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Commentary on
NUMBER

the Creed of

Islam

XLIII OF

THE

RECORDS OF CIVILIZATION SOURCES AND STUDIES
AUSTIN
P. EVANS, Editor

Commentary on Creed of Islam Sa'd al-T)in a on the Creed of the al-T)in al-T^asaji TRANSLATED WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES BY EARL EDGAR ELDER MCML Columbia University Tress. .

Canada. Oxford University Press London. and Bombay MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA . Toronto. and India by Geoffrey Cumberlege. NEW YORK Published in Great Britain.COPYRIGHT 1950 BY COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS.

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Editor AUSTIN P.D.D.LITT.D. SHOTWELL. Gebhard Professor of the Germanic Languages and Literatures CARLTON J. ROBERT HERNDON FIFE. Seth Low Professor of History ROGER SHERMAN LOOMIS. Gouverneur Morris Professor Emeritus of History JAMES T. Professor of LITT.D. EVANS..D.D. Da Ponte Professor of Italian L. LITT. PH.D.. Emeritus of Ancient History .D. L. Political Philosophy and Sociology DAVID S.. MUZZEY. H..H. LL. HAYES. Professor of History Advisory Board DINO BIGONGIARI.. PH. Lieber English Professor of ROBERT MORRISON MAcIVER. B. L.H. Bryce Professor Emeritus of the History of International Relations LYNN THORNDIKE..RECORDS OF CIVILIZATION SOURCES AND STUDIES EDITED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY.. Professor of History Professor WESTERMANN.H. WILLIAM L..

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to whom we are indebted for the best systematic state- ment of this doctrine. used simi- arguments to prove the creatio ex in the scholastic nihilo. the Jew of Cairo. this. and the Muslims. The The Guide for the Perplexed. on Raymond lar Lull. The three groups. the Christians. Yet in spite of much agree- ment sisted. Maimonides. was influenced by Maimonides. chap. Fricdlandcr. 73. doctrines peculiar to each naturally per- The orthodox theology of Islam developed a unique theory for explaining the active relationship of the Creator to His universe. But it is just because this theory of Continuous Re-Creation and Atomic Time lies behind the explanations given by al-Taftazam of the Creed of al-Nasafi that this exposition of a 1 Muslim creed I. larities Etienne Gilson in his Unity of Philosophical Experience records the simiin principles and conclusions between al-Ash'arl and Descartes. 1 agreed with a number of sidering these explanations of world phenomena as fantastic Muslim thinkers in conand as contrary to the accepted principles of Aristode. Nor can one fully appreci- ate this period in the history of Europe and ignore the contributions of Islam and Judaism. URING recent years there has been a revival of interest in things mediaeval. Miguel Asin in various volumes has shown the of Ibn 'Arab! Rushd on the theology of Thomas Aquinas. This contribution to the catalogue of cosmologies is not so well known in the West. is of great interest. and of Muslim eschatology on Dante's Divine Comedy.Preface D. on of the theologians of the three faiths the metaphysics of Aristotle for terminology and expression made for a The dependence mutual exchange of thought that refutes forever the idea that the religions which thrived in the Mediterranean world existed in isolated compartments or dealt with one another only through war and persecution. . method. the Jews. tr. the Jew of Amsterdam. The Neo-Thomist school of philosophy is but one evidence of Different scholars have reminded us that the Middle Ages arc not a backwater nor a bayou having little connection with the great stream of intellectual movements in our civilized world. who although a real Aristotelian was greatly indebted to Ibn Smsi and other Muslim influence of Ibn writers. Spinoza.

knowledge the help and advice of Professor Austin P. E. E. Evans. Professor Arthur JefTery of Columbia University has given valuable assistance. Shcllabcar and Professor E. Calverley of the Kennedy School of Missions of the Hartford Seminary Foundation. the Reformation. Islam has largely held with a tenacious grasp to the doctrines set forth here. Cairo . Until the present day it has remained an authoritative compendium of the setting forth an explanation of the articles of Muslim faith. While the new birth of ideas which continued through and the Enlightenment the world of the Renaissance. The translation was first made as a part of the requirements for the arguments degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Kennedy School of Missions of the Hartford Seminary Foundation. Wolfson of Harvard University for Harry difficult in translating many portions of scholastic reasoning. I wish to acothers this task I gratefully who have helped in W. especially in reading the proof. My sincere A.viii PREFACE is book also valuable as a comprehensive and authoritative statement of Islamic belief made at the time Western world has reveled in a when it had become crystallized. general editor of the Records of Civilization. Among Professor mention the late G. I am greatly indebted to the late Professor Duncan Black Macdonald for having been my guide to the way of under- standing many thanks arc due to Professor assistance of the intricate problems of Muslim theology. ELDER Evangelical Theological Seminary. E. As a textbook of theology it has long held a leading place among the scholars attached to the great Muslim University of Al-Azhar in Cairo.

as reflected in the Qur'an and Traditions. little Muhammad tions to himself. methodi- cal statement of Belief. If necessity and guidance Muhammad demanded. A. He is credited with having saved the faith from corruption and having silenced the heretics. or a more detailed explanation left no uncertainty as to Allah's purpose and desire. and Nicaea. then analogies were . gave attention to the systematic arrangement and logical presentation of the revela- which he laid claim. just as there was no need for a political constitution or a code of laws. Recourse was had to the practice and commands of the Prophet. theologian. loyalty led his followers to seek guidance from the verses of the Qur'an which he had given them although they were not yet collected into one volume. In time of appearance and importance he occupies in Islam a place comparable in the history of Christian doctrine to that of the Council of Nicaea.Introduction fj ust over a millennium ago Abu '1-Hasan al-Ash'arl (d. In Islam creeds and expositions of dogma men who though they claim to give expression to that which according to the Approved Way of the Prophet and the Agreement of the Muslim Community have no more ecclesiastical authority back of them than their own pens. verses were abrogated by new ones. the individual. There is something representative in these two. One interpretation of such verses as "This is a detailed explanation of everything" (Qur'an 12:111) and "We have neglected nothing in the Book" (Qur'an 6:38) was sufficient in itself for all that this revelation through Muhammad was times and occasions. In the evolution of doctrinal statements one never hears of "church" councils and their decisions but only of learned men and their convictions as to the essential truths of the Muslim's belief. 935) formu- lated the doctrinal position of orthodox Islam. Three centuries separate his death from that of Muhammad.D. but he was not a he lived there was no necessity for a reasoned. the medium of instruction met events as they came. When the Prophet died. al-Ash'ari. the church are written by is council. But experience taught the community of Islam that even a book purporting to come direct from the Almighty and All-Wise was not enough. As long as As His message was theocentric.

Just as his utterances. which are said to The traditions regarding theological have come from him not only teach the futility speculation of divisions over matters of belief but also the inherent wickedness of schisms. but for all time as well. these early Believers are pictured as relying absolutely authority. but the Shi'ite minority through frustration and persecution has developed a passion motive that has colored much of their thinking. The adherents of the family of 'All and Fatima claimed the Khalifate as the legitimate right of the Prophet's descendants. and what actions make man a great To support the position that questioning about theological subjects was unnecessary there are traditions from discussion of Muhammad which discourage the of theology dogma. Less than three decades following the Prophet's death there arose the Kharijites. But in Islam oftentimes the early differences on religious matters had their origin in diverse political opinions. one powers produced theological discussions over the distinction between Belief and best qualified for political revolt against the ruling Unbelief. not to some branch of to the Muhammad's This family. who held that the headship of the Muslim community belonged tribe. so they problems during his lifetime. the sinner. on The reason given then for much of the early theological controversy is that people lost their first love. Fidelity to the dead Muhammad waned be- fore loyalty to a living leader. Not only would he have no system settled metaphysical in his time. and of the if INTRODUCTION guidance was still lacking one looked for the Agreement Muslim Community. This narrow claim has been rejected by the great Sunnite majority of Islam. is Orthodox Islam of the Prophet dialectics accustomed to consider the days of the Companions their Successors as the and golden age when the use of was unnecessary.x drawn. Zeal for the faith degenerated into jealousy and party strife. as the in- strument of revelation. of the faithful were to go on settling them for the community who accepted him as Prophet. nor to a certain Arab but it. Because of cause throughout their lives they were their fidelity to in the Muhammad of the and be- shadow memory of his his presence. meaning of Islam. fall In reviewing the evolution of doctrine one might easily error of attempting to separate into the what in the West from is designated theological speculation as being in a different category political theory. One tradi- .

"It * that he said that the is that to which I. III. Al- Sec al-Shahrastanl. which counseled delaying judgment as to the real faith of a professed Believer. skeptical as to the real faith of such im- Another explanation given for the rise of theological disputation is that 2 suggested by Ibn Khaldun. Through the rapid expansion of Islam into other it came more and more into contact with Greek and Christian thought. 3. Christian teachers had laid the foundation for the science of dogmatics by using such philosophical propositions as suited their purpose. Wensinck. replied. and my Companions belong/' This attitude of mind ble in the that deprecated discussion and schism was responsi- end for the formation of a school of thought. This position was a towards the result of their attitude Umayyad rulers. when asked which sect this was. p. 47. Kharijite doctrine that and Qadarite 8 doctrines is those who were guilty of great sins is were no longer tians It to be considered as true Believers essentially that of Chris- who classify sins as mortal and venial. A Handbook of Early Muhammadan tion. Centuries before. It was the result of attempts to decipher the obscure and ambiguous passages (al-mutashabihat) in the Qur'an. the Christians into seventy-two. other ingenuous interpretations saw in the Qur'an the embryo of a pantheistic faith. Because his final destiny rested with Allah.INTRODUCTION tion has it xi Magians were divided into seventy sects. their position they were quick The The close resemblance between material that appears in the Murji'ite writings of John of Damascus and the proof of this. that is. 44 f. was in refuting the positions of the Mu'tazilite party that orthodox Islam into its finally 1 came own and arrived at a mature expression of its Belief. an evil-doer who professed Islam was those still to be who in worshiping Allah faced towards Mecca. p. A third reason for the development of Muslim dogmatics was the neces- sity for lands beyond Arabia an apologetic. only one of which would escape the Fire. The party which taught that the creature has power over his actions. One explanation of certain verses produced a crude anthropomorphic conception of Allah. and the Muslims into seventy-three. Cf. the Jews into seventy-one. 2 3 Al-Muqaddima. . Now when Muslim parties saw in the writings of non- Muslims arguments which would defend to use them. al-Milal wa 'l-Nihal. myself. reckoned as one of the people of the qibla. The Prophet. whom they obeyed even though most pious Muslims were pious potentates. the Murji'ite. also similar traditions about the Tradi- sects of the Muslim community.

master. majesty. high. seeing. Over against the accepted opinion that these were Mu'tazilites said they were the essence of Allah itself. Willing. The name given them by their opponents meant Withdrawers or the People of Unity Secessionists. It is but the Mu'tazilites called themselves and around these two points that one may focus the peculiarities of their reasoning. lord. possessor. The relation of unity and plurality in God had also been discussed by John of Damascus and others such as the Pseudo. al-Taftazani used this accepted method of commentators. majestic. 8 f. also eternal is. but not ness. In addition to Speech Allah had other attributes such as Life. great. that said to be His essence knowing when connected with things known. Power. He speaks with a in something that is other than He. lordship and on account of might. largely because of its own Muhammad. In probability from con- with Christianity and its doctrines of the Logos. The tion is origin of the dissent of this school of thought from the orthodox posi4 given by al-Taftazanl. In early Islam there developed a remarkable reverence for the Qur'an. the idea that the Qur'an was uncreated and eternal was adopted by Muslims. "The Mu'tazilites. In spite of the fact that al-Nasafi makes no mention of them in his Creed. mastery.Dionysius. . Al-Ash'arl says. and their arguments are echoed in the Mu'tazilite controversy. many is and Hearing. greatness. They were not this. 6 Kitab Maqaldt al-lsldmiyyin t p. is many of the Murji'ites as well as many of the Zaydites say that Allah rich. the Muslim theologians took refuge in the use of negative * Sec below." said that all these characteristics were to be predicated of Allah and that He possessed eternal or essential attributes (sifat azallya or dhatiya). 177. pp. witness to Its style is itself.xii INTRODUCTION great Mu'tazilites had flourished though when al-Taftazam wrote five hundred years had passed since the and but little less than that since they had been eclipsed by al-Ash'arl. the Kharijites. Faced with the task of defining the exact relationship between the essence of Allah and His attributes. he often presents the orthodox position by first answering the Mu'tazilites. The Mu'taziheld that this undermined the unity of Allah by establishing someHim. mighty. It is presented as the very speech all of Allah to tacts oracular. He wills but does not it speech but alone in subsists have the attribute of Willing. overpowering. grand5 The orthodox on the other hand constraint. Justice. It really meant the ascribing of a Partner to lites thing eternal alongside of Him and was therefore to them the worst kind of infidelity. con- straining. grand. the Neoplatonic mystic. Seeing.

hands. said that man possessed free will to choose good deeds. They were vigorous in their denial of the Beatific Vision. a face. Among the Jews and the Christians there was often fear or doubt about the thought of beholding God. and the Unbelievers with those who do evil and deserve the Fire. arms. in answer to the question about Allah's seating Himself on His throne. Men are also urged to repent and turn Had it been possible to identify absolutely the body of Believers who do good and obtain entrance into the Garden. "The attributes are not His essence essence/' itself. of the justice of Allah." is unknown. From reading the Qur'an and Tradi- tions orthodox Muslims came to believe that they would see Allah in the next world. Christian teaching regarding pre- though discussion was inevitable from what appeared in the Qur'an and Traditions. who appear to have been forerunners of the Mu'tazilites. p. Allah is described as having created the world and established His decrees in eternity. there would have been little place for dispute. Although the attributes were were careful not to establish a plurality of eternals. others to do evil. destination influenced these controversies even Some Allah. *MacdonaId. which was also a rallying point for the went back to very early debates about the punishment of sins and man's responsibility for his actions. said. the orthodox Muslims. since it is Allah who passes judgment. influenced by the Murji'ite teaching which delayed judgment on sinners. 186. In discussing its realities the matter of the Beatific Vision became in the early this as a reality Middle Ages one of importance. Development of Muslim Theology. This may have been the starting point for working out their doctrine of Allah's absolute uniqueness. it must be believed. the Christian emphasis on the resurrection as well as Hellenistic mysticism had turned men's attention to the other world. and refused to Many of the early Believers accepted the verses but their comment further on meaning. But in Islam to accept meant. . feet. that Allah had a shape. The Kharijites taught that one who committed a great sin must be an with those Unbeliever. questions about it are an innova- 6 The question Mu'tazilites. nor are they anything extraneous to His From their position on the literal attributes the Mu'tazilites showed themselves anxious to avoid any interpretation of the passages using anthro- pomorphic terms of Allah. some are Beto lievers. The Qadarites. creatures are destined to do good. However. if literally interpreted. others are Unbelievers.INTRODUCTION eternal they xiii terms as had other theologians before them. Anas. Malik b. "How it is done tion.

Ma'mun and Mu'tasim. The dialectic ligious tenets was used by the Mu'tazilites and others to rationalize their recalled \alam (speech). they had recourse to Greek dialectic to support their positions. at Baghdad. especially that of Speech. But the great work of translating the texts of day of the Mu'tazilites.xiv said that the professing INTRODUCTION Muslim who is an evil-doer should not be con- sidered an Unbeliever. When Greek philosophy came after the heyThe influence of Greek thought on orthodox theology . Faith acts for the is on his actions and on the absolute justice of not granted freely to some and withheld from others. and they affirmed His absolute unity." Unfortunately those who sought to harmonize the doctrines of Islam with Greek philosophy considered this Aristotle's teaching. writing after the time of al-Ash'arl. They avoided hyposAgain tatizing the attributes of Allah. for the mold for Muslim dogmatics had already been formed.) when he appeared voiced a vigorous protest against them. if good and the guidance of man. into anything like the persons of the Trinity. If man accepts he enters the he refuses he receives the punishment he deserves. instead of being applied to heretics. The term Mutakallim (or one who used fylam). 505 A. In general they rests held that his final destiny Allah. They not only favored the heterodox teachings of the Mu'tazilites but by persecution tried to impose these views on abridged edition of the translated into title their subjects. under the of "The Theology of Aristotle. Eventually and philosophy to give a rational explanacame to mean scholastic theology. During the reign of the latter an Enncads of Plotinus by Porphyry of Tyre was Arabic by a Christian of Emessa in the Lebanon. Al-Farabi. least uncertainty The Mu'tazilite position also hinted at delay or at to be identified with the Believers by saying that the evil-doer is in a middle position and not nor the Unbelievers. At first the term logic it was used by pious Believers in con- tempt of those who relied on tion of their faith. Al-TaftazanI reviews the rise of this science in Islam. was a combination of the loyal Muslim and the Neoplatonist and still looked on this work as authentic as did also his disciple. The close of the second century after the Hijra ushered in the rule of the 'Abbasid Khalifas. book a genuine exposition of For them it was just as authoritative as the Qur'an. Ibn Sma.M. from the fourth to the sixth centuries of the Hijra had only an indirect effect. their position the Mu'tazilites Undoubtedly in reaching were greatly in- fluenced by Christian thought and Greek philosophy. Allah Garden. was used of the ultra-orthodox who taught such a barren intellectualism that al-Ghazzali (d.

2 Macdonald. p. 187. just as in Latin Christendom under Alto give the Hanbal bert the Great. Kalam instead of being despised as an innovation now became the handmaid of revelation. Al-Shafi'I held that certain men should be trained for defending the if faith.D. in But al-Ash'arl was not alone making a statement of Islam's belief which was supported by the arguments of scholasticism. ff. scholastic the- ology used Aristotle and any available Greek philosophy that suited its purpose. 8 See below. Both followed the legal school of 7 Abu Hanifa.. even though the heterodox thinkers turn to non-Muslim sources for the rational statement of their position. Contemporaneous with him in Egypt there was al-TahawT. p. the general attitude of orthodoxy remained as before. To return to the beginning of the third century of the Hijra. 1335) on al-Taftazani. . pp. led a reactionary movement that insisted on a literal interpretation of the for its Qur'an and abhorred rationalizing. and in Samarqand Abu Mansur al-Maturidi became the founder of an orthodox \alam. Hanbal. Bonaventura. 14. His popularity with the people saved the cause of orthodoxy for a time but it remained for Abu '1-Hasan al-Ash'arl who called himself a disciple of Ibn coup de grace to the Mu'tazilites by turning their arguments against them.H. It is reported that he said. who died in the middle of the third century.. Commentary on al-Fiqh al-Akbar. 7 forsaken the " Book and and have taken up with Ahmad b. Being a convert from the doctrines of the Mu'tazilitcs. Thomas Aquinas. supercommentary of al-Isfara'inl (Cairo p. The wellApproved Way is told by al-Taftazam 8 opening section of commentary. and others. al-Ash'ar! was able to use effectively their dialectic in known in the story of his conversion to the his defending orthodoxy. 9.INTRODUCTION more light is xv thrown on the early period we shall doubtless see as well that Indian and Oriental philosophies too have played a part in producing the dogmatics of Islam. the great interpreter of jurisprudence (fiqh). "My judgment and is is that those who use I(alam should be beaten with tribes palm sticks led about among the clans and it should be the said. but that it would be a great calamity their arguments were disseminated among the com- mon and people. With him dogma had real basis the Qur'an and Traditions that went back to the first generation of Believers. text of A. 'AH al-Qari. 'I. The use of logic and philosophy was an abomination. Development. 'This the reward of those who have Approved Way \aldm! Abu Yusuf held that whoever sought knowledge through \alam had become a zindlq (a dualist or an atheist).

