersonal/social value • Students‟ ability and interest are not a prime concern
• Two types of materials – Teaching materials and learning materials • Teaching materials – chart, model, picture, slide, recorder, TV, projector etc • Learning materials – books, printed matter, equipment, computer etc • Self access • Entitles for both teacher and student centered
Characteristics of Material-Centered
• As a teaching aid in TL process • As a platform to develop communication and interaction between teacher and student as well as teacher or student and material • Using material needs skill in order to achieve maximum objective • As a helper during teacher‟s absence • As an attraction
simulation. discussion. role play.Student-Centered • Students actively participate in the learning process • In a classroom teacher as facilitator • Time is always allocated for learning activities • Two-way approach – group. brain storming etc. problem solving. .
Characteristics of Student-Centered • Students play important role whilst a teacher as a facilitator • A two-way approach – questioning method invites students respond • Democratic • TL aims to achieve students learning objectives • Develop students‟ interpersonal skills through learning activities – initiative and creative • Teaching strategy considers student differences .
Selecting Methods & Techniques • • • • • • • • • Contents Time Teaching aids/materials Students‟ psychology Students‟ maturity Facilities Teaching approach & strategy Objective Etc .
Teaching Methods • • • • • • Class Group Individual Inquiry-discovery Project Problem-solving .
Teaching Techniques • • • • • • • • • • Story Telling Lecture Facilitation Discussion Questioning Demonstration Role Play Games Simulation Etc .
T-L STRATEGY IN SMART PEDAGOGY • • • • • Facilitation Student-Centered Material-Centered Mastery .individualized Collaborative .
Mastery Self-Directed Individual Smart Learning Self-Access Self-Paced .
correction .Mastery Learning • • • • • Focused Quality of teaching Enough time Mastery through sub-unit/program Assessment – feedback .congruent (test what they have learnt) .
Evaluate students‟ response .Identify aspects to be tested .Ascertain degree of proficiency .Prepare report .Mastery Learning Steps to carry out ability test .Administer test .Appropriate measuring instrument .
Self-Paced Learning • • • • • Use of module and learning packages Use of program where step of knowledge is developed Audio-tutorial “Keller Plan” text books which provide levels of achievement using questions Use of computer .
Self-Access Learning • • No direct control from teachers Learning materials are provided and are lodged at the place called SelfAccess Center .
Self-Directed Learning • Students feel to improve themselves – initiative Need commitment • .
SMART T-L STRATEGY Directive Observational Collaborative Mediative Learning Strategy Metacognitive Outside Context Generative .
Directive • Ask students to practice. guidance and discussion . mastery Observation • Learning through observation Mediative • Students are assisted in learning on how to apply knowledge in solving problem • Use reasoning.
Outside Context •Learning based on practice. seminar and doing their own project Generative •Students are guided on how to behave in certain situation using their differences in ability •Use of various techniques in teaching suitable with students‟ differences in ability .
so as to make appropriate decision to solve problems Collaborative •Help students to develop interpersonal skill in carrying out the tasks . direct. control.Meta Cognitive •Thinking of higher level. Its main function is to plan. examine and evaluate all cognitive thinking processes. covering critical and creative thinking.
Teacher‟s Ability Model Creative Ability Teaching Ability Organizing Ability Teaching Skills Cognitive Ability Communication Ability Expressive Ability .
teaching aids and supplementary material by the teacher.H & Starr.S (1970s) . I.Method of Teaching • The method of teaching includes a series of action or steps taken by a teacher to achieve a certain teaching and learning objectives “Method of teaching is an organization and application of teaching technique. teaching materials. L. with the aim of achieving the teaching and learning objective” Clark.
on the current application of the teaching technique . The success of achieving teaching and learning objective depends.Technique of Teaching • Teaching technique is considered an important element in the method of teaching. to a large extent.
strategy.M (1963) . or skill which is used by teachers to achieve teaching and learning objective optimally” Anthony. E.Technique of Teaching “Teaching technique refers to a certain trap.
• Facilitation skill is actually a lecturers‟ successful effort in motivating his students to learn. . encouraging them to involve themselves actively in learning activities and smoothing all learning process continuously without any interference or half-way interruption. guiding them to carry out learning activities efficiently.FACILITATION • A process which activate a certain learning activity so that it can be carried out smoothly without hindrance.
seminar.FACILITATION • Most suitable technique for group activity such as discussion. buzz session and other student-centered approach . debate. forum. brainstorming.