During this period of impending decline philosophy took the brunt of the attack in place of the Mu'tazilite doctrines. However. 606 A.). again one of their partisans got into power and the name of al-Ash'ari was cursed in the Friday sermon at the mosques and his disciples now and were persecuted. It had once been its decline useful in repulsing heretics and innovators in their attacks on the faith. from its exalted position of the past. 43. Al-Ghazzall (d. was preferable Sec al'Muqaddima. writing of the scholastic theology of his time.H. This new development was known as the way of the later scholastics earlier (fane/at al-muta a\hkjiirin) as contrasted with the ones whose methods were largely negative. while some others maintained a noncommittal attitude regarding the atomic ex- planation of the world processes. form. the triumphs of al-Ash'arl the prestige of the Mu'tazilite party was True. This process of the of theology until they differed little itself also and philosophy went on amalgamation from one another except that theology concerned based on revelation and authority. 403 A.H. After some time Muslims used the formal logic of Aristotle as an essential of their thinking although they rejected philosophy in New proofs were forthcoming which made use of the physics. and mathematics of the philosophers. with subjects bemoaned Ibn Khaldun (d. 808 A.). . metaphysics. Already the teachers of dogma. but they had passed from the scene of action. 505 A. most of the scholastics in the centuries that followed held to the atomic theory. time included theological topics in addition to canonical sub- With lost. itself. as sponsored and was being developed into one of the fundamentals of scholastic theology. In the case of the former there seems to be a conversion to the Aristotclian-Neoplatonic philosophy of matter.H. the writers rehashed the arguments of the past and were all not at timid about beating the dead horse of Mu'tazilitism. and emanation. The earlier orthodox theologians his followers are un- down to and including the period of ai-Baqillanl and doubtedly the Mashayikh or Early Theologians referred to by al-Taftazanl.H. but such a recrudescence was of short duration.) and Fakhr al-Dm al-Razi are considered as leaders of this new movement. However. atomic philosophy.xvi INTRODUCTION his which in jects. and reconstruct their theology. it Rather than go to to original sources III. sensing their inability to add anything original to the mass of dialectic in defense of orthodoxy.) (d. had begun to make commentaries on statements of back 9 faith and articles of belief. after al-Ash'arl the Almost a century established by al-Baqillanl (d.

state- The ments first attempts at a confession of faith outside these very brief in the Qur'an and Traditions are striking in things they omit. the Last Day. His Messengers. reflects his teaching. late Professor A. someone of the This process went on were numerous super-commentaries and glosses on commentaries." 10 But the very simplicity of such statements made them inadequate when party loyalty became heated. and the Last error. self-subsistcnt. Wensinck in his The Muslim Creed has made all Orientalists his debtors for a thorough 11 study of the statements of Muslim It will thus be necessary to mention here only some of the forms which the creed assumed in the early centuries of Islam. in is which give an epitome of Muslim Bewhich Muhammad commanded is is begets not and to declare the unity of the Deity and that He not begotten. as in it al-Fiqh al-A\bar (I) which. His Books. "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.. Sura 112. J. will be necessary to retrace our steps and notice the development of creed-making. His Messengers. and the Throne verse (Qur'an 2:256)." Different verses in the Qur'an admonish men to believe in Allah and His Messengers. . The belief. "Belief . is that you believe in Allah.H. d. are favorite sections are often quoted by as giving the es- sence of their religion. 150 A. His Angels. and His decree of good and evil. lief The earliest statements are to be found in the Qur'an and the Traditions. it part of the second century of the Hijra. and when problems raised by Greek philosophy and Christian theology were encountered and demanded a satisfactory solution." there appear in the negative Day all hath certainly erred a wide but one of the elements men- form tioned in one of the well-known traditions which aims to summarize the principles of the Muslim faith. which reads. But in neither of these passages or elsewhere in the Qur'an do we find in one sentence the exact words of the witnessing formula. 11 III. The Muslim Creed: Its Genesis and Historical Development.INTRODUCTION reinterpret the articles of belief of until there It xvit past. and that Muslims to belongs what is in of their Holy Book and Him the heavens and the earth. His Books. In Qur'an 4:135. when explanation of difficult passages was demanded.. "Whoever believeth not in Allah. which proclaims that Allah living. and knowing.). Twice at least His angels and His books are added. even though is wrongly attributed to Abu Hanifa (d. His Angels. Written probably in the early makes no mention of the attri- 134 fi.

and sub- dued the innovations of the innovators. Muhammad b. Kitab al-lbana 'an Usul al-Diydna. "We hold fast to the Book of our Lord. His uncreated Speech.. Hanbal. The first person "We believe. C. Hanbal says opposing that which op- the excellent leader and the perfect head. but says. His attributes. Another stage in the development of the creed is seen in an early chapter of al-Ash'ari's Kitab al-lbana 'an Usul al-Diyana. al-Al'ans Al-lbanah 'an Usul ad-Diyanah. had gained from his study with Mu'tazilite teachers. Al-Ash'ari. yet both where he warmly defends the position of Ahmad b. 14 and the doubt of the doubters. 49 ff. His decision and decree regarding the actions of creatures. pp. the schisms of the schismatics. where he presents in a detached manner the multifarious views 12 'Alt Ibn Ismd'll p. through whom Allah has shown the truth. In his Maqdldt al-lslamiyin al-Ash'arl in the chapter dealing with the beliefs of the People of Tradition and the Approved Way 13 again sum- marizes the Muslim creed. and the Imamate 12 is explained as well as other matters over which there had been dispute. to the Sunna of our Prophet. Ahmad for he is b. 8 ff. 14 Al-lbdna. 8. and to what Abu 'Abdallah poses him. . Abu 'l-Hasan 290 ff. Having given the position of innovators and those who have gone astray the author follows with a section setting forth the articles of Belief of the plural. al-Ash'arl not only follows the teaching b. Ahmad Hanbal. opinions that had crept were into theological Again. Klein. but this time in the third person. W. pp. to what has been handed down from the Companions and their Followers and the masters of hadlth. and Maqalat. As for his own of position as revealed in his Ibana. Belief is defined.xviii INTRODUCTION is butes of Allah nor of the Qur'an as the Speech of Allah. is affirmed in the Unity of Allah. with expressions like Muslim Community. This supposed testament of one of the founders of the four not a systematic outline of heretical orthodox schools of religious practice also Islamic principles but a protest against some of the outstanding thinking. the Garden and the Faith Fire and other cschatological matters are stated to be realities. A much more detailed statement of that known is as the Testament ( Wastya) Abu Hanlfa." is used throughout. p. made clear the path. the Beatific Vision of Allah on the Day of Resurrection. taken away error." "We say. neither the prophetic office of later confessions Muhammad nor the attributes of Allah around which built receive consideration. neither discussion of there a Muhammad and the prophetic is office." theologian Although al-Ash'arl is usually represented as the who introduced into orthodoxy such methods of logic and inter- pretations as he in al-lbana.

H. he does not agree with the ex- treme conclusions of al-Ash'ari.) about thirty years after al-Ghazzall. followed by articles on the prophetic but office and on eschatological matters. there appears to be of fyldm in his writings. 505 A.) is credited with won the day for the Ash'arite position in the west.INTRODUCTION of sectaries xix of the and innovators along with those of the People little Approved Way. of Abu Hafs 'Umar al-Nasafi. considerable space was given to the discussion of Allah's attributes. which dozen words the objects of faith. His exposition of the two of the Witnessing formula which appears in the first section of the phrases second book of the Ihya is the forerunner of a whole group of creeds which three treatises center all the articles of Belief around Allah and His attributes and His Messenger essentials Muhammad.H. dif- much less space was given to subjects on which there had been ference of opinion. The third stage introduced a more logical arrangement of material. then. 1344)- English translation by E. wrote a compendium of Muslim beliefs. Bayan al-Sunna wa 'l-jamd'a (Halab. confessions. of faith This type of creed signified later a reversion to the bare and became and very stereotyped in all the creeds of for al-Sanusi (d. 895 A.) Allah's existence rest al-Fadali (d. 15 Made in a period that included both Abu Ja'far Ahmad al-Tahawi. who died (537 A. gave way to a loosely connected group of sentences which answered heresies that divided the community. but no creed by his pen is extant. By the time. and catechisms in A canon lawyer of the school of Abu HanTfa.H. From assumed having the fourth century of the Hijra the statements of the orthodox creed a more logical form. another contemporary also of the Hanafite persuasion.H. Among other writers contemporary with him Abu Ja'far Ahmad al-Tahawi. take the place in Islam played by creeds. He wrote at least on things necessary to Belief. A.H.. E. al-Nasafi gives the viewpoint of the Maturldites in theology. there had been three distinct stages in the development of creed-making. 1236 A. which Christianity. an Egyptian who died in 331 A. Elder in The Macdonald Presentation Volume (Princeton. Al-Maturldi. The formal of the statement of the tenets of Islam all most noted of the many treatises made by al-Nasafi is one on the Articles of Belief. which jeopardize the moral basis for Allah's actions.) where arguments on the existence of the universe. Al-Ghazzali (d. has given his name to the rival school of orthodox theology.129-44- . PP. 15 A follower of the legal school of Abu Hanlfa. 1933).H. briefly stated in a The Qur'an verses and Traditions.

al-Nasafl's Articles of Muslim Belief. these more famous With al-Nasafi and sixth centuries A. After a full inquiry into the in the state the treatise closes Imamate or sovereignty with a series of conclusions reached concerning various and sundry matters of faith.xx INTRODUCTION more comment than any of the works of and others of the fifth al-Ghazzali and Fakhr ai-Din al-RazI. 12 . although the Jewish author Sa'adya al-Fayyumi had already given the sources as three.) is credited with being among the earliest to adopt this method. in al-Nasafl. and whom Allah has communicated with the world are inAngels through vestigated. The so-called saints or Walls. who is the Creator and Originator The questions next discussed are the possibility of the Beatific Vision of Allah and whether or not into existence of all the actions of creatures are brought from nonexistence by Allah alone. this book of Taftazanl has remained for scholars a compendium of the various views re- garding the great doctrines of Islam. Al-Baghdadl (d. The outstanding commentary on which has had that of ai-Taftazanl. pp. the knowledge of the Perception. There is little indeed in his comment that is not found elsewhere.H. the is Following the introduction sisting of substances world as something con- and accidents examined. al-Nasafi's Articles cH-Amanat wa 'l-V tiqaddt (Leiden. Prophets. is a remarkable reputation over a period of half a millennium. his treatise is a standard textbook on Muslim theology and in turn has been the subject of many supercommentaries. the subjects of the great sins and small and their relation to Unbelief are examined. 1881). and intuitive or necessary 10 knowledge. Following a description many of the eschatological elements of Islam. namely. Because it was written just after the real- subject matter of theology had been precipitated into the form it was to tain for five hundred years without perceptible change.H. Next there is a meaning Messengers. One needs only to read al-Razi's discussion of the Beatific Vision of Allah or al-Tji's explanation of the Reality of Belief to realize that the detailed statements in this 16 Kitab commentary on I. the knowledge of Reason. Although Sa'd al-Dm al-Taftazanl is in no sense an original writer. his short statement of faith has been the subject of writers. 429 A. the ac- cepted arrangement of materials called for an introductory section setting forth the sources or roots of knowledge. From this al-Nasafl pro- ceeds to enumerate the attributes of Allah of the world. and then follows a study of the gracious acts or wonders of the section defining the of Belief.

H. Ghujduwan. The commentary on the al-Aqaid al. Their contents demonstrate that he was well versed in the philosophical sciences 17 and far advanced in the rest of the sciences which deal with Reason.II. We know facts very little indeed regarding his life and environment. (February-March. He is said to earliest have been a pupil of 'Adud al-Dln at the al-Tji and of Qutb al-Dln. at Harat. sufficient A glance at the definitions of the five senses given by both proof of this. Al-Jurjani and alTaftazanl must have drawn from common sources.D.. Lest his work as a compiler give an unfavorable impression of alTaftazani the reader should turn to an illuminating paragraph in Ibn Khaldun. When Timiir invaded Khwarizm. According to Ibn 'Arabshah. Taftazan. 604 Al-Mttqaddima. Timur's consent 18 to send al-Taftazanl to Sarakhs. and Gulistan. Malik Mu'izz al-Dm Husayn Kurt asked Ghiyath al-Dln Plr 'All. where he taught and wrote. alTaftazanT. IV. to obtain f." There are some statement. suite of 17 b. sciences He says. which was in those days some months from the regions of Khwarizm and Samarqand. By the time of his death or very shortly afterwards he was being studied and appreciated as a scholar in Cairo. the Mu^htasar and the Talwlh were completed in 748. a native of Harat.INTRODUCTION xxi of Belief (d-Aqaid) had been used by others before. Some of them that he are on a falam and the foundations of fiqh and profound knowledge rhetoric. The fol18 lowing concerning him are mentioned in the Encyclopaedia He was born in the month of Safar. His work was al-Ma'arii. 1322). HI. was one of the scholars attracted to the court of the Mongols of Western Qipcfaq. who was then in the Timur. a large village near Nasa in Khurasan. his Malik Muhammad SarakhsT nephew Plr Muhammad b.Nasafiya was completed at Khwarizm in 768. A. And after five hundred years he is still a celebrated authority distant studied in the schools of the East. and 758 respectively. 92 & . at of Islam. The Mutawwal. one of the villages of Khurasan. Ibn interesting facts to be noted in in connection with this Khaldun died the year 808 A. completed age of sixteen. did not take al-Taftazam centuries or even scores of years to attain a place of prominence as a theologian. 756. 722 A. for many of the definitions given in the former's al-Ta'rijat are identical with those employed by is al-Taftazani. while al-Taftazam's It death preceded his by only a few years. "I found in Egypt numerous works on the intellectual composed by the well-known person Sa'd al-Dln al-Taftazam. like Qutb al-Dm al-RazI. which show had of these sciences.

nor by which one can enforce it on another. The language of the Qur'an. true narratives. Although al-Nasafl uses the term atom (jawhar} and explains it as "the part which is not further divided.D. al-Taftazani says that he must have meant that ilham is not a cause by which knowledge results to people in general. who gives in The Guide for the Perplexed a most systematic summary of the theory. But al-Taftazanl agrees with al-Ghazzall and other Ash'arites by saying that in the of Belief many way of the mystic there is perfection and absolute knowledge. 21 See below. except the extreme Hanbalites. since there is no doubt that knowledge does result from 2. Most Muslim philosophers. p. AlBaqillanl (d. elaborate atomic theory But the unique contribution of Islam in the realm of philosophy was an which is a combination of material atoms and time atoms into a complete system to explain the origin and working process of the universe. This created world consists of substances and acci- dents." this is insufficient basis for believing that 20 See below." This the position of Abu Hanifa. p.xxiv INTRODUCTION relative positions of al-Nasafl A 1. would admit the sound (that is. . comparison of the and al-Taftazam in respect to the two schools of orthodoxy is of value. 1013) has been called the original atomist among the Muslims. Illumination (al-ilham) is not one of the causes of the cognition of the is soundness of a thing. Repeatedly man's nothingness is conwith the power and wisdom of Allah who brings all things into existence. lent itself to this interpreta- Both al-Ash'arl and al-Maturldi believed that Allah had created the uni- verse out of nothing. it. the former subsist in themselves. and Reason. 27. implicit pantheism. 21 In the matter of the origin of the universe the Qur'an everywhere teaches is Creator and Maker. Regarding the sources of knowledge for mankind most Muslims. In attempting to explain away al-Nasafi's opposition to ilhdm. who was inclined to ignore the claims of mystics to special knowledge because of his leanings towards rationalism. Maimonides. through the use of an amalgam of the that Allah trasted Neoplatonic Chain and the Aristotelian Cosmos. because of tion. "And senses. the latter only in something else. A. 16. says that Muslims borrowed it from the Greek philosophers but notes that there are fundamental differences between the Muslim position and that of Epicurus and other atomists. came to look at the world not so much as a creation but its an emanation from the Deity. not defective) 20 Al-Nasafi in his creed says.

(3) Time is also made up of atoms which cannot be further subdivided. 120 ff. number of causes are (12) The 22 senses are not always to be trusted. (2) A vacuum in which nothing exists provides separation. rest as real as motion. and movement of the atoms. which are superadded to the substance and which are inseparable from (5) all material things. (7) The is absence of a property is itself a property that exists in the body. is The following a very brief as given is summary of the twelve propositions of the 22 Mutakallim atomists (1) are all by Maimonides: The universe exactly alike. so death just as real an accident as life. All bodies are composed of similar atoms. an infinite number of bodies. with the exception of is logical contradictions. The Guide Friedlandcr. and an infinite impossible. Their evidence cannot for the Perplexed. tr. bodies thus compounded do. Allah creates a substance its accidents. creation it is and simultaneously destroyed and another takes That which is called natural law is only Allah's customary way of acting. because the divine will not limited by natural laws. pp. potential. Every accident is directly connected with the substance which is its substratum. (4) There are accidents which are elements in the sense of non-permanent qualities. (8) There exists nothing but substance and accident. On the other its hand al-Taftazanl as well as most Ash'arites accepted this theory in entirety. An infinite all body. whether actual. There is thus no inherent nature its its in things. idea of the infinite is inadmissible. composed of individual atoms (jawhar fard) which They do not have quantity but when combined the for the combination. (6) Accidents do not continue through two atoms of time. (9) One accident cannot exist in another accident.INTRODUCTION xxv he held the interpretation characteristic of the thoroughgoing atomists and which has been maintained by the scholastic theologians of the later days of Islam. Immediately after place. (10) There is unlimited possibility in the world. . so the difference in bodies is caused only by their difference in accidents. even though the atoms do not have quantity. accidents nor do accidents occur apart Atoms do not occur without from atoms. (n) The or accidental.

This approaches the position of the later Ash'arites." that he heard that which indicates it. 57. if analyzed. To these seven the Maturidites. he favors the view from eternity to eternity and that when anything is created it among 4. is heard by our ears. just as the facts regarding microbes are interpreted as being in harmony with the Qur'anic teaching concerning the jinn. would set forth agree in practically every detail with this scheme by Maimonides. namely. Seeing. However. that modern Western pretation atomic speculation may galvanize the atomic system of strict orthodoxy into a semblance of life. pp. including al-Nasafl. reached early in its more than development the position that Allah has attributes (sifat). "Until he hears the speech of Allah. spirit- 28 See below. Al-Nasafl says that the Qur'an. 64 f. but he seems to make a distinction between the attribute of that the is Speech and the Qur'an. commentary the Ash'arite is which is that there is no proof that Creating another attribute in that the act of addition to happens through the creation of the connection with the attribute of Creating. reform movements in modern Islam like that of Muhammad 'Abdu tend to Ibn Sina. It has been suggested. added Creating (tat(win).xxvi INTRODUCTION last be accepted in face of rational proof. and the Aristotelian system for their interof the cosmos. but al-Maturldl denied that could be. the uncreated speech of Allah. In another place he lists ta\unn Creating is Power and Willing. Al-Taftazani takes the view meaning of the verse in the Qur'an. who but held that Moses did not hear Many this speech as an ordinary act of hearing. of the differences between the Ash'arite and the Maturidite theologians which follow are mentioned in Al-Rawtfa al-Bahlya. 23 the attributes of Allah. however. So also Moses heard a sound which indicated the speech 24 of Allah. Ibn Rushd. in opposition to the Mu'tazilites. Orthodox Islam. As to the Eternal Speech. Will. which they say is also an eternal attribute and not an indication of activity in the realm of ob- originated things. p. and Speech. Hearing. 3. Knowledge. Al-Taftazanl presents in his jection. Though go back to the system is still taught in Muslim religious colleges like al-Azhar. which indicate the term "the Necessarily Existent" (wajib al-u/ujud) connotes eternity. and which are from tial The disciples of al-Ash'arl posited seven essen- attributes or those consisting of ideas (sifat al-ma'anl). al-Ash'arl is it credited with holding that can be heard. 24 See below. but Ash'arites. . just as in the case of Knowledge and Power. it which is an attribute of Allah. this There were variants of that held by al-Taftazanl and most other form of the atomistic philosophy in Islam. Life. Power. This proposition answers those who oppose the preceding as contrary to the perception of the senses.

. 20. 27 See below.INTRODUCTION ually xxvii and as coming from every believe that Allah is direction and perceived by every one of all his organs. 63. a creating (tyalq)" is He realizes how unsatisfactory this explanation this in is. what the creature has of power and problem 25 Closely allied to the creature's acquisition or choice of actions is the of whether or not all these actions are by Allah's good pleasure. Many. The idea of acquisition (J(asb or ifyisab) which appears in this verse (as a verb) became the key word of the Ash'arite explanation of the creature's actions as related to Allah's creative activity. p. "His creatures have actions of choice (i\htiyar). The Muslim Creed. things. of obedience or disobedience. is. "It 25 impossible under the authority of Allah that there be any acquisition by creatures of that which will. 84 ff. p. Free will creates. use among his disciples. if it is by the hand of some immediate follower of Abu HanTfa. Al-Ash'arl is usage. and compulsion are both denied. p. and good in these is by the good pleasure (rida) of Allah and the them is not by His good pleasure. See translation in Wensinck's 28 See below. for which they are rewarded or punished." 27 the vile in Al-Taftazam pends brings his it states the Ash'arite power and will in action view in saying. Allah credited with introducing this technical is man acquires. so far as to say that no action belongs to the creature at difficulty of all. undertakes to explain the dilemma and man's freedom alongside Allah's eternal Will by adding. would suggest that it 26 In a century's time after his death it was in common antedates al-Ash'ari. 26 Al-Fiqh al-Akbar (II). Al-lbana. pp. Al-Nasafi. in line with the teaching of the Maturiof the presence of evil dite school. "When the creature exit is an acquisition. 5. 191. The it Jabrites went ever. but admits that he unable to do more than clearly that the creature's summarizing the expression used which proves action is by Allah's creating and bringing into choice. It has that which it has acquired and owes what it has acquired" (Qur'an 2:286). which. The Mu'tazilites. Muslims the creator of actions of His creatures whether of Unbelief or Belief. They had it "Allah does not impose upon a soul legal responsibility beyond its capacity. and when Allah it is into existence as a consequence of that. denied that Allah wills wicked and vile recourse to such Qur'anic verses as. since in al-lbana he says. 86. howcontradicts have realized the moral such a position for experience. p." He does not The term is found in al-Fiqh al-A\bar (II). adopting the teaching of the Qadarites (that that man has power for actions). 28 existence along with 6.

pp. 16 fi. p. who followed . and INTRODUCTION command. and that though works increase. Abu 7. while good to the exclusion of the vile. ai Kitdb d-Wafiya. is not in his capacity. Hanlfa taught that the ability ability with which the creature disobeys is the same which is good for obedience. too. the it canon lawyers. his In general those Al-Fiqh al-Atyv S1 See below. and the doing of the ar^an (such as worship. 8. Al-Nasafl said that Belief assent to that which the Prophet brought from Allah and confession of it. ." 80 In this he takes his stand with the Maturidites. This the Maturidite position which followed the teaching of Abu Hanifa. His school believed that the ability which for evil deeds is sufficient is not sufficient for good ones. and many of the scholastic theologians held that consisted of three things: assent by the heart. p. Al-Ash'ari deed Carnal) and that it said that Belief is in word (qawl) This follows is and in may increase and decrease. The Maturidite no 31 teaching ex- pressed in the words of al-Nasafi. A man may in the some reason not confess with is sight of Allah. 87. p. Al-Nasafl states that the good actions are by the good is pleasure of Allah and the vile ones are not. Al-Taftazani held along with the Ash*arites in general that Belief for is assent. confession by the tongue. from the inclusion of works in Belief. This. and command are connected only with the good Another question upon which there was difference of opinion was whether the creature possesses ability for every responsibility or not. fasting. does not dissent from the principle enunciated by al-Nasafl. Al-Ash'ari permitted the rational pos- sibility that a creature be burdened with responsibility beyond his is power in- because he attributed nothing vile to Allah. 92.xxviii wish. 29 The Ash'arites held that actions occurred according to Allah's will and did not make the distinction that the good ones were by his good pleasure while the bad were not. He goes on to explain. desire. and the pilgrimage). 1 (II). which is essentially There arc varied opinions 32 in Islam regarding what constitutes Belief (/mat/*)." Al-Taftazani favors the belief that the creature's responsibility fits his ability. Willing. Al-Shafi'i. "This means that all actions. 82 See below. 8. p. Desiring. the traditionalists. although he emphasizes the fact that many actions which we deem vile sometimes have in them wise and beneficial matters. Abu Hanlfa said that the Belief of a 30 See below. "The creature has legal responsibility imposed upon him which the position of al-Nasafi. and Decreeing are connected with pleasure. tongue and yet be a Believer the position of Abu Mansur al-Maturidl. Belief neither increases nor decreases. neither Allah limited or is fluenced by purpose. Al-Taftazani.

al-fiqh al-Atyar 87 Sec below. following Abu Hanlfa and the position Another ground taken by the Maturidites. On this matter al-Taftazanl favors that the 88 the position of al-Nasafl. Abu (II). 88 The followers of Muhammad. Al-Taftazanl in his commentary appears matter. "I am a Believer. Al-Fiqh al-Akbar (II). "I "if am a Believer and not fitting for him to add. says that in reality" it is right for one to say. Be- Ibn Hanbal. . Per- haps in this he was influenced by the tradition recorded of the Prophet by say. This naturally was the Mu'tazilite view. p. 35 f- 134 85 Hanlfa. Yet there without Belief cannot be found/* al-Taftazanl in his 9. and 51 * 38 Sec below." since it Ash'arites held that this phrase was to be added Many of the may show true and since life humility on the part of the Believer and a longing for the real estimate of one's Belief or Unbelief perfection. 86 no Belief without Islam. 126. Musnad. "Language distinguishes is between Belief and Islam. 88 Sec below. 10. but al-Nasafl as a Maturidite says happy one sometimes becomes miserable and that the miserable one sometimes becomes happy. beIII. 48. 88 xxix who accepts It is taught that on the authority of others) was sufficient for when one is in doubt regarding any of the he must hold for the time being that which is right regarding Allah until he finds a scholar and asks him. p. there is no change in Allah's attributes of making happy and miserable. and Islam Al-Nasafi says that they are one. from 8* the nature of their religion." Al-Nasafi. pp. pp. argument between the two orthodox schools was over the use by a Muslim of the words "in sha Allah" (if Allah wills) after saying. 125 . 123. 37 to set aside the difference between the two positions by pointing out the different aspects from which each school looks at the The Ash'arites held that there is no change in the destiny of the happy or the miserable one throughout life. nor is he allowed to delay. 27 . however. Al-Ash'ari held Islam to be a more general term than iman (Belief).. came at the end of and the creature did not have the assurance of the outcome. "The Messenger of Allah used to lief belongs to the heart/ " 34 The terms appear to be synonymous in many Qur'anic passages and are so considered by most Muslims today. and commentary for takes the same 80 position. This shows the development of the position adopted by the Ash'arites fine points of theology which required men to give a reason for their faith. sion of their relationship is An expres- seen in the passage. * Cf. 11. p. also I. since that school emphasized the use of Reason. 'Islam is external. Allah wills.INTRODUCTION muqallid (one salvation.

There is no trace of sinlessness.xxx lieve that INTRODUCTION Allah has sent Messengers to mankind with good tidings." 89 Abu Hanlfa reported as maintaining that a prophet should be preserved . even One of the earliest statements though it goes contrary on this subject. ." there is an allusion to the fact that prophets were preserved from falsehood in what is connected with the Law. sins is impossible for a prophet. tentionally or through inadvertence. conveying information from Allah. does not mention it in his Articles of Belief. it However. if not the be found in the teachings of sins. "All prophets were narrators veracious and sincere. It remained for theological speculation out of the Agreement of the to written tradition. . Abu Hanlfa: "All the Prophets are vile things. However. s' is to be changed from pp. The would Mu'tazilitcs held that a great sin nullify his mission. is from error. He [Muhammad] never committed a small or great sin. as false or disobedient "What is is reported of prophets which marks them if to be rejected. Since it Fakhr al-Dln al-Razi among this principle as of the Theologians who first especially emphasized primary importance. nay rather some are guilty of grave sins. the conveying of either judgments. from errors committed in- tion and as for the second the majority agrees Agreement is the on it. its literal meaning possible. To what degree prophets might be liable to error in conveying their message and in their conduct receives little consideration in the Qur'an and Tradition. even though a disciple of the Hanafite school. al-Taftazam says that in al-Nasaff s state- ment. we are not surprised that al-Nasafl. earliest. Nevertheless they permit dissimulation in feigning Unbelief for a pious reason. if This is to be there are only individual traditions. whereas al-Ash'ari held that he might commit smaller sins. basis for the first posi- He done concludes his discussion by saying. from Unbelief and although slips and mistakes (tyataya) may happen on their part. 22 . is to to formulate a doctrine which grew Muslim peoples. It came in time to be accepted as the orthodox position that prophets and was especially Muhammad were preserved from error and falsehood. In these sources the prophets appear quite human. Other- Al-fiqh al-Afar (II). and the guidance of the people. there are mutawdtir if traditions. . far removed from both small and great. for that The Shi'ites great and small both before and after revelations are deny the appearance in a prophet of made to him. warning and explaining to them what they need to know of this world and people the Judgment.

by has chosen their deeds." This tenet of faith became so fixed in orthodox Islam that al-SanusI (d. For they were sent to teach silence. the attempts of Abu Hanlfa. who them above His whole 41 and instructed them with his secret revelation. Otherwise they would not be messengers faithful to our Lord who knows hidden things. are not strictly in accord with the 41 Qur'an and Shark Vmm al-Bardhln. It is probably unwise to attempt a prediction of the future of theological thinking in the world of Islam and to prophesy concerning the influence which may yet be exercised by this creed of al-Nasafl its and the commentary It is of al-Taftazanl with scholasticism in numerous supercommentaries.H. "the impossibility of their doing anything prohibited. unrelenting fatalism that has characterized its much of Muslim thought has found sanction for conclusions in the Ash'arite teaching. . "From this may also be deduced. harsh. pp. 173 fi. p. "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. or as possible to explain it as a case of the preferable of 40 something that happened before his mission. and others to justify Allah's treatment of his the creature creatures and to make the creature share the responsibility of his destiny have not been in vain. possible that may be increasingly replaced by agnosticism as has happened Turkey today or by a back-to-Muhammad movement fostered by a spirit of romanticism or by fundamentalism of the Wahhabite type. and by their So it is necessary that in all of these there should be no deviation from creation the command this of our Lord." the necessity for the veracity of the apostles and the impossibility of falsehood in them. 895 A. Through them orthodoxy has an interpretation of the ever-present problem of free will paradoxes of life for and predestination that has solved the many a perplexed Muslim thinker. 134.INTRODUCTION wise it is xxxi two actions. al-Maturldl. men by their sayings." he said. We must not some doctrines have been accepted by the Muslim community although they 40 See below. Although the Mu'tazilite position that Allah must do what is best for was rejected by the people of the Approved Way." From The comparison of the points on which the two orthodox schools clear that originally there disagreed it is was a distinct difference in attitude.) deduced from the words of the creed. It is not unlikely that some strange and incongruous teachings may claim forget that in the years to come that they are not incompatible with the basic message of Islam. In fact this ex- planation has been taken over in part by Ash'arites such as al-Taftazanl as well.

attention will be called to them. especially the volume. INTRODUCTION The Agreement So far its of Muslim thinkers may again furnish a basis modernist movements in Islam have failed to supplant the dialectic of religious schools with a complete its and consistent scheme of theology.H. A Note on the Translation In this translation. There are no chapters or in Arabic. encyclopaedic The numbers in square brackets in the translation The Cairo text of A. *Abd al-Muhsin Bihishtl. for change. sentence or phrase by phrase. sentence by bold-face type throughout. and his own glosses on this work. Al-NasafTs creed is printed and as it is taken up by al-Taftazam. It contains a supercommentary by Muslih al-Dln of al-Kastall. which is an work containing a number of the supercommentaries on alfirst Taftazani and glosses on these. contains a errors.J. Conservatism will not surrender entrenched position with- out a struggle. it is separated from the commentary by is a soli- The portion of the creed presented thus in each chapter a whole at the beginning of the chapter. supercommentaries by Ibrahim 'Isam al-Dln and b. Musa al-Khayall. indicate the pages in this edition. 1335 with b. 1310. which minor omissions and grammatical and typographical has been consulted. has also been used. Muhammad 'Arabshah al-Isfara'inl Ahmad b. dus. number Mustafa with an appendix containing that of al-Khayall men- tioned above and one of Ramadan b. use has been made of the Cairo text of A. It may attempt to meet historical criticism and a new atomic age with radical adaptations of its ancient system to new ideas rather than yield its authority to some other power.H.H. also printed as . References to this text will read A. The Cureton some respects text (London. which contains the supercommentary by al-Khayali mentioned above and also one by Mulla Ahmad al Jundl. sections in the text is The translator alone responsible for the chapter divisions and commentary as published and in headings as they appear in this translation. 1329.D. Further references to this work will be designated 'I. The Constantinople text of A. Where these differences represent additions to the text as found in the commentary. 1843) of al-Nasafl's short creed differs in in the three editions of al-Taftazanfs from that found com- mentary which have been mentioned.xxxii Traditions. In any case this commentary of al-Taftazam on the articles of Islamic Belief as stated by al-Nasafl remains a record of what orthodox Islam has thought and taught for more than five hundred years.

THE CREATOR AND THE ACTIONS OF 80 10. THE PROPHET. 3. 8.Contents INTRODUCTION IX PREFACE BY AL-TAFTAZANI 1. 15. SOME ESCHATOLOGICAL REALITIES SINS 99 107 Il6 13. 28 4. AND THE COMPARATIVE EXCELLENCE OF MEN AND ANGELS 165 171 BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX 177 . AND PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD 19. 5. BELIEF 14. AND BOOKS OF ALLAH THE ASCENSION OF THE PROPHET AND MIRACLES THE KHALIFATE AND IMAMATE VARIOUS ARTICLES OF BELIEF CONCERNING WORSHIP. 6. THE DIVINER. AND 152 NABIDH 1 8. 12. THE WIPING ON THE INNER SHOES. ANGELS. 17. THE COMPANIONS OF 127 136 14! K). MUJTAHIDS. THE FEELING OF SECURITY AND DESPAIR. THE MESSENGERS. VARIOUS ARTICLES OF BELIEF CONCERNING THE RANK OF THE WALI. THE PEOPLE OF THE INNER MEANING. 3 5 15 THE REAL ESSENCES OF THINGS THE CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE THE WORLD 2. 7. THE NON-EXISTENT. 157 VARIOUS ARTICLES OF BELIEF CONCERNING THE LAST HOUR. THE CREATURE'S LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ALLAH'S SUSTENANCE AND GUIDANCE 88 11. THE ORIGINATOR OF THE WORLD SOME ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAH 36 49 58 67 74 HIS CREATURES THE ATTRIBUTE OF SPEECH THE ATTRIBUTES OF CREATING AND WILLING THE BEATIFIC VISION OF ALLAH 9.

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i/4 Commentary on Creed of Islam the .

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2 A translation of al-Nasafi's Creed is given in Macdonald's Development. Wensinck. pearls] 1 Running are jewels and precious stones of through the text of the creed] these [gems and certainty. 236 f. May Allah raise his rank in the abode of Peace. Ahmad I. pp. and on his family and his Companions. al-Nasafi (A. Geschichte der arabischen Utteratur. entitled which is devoid of the darkness of doubts and the obscurities of fancies. Creed. io2f.D. Bless- ings on His Prophet Muhammad. list of the writings of Sa'd al-Din Mas'ud b.H. I. It includes under the headings of this branch of knowledge the most pearls of great value [6] striking gems and which are the fundamental standf ards of our religion. the example of the learned of Islam and the star of our faith and religion. 308 fT. 'Umar al-Nasafl. Compassionate One (al-rahmdn) . who is perfection of His attributes. 1068-1142) given in Brockelmann's Geschichte. 427 f. IV. the Merciful. 215 f. unique in the majesty of His essence and the and who is separated [4] from blemishes and marks of defect through the qualities that belong to His great Power.D. The Muslim For the A. 722-791 1322-1389) sec Brockclmann. and also the Encyclopaedia of Islam. of Islam. II. who has been aided by His forceful arguments and clear proofs. pp. guides and protectors of the path of Reality. PRAISE BE to Allah. 604 fT. For the importance of such trea/ises see Enc. The brief treatise known as the "Articles of Belief (al-'aqaid) is by the painstaking Imam. 'Umar al-Taftazanl (A. A list of the writings of Najm al-DIn is Abu Hafs 'Umar b.H. To continue: The basis of the science of laws and judgments and the al-Kaldm.. 8 i ff. foundation of the rules concerning the science of the unity of the Deity articles of Islamic Belief [5] is the and His attributes. yet at the same time the . 8 Ln the name of Allah..Preface by TO HIS COMMENTARY ON THE ARTICLES OF BELIEF 8 BY AL-NASAFI. A. 460-537. Muhammad b. .

clearly calling attention to its purpose. to straighten out general principles the involved things and reveal those that are concealed. The values of the work are manifold in spite of its conciseness. and by striking the happy brevity and tediousness. I achieved this end by ridding commentary of tautology and wearisomcness. and of Him we seek preservation from error and guidance to the goal. The detailed application of the proofs an effect of their presentation. my medium between . The inter- pretation of the doctrines comes after proper introduction. Allah is the guide to the path of those'who are led. He is my sufficiency. I have tried to explain the brief treatise so as to give the details of clarify the intricacies of the subject. and The verification of the problems is is a result of the statement of them. while at the same time keeping the record concise. and excellent is the Guardian.4 acme PREFACE BY AL-TAFTAZANI of conciseness and instruction and the last word in good order and its arrangement.

and what is allowable. (2) recommendation (nadb) which is a demand. IV. The science Muslim technical use may be either legal (sha^i) or nonjudgment. 14 f. 332. an ordinance or decree. Terms. so when the term The Law (al-shar*) is used by al-Taftazam. of Islam. The legal judgment referred to here is an expression for the judgment of Allah which is related to legally responsible human beings (cf. All acts of Muslims come under one of these five headings. necessity (wujub).. It includes not only as does our criminal law what one should not do and the penalties for transgression but also what is incumbent on the Muslim. Les Prolegomenes theologiques de Senoussi (Algiers..Chapter THE REAL ESSENCES OF THINGS T and [7] JLhe People of Reality say that the real essences of things exist in reality that the knowledge of them is verifiable as real in contradiction to the Sophists.) says that a legal etc. this very broad usage must be kept in mind. (4) disapproval (fcaraAa) which is a demand. al-Ta'rifdt. Kitdb Nih&yatu 'l-lqddm. 1908). pp. II. al-Bardhin (pp. like the prayer at dawn. as for example belief in Allah and His Messengers and the five pillars of Islam. though not absolute.. 260. I. Enc. 34 f. 97). adultery. 15. Luciani. judgments (al~ah1(am al-shariya) there are some which are connected with practice and are called derived (far'iya) and legal practical (^amaliya)\ KNOW THAT of the * and are 1 called and there are others which are connected with dogma fundamental (asliya) and doctrinal (itiqadlya). Enc. though not absolute. 320 tf. This was originally made up from the Qur'an and Tradition but Agreement (ijmd') and Analogy (qiyas) were added later making four bases for the law. Cf. ff. 372 ft. See Wensinck. or a rule in grammar. The rational judgment (al-hul(m al-aqli) may be any one of three categories. The judgment is Muslim Creed. such as marriage or trade. . Al-SanusI in the commentary on his Hufyn (a judgment) in legal (ghayr-sha/i) as a logical Umm by means of demand or permission or by the laying down of postulates for these two. Diet. like the recitation of the Qur'an during the bowings and prostrations. al-Shahrastani. etc. Between the first two and the last two of these four is permission (jawdz} which is the choice between the doing and omitting of a thing. that a thing be done. Four things go to make up demand. J. (i) obligation (ijdb) which is the absolute demand that a thing be done. D. (3) prohibition (tahrim) which is the absolute demand for the refraining from an act like ascribing a partner to Allah. what is praiseworthy. for refraining from an act. of Islam. of Tech. The whole branch of law known as al-shar" or al-sharVa is the legal system of duties in Islam resting on an absolute basis. III. 273 p. p. impossibility (istihdla) and possibility (jawdz or imkjin). pp.

122. well. Diet. For the significance of these see Goldziher. 1896). Follower (tab? or tab ft) is one who though he personally did not know the Prophet IV. 97 fT. but who nevertheless have the same qibla. 6 There is a technical usage for the phrase ahl al-ahwd' (people of personal desires). and they also dispensed with the statement of their investigations in these two sciences both as to developments and fundamentals. of Tech. Terms. * The eulogia throughout the translation are as a rule omitted after the first occurrence. bea Muslim. The earliest of the (al'tabfiri) 2 8 Companions (al-sahaba) and their Followers Allah be pleased with them all 4 because the articles of their were pure through the blessing of their association with the Prophet on him be peace. 299) calls them "people of wandering desires.6 REAL ESSENCES OF THINGS first connected with the [8] is called the science of canon laws and judg- ments because these things are not comprehended except from the canon law (al-sha/). pp. This condition continued until controversies arose among the Muslims. al-Ta*rifdt. p. al-Ttfrifat. 8 Eidta (plur. 133.) calls them Unbelievers and says that it is not permissible to perform worship behind them or over their dead. (pp. because of these things they dispensed with putting all down in writing the material of the two sciences and with dividing it into divisions and sections..* There was a multiplicity of legal decisions cases arose. however. with attempting to arrive at a correct opinion the Learned (al-ulama 2 A Companion lieved 8 on him. p. 712 f. 807 f.. p. 477 f. 41. . because the period in which they lived was near to his time. Terms. Diet. Cf. Enc.) seems to think that properly speaking they should be put beyond the pale of the recognized religions. Terms. 1543. But al-Shahrastam in al-Milal wa 'l-Nihal. Diet. of Tech. Enc. Enc. pp. (al-fatatvi) and of occasions from which f and much referring to ) in important matters. Macdonald (Development. and there appeared a clashing of opinions sonal desires and a tendency to innovations (al-bida') 6 and to per(al-ahwa). the meaning of this term differs. pp. Enc. I. Terms. Diet. because there were few occasions of attack and disagreement and because belief they were able to go back to absolutely reliable authority." They arc said to be people of erroneous opinions. of Tech. of Islam." in Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenldndischen Gesellschaft. 44. And the science connected with the second the science of the unity (al-tawhld) is its and attri- butes (al'sifai) of the Deity. of Tech.. and it is only to these that the understanding turns when the [term] judgment is mentioned without further is definition. and died A (sahib or $ahabl) is one who met the Prophet during his life. whose belief is not that of ahl al-sunna. So they busied themselves with speculation and deduction. 583- knew one of his Companions. 166 f. since this [subject of unity] vestigation [9] most noted in- and its noblest object. I. bida') is some view or practice which is an innovation and is not according to the established usage of Islam. of Islam. I. 183. p. pride prevailed among the leaders of the faith {al-din). of Islam. "Uber die Eulogien der Muhammcdaner. pp. 350 f. Al-BaghdadI (al-Farq bayn al-Firaq. 24 and 201 f. of Islam. L (Leipzig. p.