Begin with the end in mind – leadership habit.Seven Habits of Effective Facilitator 1. Be proactive – must know faci techniques 2. Each w/shop must have mission statement (objectives). Put first thing first: . 3.
Covey Should focus most Time wasters Not urgent and not Important to anyone Quadrant 2 Not Urgent and Important Quadrant 4 Not Urgent and Not Important Quadrant 1 Urgent and Important Quadrant 3 Urgent and Not Important Crisis quadrant/ problem Critical issues that potentially delay the project Time wasters Urgent to others but Not the project team .Quadrant – Dr Stephen R.
Synergize – cooperate creatively 7. Think win/win 5.4. Renewal – self maintenance habit Click for more on Facilitation skills . Seek first to understand – listen until you understand 6.
Characteristics of Effective Facilitator Attending Trialing Reflecting Goal Setting Facilitation Techniques Focusing Disclosing Thematizing Challenging .
SCORING KEY Dimension Centrality Integration Initiative Creativity Connections Help Wider Value Influence Development Problems Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Responses a b c +2 +1 -1 +1 -1 +2 -1 +1 +2 +1 +2 -1 -1 +2 +1 +1 +2 -1 -1 +2 +1 +1 -1 +2 +1 -1 +2 -1 +2 +1 Item 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Responses a b c +2 +1 -1 -1 +2 +1 -1 +2 +1 +1 +2 -1 +2 +1 -1 -1 +2 +1 +1 +2 -1 +2 +1 -1 +2 +1 -1 +1 -1 +2 Dimension Score ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… Total …………. Role effectiveness index = Total score + 20 60 X 100 = % .
interpret various ideas. analyze.DISCUSSION • Involve lecturer and students or among students in small group • Exchange idea or opinion/information – sometimes under the guidance of a lecturer • Enable students to compare. learn from each other and adopt the best for selfimprovement .
ability. interest .avoid sensitive issues .experience.suitable to topic and time allocated • Clear the aim of discussion • Chairman and secretary should be selected .Principles of Discussion • Selection of discussion topic .
Principles of Discussion • • • • Comply with the rule of discussion Lecturer is only a facilitator Record the necessary points Allow time for comment by a lecturer .
Two Forms of Discussion: • Class discussion – facilitate by a lecturer • Group discussion or buzz session – led by student elected under the supervision of a lecturer .
DEMONSTRATION Require lecturer‟s skill to show the way or steps to perform a certain activity in the class .
Principles of Demonstration Before • • • • Determine objective and content of demo Prepare equipment and apparatus Ensure all students can observe / listen Beware of safety measures .
Principles of Demonstration During • Face students during demonstration • Repeat the steps until students fully understood • Encourage student to repeat if time permits .
Principles of Demonstration After • Discuss the important parts • Strengthening activity .
recollect past experience. skill to solve the arisen problem • Lecturer to guide students to identify the characteristics of the problem. to select suitable strategy to carry out problem solving activities . experience.PROBLEM-SOLVING • Students use their prior knowledge.
All thinking process should be carried out by students .Principles of PS • Give students problematic types of questions as soon as they have acquired the relevant knowledge or skill • Problem should be set according to their ability • Lecturer should guide students to understand and identify the problem before the process of PS begins • Open to multiple ways of PS • Avoid from teaching them directly.
Dewey‟s PS Model To identify the problem To look for clues/info To set up hypothesis To test the hypothesis To evaluate and record Find conclusion .
Polya‟s PS Model Preliminary stage Strategy planning Strategy implementation Checking answers Diagrammatic approach Analogy approach .
deduction approach .analysis approach .Lester‟s PS Model Awareness of the problem Understanding of the problem Objective analysis Planning of strategies Implementation Of strategies Procedures and evaluation of the solution .
quiz . games. experiment.GROUP TEACHING • Similar ability – maths & language skills (remedial & enrichment) • Mixed ability – brainstorming. project.
Principles of Group Teaching • Pre-assessment • Appoint leader – assist lecturer and members • Arrangement of chairs • Clear instruction should be given before start with group activities • Prepare required learning materials .
Principles of Group Teaching • Students are aloud to move around within their own group • Change of members between groups should be done from time to time based on current performance • Lecturer to supervise • Conclude with discussion .