The Guide for the Perplexed. in which there is reference to these eight explanations of al-Taftazanl. just as said of the stronger of two discourses. whereas others are sometimes verified by meditation and the it it is perusal of books. 22 fL. so to speak. J. However. [10] of al-fiqh to that which pertained to the science of the derived from their detailed proofs. with the multiplying of proofs to problems and stating the matters in which there were ambiguities and their explanations. 15) says that the evident meaning of this term throughout the book is the People of the Approved Way and the Community (ahl al-sunna wa 'l-jamffa). Terms. p. 670 ff. 42 f. "The discourse (al-tylam) about such-and-such". Lest they be confused with those realists who believe only in the reality of ideas. so much so that [//] some of the leaders subject investigations. 107 8 ff. with the arrangement of [the material related to them in] divisions and sections. (5) beof the sciences cause two can be verified only by discussion and interchange of speech from sides. but also that they are peculiar in that they believe in the reality of things. 1 as The reasons for this are (i) because the subject of its investigations was their saying. 332 ff. so speech the most disputatious and controversial was greatly needed for conversing with those of its opposite view and for refuting them. de Boer. I. of Islam. Al-KhayalI ('I. Le Guide des egares. with the establishing of rules and fundamentals.. (2) because the problem of [the meaning its of the term] Speech [predicated of Allah] was the most celebrated of most strongly disputed. with determining the conventional usages and the technical terms. "the speech" (al-kjdldm) to the exclusion is other sciences. and the of the most controversy. T. so this term [speech] was applied to this science. and "the fundapractical judgments mentals oi al-fiqh" to the science of the terms of the proofs taken together as a They gave the name they whole in proving the judgments. of Tech.D. pp. and the science of the articles of Belief come straight from their proofs they called al-^alam. also Diet. the term "People of Reality" has been used. II. 223. "This 7 Sec Enc. Philosophy in Islam. Maimonides (Munk). Cf. (3) because it imparts ability in speech and in compelling adversaries to submit just as it is logic (al-mantiq) imparts ability in philosophy. (4) because the first which can be known and learned by speech only. See also Enc. (Friedlander).. and with pointing out the [various] ways of proceeding and the differences. and then it was exclusively used for it and not applied to any other science for sake of distinction. . from al-Taftazam's explanation the term means not only that they alone were right and therefore orthodox as some translate the term. the killed to many of these People of Reality (ahl al-haqq) 8 because they failed in verifying legal matters admit the creation of the Qur'an. pp.. of Islam. pp. (7) because of the cogency of argu- ments of all it has become. (6) because of the sciences.. II.REAL ESSENCES OF THINGS and to elicit 7 meaning from the texts.

pp.. III. the al-Matundl. 244. 283 ff. and the Resurrection. Terms. 555 f. 33. Al-sunna also came to mean the theory and practice of the catholic Muslim community. and sam'iydt. IX. 93. al-ljl. p. Sayyid Murtacla's commentary on the Ihya' of where he quotes this statement of al-Khayall. Syria. different because they were which laid the foundation for both that the plain teaching of the Approved Way which contradicts [12] J1 and that which the (al-sunna) Community (al-jamd'a) of the all Allah on them the approval of (al-sahaba) followed in the matter of the articles of Belief. 4 11 f. the Agreement (ijmd') of the Muslim Community (jamS'a) and Analogy (qiyds). pp. 6 f. 98 f. Lane. Musnad. al-Baghdadl. Sec also al-fji. the other three bases being the Qur'an. of Islam. 332 f.e. 'Ata'. See al-Bayjurl in his commentary on Kifdyat al-Awdmm ft 'llm al-Kaldm by al-Fadali.. but he also considers his position on Belief as Murji'ite (Maqaldt. . al-Shahrastani. make different groupings al-Shahrastani. a way. p.). 1025. (cf. Iraq. Ihya' (with the commentary by Sayyid Murtacla). or f. that is. That Companions [beginning of the Mu'tazilites] happened 9 when Wasil b. al-Ghazzall... pp. XVII. Al-Baghdadl. the Fire. 61 if. al-Farq bayn al-Firaq. For example al-Shahrastani finds many Mu'tazilite doctrines among p. of which one can only learn from the Qur'an Theology i. al-Milal. IV. 195) puts him. which is implied here in the statement of al-Taftazani. however.8 is 'the REAL ESSENCES OF THINGS discourse' ". Diet. Sec Enc. Under this third head there are included the matters concerning the Garden. Enc. al-Mawdqift p. manner of conduct.. Taj al-Arus. al-Farq bayn al-Firaq. especially the Mu'tazilites (al-Mutazila) the first sect [in the of the ancients (al-qudamd') . It sometimes means one of the four bases of Islam. AlKhayali ('I. II. pp. beyond the river (Oxus) they are the Maturidites. p. p." This the [understanding of the term] mind] folam Most of the controversies about al-kalam occurred among the Islamic sects.). Different writers. The account which al-Mawdqif. ildhiydt. 75. P- the followers of al-Najjar (al-Milal. p. 787 ff... p. as does al-Ash'ari (Maqdldt. 135 f. number of the sects of the Mu'tazilites is often given as twenty. al- Farq. 127 Diet. is said to concern itself with three things. Cf. Ahmad b. and to those things which are only established by hearing. things relating to the Deity. The term is also applied in worcourse. their leader. to the prophets. of Tech. 120. Ill. Usan al-Arab. Lexicon. al-Baghdadl. So it is called al-^alam as is on and penederived from though d-J(alm t that is. 703 ff. but that in the lands followers of Abu Mansur II.). ship and other rites of Islam to those utterances and acts that are praiseworthy but not absolutely prescribed. whereas al-Baghdadl (al-Farq bayn al-Firaq. 332. means the people of whole orthodox communities who refrain from innovation and deviation from the beaten path. most of which arc supported by proofs it is on authority (al-satrilya)? consequently the strongest in influence tration into the heart. al'Milal. and al-Ghazzall. p.. 145. 213 10 ffl follows is the story told in most Muslim books regarding the origin of the Mu'tazilites. have many meanings in Islam: Terms. The term ahl al-sunna wa 'l-jam&a. of Tech. The stress laid by the writers on enumerating these sects is undoubtedly due to a tradition of the Prophet that his people would be divided into seventy-three sects some say seventy-two only one of which would be in Paradise. . 1438. Sunn a. 335. 14) adds that they are the Ash'arites in Khurasan. Cf. p. pp. under a separate heading. came to sec al'Ta'rffat. p. 89 f.. that which was the usage in speech or deed or the approved manner of conduct of the Prophet. The. and Tradition. of Islam.D. and most countries. (8) and because it is based on decisive proofs (adilla to be believed its qat'lya). Hanbal. 3) and are not entirely agreed on those who are to be called Mu'tazilites. II. nabawlydt. "the wound.

another disobedient. pp. and al-Shahrastam. "He has withdrawn from us. first will and the the third in infancy?" .REAL ESSENCES OF THINGS withdrew from the circle of 9 al-Hasan al-Basri Allah have mercy on him asserting that the one who committed a great sin was neither a Believer nor an Unbeliever and maintaining that he was in an intermediate position. shouldst 'Lord. "The Lord would say. Islam plunged (\hada) into the points in they attempted to refute the Philosophers . He and worked from that time at refuting the Mu'tazilite view and main- taining that which the [14] the Approved Way had handed down and that which community did. 480. "And what the third should say. Abu 'All al-Jubba'I. "The will be be rewarded with Garden (alcanna) the second if punished with the Fire (al-nar) y and the third will neither be rewarded nor punished. He answered. .. 11-30. [/j] Subsequently they went deep into the science of al-fylam and added the fringes of the Philosophers to many of their principles. line. whom died obedient.* Al-Ash'ari said. and that what some call creation was an emanation from the Deity. 'I knew that if thou grow up thou wouldst disobey and enter the Fire. Cf. 251 flF. Hence they are called the People of the Approved the followers of Way and the Community (ahl al-sunna wa 'l-iamaa)." so they were called <d-Mu'tazila (the Withdrawers). II. and they denied that He has eternal attributes. on which they differed from the canon law (al-shan a) So they mixed up with kaldm much of philosophy in order to understand thoroughly the goals of philosophy and so to be put into a position to show the unreality 12 The philosophy (al-falsafa) referred to here and throughout the treatise is that system which had for its principal sources Aristotelian natural science and Neoplatonic speculation and which taught the eternity of the world. Macdonald. "And if the second should say.. 161 fT. why didst Thou make me die in infancy. "What have you one of to say about three brothers. Then when philosophy 12 was translated into Arabic and it. Philosophy in Islam. al-Uilal. so it was better " for thce to die in infancy." Al-Ash'ari answered. But they called themselves the Maintainers of Justice said and the Divine Unity (ashab al-adl wa *l-taivhid)t because they that the reward of the obedient and the punishment of the disobedient are incumbent on Allah. Development. 'Lord. pp. Their school of thought spread among the people until al-Shaykh Abu '1-Hasan al-Ash'arl said to his teacher. of Islam. pp. and obeyed and thus entered the Garden?' What would the Lord the Exalted say then?" He answered. De Boer. why didst Thou not cause me to die in infancy so that I should not disobey and enter the Fire?' What would the Lord say then?" Al-Jubba'i was his confounded and al-Ash'arl abandoned followers his school of thought. and not detain me until I grew up and believed on Thee. Al-Hasan said.

and to different schools of practice Its is is (al-madhdhib) with reference to their inclusion of reality. the unreal (d-batif). .io of it. it its opposite especially distinc- applied to propositions. because proofs are the decisive arguments most of which are aided by evidences that are based on authority. reads bctd (some) for k. This is the \cdam of the Later because it is Theologians (cd-muttta tyfyirun ) In general \alam the most noble of the sciences. tion that opposite is falsehood (al-fodhib). to articles of Belief. hibition of who had failed to attain certainty. It is is the judgment which corresponds with the actual applied in a general sense to proposi- tions. pairs of contrast is The may be made between these two that in the case 'ID. But as for the term truth (al-sidq). For this actions. third. and fourth. first. because its subject matter is the articles of Belief of Islam. to religions. The People of Reality (ahl al-haqq) say/Reality fact. Otherwise how can one conceive the prohibition of the foundation upon which our is obligations rest and the basis of laws regarding practice? [75! Furthermore the basis of \alam is that there deduced from the existence of originated things (al-muhdathdt) the existence of the (al-san?). second. knowledge concerning both of them.hadu f. was only directed against the religious zealot and the one and against the one who purposed to and the one who plunged need- destroy the articles of Belief of the Muslims lessly into the obscurities of those who claimed to be philosophers. . that thereby one might which is the most important goal of Therefore al-Nasafl said. His all Maker attributes and His the rest of the things which are to it and from these things be believed on authority. the foundation of the legal judgments and the chief of the religious sciences. REAL ESSENCES OF THINGS This went on until they included in \darn most of physics and metaand plunged 18 into mathematics until theology was hardly to be distinguished from philosophy had it not been that it included "things to be physics believed on authority" is (al-sam'lyai) . As to what has been reported of the Fathers of the that first generations (al-salaf) of Islam concerning their attack against tyldm and their proit. reason was suitable to begin the treatise by calling attention to the existence of that verify the which is observed of substances and accidents and to attain the understanding of that all. because its aim is the attaining of the happiness of this its life and the next. His unity.

identity of a thing reality. al-1(a'ina. as is exemplified by the in contrast to the application of the term "rational (natiq) animal" to application of the terms "laughing animal" man and "writing animal".) 115 Kawn. although they denied the rest of the categories. of Tech. 1274) quoting the Commentary on al-Mawdqif says. from the standpoint judgment" judgment. . Terms.' There are then three things in the process. and in the case of truth is n of is seen from the standpoint (al-sidq). 2.REAL ESSENCES OF THINGS of reality (al-haqq) the correspondence [/6] of the actual fact. the Jahmiya said it is that which is originated. which they called fawn. admitted that of place (al-ayn). p. Thus al-tahaqquq (being verified as having real existence). and with respect to being individualized." Isis. There are four species of al-\awni motion. with respect to its being verified as having external its a real essence. 48. So they called obtaining a boundary 'al-%a'ina' and the cause of this obtaining 'al-kawn. which is often translated "being." inasmuch as they [laughing and writing] And it may be said further that that which constitutes the is. Macdonald. Terms (p. With the Ash'aritcs the shay' was the entity (mawjud) but with Mu'tazilites it included the non-entity (ma'dum). terms "laughing" and "writing. rest. and the terms al-thubut (real existence). "Atomic Time. being separated into parts. p. (Diet. 17. 'I. and called it al-kflwn. that is there was no quality subsisting in the jawhar itself. the jawhar itself and the obtaining of a boundary in existence. but without respect to either of these it is a quiddity..*' See al-Taftazam. IX. and the meaning of them is immediately perceived (badlhl al-tasawwur). in our opinion the term shay 14 (a thing) is identical with the term al-mawjud (that which exists). The majority of them said that the jawhar [self-subsistent entity] itself was all that was required for obtaining the boundary (al-hayyiz) which marked existence. oj "Tech. Hisham said it is the body.. [77] as not being described in which case it is possible to conceive of man by the are accidents." The Diet. it is a certain particular thing (huwiya).D. The Basriya and al-Jahiz of the the it Mu'tazilitcs defined as the eternal it as that which is known (ma'lum)\ al-Nashl Abu'l-'Abbas defined (qadim) and in the case of "that which is originated" it is used metaphorically. al-wujud (existence) and al-l(awn 15 (coming-into-existence) are synonymous. 729.jawhar. p. 14 Al-shay'.D. and aggregation of the parts. "The Mutakallims." really has the significance of "coming into being" or "state of coming into being. But those of the Mutakallims who established the states (al-ahwal) said that this obtaining a boundary on the part of a jawhar was caused by a quality which subsisted in it. p. al. And the meaning of the expression "the truth of a the agreement of the judgment with the actual fact. that the real essences of things exist in reality/The real essence (al-haqiqa) of a thing and its quiddity (d-mahiya) arc that which constitutes the identity of a thing (md bihi 'I shay' huwa huwd). and al-fywn. So there were two things. 'I. and the the expression "the reality of a judgment" is meaning of the agreement of the actual fact with the judgment. 329.

when taken with respect him is tautologi- and that the knowledge of them/that is. In the case of man. Cf. pp.. 665 f. then to predicate animality of cal." "horse/' "sky. but. both of that which they are perceived to be (tasawwur) and of that which is affirmed of them or of their modes is verifiable as real/Some say that what this statement refers to is un- doubtedly the knowledge of the reality of the existence of the essences. to predicate of him animality conveys useful information. Kitdb al-Fisal. [20 \ In reply those of may who say that there is no real existence to any of the essences and also those who say that there can be no knowledge of the fact whether an esis be said that the reference here to the genus. . and useless when it is seen in another. ment conveys some strated useful information. in contradiction to the Sophists l (al'Sufasta'iya)/For some the real essences of things 10 and maintain that they are fancies them deny (awhdm) and of The origin of this word is plainly the Greek ffoQurreia (sophistry)." and "earth" analogous to the statement that the necessarily existent being (wdjib al-wujud) is existent. They are more I. when taken with respect to his being a body of some sort. These three schools are defined in al-Tctrijat in almost the same words. 65 ff. 163 . of the real essences. . in which case the statement is self-evident [and hence conveys no useful information]. 8 Terms. pp. The Muslim Creed. pp. [18] to this we answer that what is meant thereby is that what we believe to be the real essences of things and is designate by certain terms such as "man. 251 . in refutation of sence has real existence or has no real existence. for in- stance. for to to this know it the essences themselves as a whole is impossible. nor is it am Abu '1-Najm and my poetry is my poetry. not like the statement that the really existent like the statement [/p] that things exist in reality. in consequence of which when something is predicated of it the judgment may be useful when the thing is seen in one fact that a aspect. pp. al-Sa'adya. Ktiab al-Amanat. And the verification of this is to be found in the thing may have different aspects..12 REAL ESSENCES OF THINGS if it is But objected that such a logical statement as that the real essences is of things exist in reality tautological in the same way as our stating that really existent things exist in reality. of Tech. to his being a rational animal. Ibn Hazm. in fact It is it may have I to be demon- by argument. This stateIt is something existing in the things themselves. fully explained in the Diet. 200. Wensinck..

It is evident that this argument applies to the Obstinate only. Terms. as in the case of the may sometimes the bilious squint-eyed who sees one to be two. that something of real essence has been established to negate it and that it is not proper absolutely. XXVIII (i935> 9 & 17 Wahm ]awhar the Atomists of Islam. pp. 85.REAL ESSENCES OF THINGS 13 vain imaginations (tyayaldt)." when the term al-jawhar al-fard ff. so that if if we believe a thing to be a subit a substance. ff. . is used." These are the Obstinate (al-inadiya). See Macdonald. is The Early Theologians it the sel-subsistent entity or substance as opposed to the accident ('arad). said it was that of which other things were compounded. [27] These are the Agnostics (al-ld-adriya). but we believe to be an accident it it is an accident. then the real existence of if. 1027. and so on. 123 f. but as Asiatic Society (1922)." Journal of the Royal 506 ff. 328. those things has been established. then. 2. "Wahm and Its Cognates. Diet. [As for the Opinioners and the Agnostics].. pp. of Tech. 3 Macdonald. others deny that there can be any knowl- edge of whether a thing has real existence or not. Le Guide des egarh. I. "The Internal Senses in Latin.. with regard to those knowledge described as necessary (al-daruriydt) that (a) some of them are sense perceptions (al-hissiyat).. and khayal. "Atomic Time." lsis> IX. either by sense perception or by demonstration. of Tech. Terms. to prove our point of view we first convince ourselves. however. [22] but that sense perception err. Diet. al-Najdt. and of who finds the sweet bitter.. As for us. Pines. again. 19 See Ibn SIna. that if Then from this premise we argue the negation of those things is not proven. 179. Others deny the real existence of essences. Beitrage. they types of say." Harvard Theological Review. But with especially means "atom. These are the Opinioners (al-indiya). and Wolfson. Maimonides (Munk). al-Ttfrifat. pp. pp. I. 385 ff. or but if if we it believe a thing to be eternal it is (qadim) is eternal. See Enc. we believe to be originated (hddith) 19 Still originated. the negation its has been proven. 203 fT. (Friedlander). (c) Another type of necessary knowledge [they say] is that arrived at by means of syllogistic speculations (al-nazariyat) [from major premises which are either sense perceptions or immediate perceptions]. maintaining that essences only follow from what one happens stance (jawhar) 18 it is to believe.. Arabic and Hebrew Philosophic Texts. of the necessity of establish- ing that certain things have real existence. and (b) some of them are immediate which there is perceptions (al-badihiydt) but that these are subject to differences of opinion and are open to ambiguities for the solving of need of subtle speculation. 355 p. They assert that they are in doubt and that they are in doubt even of their doubt. inasmuch as that negation by virtue of species of being a judgment is one of the real essences it necessarily follows. 1212. p. pp. But on the other hand.

14

REAL ESSENCES OF THINGS
unsoundncss of these major premises, there

for these [they argue J with the

necessarily follows the unsoundness of the conclusions.

And

it

is

for this

reason [they add] that thinking human beings have many differences of opinion [concerning conclusions arrived at by syllogistic speculations].

To these we reply:
(a)

The

error that

may

occur in sense perception by reason of par-

ticular causes in certain instances does not negate the validity of the sense

perception in other instances where the particular causes of the error are not
present.

(b) The differences of opinion that may occur with respect to immediate perceptions by reason of one's lack of acquaintance with the subject or of one's difficulty in forming a clear notion of the subject on account of its
abstruseness
tions.

do not destroy the

possibility of

forming immediate percep-

(c) The many differences of opinion that may occur in conclusions arrived at by syllogistic speculation as a result of the unsoundness which may sometimes occur in the act of speculation do not destroy in other instances

the validity of conclusions arrived at by syllogistic speculation. But the truth is that there is no way to enter into discussion with them,

do not admit anything known by which [2j] an unknown is to be established. Rather the only way is to punish them with the Fire, that they may either confess or be consumed in
especially the Agnostics, because they

the Fire.

a name given to falsified wisdom and specious knowledge, bemeans knowledge and wisdom, and asta means the specious and false. And from this is derived al-safsataf just as falsafa is derived from fayldsiifa (philosopher), which means "the lover of wisdom."
Siifastd
is

cause sufa

Chapter
THE CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE

T
taste,

_he JLhc

causes of

narrative,

knowledge for all creation are three: the sound senses, true and Reason. The senses are five, namely, hearing, seeing, smelling,
these senses one
is

for

which

and touch, and by each of it was appointed.
narrative
is

informed concerning that

True
it is

of

two kinds: one of them

is

the mutawatlr narrative,

and

the narrative established by the tongues of people of

whom

it is

incon-

ceivable that they sary

would agree together on a
as the

falsehood. It brings about necesin past times

knowledge such

knowledge of former kings
is
it

and of

distant countries.

The

second kind

the narrative of the Messenger aided

by an evidentiary miracle, and

brings about deductive knowledge, and the

knowledge

established by

it

resembles the knowledge established by neces-

sity in certainty

and

in fixity.
it is

Then

as for Reason:

a cause of
is

knowledge

also;

and whatever of

it is

established by immediate perception

necessary, just as the
it;

the whole of a thing

is

greater than the part of

knowledge and whatever is established

that

by deduction

is

acquired.
is

Illumination

not one of the causes of the cognition of the soundness of a

thing with the People of Reality.

The
ject

causes of knowledge

yKnowledge

is

an attribute of the knowing sub-

by means

of

to

him; that

is

which any object referred to becomes revealed (yatajalla) to say, it becomes clear and evident and capable of being
is

described by words, and this regardless of whether that object

something

(ma'dum). Knowledge inexisting cludes both the comprehension (al-idrafy by the senses and the comprehension by Reason (al-aql), and this again both of things conceived

(mawjud)

or something non-existing

1

Cf. Wcnsinck,

The Muslim Creed,

pp. 248

ff .,

for a discussion of the roots

o knowl-

edge.

16

CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE
latter of

(d'tasawwurat) and of things asserted (d-ta$diqat), the
be both certainties (al-yaqinlya)
2

which may

and

non-certainties (ghayr al-yaqlniya) .

This

tribute [of the
tive

view of the Sophists that knowledge is an atknowing subject by means of] which [he] makes an affirmajudgment of which the contradictory (al-naqid) cannot be admitted.
is

in opposition to the

This definition of

theirs,

although

it

includes the comprehension of the
is

senses, provided only that the thing to be perceived

not inaccessible to the

senses;

[24] and although

it

also includes the things conceived [by Reason]

contradictories; yet

provided only, as they claim, that the things to be conceived do not have it does not include the non-certainties of things asserted.
their view. Accordingly the revelation of
to

So much for

an object

to the
8

knower must be taken

mean

a complete unveiling (al-intyshaf al-tamm)

[which has been identified with knowledge] and therefore precludes opinion 4 so that knowledge with them is to be contrasted with opinion. (al-zann)
for all creation (al-tyalq) /that
5

is,

for all created beings,

whether angels,

men

knowledge of the Creator who is exalted in and Himself for knowledge belongs to His essence and is not due through to any cause whatsoever [25]
or jinn, in contrast to the

are three: the sound senses (al- hawass al-salima), true narrative (al-^habar

al-sadiq\ and Reason
particulars (al-istiqra')J

6

(al-aql)

/This

is

by way of enumerating the
if

From

the standpoint of classification,

the cause
it

of the knowledge
true

is

some other person outside
if

the knower, then
is

is

narration;

[but

the cause of

knowledge

within the knower

2 Cf. Al-Risdla

"Wahm
8 Cf.

and

its

al-Shamsiya, pp. 33 ff.; Diet, of Tech. Terms, p. 1537, and Macdonald, Cognates," Jour. Roy. As. Soc., 1922, pp. 507 ff.; al-Ghazzali, Mi'ydr al-

7/m, pp. 125!?., i59fT.
Enc. of Islam, II, 787; Hortcn, Die speculative und positive Theologie des Islam, 237; Macdonald, Development, pp. 120, 172 f. 4 Al-zann is that faculty which produces opinion or belief with the admission that the contrary may be the case. See al-Ta'rifdt, p. 149; Diet, of Tech. Terms, pp. 939 f.; Wolfson, "Internal Senses," Harvard Theological Review, XXVIII (1935), 93 fT.; Ibn Sina,
p.

99 f.; al-Ghazzall, Mi'ydr al-llm, pp. 128 fT. Al-khalq. This use of the verbal noun for the passive participle goes back to the Qur'an. See Qur. 31:10 (al-Bayo'awi, Anwar al-Tanzll, II, 112); Qur. 36:79 (Anwar alal-Najat, pp.
5

Tanzil,

II,

i65f.),

etc.

6 See al-Sa'adya,

Kitdb al-Amdndt
is

wa
to

l-Vtiqdddt, p. 12

fT.

This threefold classification

of the kinds of
7

knowledge
II,

common

Muslim, Christian, and Jew. Wolfson, The Philos-

ophy of Spinoza,
Al-istiqrd*
is

133.

judgment concerning a universal based on particulars. See Diet, of 1229; al-Ta'rifdt, p. 18; al-Risdla al-Shamsiya, p. ^3; Ibn Sina, al-Na/dt, p. 90; al-Ghazzali, MFydr al-'llm, pp. 102 fT.
the

Tech. Terms,

p.

CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE
himself] then,
if

17
faculty (al-

there

is

an organ

distinct

from the perceptive
Reason.

mudri%),

it is

sense perception; otherwise,

it is

Objection
all

may

be raised that the

efficient

cause (d-sabab d-muaththir) in

kinds of knowledge is Allah, since they all exist through His creation and His bringing them into existence without any impression (ta'thir) being made by the sensory faculty, true narration, and Reason. Reason only appears to be a cause, as for instance
senses
fire in

the case of burning;

and

as for the

and

narration, the former are only instruments

and the

latter a

method

of comprehension.

Further objection

may be raised that the ultimate cause (d-sabab d-mufdi) taken as a whole wherein Allah creates within us knowledge according
way
8

to the customary

(jary al-dda)

in order to include the percipient

(d-mudril() such as Reason, the instrument such as the sensory faculty, and the method such as narration is not confined to three things, but there are
other things such as sensibility (d-wijdan)? surmise (al~hads), lQ experience
11

(d-tajriba) 9

arrangement of principles
[26]
the

and the speculation (d-nazar) of the Reason, meaning the and premises (muqaddimdt)
.

To

this

we

reply that this [threefold division given]

is

according to

method of

the Early Theologians,

who

limited themselves to the aims

pursued and shunned the minute precisions of the Philosophers.
these theologians discerned that

When
as the

some

of the things perceived

came
is

result of the use of the external senses,

about which there

no doubt,

whether in rational beings or non-rational beings, they, therefore, made the senses one of the causes; and since most of the things known about religion
are derived from true narrative, they

made

it

another cause. Since they were
2

not positive about the internal senses (d-hawdss d-batina)?
called the

which are

common

sense (d-hiss d-mushtarat()
else;

13

or the estimative faculty

(al-wahm) or something

and because they did not attach much im-

8 MacJary al-dda. This term is one of the key phrases of the Atomistic theologians. donald, "Atomic Time," his, IX, 2, p. 332. Cf. Maimonides (Munk), Lc Guide des cgarcs, I, 388 ff.; (Friedlander), The Guide for the Perplexed, pp. 124 ff.; Pines, Beitr&gc,

pp. 26

ff .

9 See Diet, of

Tech. Terms, p. 1455. 10 Sec al-Risdla al-Shamsiya, p. 34; al-Ta'rifdt, p. 86; Diet, of Tech. Terms, pp. 300 f. 11 See al-Risdla al-Shamsiya, p. 34; Diet, of Tech. Terms, pp. 189 f.; Ibn Sina, al-Najdt,
pp. 94 f . 12 Sec

al-Najdt, pp. 264 18 See
Diet, of Tech.

Wolfson, "Internal Senses," Harv. Theol. Rev., XXVIII (i935> ff.; al-Ghazzali, Uaqajid d-Faldsifa, III, 46 ft.

69(1.; Ibn Sina,

Macdonald, "Wahm and its Cognates," Jour. Roy. At. Soc., 1922, pp. 512 f.; Terms, p. 304; Wolfson, "Internal Senses," Harv. Theol. Rev., XXVIII (i935)> ioo #.; al-Ghatzali, Maqdfid al-Faldfifa, III, 46 ft.

this faculty are perceived rays of light. and other things. by which sounds are perceived. on the front of the this faculty brain. aided by sense perception. shapes. are five/meaning that of necessity Reason determines their existence. measures. But the proofs for the internal senses. the perception of which Allah creates in the soul whenever the creature uses this faculty. This is by way of connecting with the ear hole the air which has assumed the quality of the sounds. they made Reason a third cause which knowledge by merely giving attention to or by drawing to itself a surmise or an experience or the arrangement of premises. hearing (al-sam)/l\. taste (d-dhawq) /It which is a faculty spread out in the nerves situated on the this faculty flavors are perceived organ of the tongue. (al-nafs). ultimately arrives at that the whole is greater than the part. namely. experiences (al-tajriblyat). The senses (al-hawdss) /The word is the plural of a sense (hassa).18 CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE portance to the details of surmises (al-hadsiydt). meaning the sensory faculty. is a faculty (qiiwa) placed in the nerves spread out in the cavity of the ear hole. thence they separate two eyes. is moon is is derived from the sun. motions. immediate perceptions (al-badihtydt) and speculations (al-nazarlydt) 9 and because all these go back to Reason. colors. which are two nipples of the by odors arc perceived by way of connecting with the cartilage of the nose the air which has assumed the quality of the odors. are in- complete according to the fundamentals of Islam. that scammony is a although in some matters Reason and that the world originated. by of the saliva is through the mixing in the mouth with the thing tasted. which the Philosophers maintain. and through its reaching to the nerves. smelling (al-shamm)/h is a faculty placed in the like the two protruding lumps breasts. that the light of the laxative. the beautiful and the ugly. meaning that [27] Allah then creates perception in the soul seeing (al-basar) /It is a faculty placed in the two hollow nerves which and go to the meet each other in the by brain. So they made Reason the cause of knowledge in that we have hunger and thirst. .

for narrative which there is something external with which the relationship agrees. taste for that which for odors. moisture and It is 19 the body by which a faculty spread out into dryness. So it is not impossible that Allah create after the loss of sight an added perception of sounds. all and the like are perceived at the time of touching and contact [28] and by each of these senses/that is. So truth and falsehood are descriptives of narrative.CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE and touch (al-lams)/ heat and cold. "the narrative of the truthful one" and in others it is 0(habar al-sadiq). possible or not there is is a However. taw&tur) is the most trustworthy from the standpoint of the number who attest it For the technical terms . This means [that narration the making [of something] known by fact. things peculiar to flavored. but as to whether that difference of opinion. and it is then false. rather the sweetness is is per- ceived by taste and the heat by the sense of touch which present in the mouth and True is the tongue. placed in annexation. is given knowledge concerning that for which it was appointed/that is. narrative/that is. a complete relationship which agrees [29] or does not agree with the the attributes applied to the narrator. They therefore may be used with the sense of giving information is about a thing according to is] what or what is not. such as hearing for sounds. is of two kinds: one of them it is the mutatvdtir 14 narrative/It is so called because does not occur just once. or the relationship does not agree with it. is and smelling Nothing is perceived by one sense which is is perceived by another sense. 14 In the science of Muslim traditions the mutawdtir (verbal noun. by a purely creative act of Allah without any impression on the part of the senses. but in sequence and continuity. This means that Allah has created each one of these senses to perceive certain it. so it is true. the correct position that it is possible. we reply in the negative. for example. that which is in [a form of] speech in relation to agreement with the fact. If the question is raised because it is whether the sweetness and heat of a thing are not both together perceived by the tasting faculty. that particular sense. the five senses one is informed/that is. so truth for this And and falsehood are among reason in some books the term "the true" is used as an attribute of "narrative" (al-tyabar al-sadiq).

They take it to mean that someone was crucified in his place. that proves it is that knowledge takes place It/of necessity brings about necessary knowledge such as the knowledge of former kings in past times and of distant countries/The further latter phrase "distant countries" may be joined to "the kings" or to "the times". the former. even by children to the right who have not yet been brought up way. 19:34) to his departure are often interpreted in such a way as to deny his crucifixion and death. 481 ff. 15 The denial by the Muslims of the killing of Jesus rests on the interpretation of a verse in the Qur'an (4:156). of traditions see Guillaumc. Reason does not permit their concurring together on a falsehood/The thing without any doubt. X (Paris. 3:37." is more likely although Here then arc away in position in the sentence. pp... two matters to be noted. and 181 f. in Notices ct cxtraits dcs manuscrits." . Objection may be raised that the narrative of each individual only gives an opinion (zann). by the method of the acquisition of knowledge and of arranging the necessary premises. The Traditions of Islam. 1818). and al-f abarl in their commentaries on these verses. 48. and also that the possibility of each individual's falsehood brings about the possibility of the whole group's falsehood. adds.20 and it it CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE the narrative established by the tongues of people of whom it is in- conceivable that they would agree together/that is. and that (al-Nasdra) concerning the killing of Jesus. J. and heaping opinion upon opinion does not bring about certainty. S. on whom be peace well. The other references (Qur. be obtained by one The other matter is that the is knowledge derived from such mutawdtir narrative because it necessary. 16 A. etc. "so the mutatvatir narrative does not give knowledge. and that may who is capable of making a deduction and by others as well. But as for the narrative of the Christians 15 on whom be peace. of the Jews (al-Yahud) concerning the perpetuity of the religion of Moses. 85 fi. one of them is that the mutawdtir narrative brings about [jo] ourselves to the knowledge and that of necessity. for it is made up of the same individuals. for we come is of knowledge of the existence of Mecca and Baghdad and that such facts are only gained through narratives. dc Sacy. 5:117. 16 To this we reply that is it often happens that in the collectively grouping together of individual cases there something in them used in classifying the content and authorities. namely "the kings. such mutawdtir narrative is absurd. See al-Bay^awi. al-Rizi.

.. Tusi. (4) appear at the hands of him who claims the office. 32. (see also the gloss of al-Khayali). as for instance in the strength of a rope of hairs. A. of Islam. Enc. in contrast to a prophet (al-nabi) is y for "prophet" a more general term. Phil. See II. pp. Hortcn. Al-Ta'rifdt. 'I. al-Milal. Terms. 53. pp. 30. Theologen im Islam.. and the bringing of a book may [52] be stipulated of him. Cf. p. Cf. of Tech.. 256. 14 and Phil. Sec also Diet. p. The Muslim Creed. 1961.. Terms. and al-Khayali in 'I. 19 The Mu'tazilites held that there p. 1390. Chap. It is may no be objected that in the case of necessary types of knowledge there irregularity or contradiction. pp. Lane. 19 An evidentiary miracle 20 is annuls the customary is way of things (tydriq lil-ada). al-Iji. Terms. 14. See Diet. Diet. Persia. p. A. (5) be in accordance with that claim..CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE that n made was not in them separately. and below.D.. who prophetic . Die philosophise/ten Ansichten von Razi und Systeme der fpc%. 234. custom. p. 31. and (7) not happen before the claim to the prophetic office is made. Wensinck. 444 ff. 18 See below. pp. pp. of Tech. 17 Al-Sumanlya were responsible Enc. 14. Systeme der spet{. 975 ff. A. p. p. Chap. The say. was no distinction nabl (prophet). for spreading the knowledge of Indian skepticism in 48. and below. I. pp. Horten. and also al-Shahrastani. pp. for it is to be admitted that various kinds of necessary knowledge sometimes differ from one another by difference in usage.. 90 flF. 115. of Islam. (6) substantiate his veracity. and practice. still. [57] This argument deny that mutawdtir narrative produces knowlis inapplicable as an objection. 14.J. 93 f7. the purpose of something that which to demonstrate the truthfulness of the one making the claim to be the Messenger of Allah. pp. al-Mawdqif. 20 Seven stipulations have been laid down regarding the evidentiary miracle.D. of Tech. Theologen im Islam. p. al-Ta'rifdt. It must (i) be from Allah. 702. 584.D. between rasul (messenger) and p..J. (3) be impossible for those contend with Allah's Messenger. And there may be a contradiction about mutawdtir narrative because of pride and all obstinacy just as the Sophists exhibit in contradicting types of necessary knowledge. Lexicon. 653. 169 fT. second kind is the narrative of the Messenger (al-rasul) aided/that is is to whose message established by an evidentiary miracle (al-mu'jiza)/A Messenger is a man sent by Allah to creatures in order to convey His judgments. Furthermore. we do find in the case of such that one is knowledge that the knowledge half of two is stronger than the of those people 1T affirmation of the existence of Alexander.. 54. and in the occurring to one's mind and conceiving the terms of judgments (atraf al-ahl(am). such as al-Sumanrya and the Brahmins (al-Bardhimd) edge. Chap. ff. (2) annul the customary way of things. p. some who employ Reason in their investigations. 'I.J. 54 f.

5!. by the narrative of the Mes- resembles/that is. composed of (2) It judgments. And and the knowledge senger established by it/that is. which necessarily demands a [major] proposition. in the impossibility of predicating the contradictory and this in fixity /that is. 21 And 21 Sec Diet. CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE the narrative of the Messenger brings about deductive (istidldli) knowledge/that at is. is that the world and according to the second definition it is our saying originated and that everything originated has a maker. which is to attain the tive. pp. he is truthful. . in certainty /that is." Harvard Theological Review. and Wolfson. that is because it depends upon deduction and because it brings to the mind the fact that it is the narrative of the [j^] one whose office of Messenger is established by evidentiary miracles. tain that of something else follows more that because it is absolutely cer- he through whom Allah performs an evidentiary miracle for the purpose of asserting his claim to the office of Messenger is truthful in the If judgments which he brings. "Amphibolous Terms. in the impossibility of predicating the discontinuance of knowledge by that which is ambiguous (tash^t\ al-mushaffi%). that which is arrived by deduction is duction by consideration of proof (daltl). is their statement that proof that thing is from the knowledge of which the suitable to the second definition. of Tech. is like the knowledge established by necessity/ [this means] like the things per- ceived by the senses. and the mutawatir narratives. Every narrative of this kind is truthful and its contents are according to fact. 151 ft. 133] So according to the first definition the proof of the existence of the Maker But is the world. 780. p. De(i) that thing by the sound consideration of which one is enabled (al-istidldl) . as for its being deductive.zz and it/that is. XXXI (1938). knowledge of any subject that has been transmitted by narrahas also been said to be a [minor] proposition. al-Risala al-Skamsiya. is knowledge But as for its bringing about knowledge. those immediately perceived. then the knowledge concern- ing the contents of his message absolutely follows. Terms.

This knowledge is known from this statement [of the Messenger] that is proof devolves on the claimant. Further objection may be raised that truthful narrative which gives useful knowledge is not confined to these two kinds. or of following tradition (taqlid)* 2 If it is objected that this explanation is applicable to the mutawdtir only. "It is incumbent on proved. An is objection may also be made that since the statement is mutawdtir or heard from the lips of the Messenger of Allah. al-Bukhan. Macdonald. of Tech. pp. or of opinion. say that taqlld. 116. others deny this holding that the muqallid is an Unbeliever. . al-Tirmidhl. al-Fadali. of Islam.. or narwith that which removes the possibility of falsehood. in the case of the mutawdtir narrative narrative of the Messenger of Allah knowledge that the narrative is the may blessing and peace be upon him because this means "that by which the giving of the narrative has become mutawdtir'' (2) In regard to that which is heard from the mouth of the is which from the Messenger. p. 316. the knowledge which results then necessary and consequently not deductive. Diet. pp. b. just as in the case of the rest of knowledge obtained by tawdtur and sense perception. the acceptance of a religion without argument or proof. the Messenger edge may Allah bless him and give him peace the necessary knowl- [in this case] is the perception of the verbal expressions and that they are the speech of the Messenger. "Aydm. Further to be the statement of the it is Messenger." Wensinck. and therefore goes back the statement is to the first section [of true narrative]. Enc. 5 ff. al-$ahlh. but may be narrative coming rative coupled from Allah or from the Angel or the People of Agreement (al-ijma). sufficient to Some al-Sanusi. Sahih. 28 See Umm al-Bardhin. pp. and the defendant must take an oath/' is the known by tawdtur necessary. 265. To is this we reply (i) that the necessary knowledge. the statement of the Messenger. is make a man a Believer. is we reply that about that narrative which it known to be [35] of the Mes- senger because has been heard from his mouth him by or because that or some- thing else possible has been transmitted of narrative is tawdtur. 242. else (ftiqad) which agrees with the otherwise this knowledge would be a matter of ignorance. 55 ff. pp. al-Babu 'l-Hddl 'Ashar. The Muslim Creed. 1178. The individual its not useful for knowledge because there may be some doubt of being the narrative of the Messenger. like the arrival of news of the 22 Zayd as indicated by his people rushing to his house. [The knowledge of] this [fact] deductive. Terms. II.. Development. 15 ff. Kifayat al-Awamm. 136. 12. 630.CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE it is 23 a kind of knowledge that means the absolute established conviction fact. IV. Cf.. 23 is the claimant to produce proof. p. (3) But the deductive knowledge [in this case] knowledge as to its content and the establishing of that which it For example.

lhyd' f VII. And if they assert that this means the opposing of the unsound with the unsound. of Islam. 25 Al-nafs is "the animal psyche" or "the appetitive soul. III.. 228 ff. Rel. or it does not 24 Al-aql is the translation by the Arabic writers on philosophy of the Greek vovs. 201 ff. We then say that likewise the narrative of the Messenger and for that reason is of the same class was classified as deductive. Rasd'il fi 'l-Hi^ma wa '1-TdbTiydt. is able to impart to them by way Mes- The same judgment applies to the narrative of the in the case of a judgment. of Tech. pp. See Macdonald. p. and by which sense perceptions are perceived through observation. 81 f. . That is the meaning of their saying.." Jour." [37] Some people define (al-jawhar) by which the things not perceived by the senses are perceived through means. necessary types of knowledge. Ibn Sina. Roy." See Macdonald. Attitude and Life. VII. II. 509. although the very thing you men- a deduction by the speculation of Reason. Ibn Sina. 1027 ff. At. and "Wahm and its Cognates. Diet. Attitude and Life. Then which as for it is Reason (al-aql) 24 /which is 25 a faculty of the soul (al-nafs).. 827 flF. Diet. so it is contradictory to itself. Rafd'il. "It is an innate property (gharlza) followed by the as the substance which. we answer that either it means something [38] and therefore is not unsound.. p. al-Ghazzali.. Terms. al-Ghazz51I. and among some Philosophers in regard to metaon the basis of numerous differences and the contradicreply that this The lation does not preclude the fact unsoundness of specuthat sound speculation on the part of is due to the Reason tioned is is useful for giving knowledge. by prepared for the reception of things to be known and is it perceived. pp. Terms. whenever the instruments of perception are sound. all to all creatures by merely being a kind of narrative to the contexts [36] which give certainty by the evi- So the narrative coming from Allah or from the Angel knowledge in relation to all creation only when it comes of the Messenger. Answer Agreement it has no meaning by itself alone but rather by consideration of the proofs which indicate that Agreement is an senger and to that of the People of mutawdtir may be made that argument. 1398. Ihyd'. pp. 201 ft. 230 f. Enc. pp. Thus it establishes that which you have denied.. 791!. physical speculations. Rel. of Tech. it is a cause of knowledge also/He it made this clear because there is a disagreein regard ment about among the heretics (al-Malahida) and the Sumaniya to all types of speculation.24 CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE this To we answer that what is meant by narrative is a narrative which is a means of knowledge without regard at dence of Reason. Soc. tion of opinions. 1922..