SIMULATION Occur in a controlled condition and purposely created to resemble to actual situation with the aim to carry out teaching to serve certain problem .
Three Types • Socio drama • Role play • Use of simulator .
PROJECT • Learning through games. practical work. project. experiment. • Full interest because student learns in actual situations. . • Must mastered certain related skills • Develop potential physically and socially. visit and other outdoor activities. • Individually or group activity.
. Prepare material / instrument. Plan activities.Some Consideration • • • Be specific of the project objective.
Divide group .Preparation DURING AFTER .Briefing .Report .Permission -Arrange transport .Identify place .Participation .Types of Project • Research • Handicraft • Educational visit BEFORE .Safety measures .
3.TEAM TEACHING • Introduced in USA in 1956. 1. Senior teacher Teacher Teacher trainee Tutor Technician / Lab / Lib officers • Team teaching covers 3 stages. . • A group of teachers specializing in various subject. Teaching-learning for smaller group. Learning activities conducted individually. Teach large group 80 – 320 students. 2.
laboratory. e. Lecturers cooperation and staffs support. Division of time for teaching-learning. classroom. resource centre .well equipped. Time table – flexible. large class teaching act – 40% small group act – 20% individual learning act – 40% • • • .g.Conditions • Physical facilities – lecture hall / theatre.
Specialist Lecturer – Tutor Tutor – Engineer Teacher Resource – Officers / Laboratory assistant Librarian Large classroom Small class Supervise learning activities Assess coursework / script Prepare equipment. laboratory. classroom Supply materials for individual learning .Implementation Senior lecturer .
ORGANIZING PRACTICAL AND LAB-BASED TEACHING-LEARNING
WHY PRACTICAL OR LAB TEACHING?
• • • • • • • •
Train and develop manipulative skills Problem-solving through practical works To brief understanding in terms of concept and theory To try out/to transform theoretical into real project To enhance interest about the lesson To search facts To develop social skills To expose real materials to students
STEPS FOR DOING PRACTICAL/LAB TEACHING
• • • • • • • • •
Create instruction orally Do not assume students understand as we do Clarify the steps Need to assess own skills Prepare lab/workshop – conducive, safe Begin demo (if necessary) Start work Lecturer facilitate Assess the project
Planning Lab Session • • • • Store room Location of first aid Basic first aid rules Procedure for getting emergency assistance .
Activity • Create Safety Rules for your lab .
LAB TEACHING Plan What you are going to do PIE Implement What you have planned Evaluate What you have done .
Good Lab Teaching Practice • Objective of lab teaching – Students will get deeper understanding • Need close communication between lab assistant and the lecturer in charge .
Planning • What project? • What theory related to project? • How to organize cooperative study in the lab? • What equipment used? .
Group Work • Projects are conducive to group learning • Divide students into groups of 2 or 4 (depends on class size and quantity of equipment) .
expensive – distract students attention • Antiquate instrument „dry labbing‟ the results • Suitable illuminate experience .Equipment • Suitable for the project – neither so complex nor so rudimentary • A fancy.
Try it out (lab assistant or JP) • Lab schedule should include time for the lecturer or JP to review the results with the class – class discussion .Reviewing • Rehearsing the procedure • Review the results • To avoid problem: .Prepare lab assignment at least 1 week before and .
Preparing Lab • Preview texts and lab manuals used in the lab – meeting required • Find out where supplies are stored and who orders course materials • Give students the laboratory and safety rules in writing and verbally and enforce them • Test all equipment .
For Each Class Meeting • Know the material thoroughly • Compare the content of your lab to the lecture – what information to enforce what to omit • Know how to cope with equipment breakdown • Complete demonstration .
• Materials required are in the right amount • Prepare lab notes. diagrams. and other necessary handouts • Write those on board/slides before class . outlines.
Explain the task – demo or show samples .Announce the day‟s project .In The Lab • Short quiz (5-10minutes) at the beginning of the lab – inspire punctuality and focus on the lab • Lecturing: What you will be doing How it fits into past and future work What the students should learn .Furnish information with handouts .
Be around .Interrupt the entire class only when find many students in the same predicament .Make yourself available .Rephrase a student‟s question before answering .Build rapport .Watch signs of students having difficulties: Frustrated noises Confused expressions Flipping of text or lab manual pages .• Supervising students‟ work .
• Summarizing .Vary your presentation .Reviewing what students have learned • Visual Aids .Assist students who best learn visually .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?