However. 26 and by the testimony of which is The speculative type (al-nazari) of knowledge itself may be established by a special speculation not expressed in terms of a An example of this is our saying. without the is necessary. of knowledge established by Reason at the first glance by immediate perception (al-badlha) /\hzt necessity of thought is. giving the knowledge that the world was originated. II. speculative. Some may say. and whatever of it is established/that is." Of necessity that is useful for ing. like the hand for example. 19. then necessary to establish speculation by speculation and that is circular proof (al-dawr)" To this we reply that sometimes there may be a contradiction about necessary knowledge because of obstinacy or the limitation of perception. Terms. Diet. The people who use Reason are agreed that the reasoning faculties of men are distinctly different according to the nature is created (al-fitra) in them.CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE mean anything at all aj [of the and therefore there is no opposing is unsound with the unsound]. does not rest upon the special character of the speculation. . [39] This [necessity] [general] speculation. p. this usage is not universal for some use athar also for traditions that go 26 Al-Ghazzali gives the Muhammad back to Muhammad. [This position reached] by deduction from narratives (al-atybdr) [from precedents (al-athar) the Prophet]. of Islam. just as the knowledge that the the part of it/For after conceiving the meaning whole of a thing is greater than of "all" and "part" and "greater" it is seen that this [proposition] does not rest on anything. but because it is sound and accompanied by [that which meets] its conditions. "Let us grant that speculation edge. may sometimes be greater than [40] the whole does not conceive the meaning of "whole" and "part. Lexicon. 'One is half of two'." name \habar (plur. of Tech. Sec Enc. for it is just as it is said. also al-Ghazzall's use of the terms in Jhyd'. Cf. "The world is changand everything changing is originated. and in verifying the answer than is to this objection there is more detail fitting to this book. while he distinguishes those that can only be traced back to the Companions as athar. and whoever hesitates about it so that he asserts that a part of a man. 65. if useful for giving knowlis this knowledge though we is necessary there no contradiction and if it is about it. So every sound speculation accompanied by that which meets its conditions has a meaning. p. akjibdr) to a tradition that goes back to himself. Well then. Lane. 859.

eye. Geschichte. as whenever one sees fire and so knows that it has smoke. choice. 1737. . like the knowledge of his existence and the change of his states (ahwal). turning about the pupil of the and so forth. And so some termed the knowledge resulting from the use of the "acquired." that is." is to say. truthful narrative. but not everything acquired results is deductive. The first process may be specified as "assigning the cause" and the second as "deduction. I. resulting from immediate causality through is. as for example the use of the faculty of sight which choice. Abu Bakr al-abunl al-Bukhari (d. from purpose and As for necessary it is knowledge: it is sometimes contrasted with acquired is knowledge and then explained as that the obtaining of which not within the power (maqdur) of [choice apportioned by Allah to] the creature. or from effect to cause. which Alis author of al-Bidaya* 7 of when he says that originated (al-hadith) two kinds: (i) lah originates in the creature by means of his acquisition. its and this is by im- mediate causality in respect to knowledge. So we see that "acquired" knowledge is more general term than "deductive" because deductive that which is obtained by consideration of the proof. causes being three: sound to say that and the speculation of Reason. 1887-99). Vcrzeichniss der arabischen Handschrijtcn der f(pniglichen Bibliothc^ zu Berlin (Berlin. which comes at the very beginning of speculation 27 This is evidently the book by Nur al-DIn Ahmad b. by consideration of proof.D. Then he went on from the speculation of Reason there result two kinds of knowl- edge: (i) necessary. and explained senses and sometimes necessary knowledge is contrasted with deductive knowledge as that which results without thought or speculation regarding proof. creature without his acquisition and choice.26 and whatever is CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE established by deduction (al-istidldt) /that is. No. senses. and (2) acquired. and Wilhclm Ahlwardt. A. in matters is which pertain to the senses. Everything a is deductive then acquired. whether by deduction from cause to effect. and others termed it "necessary. Mahmud b. [47] There does not seem to be a contradiction in the statement of the knowledge which Allah originated in the soul of the necessary. 1184) referred to in Brockelmann. obtained by acquisition (al-kasti). 375. as in [done by] the application of Reason and in speculation on the matters which per- is acquired (ifyisabi)/that is tain to deduction." that resulting without the use of deduction. as whenever one sees smoke and so knows that fire is there. This immediate causality (mubasharat al-asbdb) through choice. and by inclining the ear.

otherwise there is for confining the causes of knowledge to the three [causes men- who is is careful to mention the sources of traditions." unless call was that he tried to attention to the fact that for us knowledge and cognition are the same. and (2) deductive. Enc. Ibn ings and the Khaldun. . "One of the causes of the knowledge (al-ilm) of a thing. "My Lord illumined me. otherwise there is no doubt that knowledge does result from Illumination. Then it is clear that he meant that Illumination is not a cause by which it is knowledge force results to creatures in general nor by which right for one to knowledge on another. J. Terms. of Islam.. gives no reference to this saying.. 29 This a technical term which applies to the one learned in the Qur'an and its meanSunna who exerts himself to the utmost in forming an opinion on something connected with legal judgments. II. [42] There have been reported statements regarding Illumination in the tradition of the Prophet such as. of Tech. in which a kind of cogitation necessary. 28 A. Diet. It would have been better al-Nasafi had it said. as the is knowledge of the presence of fire on seeing the smoke. Illumination (al-ilham)/h it that which is explained as the casting of an idea into the intellect (al-qalb) by means of overflowing (al-fayd). al-Muqaddima. not." 28 And this has been said of many of the Fathers (al-salaf) also. It appears that al-Nasafi meant by knowledge (al-ilm) no reason tioned]. as some do. As for the narrative of a single unprejudiced person and the following 20 of the tradition (taqlid) of one who attempts a legal opinion (al-mujtahid) . 198. III. 448 f. making a technical distinction between them by confining knowledge to compounds (al-muratyabat) or (al-\ulliyat). which does not include these two things mentioned. is not one of the causes of the cognition (al-ma'rifa) of the soundness of a thing with the People of Reality/This statement was objection to confining the causes of made to answer the knowledge if to the above-mentioned three things only. p. 6. they are sometimes useful for opinion and sometimes for strong conviction which that is enduring. such as the knowledge that the whole greater than the part. and cognition to simple things (al-basait) or to universals to particulars (al-juz'iyat)\ otherwise there was no use of his particularizing the statement by saying "the soundness of a thing" [instead of "a thing"].CAUSES OF KNOWLEDGE 27 is without any cogitation (utfalfaur).

and so on. 313 fi. of Tech. 7. Takjtvln is sometimes defined as meaning that a thing comes into material existence. in the totality of its parts/that it is. See below. This in opposition to the Philosophers. everything except Allah is of the existent things (al-matvjudat) by which the Maker known. the world (<*/-'<*/<*/) /that is. while ihdath (origination) means that a thing comes into temporal existence. (Friedlander). Macdonald.. Terms. 102 ff. the it world in the totality of its parts is consists of substances and accidents.urther. 134. that is. since is that which has self- either a thing compounded. "Atomic Time. the world of accidents (al-a'rad). which is the part that is not further divided. Lc Guide dcs tgarcs. In order to express the further distinction in meaning muhdath has been translated "originated" and muhdith as "originator" rather than "created" and "creator" which have been used for other words. 334. and odors. Hudiith is the opposite of qidam (eternity). such as colors. Further. is called the world of bodies (al-ajsam). or not comatom. and 109 rT. The attributes of Allah are excluded [frpm the things making up the world] because they are not other than His essence. pp.Chapter THE WORLD . I. See Diet. just as they are not the essence itself. accident is something that does not subsist in itself but is originated in bodies subsistence. inso- 1 At the beginning of Chapter 7 according to our division of the commentary al~ TaftazanI gives a number of synonyms for creating (al-ta^wtn). and it is like the and atoms. For the contrast between the Philosophers and the Atomistic Theologians in theory as to the composition and working process of the universe see Maimonides (Munk). 2. . of the heavens and what is in them and the earth and what is on is a thing originated 1 (muhdath) /This means it is non-existence into existence." Isis. the plant world (al-nabat). A substance a thing originated. IX. tastes. Chap. the animal world (al-hayatvan). and 344 ff. p. And the pounded. [43] meaning is that it something brought from was once non-existent (ma'dum) and then it existed. states of coming into being. a body. The Guide for the Perplexed..

Then al-Nasafl pointed out the proof for the origin (huduth) of the world by his statement: the world sinc*e it/that is." The philosophers used jatvhar as contrasted with "accident" ('arad) and with "idea" (ma'nd).THE WORLD 29 2 far as they held to the position of the eternity (qidam) of the heavens. [44] is from The meaning itself of self-subsistence with the Mutakallims its is that substance is bounded by (yatahayyaz bi najsihi) . consists of substances (a'yan) it is 3 self-subsistent (qaim bi dhdtihi) and accidents (a'rad) /because whatever of is a substance. pp. the inasmuch as the elements were never without form. II. for are two different things. Diet. Lane. 544. of Tech. Maqdjid al-Falasifa. but these forms are only specific forms. al- Ghazzall. 16. because the discussion accident. and for that reason it cannot be trans- ferred from the This is in contrast to the existence of a body within a boundary (al-hayyiz). Enc. fact that the The meaning existence is its of the existence of the accident in the subject is that its very existence in the subject. and whatever is not is an Both of them are originated. it in the sense of being dependent on something not in the sense of being preceded by non-existence. for the atom is the subject (al-mawdi?) or the locus (al-mahall) which gives subsistence to the accident. A substance is that which/that is. 1073. any possible thing inferred has self-subsistence (qiydm bi dhdtihi)/^ context this their being a part of the world. Strictly speaking. and shapes (ashtytf). in which fact that case its some other thing is being bounded follows from the atom (al-jawhar} is bounded. And the author Allah have mercy on him did not deal with this. including their respective matters (mawadd). in contrast to the accident. II. of Islam. and the eternity of the sub-lunar elements (al-anasir) including their respective matters and forms. Dialogues of Plato. see- ing that confined to problems without their proofs. subject. pp. Supplement. but they used else. Philosophers used the term "being originated" with reference to that which is not Allah. p. its very existence and its existence in a boundary For that reason a body may be transferred from a Timaeus. 13. of it would be very long and inappropriate it is to this brief treatise of his. 8 2 Cf. Lexicon. being bounded does not follow from the bounded. Plato's Terms. In scholastic theology 'ayn is the term used for "substance. ed. 2214 f?. . Jowett (1874). as we shall show. forms (suwar). 560.. 7 f.

also al-Ghazzall.e. 5 body (jism) /Some say that there must be three parts so that the three dimensions.30 THE WORLD its boundary. "it is the atom." guarding against introducing a restriction..0#//f0r)/that the substance which 6 is not divisible. Terms. then it is bulkier [ajsam. so said that a thing is said to be bulky (jasim) becomes bulky (jasuma). ff.. This is not a dispute over verbal expressions to be used. II. 258. Diet. the absolute souls. ac- cording to us. essence is its being independent of the locus in which its it subsistence in something else is its being becomes something descriptive (ncti) and the second something described (manut)^ whether having boundaries. p. ajsam It is it as used above] has the form afal from the noun al-jasama meaning of bulk and greatness of it amount. nor by supposition (fard) which is the part that is not further divided/He did not say. a dispute as to it whether or not the conventional idea thus given to body sufficient if is compounded argued that of if two parts only. nor in fancy.J. i. 72. that is. This [that is a matter for consideration. and depth may be realized. in order that the intersecting of the dimensions at vertical angles may be realized. or not [having boundaries]. for the is. A. and corpulent (jusdm). And if the mere com- pounding [of parts] were not sufficient to constitute corporeality. neither actually. 6 Maqdfid al-Faldsifa." but "like the atom. like the atom (. of Tech. breadth. or not compounded. 10 rT. is. For the different definitions of jism sec al-Ash'arl. According to the Philosophers the meaning of the subsistence of a thing in subsists. as in the specified by it. more of body] than the other. 301 p. becomes speak We here of body as a name (ism) not as an attribute (sifa). that is. then the body would not increase in corporeality by the mere addition of a part. stripped of all materiality. as in the case of the attributes (stfat) of Allah and the is absolutes. Maqdldt. 4 and it/ whatever of the world self-subsistent is either a thing compounded (mura^ab)/oi two [45] or more parts." . a eight parts. says "rational supposition.. referring to that each some technicality [in the matter] that can be settled by saying It is is may explain the term technically as he wishes. great. and others say that is. for 4 6 Al-mujarradat. and the meaning of so that the first case of the blackness of a body. length. The Primitive Theologians (al-awwalun) one of two bodies exceeds the other by one part. pp.

8 A. this ultimate part. Pines. for the fact that a geometrical point to 7 said have position (al-hulul tilt ft mahatt) does not mean that it occupies place (Greek 6Xl). 1534. they say that (al'hayuli) is composed of primary matter that were a real at and form (al-sura) only. 19 if. of Tech. is The best proof for establishing the [indivisible] part sphere to be placed point only." is . in order to and the absolute souls (al-nufus al-mujarrada) 8 complete the restriction of the indivisibles to the atom. 73. if it is which it is under possible for to be further separated into parts to bring it follows that the power of Allah would have is about in order to eliminate the if it is assumption that Allah powerless [47].. The first is weak because it only points to the existence of the geometrical point. Beitrage. Maqasid al-Faldsifa. and that does not necessitate the is existence of the indivisible part. adds min al-abdan. there if it should make at two would actually be on the sphere a line. It because of this that Allah has the power to create in that body the possi- being separated into parts which cannot be further divided.. matter as capable of receiving form. each is made up But hugeness and smallness but that fact is consist only in the multiplicity finite. no such thing as the pure atom the indivisible atom. p. that is. 40 fT. As for the compounding is it together of the body. p. so it would not be a real sphere on a real plane. meaning "the indivisible part" (al-juz alladhl la yatajazza) [46] since it would have been necessary to abolish primary matter (hayuti)? form (sura). "of bodies. pp. the indivisibility of it Now dis- with reference to cussion.J. Intelligences ('uqul).THE WORLD 31 that which is not compounded is not confined according to Reason to the atom. Terms. only conceivable in the The second is that the combination (al-ijtima') of the parts of the its body into a whole not due to own essence. since of infinite parts. alGhazzalT. II. and paucity of proof is parts. but impossible [for it to be further separated] then the contention as to the existence of an absolute atom is established. primary matter. According to the Philosophers there (d-jawhar al-fard). for were that the case the is body would not be capable of being separated bility of into parts (al-ijtiraq). All [of these three proofs] are weak. The most noted divisible the proof [of the pure atom] according to the Early Theolo- gians has two aspects. The first is that if every substance were infinitely mustard seed would not be smaller than the mountain. For the Hay different meanings applied to the word in Arabic see Diet. since on a real plane it would make a contact a contact with it one indivisible points.

V. as has already been said. but they say that the infinite body admits of an number it of divisions and that there is no combinaare only ac- tion (ijtima) of the parts in at all. to be contagious. In establishing the pure atom we escape many of the obscurities of the Philosophers. so the pure 10 atom not to be this postulated. 10 Cf. Maimonides (Friedlander) The Guide for the Perplexed. Dozy. For from reason al-Imam al-Raz! inclined to be noncommittal on the subject. in having boundaries is (tahayyuz)) or by being specialized by just as something descriptive specialized by the thing described. . And the accident something else is something that does not subsist in it itself /but it subsists in its by being incident (tab?) to it. Supplement. And it is possible for the is parts to be separated (ijtiraq) to infinity. The second and third are is weak because the Philosophers do not say that the body actually composed of parts that are infinite. Die spe%. Theologie dcs Islam. to creep along.32 (hulul al-$arayan) 9 THE WORLD and consequently it docs not mean that the indivisibility of the place follows from the indivisibility of the geometrical point. The proofs for denying this are also somewhat weak. Al-hulul ft mahall reflects the expression used by Aristotle in the definition of a point. 651. 1355. the denial of the resurrection of the body." and in modern Arabic "to circulate" (of the blood). such as colors/The original colors are said to be black and white. ioi6b. green and yellow. we reply that there is. such as the positing of primary matter (hayulf) and form (sura) which leads to the eternity of the world. 6. p. Lane. . If the question is raised whether there is any benefit resulting this position which is different [from that of the Philosophers]. for that only applies to some of the accidents. pp. This does not mean that it cannot be thought of apart from the locus as has been fancied by some. others have said that they are red. 26. tmd pos. and many of the fundamental laws of measurement (al-handasa) 9 upon which obscurities rests the continual motion of the heavenly spheres. Lexicon. For its technical use see Horten. and also the denial of the rending (al-kjiarq) of them and their being coalesced together again (al-ilti'dm). but is originated in bodies and atoms/ [48} Some say that this is added to give an exact definition and to avoid including the attributes of Allah. Greatness and smallness cording to the quantity which subsists in a body. p. 154. See Metaphysics. 134. the rest being compounded from them. 178. The root sard means "to travel by night. I.

J. puckeriness. motion (d-hara^a) and rcst(al-su^un) tastes (al-tu'um) /There are nine species of them: bitterness. such as the occurrence (tarayan) its of non- existence. p. is and rest is two times that in it one place. adds al-tdmma. The first premise [that substances are not free from originated things] free of is so. since that is ceeds from a thing by purpose and choice effect it is of necessity which prooriginated. as motion following rest. which are originated. pp. tastes." . And it is most evident that all accidents except the states of coming into being occur only in bodies. then "Motion is it is in motion. is For eternity is inconsistent with nonitself. Hortcn. because they are not motion and rest. 77. and whatever is not free from originated things is itself originated. This two pawn's two pawn's at at two times (ft what they mean when they say.THE WORLD states of 33 coming into being (atydn)/'which are: combination (al-ijtim). If it is established that the world is made up of and the substances are bodies and atoms. being separated into parts (al-iftiraq). and if it is not so preceded by another t(aum in the very same boundary. Die spe%. [49] and blackness following whiteness. existence because that eternity is the eternal necessarily existent in then it is clear inconsistent with non-existence. 12 As [they are among the originated things] because they are not free (Id takjilu) from originated things. substances and accidents. Theologic des Islam. it is at rest. ll And others are known by from if proof. (state of the substance preceded by another then \awn coming into being) in that very same boundary. 198 12 A. greasiness.. but an eternal because which is joined to a necessary eternal cause its is itself impossible for a necessary effect to lag behind for substances (al-a'yan)^ cause. as seen contraries. sweetness. was not at all 11 Cf. anayn) in two places (ft makanayn). acidity." is [50] If objection is made possible that there f. "complete. Some of the accidents are known by light following darkness. pungency. we then may say that everything is originated. Through combinations of these there are innumerable species of and odors (al-rawd'ih) /These are of many species without special names. observation. und pos. saltiness. This not being free of motion re- and rest is due to the fact that the body and the atom If are not free is from siding within some boundary (hayyiz). astringency. and in- sipidity. otherwise eternity must be ascribed to the eternal simply by way of affirmation.

The of the absolute beings [such as Intelligences plete. extensions (adwd'). and lights namely shapes (ashJ(al). Moreover every motion every rest may come to an end and as every is without permanency. . that is based upon the fact that they belong among accidents. The answer is that this does not thwart the purpose of the argument. which are not continuous. this admits the claim that statement has been made about bodies there which there were a number of pawn's [one was a renewing of seasons and times. this would be inconsistent with eternity of motion. so [there was a time that] it was neither in motion nor at since in it rest. and that this [narrow which does definition] denies the existence of a self-subsistent possible thing not have boundaries at of all. whatever may is is cease to exist cannot be eternal. as has and absolute been shown in larger objection is treatises. (imtidaddt). is itself The second premise [that whatever is not free of originated things originated] true. The second of all that what has been said does not prove the origin is accidents. and that is im- Here then substances]. for our belief that after the other] and in which As motion and rest are originated. which logically requires that something else preceded motion. But as you know. as for example its at the time of being originated. for if that which then it not free of originated things were established to be from eternity. we reply that this objection does not impair our argument. the establishment possible. are the investigations [to be made is of the objections concerning The first objection is that there [use of the term] "substances" to atoms and no proof for confining the bodies. since the origin of is some of them is not perceived by observaas the accidents tion. Furthermore the very quiddity of motion is that there is in it a transition from one state (hdl) to another. is is And is the answer to this is that the thing which which stances asserted to be originated that possible thing the existence of established by proof. from eternity would be inseparably connected with of that which is originated. inasmuch body subject of necessity to motion. And this possible thing consists of the subproofs for the existence souls] are incom- which have boundaries and accidents.34 another THE WORLD \awn preceding this \\awn which has been assumed]. nor the origin of that which contrary to them such which subsist in the heavenly spheres. such as the Intelligences and the absolute souls [57] which the Philosophers speak. and is may cease to exist. for the origin of the substances demands of necessity the origin of the accidents since they only subsist in these substances.

of Tech. p.: al- ..J. the eternity of the absolute is inconceivable. . so. Terms. inasmuch as the boundary hayyiz) to the is the inner surface of a container which touches the outer surface is of the thing contained. but eternity is an expression for non-beginning or for the continuance of existence in times which state. 99. Lexicon.. it established that the world originated being it And when the fact is known that anything then established that originated must have an originator (muhdith) is the world has an originator. Diet. yet it. Muhassal. 668. since each particular is originated. for of necessity it is impossible that there be a preponderance (al-tarajjuh) in favor of one of the two alternatives of some- thing possible without there being "a determinant to bring about the pre- pondera nee* * ( m urajjih ) . that would (al- necessitate the non-limitation of bodies. pp. so that are reckoned as unending in the past. 65 18 See Lane. p.THE WORLD The third objection is 35 that eternity (al-azal) does not express a special the existence in that state of originated things is inseparably connected with the existence of the body in that state. RazT. pp. This is the position of the although they admit that no particular motion is eternal. 298 f?. make this statement rather of absolute motion (al-hara\a al-mutlaqa). who and so on without a beginning. 82. The answer it to this that the boundary according Mutakallims is the imaginary space (al-jaragh) [52] which the body occupies and in which extends to is its dimensions. The fourth objection 1S is that if each body were in a boundary. p. al-Ta'rtjdt. originated motions is that there is The meaning of the eternity of no motion which did not have another motion preceding Philosophers. A. The answer to this is that the absolute does not have existence except in the particular.

. Kifayat al-Awamm. Development. al-Fa^ali.. It is sometimes fancied that this is a proof for the existence of the Maker without necessarily abolishing the endless chain (al-tasalsul). "Atomic Time. [55] Closely allied to this the statement necessarily that the cause of the beginning of all possible things existent. al-Edbu 'l-Hadi 'Ashar. pp. nor a body. since sible things must be were He a possible only.Chapter 4 THE ORIGINATOR OF THE WORLD T self. 32 . sible Allah/He is the al-wujud) whose existence is necessarily is of His He does not need anything at all. and nothing outside of His Knowledge and Power. JLhc Originator of the world is Allah. He is not an accident. nor by quality. the One. It is rather a reference to one of the proofs for the unsoundness of the endless chain. nor a thing numbered.'* //*>. pp. But it must be *Ct. the Desiring. . the Living. the Eternal. nor is He something formed. pp. nor does He come to an end in Him- He is place. nor a thing limited. which must not be the thing itself nor a part of itself because its impossible for a thing to be the [efficient] cause of or of own causes. this chain would need an it. [efficient] it is cause. 13 . 322 f. 2. IX. pp. even though "world" ('alam) is a properly a sign ('alam) for the existence of the is who caused its beginning. and Diet. And this proof is that if a chain of possibles still were ar- ranged to infinity. nor an atom. and the Willing. nor a thing portioned or divided. nor is He placed in does not affect Him and nothing resembles Him. 336. the Powerful. The Originator (muhdith) of the world essence (al-dhdt al-wdjib existent essence. of Tech. the Hearing. the Knowing. He would be one of the many pos- and not the cause of their beginning. 1 But this is not the case. Terms. 690 Jfif.. nor a thing compounded. is Time not described by quiddity. since were His existence only posHe would be a part of the world and not suited to be the Originator of it its is and the one who caused name one applied to all that beginning. Macdonald. the Seeing.

pp. /or the Perplexed. This necessitates the fmiteness of the first series since only exceeds the finite second a finite series by a is finite amount. Macdonald. for example. the heavens and the earth] gods other than Allah.. and that which exceeds the by amount of necessity finite. there is a unit of the second series for every unit of the then the less is like that is which is more than first series is it. which is referred to in the saying of Allah. first series. Necessarily Existent cannot be true except of one essence. nor by things pertaining to the Knowledge Knowledge things pertaining to the Power of Allah. This consists in supposing a series [of effects] from the last effect (ma'lul) to infinity and another series. VI. MafatiJt al- Ghayb. would have been corrupted (fasadata)" (Qur'an egares. Thus. so the efficient cause less 37 would then be necessary and the endis chain would be broken. This argument is not to be refuted by the arranging of series of numbers. ff. the One/that is to say. .. pp. series apply the two series so that we make the first of the first with the first of the second series. these two 2 Cf. since infinity. 47 al-Tanztl. This proof of tallying can only be used of that which comes under the category of existence and not with that which has only to do with the estimative faculty (wahmt tnahd). 139 Mullcr. pp. Kifayat al-Awamm. for it breaks down with the breaking down of the estimative faculty. Development. Philosophic. [55] one of them from one to infinity and the second from two of Allah and to infinity. 40 ff. for in spite of the fact that they are both infinite. The Guide Sec also al-Razi. Le Guide des ff. This numbers and things pertaining to the and the Power of Allah. (Fricdlandcr).ORIGINATOR OF THE WORLD outside the cause. 105 pp. of just one short of this last effect to infinity.. I. inasmuch impossible. 440 f. the Maker of the World is one. f. 326 al-Fatfall. when applied to mean that whatever possesses infinity as that is comes under the category of existence. u. [54] Of the noted kinds of proof there the one of tallying (al-tatlnq). means that they do not end in one Knowledge definite limit beyond which no other limit can be conceived. Anwar II.. al-BaydawI. ff.. and so on. so the second broken to an end. This does not so. the things pertaining to the is of Allah are more than the things pertaining to His Power. Maimonides (Munk). in which two series are applied to each other. and that and comes is im- possible. Otherwise there it something in the without something off it to correspond to in the second. the second with the seccorrespond if Then we ond. of the proofs for the unity of Allah The idea of the The most noted is among the Mutakallims that of 2 mutual hindrance (al-tamanu'). "If there were in the two of them [that is.

or [if only one of the two things occurs] it follows that one of the two gods is is powerless. XX. of Tech. ORIGINATOR OF THE WORLD The explanation of this is two gods were possible. since each of the two things possible in [is itself. so impossible.J. or that hindering and opposing [in the case of two gods] are impossible be- cause hindering and opposing necessitate the impossible. it if one of two not able to oppose the is then follows that he is is powerless. that there is mutual hindrance of one another and that .] Then if actual corruption is meant is. for it is possible an agreement [by the gods] on the present is that there be visible order. 259. 404 f. "Some that them gained is the mastery over the others" (Qur'an 23:93). so the lack of one attains and it follows that one of them is power- 4 Cf. p. Macdonald. or that the agree- ment together of the at rest at the two wills. there is nothing to indicate the denial A. one gets the upper hand. 87) reads after power on the part of both less. [57] This is the detailed explanation of the statement that other. 128. One of them would will that that if Zayd move and the other is that he remain at rest.38 21:22). away from the present visible order [of the heavens and the a mere plurality [of gods] does not necessitate that. then the other powerless. "The Life of al-Ghazzall." follows. or "and the opposites unite. "If there were in the two them gods is other than Allah. idem. [Otherwise the argument the passing earth] incomplete. as though one should impossible. So either the two things occur and the opposites unite 3 [which is impossible]. [56] mutual hindrance of each other would be possible. which is because in it there is the defect of being in need of something. And if he just other]. This powerlessness possibility. In like manner is the connection of the Will with each of them wills. If the possibility of corruption 8 meant. Development. The necessary consequence (mulais zama) [of such a statement is the acceptance of the conclusion as] cus- tomary in the case of statements which conform to rhetorical syllogisms 4 For it is customary when there are many exercising the (al-l(hitablyat) office of governor. Terms. will that Zayd move and of remain same time. an indication of being originated and of mutual hindrance. possible]. is Know that the statement of Allah. as of is indicated in the statement of Allah." Journal of the American Oriental Society. (p. pp. [in So plurality necessitates the possibility of it is turn] necessitates the impossible. they would have been corrupted" (Qur'an 21:22) a convincing argument (hujja iqntfiya)." "or they do not. and Diet. . What we have two to agree able [to oppose the mentioned refutes the proposition that it is possible for the without mutual hindrance. since there but only [a no mutual opposition between the two mutual opposition] between the two things willed.

there is no beginning to His existence. but "if" (law) may be used to indicate the negation of the apodosis following the negation of the protasis irrespective of time. Some say that the term it is more general [than "necessarily existent"] because existent. Terms. if of the necessary consequence. Wolfson. The Philosophy of Spinoza. 67. I." true of the attributes of the Necessarily Existent that they are eternal in contrast to the term "necessarily 6 which is not true of the attributes. of Tech. It is not impos- This li is the abbreviated is. if two makers were assumed." The verse quoted above is of this kind. For we say that the possibility of there being mutual hindrance of one another only requires that there be but one maker and not the negation of that which is made. p.. the negation of the so it only indicates the denial of corruption in the past because of the denial of the plurality [of gods]. made. is A statement about their being co-extensive terms depends on what "eternal" is true regarding them. that is for the sake of accuracy in differentiating these two not quite right. [5$] although if it does come to is mean the impossibility act. were something originated preceded by non-existence. that form for the Necessarily Existent in His essence (wdjib althe Necessarily Existent. . For this reason some be other than eternal. ai-Razi. One does not say that the necessary consequence of such a statement is so absolute that the meaning of the corruption of the heavens and the earth is on the ground that. 1444. wujud dhatihi). In answer to this reply that this is we grammatically true. pp. may "if" be objected that [in the Qur'an quotation above] the force of the word (law) is the negation in past time of the second statement through first. since the statutes bear witness to the folding and the removal of the present order. the Eternal (al-qadim) /This of in explanation as a necessary is what we already know. [59] inasmuch as the Necessarily Existent consequence can not r> If is to say. One of these uses may seem equivocal to the other according to some minds. Uuha$sal. So it is 39 of the heavens up undoubtedly possible. 44 ff. non-creation meant by the and it comes bility It to mean the impossibility of the negation of the necessary is by possi- non-creation meant. "If the world were eternal from the begin- would be unchangeable. a mutual hindering of one another in performing acts would be possible. His existence would then of necessity be contingent on something else. just as in the statement. that He have made the statement that the Necessarily Existent and the Eternal are synonymous terms.. See Diet. But terms. and ning it hence the confusion. 108 ft.ORIGINATOR OF THE WORLD of this. so that one of them would not be a maker nor would anything be that they were not created.

al-Fadali. 7 Cf. Furthermore. who were among the earlier Ash'aritcs. al-Razi. just as He knows. Vmm PP. Continuance itself. 12. 1 Al-Im3m al-Haramayn and al-Qao ! Abu Bakr (al-Baqillam). p. 86 ff. 296. decrees. who said that He continues by this attribute of continuance which is an eternal attribute subsisting in His essence. 325. p. This is an inconsistent with the unity of the Deity. and He would have needed a determining principle (mu^hassis) r [to have specified existence in His case]. Kifdyat al-'Atvdmm. Hamid al-DIn al-Darlr (d. and so on by attributes of Knowledge and Power and the like. . then their position that of the Philosophers. al-Sanusi. Al-Ratvda al-Bahiya. al-Bardhin. foundations of Mmam I. Thus He would have been originated (muhdath). while is is extremely in concept. were they necessarily in 8 essence. but it is sible to say that there is impossible to say that there like is a plurality of eternal essences. so a further verifying of this matter will come many later. meaning that there that this is was no time when non-existence preceded them.D. If they assert that the attributes are eternal in time. 79 f. p. 666. A. since we only mean by originated that thing the existence of which is connected with the fact that something else brings it into existence. and sistent not incon- with their essential origin. A. pp. non-existence would have been possible for Him. 1267). One in His essence is is Allah and His is From its the idea that everything which eternal if necessarily existent in essence they made their deduction that the Eternal were not necessarily existent. al-Fa^all. Development. Vmm 8 al-Bardhin. said that Allah continues by His essence not by the attribute of continuance. 126. Geschichte. This was contrary to the position of al-Ash'ari. [60] tinues by means of difficult is Reply was made to this that each attribute concontinuance which is that very attribute itself. 36. Macdonald. In this position there is a denial of the faith. for the assertion that the Necessarily Existent is His essence a plurality the assertion that the attributes are only possible [and not necessary] sistent inconorigi- with the statement of those who say that every possible being nated. in the sense that they need the essence is of the Necessarily Existent. al-Shahrastam. al-Sanusi.H. those [who say that "eternal" is a more general term than necessarily existent existent] their is objected that the attributes.33 *. See Brockelmann.. (al-baqa) an Idea (ma no) a so the existence of a real Idea then subsists in another Idea. p. 66. Muhasfal.40 ORIGINATOR OF THE WORLD a plurality of eternal attributes. Kifdyat al-Awdmm. e Some of the later Mutakallims al-Imam Hamld al-Dm al-Darir and his followers explain the point by saying that the Necessarily Existent attributes. Later Ash'aritcs held that Continuance is an attribute. who divided both Eternity and Being-originated into essential (dhatl) and temporal (zamant). Nihdyatu l-lqddm.. would be continuous (baqiya). pp. p.

the Willing. is The essence right position [regarding this] as follows: First. inasmuch as Allah is the Originator of the world ac- cording to a definite original plan and preconceived order.. Willing. Otherwise continuance would be an Idea that subsists in the accident. that which its is impossible. f. 96 flf.. arc called attributes derived from ideas (fifdt ma'nawiya). and on the fact that the meaning of subsistence [of one thing in something else] is [the thing's] following Idea which is upon the other thing in having boundaries. that something else accident. So the accident is a possible. al-Mawdqij. proper in a case of this kind of attribute to rely upon the Law as for instance the attribute of the unity of the Deity in contradistinction to the attribute of the existence of the Maker and His Speech. for the contraries of these attributes signify defects from which Allah have come is necessarily far removed. al-Iji. And [again He is not an accident] because the continuance [of an accident] is impossible. 336 . The abstract ideas such as the Living. al-Sanusi. Wensinck. pp. This is having boundaries (tahayyuz) follows upon (tdbi'} the fact that the The accident has no boundaries of itself. and the 9 Willing (al-mund) /The proof for this is by a decisive immediate inference of logical reasoning. are called essential attributes or those consisting of ideas (fijdi al'mcfant)^ but these which arc given here. the Seeing (al-baslr). the Powerful (al-qadir). itself. Macdonald. Sec al~Barahin. and that would necessitate the subsistence of an Idea in an Idea. For the subsistence of an accident in a thing means thing has boundaries.. Umm Development. to us in the Furthermore these attributes down Law (al-shar') establish- [6i] 9 but inasmuch as some of them it is arc those upon which the ment of the Law is not based. saying. the al-Fatfall. etc. etc. 55 ft. as is evidenced excellent by the fact that the world comprises [His] well-ordered handicrafts. the Knowing (a!-aKm) 9 the Hearing (al-samf). and similar is attributes upon which the establishment of the Law based. 118 f.. He is not an accident/because an accident does not subsist in itself. Its real existence with respect to another time. pp. but needs a locus (mahalV) to give it subsistence. Knowing. the Desiring (al-sJiai). p.ORIGINATOR OF THE WORLD 41 the Living (al-hayy)." is that existence did not persevere nor 9 The meaning of our was originated but its was it established [in reality] for the second by theologians as attributes of Power. The Muslim Creed. works and He is not devoid of those attributes. Knowledge. 56 f. "It existed but did not continue. continuance is the perpetuity of existence is its and the absence of passing out of it existence. Kijdyat d-Awamm. These epithets applied to the Deity are usually classed Allah.. pp. in the sense may be said to have boundaries by following upon the based on the fact that the continuance of a thing is an superadded to its existence. 275. pp.

according to Islam. Tech. (Friedlander). 171 ff. 11 The Karramites were considered al-Shahrastani.42 ORIGINATOR OF THE WORLD is time. pp. of Tech. is a difference in their respective rela- tions to nor a body (. Lc Guide des egares. al-Farq bayn al-Firaq. Allah 10 far exalted having above such a definition. pp. The al-Baghdadi. believe that Allah may have a body. 141 ff. the statement of incorporeal ity of Allah. which is is something compounded and having a mark of being originated nor an atom (jawhar) /[This is true] from our standpoint. bodies cease to exist at every moment and what is we observe of continuance in them by way of renewal of it is no less credible than what occurs in accidents. I. motion. al-Milal. 202 f. Terms. 171 . Second. because they they ject make jawhar one of the divisions of the possibles. But if by and atom (jawhar) is meant the self-subsistent and existing body (jism) thing which is not in a subject. p. There are not two things here but one. Diet. The as Corporealizers. as in the case of the swiftness and slowness of motion. Guide for the Perplexed. Surely [62] incorrect for them to maintain that an accident subsists in an accident. They mean by jawhar the posquiddity which whenever it does exist is not in a subject. and the which other. then these terms must not be applied to the sible Maker. 79 12 fT. al-Milal. 261. See Diet. 450 flF. This clearly shows that swiftness and slowness are not two different species of motion. subsistence the specializing which describes the thing deof time (// fall an). not in a subwhether absolute or having boundaries. Third.. is boundaries and being a part of a body." The Corporealizers (al-Mujassima) u and 12 took the position that jism and jawhar may be the Christians (al-Nasara) applied to far Him. Maimonides giving the argument of the Mutakallims for the (Munk). of ff.. although it to be the name of an existing make thing however. Terms. 1385./Vm)/for the body boundaries. pp. fit is true also] from the standpoint of the Philosophers. for real species in the true sense of the term do not distinctly differ from one another even though there something else. Christians. giving a conception of Allah from which He is necessarily removed. swiftness and slowness we have a certain definite motion in relation to some other motions is called swift and to others slow.. along with the terms fact that the understanding jumps at the conclusion that these mean "compounded" and "that which has boundaries. 10 Cf. for we say that jawhar is the name and for a part (al-juz') that cannot be further divided. for they are not mentioned in the Law. similars scribed just as in the case of the terms predicated of the Creator (al-ban). al-Shahrastani. p. pp.

spek^. sometimes suggested that Allah. and numbers. [65] But this is a matter for consideration. nor a thing compounded/of these. Diet. 325.ORIGINATOR OF THE WORLD If it is objected 43 that terms like "the existing being. and if that the term "existent" is inseparable from the Necessarily Existent. Form is one occurs in 15 them by means setting limits of quanti- (\ammiyat) and qualities (\ayfiyat) and by and ends. either continuous like things (muttasila) like magnitudes (maqadir).J. Mi'yar al-llm. ties It 14 something formed (mus aw war) /Formed means having a form man or of a horse. and separated. one the combination of the to Allah. is the being synonymous.. 203 f. al-Ghazzali. p. pp. He is not the locus of quantities. al-Ta'rijdt. and the Eternal are synonymous terms. p. or discrete (munfasila) quite evident. of Tech." 14 See Fatfali. Horten. Theologie des Islam. p. und pof. It is one of the canonical is by Agreement (al-ijma). Terms. the other two judgments of the two synonymous terms in being applied (p." "the necessarily existent. This is nor a thing portioned or divided/This means possessing portions and parts. 1257. That which has parts "compounded" when they "portioned" and "divided" when they are is called are in composition together. pp. p. 198. 196. the Necessarily Existent. al-Ghazzall. 0/-7Vn/a/. counted. 347. we reply that the basis bases." and "the eternal'' cannot properly be applied to Allah since they do not occur which is in the Law. that is. alon al-Fadali). . 07) adds "from two standpoints. Development. nor a thing limited (mahdud) /Limited means having a limit or an end. 15 Al-kayftydt. p. 204 f. 18 nor is He (sura) or a shape (shaty) like the form of a of the special characteristics of bodies.. 38 f. Kifayaf al-Awdmm See (also commentary of al-Bayjuri Macdonald. pp.. nor a thing numbered (ma* dud) /Numbered means having number and multiplicity. so the Law applies one term of a language [to Him] that fact makes it permissible to apply a synonym of that term or whatever approximates it in that or any other language. nor does tics 33 is He come to an end in Himself/because this is one of the characteris- of magnitudes A. since they all have that need [for something else] which is inconsistent with necessary existence. Die Mfyar al-llm.

Terms. cold. Diet. This is one dimension (bu'd) into another. dryncss. and thus permits their separation and combination. for otherwise this it could be divided [and thus is we reply that "being placed" would not be a pure atom]. p. for when we is say [quiddity. or in assert the existence of the according to those is who vacuum (al-t(hala). 105. To a more special term than "having it boundaries. See Macdonald. or they are the places themselves with reference to their relationship to the thing [surrounded by the places]. inasmuch as directions are the limits or extremities of places [by which a thing is surrounded]. pp. If He not in place. p. would But the proof of His not having boundaries is that if He were bounded. or any other thing predicated of bodies or things which follow upon mixture or composition nor is He placed in place (ma^an)/tor being placed (al-tama^un) is an expression for the penetration of real or imagined. because this requires His being divided into parts. Objection may be raised [to this argument] that [6*5] the pure atom (al-jawhar al-fard) has boundaries and yet does not have dimension. 329. Allah far removed from extension and magnitude. is less He is also either co-extensive is finite. That which space has been mentioned above is a proof of His not being placed in place. IX. He either be bounded from eternity and this would necessitate the eternity of the boundary or He would and so not be bounded from eternity. al-Ta'rtfat. odor. 2. 16 According to Scholastic Theologians al-khalff is that void which separates bodies and atoms. being neither upward nor downward nor any of the other directions. so He would be a locus for originated things. dampness. He does not extend in any direction of place.44 ORIGINATOR OF THE WORLD described by quiddity (a/-/w^Jy^)/That He is not it?" means He does not share the same genus with other things." because the boundary (al-hayyiz) is the imaginary empty which any thing occupies whether it has extension or not. with the boundary or than it [in either case] is or He in is more than it and therefore divisible. of color. of Tech. taste. "Atomic Time. 458 f. ." Isis. and that it?" necessitates the existence of composition. Dimension is an expression for an itself lQ extension (imtiddd) subsisting in a body. we mean. "Of what genus nor by quality (al-i(ayftya)/that is. or] "What is But sharing the same genus [64] (al-mujanasa) requires that the things which share the same genus differ from one another by means of certain divisions which are set up. heat. whether called place.

. and that the meaning of body (al-jtsm) is that which is composed of other things. Diet. since in is them there that defect which comes from pointed out. al-Farq bayn al-Firaq. al-Najat. Also the Necessarily Existent [according to them either] must be of all forms. Pines. Corporealizers. It was of no consequence to the author that [in doing so] he synonymous terms and explain that which is well known. i86fF. 18 See al-Baghdactt. of the Comparers. Know then [66] that the mention by al-Nasafi of some of the things from is which Allah far removed makes unnecessary the mention of others of them. pp. qualities and magnitudes but if this were the case it would have to follow that He would unite in Himself things contradictory to each other or else He must be of only some of to these forms. .. as we have is This not the way which the Early Theologians took [to explain this] meaning of accident (al-arad) according to etymology which cannot continue. p." And they said that if is the Neces- sarily Existent were compounded. "This is bulkier (ajsam) than that. their implying that He is originated and pos- sible. al-Mawaqif. he attempted here to go into detail and to explain clearly the matter of Allah's being far removed [from created things] in order to give all that the subject of the Necessarily Existent deserves and to answer in and emphatic way the Comparers (al-Mushabbiha) 18 and the Corporealizers (al-Mujassima) and all the other parties of error and the most complete perverseness. al-IjT. and magnitudes. IV. 619. This remoteness of Allah [from created things] which I have mentioned is had to repeat based on the fact that these terms [i. p. then the parts of which attributes of perfection (al-fomal). that the meaning of atom (al-jawhar) is that from which other things are composed. However. shapes. qualities. Enc. With the Philosophers it is the measure of motion. Ibn Slna. 214 f. Uuhassal. alRazi. and these will have be of the same order both in conveying equally the idea of either praise or blame. pp. He would be described by attributes composed and that would these require a plurality of necessarily existents. al-Milal. and in the absence of any evidence 17 Cf. p. al-Ta'rifat. pp. 49 ff.e.. Terms. or the parts would not have and would therefore be lacking in something and have been originated.. of Tech. 119. pp. pp. shapes. 61. as is indicated in their for they said that the is that saying. and so on] are inconsistent with the term Necessary Existence. 75 ff.ORIGINATOR OF THE WORLD Time (d-zamdn) 17 4J for does not affect Him/With us time is an expression something renewed by which something else renewed is measured. 362 &. Allah is far removed from that. Beitragc. al-Shahrastani. of Islam. 1207.

. and the Sunna. 20 See 18. and give currest rency to the effusions of the vilifiers of religion. 1406.. The decisive proofs rest on such matters as remove Allah far from any such thing. pp. The Muslim Creed. . as Knowledge and Power. p. pp. Wensinck. Terms. Now Allah is neither residing [in the world] nor a locus for the world. in ff. 207 ft. 19 See al-Iji. which of those who seek after truth. These opinions of the Early Theologians cause damage to the beliefs on weak foundations. and bodily members. has a body.. to who in their show that all these lofty problems of theology are based arguments try on nothing but frail ambiguities like these. Miillcr. Cf. then] He would be in contrast to such attributes. pp. [67] far The one who disagrees with this position [regarding Allah's being 19 removed from created things] cites the statutes (al-nusus) L>0 that plainly teach. but the opposites of these attributes of perfection are those attributes of imperfection (al-nuqsan) concerning which there is no evidence in originated things that they apply to Allah.46 ORIGINATOR OF THE WORLD But if that originated things apply to Allah. where the reference is to the Qur'an Chapter Tech. So the science [dealing with the interpretation] of the statutes must be committed to Allah according to the custom of the Fathers (al-salaf). He therefore has boundaries and is a body or a part of a body. form. Philosophic. regarding Allah. Muhassal. who [committed such things to Allah because they] preferred to follow the safer method. as the Later Theologians (al-mutd a\hl(hirun) chose to do. Diet. so He is cut off from it in some direction. ' Or the statutes may be interpreted. thing outside Himself [if and thus He would come under the power of someand consequently would be originated. al-Mawdqif. or is discrete and cut off from the other in some direction. by sound interpretations (taw'ilat sahihd) in order to refute the thrusts of the ft. for example. which are attributes of perfection and concerning which there is evidence in originated things that they do apply to Allah. of pp. 58 al-RazI. that He extends in a direction. is He says further that each of two existing things by supposition either continuous and contiguous to the other. formed and finite. Furthermore in originated things that these attributes apply to there were no evidence Allah. then Allah would need a determining principle (mutyassis) [to make a selection among the things which are assumed not to convey any idea of either praise or blame]. this were the case. i2ff. The answer to this is that here is a case of pure fancy (wahm) and a judg- ment concerning objects not perceived by the senses according to judgments that apply to objects perceived by the senses.

. A. originated. and to follow the wiser path. Therefore it is not necessary that the statement in al-Bidaya be understood as meaning complete equality. as in measure. in It is clear number of grains is [to a measure]. wheat differs as well in weight. If it is it] understood that by similarity [to something] there clear that a being united [to similarity is. and renewed every [moment of] time. Chapter 2. possible of existence. and so on is so much more majestic and exalted than what is found in creatures that there is no basis for comparison between Allah and His creatures. sarily existent. He is not like anything. and nothing resembles Him/that in reality. Geschichte. although there may many points of difference between them. and in hardness and tenderness. 23 See Muslim. said that the knowledge which we [creatures] something existing. [68 J the statement of the author of al-Biddya. for what is predicated of Him in the way of Knowledge. 32 Abu M-Mu'In Maymun b. it is is to say. al-$ahlh. note 27. Muhammad al-Nasal (d. an attribute. 426. nothing is is like Him. Thus it is is the knowledge of creatures This is not in any respect similar to His knowledge. Power. II. eternal (qadlm). I. like for like. And if means is that for one of two things may take the place of the other that each good what the other is then no existing thing can take His place in any of the things predicated of Him. 232. that there no dis- agreement between the two positions. when he explained that is the similarity of lished two things to each other according to our view estabif two differ in by their sharing together all things predicated of them. something existing. A. he be him in and can take his place in this matter." He meant by measure only. So if we establish knowledge as an attri- The author is of al-Biddya 21 have bute of Allah. the Al-Shaykh Abu it '1-Mu'In said in al-Tabsira 22 that the lexicographers do not if preclude the statement that equals Zayd is similar to 'Amr in knowing fiqh. Brockclmann. Musnad. for this equal- the Prophet said. for al-Ash'arl meant equality in all respects where there is a similarity.H. an accident. 1114) was the au- thor of Kitdb Tabsirat al-Adilla and other books on scholastic theology. I. so that one thing predicated the similarity breaks down. for example. 508. neceseverlasting from eternity (al-azal) to eternity (al-abad). ity in "Wheat for for wheat. otherwise when two things have in common all things 21 Sec above. The statement of the Ash'arites all 23 that similarity does not exist except in equality in respects is unsound. to incline [towards the truth] the disposition of those 47 who are immature.D.ORIGINATOR OF THE WORLD ignorant. 632.

History of Philosophy in Islam. 104) says that he is Abu '1-Qasim al-Balkht. p. For al-Ka'bi (d. 48. is 2Q who asserted that He is unable to do anything similar to that which [to . Macdonald.48 predicated of ORIGINATOR OF THE WORLD them and arc equal in all respects.D.J. A. al-Iji. Die phil. Thcologen im Islam. Horten (Die phil. who assert that Allah does not know particulars and that there is only in Him power to do one thing. HorDie phil. Systems der spef^. al-Iji. according to the commentary on al-Maqdsid. Systeme der spe%. pp.H.. al-Baghdadl. 486 f. for ignorance or inability in a part is a lack and a need which call for a determining principle. 109. sec Index. Enc. pp. Systeme der spc\> Thcologen im Islam. 140 fT. Development. of Islam. 80. 894. al-Ash'arl.. A. al-Farq bayn al-Firaq. [69] and unlike ai-Balkhi. al-Milal. that prevents there being [if a plurality of things.D. 37 fT. 26 A. pp. that who asserted that He unable to do which is in the power of the creature to do. Hortcn. pp. 231. 929) sec 'I. 165 fT. Terms. 637) considers them as one individual. al-Farq bayn al-Firaq. H3fT. 77. However. Enc. p. of Tech. in the power of the creature is do] and unlike the Mu'tazilites in general. [since they make Allah's will to do the act necessary] there is no possible choice on His part between doing and abstaining from the Dahrites (al~dahriya)?* who claim that Allah and unlike al-Nazzam. for alike]? how is similarity conceivable they are exactly and nothing is outside of His Knowledge and Power/This is true. (p. al-Mawdqif. II. He held that Allah could only do which is just and for the creature's good. 25 Al-Nazzam (d. Theologen im Islam. p. Maqdldt. al-Shahrastam. 337. De Boer. A. p. So then He is Omniscient and Omnipotent. who is known as al-Ka'bi. This is unlike the position of the Philosophers. I. . sec Index. 847) was a Mu'tazilite who is credited with having been a student of the doctrines of Greek philosophy..D. al-Baghdadi. does not know His unable to create ignorance and the vile thing. pp. whereas the decisive statutes speak of universal Knowl- edge and all-embracing Power. al-Mawdqif t p. 480. 24 Cf. 25 who asserted that He is act. of Islam. 342. p. and unlike the essence. Diet. in the commentary on al-Mawdqif and in Abl^dr al-Ajkdr the two names seem to apply to different persons. that tcn.

pp. Furtherterm can be properly predicated of a thing. Cf. and so on. Umm al-Barahin. pp. al-Babu 'l-Hddl 'Ashar. 30. It is known that each of these attributes points Living. 2 But view of theirs self-evidcntly impossible. f. 3 ff. al-Fadali. al-Bardhin." nor are these attributes to be taken as more if a derivative Life.. Power. 72 ff. twenty that al-Fadali for example. and other attributes. pp. pp. 275) classifies the attributes as follows: there arc twenty that are necessary. or even of Al-SanusI (see his Umm . al-Mawaqtf. "A thing is black but there is no blackness furthermore it has already been established in the statutes (al-nusus) that Allah possesses Knowledge. And thus it has been established that Allah possesses the attributes of Knowledge. 96 is The Shi'itcs also maintain that Allah attributes that consist of ideas (ma'ani) and states of Powerful by His essence and deny to him being (ahwdl). that thing necessarily possesses the source from which that term is derived. Power. not Le has attributes from all eternity subsistent in He nor are they other than He. ing Life He it has been established that He is Knowing. 3 Neither al-Nasafl in his creed nor al-Taftazam in his classification of the attributes of Allah that is to be commentary gives the minute found in the works of al-SanusI or al-Iji in al-Matvaqif. al-RazI. pp. Kijayat al- 'Atvamm. Finally the procession from Allah of acts of which He has perfect under- standing points to the existence of merely to the 1 Cf. Muhassal. Powerful. 130 fT. it. not can be described as Knowing and Powerful. 29 rT. for in it is and so on. p." And our saying. pp.Chapter j SOME ATTRffiUTES OF ALLAH H. an Idea superadded to what is understood by the term "the Necessarily has attributes/inasmuch as synonymous terms... They are Knowledge and Power and and Might and Hearing and Seeing and Willing and Desiring and Doand Creating and Sustaining. to. and so on. 38 f.. 1 This is unlike the view of the Mu'tazilites. fact that He Knowledge and Power in Him. p. and Wensinck. al-Iji. Existent. The Muslim Creed. al-Iji. possessing Knowledge. this who assert that Fie is Knowing without analogous to He is is Powerful without pos- sessing Power. al-Mawaqif. And they are His essence. 43 2 al-Sanu$I.

Then there are five called the privative attri- does not imply any plurality in the essence [of Allah] nor does namely. that it is it is Knowing. Of the necessary attributes the first is existence. II. This. 4 Sec Wolfson.jo ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAH question at issue is The is not regarding that [transient kind of] knowledge and power which just as Allah is generally included under the qualities (al-ltayfiyat) and habits (al-malaf(at)f for our Early Theologians have explicitly stated that nor is it Living and has Life from eternity. of Islam. 15-39. and that not necessitated nor acquired.. Sight and Speech. Eternity. Will. pp. impossible that it continue forever. Terms. Knowing. Kifayat alMiiller. maqdurat) is described and so on. pp. and Speaking." it say. pp. Living. so [also in the case of Knowlis edge] they say that Allah that it is all-embracing. They are called attributes derived from ideas (sifdt ma'nawtya). al-Bdbu 'l-Hddi 'Ashar. of Tech. not an accident. attributes. Enc. Macdonald. "Aristotelian Predicates. 29 ff. pp. Willing. namely. Following these arc seven essential attributes of those consisting of Ideas (ftfdt al-ma'dni) which are Power. in wujudiya in the sense of thubutiya. Al-IjI (sec al-Mawdqif. that [even according to us] the existence of numerous eternal essences [outside of Allah] arc impossible. they by the term "Powerful. and Unity. and one that is possible. pp.. Hearing. Continuance. that His Knowledge is from eternity. which knowledge him and an accident. Knowledge. Hearing. pp. some- thing superadded to originated. which is a personal attribute (sifa nafstya). There are then seven other attributes which arc inseparable from these." Essays and Studies in Memory of Linda R. Muqaddima. ideas. Ibn Khaldun. And they affirm the same of the remainder of the [70] the Maker to The question at issue is rather regarding that [eternal] Knowledge of of the World and in like manner all the other attributes it is whether added us an attribute from eternity subsisting in Him. pp. 32. imply the existence of numerous eternal and necessarily existent beings. Cf. . 56. Seeing. 318 ff. They are Allah's being the one who is Powerful. which are the opposites of the first twenty. Muha$$al. which is not an accident. the attributes were divided by writers before al-Sanusi into positive (thubufiya) and privative (salbiya) attributes. Atvamm. Philosophic. III. Yet the Shi'ites who use the term "positive" and "privative" do not posit attributes consisting of ideas. namely. 24 ff. 51. The answer to this is to be found in what has already been said. the doing or not doing of possible things. Diet. that it can continue forever. Miller. something superHim. and is analogous to that [transient] knowledge of any one of is who knows. 227. al-Faclali.) seems to use the term al-Razi. 219 f. Development. 1490 f. the former being subdivided into personal (nafstya) and those connected with ideas {ma'nawiya) which include both the classes above concerned with butes (sifat salbiya)) Self-Subsistence. ff. Again. Life. The Philosophers and the Mu'tazilites denied this and asserted that the This means that His essence with respect to its connection with things known (al-ma'lumat) is described by the term "Knowing" and with respect to things over which He has Power (alattributes are the very essence itself. subsisting in him.. Difference from originated beings. pp..

the Mu'tazilite view would lead to the absurd conclusion. subsistent in His essence/Of necessity nothing can be it said to be an attribute of something unless subsists in that something.ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAH is 5* our belief in the an impossibility. This is unlike the Mu'tazilites. The clear statement of the position that the one who is Necessarily Existent explicit in His essence is Allah and His attributes came from the Later Theologians (al-mufa'a^h^hirun). who Allah speaks with a kind of Speech which subsists in someoutside Himself. there necessarily existent beings. namely. for instance. so what is to be one who establishes eight or more? Al-Nasafi referred to the answer to this question by saying. and that it also would be with the Knowing One. that Knowledge. This implies is neither the eternity of that which other than He nor the plurality of eternals. They are not He Allah are not His essence nor are they other than He/that is. nay rather. the Living One. and so on to many other similar absurdities. inasmuch as they are eternally existent and distinctly different lah are is from the essence of Allah. who assert that Allah has attributes but that those attributes must be originated. The ] Christians (al-Nasara) have become Unbelievers [so say the Mu'tazilites said of in establishing three eternal beings. Finally. and the Powerful One. The purpose of this statement of theirs is to deny thing the existence of Speech as an attribute of Allah. and furthermore it would also lead to the conclusion that He who is of necesidentical sary existence would not subsist in His own essence. and not to affirm that Speech assert that does exist as an attribute of Him but without subsistence in His essence. so it follows that something other than Aleternal and that there are numerous eternal beings. would be identical with Power and Life. from all eternity (azaltya) /This is unlike the Karramites. as seen in references numerous which appear in the statements of the Earlier Theologians (al-mutaqaddimun). [71] the attributes of itself nor are they other than it. The Mu'tazilites maintained the position that establishing the attributes destroyed the unity of Allah. Furthermore. yet this position compelled them to posit the tinctly . inasmuch as it is impossible for things which are originated to subsist in His essence. their contention [that existence of eternal attributes within Allah implies a belief in the existence of eternal essences outside of Allah] does not follow. Although the Christians do not expressly state that there are disdifferent eternal beings.

a means of knowing. them the Father. Diet. I mean by This essence is that the Essence of Allah Exalted of Himself and Extolled. 3667: qnuma. 1921). Theologie des Islam. p. says that the Necessarily Existent in what one means when he His is Allah and His attributes. but see R. Diet. of Tech. 1093. the idea being that these are neces- sarily existent in the essence of the Necessarily Existent. p. 1 Cf. Terms. Terms. Some upon is say that it is impossible to make plurality and distinct entities being made (al-taghayur)? this multiplicity depend term meaning that it numbers from one. p. Philosophic. 172. und pos. [72] yet some are a part of others and the part is not distinctly different from the whole. 1879-1901). this as Knowledge. three and so on are many and numerous.J. G. 907. and Life. necessarily existent in Him. They claim that the person the body of Jesus (uqnum) of Knowledge transferred himself into on him be peace so they permit the separation and inasmuch as they are distinctly different es- transference of the persons. p. 108. of Tech. Hava. But in themselves if they are possibles.ji three persons of the 6 ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAH calling Life. . Die spe%. p. Miiller. The term "eternals" should not be used the estimative faculty (al-wahm) go so far as to think that each of the eternals subsists in itself 5 and that divine attributes are predicated of it. 56. 1225. who quotes the Shark al-Maqasid. Payne Smith. hypostasis. Knowledge. Thesaurus Syriacus (Oxford.. gives the origin of from the Greek Y^M*?. so the existence of a existence of eternals. in Arabic-English Dictionary (Beirut. al-Milal. p. It is also better not to say boldly that the attributes are necessarily existent in themselves but rather [to say] that they are not necessarily existent in anything else but in that which is not themselves nor other than themselves. There is no absurdity in the eternity of the possible is this eternity subsists in the essence of the Eternal. 6 These terms. J. preferable to say that the plurality of eternal essences but not the plurality of an essence and attributes is impossible. two. a judgment. the mind. Godhead (aqdriim)? namely Existence. p. attributes (bi sijdtihi) lest number of gods is not to be implied from the We is must rather say Allah taken with His eternal. possible to separate them absolutely so that series of It is also inconceivable that there be a dispute among the People of the multiplicity Approved Way and the Community on the question of the However. and the Son and the Holy Spirit (ruh al-qudus). it is and plurality of the attributes of the Deity as to whether they are distinctly separate or not. Not that every eternal is a god. Horten. and by A. as applied to the persons of the Trinity are also given in al-Shahrastant. Existence. substance. sences. and is not separated (munfasil) from Him.

. Thcologen im Islam. and limbs. A. it is possible to separate them from one another.. pp. al-Milal. We reply to all this that they have interpreted "otherness" the existence of one is (al-ghayriya) to be the state of coming-into-being on the part of two existent things so that determined and conceived along with the nonis existence of the other.H. Hortcn.. 79 fF. as the part along with the whole. takes away the force of the two contradictories and in reality a uniting of them. the attribute along with the essence. Development. al-Bdbu 'l-Hddl Ashar. phil. II. establishes inclusively their identity with Him.. and the establishing of them is is as other than He along with an explicit denial two contradictories. pp. 256) who was a litcralist holding that Allah had a body with flesh. and yet absolutely denying the multiplicity of Eternals and that possibility requires origination (A. blood. Systems der spe%. al-Shahrastam. This is true. for the explicit denial that the attributes are other than He. 70. al-Baghdadi. Karram (d. . 773. is But an intermediate thing is conceivable to the extent that understood by one thing is not that which is understood by the it Yet does not exist without the other thing. for the essence and attributes of Allah are eternal from the beginning. all.. for example.J. al-Farq bayn al-Firaq. p. and there is no third intermediate thing confor that is them which ceivable between the two. if it is not that which is understood by any other thing that is. pp. pp. 340 ff. 72. other than the first thing then it is identical with the first thing. See Macdonald. of their identity with Him a uniting a uniting of the So also the explicit denial of identity of understood by [7^] a thing. and the denied both that the attributes are other than He and that they are His essence. and thus there are not two things contradictory what other. 9 This is the position o the earlier Ash'arites. The non-existence of the ten means the non-existence of the one. They have interpreted "identity" (al-aynlya) to be the uniting together of that which is understood in such a way that there is no distinction of difference at to each other. impossible for one as a part of ten to continue without the ten. Die. the later ones maintaining that the attributes were other than the essence. 90. and the existence 8 The Karramites were the followers of Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad b. 202 flf. Enc. of Islam.ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAH Because of the difficulty of this J3 question the Mu'tazilites and the Philosophers 8 denied the attributes. Objection may be made that this. p. 147. 128. and some of the attributes along with other attributes.D. 170 ff. 35. and that they were possible. 109). inasmuch as one is a part of ten. pp. and for ten to continue without the one.. the Karramitcs Ash'arites 8 denied their eternity. that to say. and the non-existence of such an eternal It is is impossible. which appears is to be a denial. 'I.

It is for example. however. What the Early Theologians have said about the impossibility of the one [of ten] continuing without the ten appears to be unsound. and the accident. known that they did not have this idea in mind even though it does not apply to the example of an accident and its locus. Thus did two the Early Theologians argue. inasmuch as the existence of if inconceivable is the Maker of the world were non-existent. [74] and so also between the esit is sence and the attribute. this to be contradicted in the case of the world. All this is quite certain that there must be a distinct difference [between the two entities] in order that they may be made to agree. for they mean that from the standpoint is of each of the entities a real separation in existence is valid. If consideration were to be given to dis- explaining the relationship between the two entities. for itself] is conceivable that the essence subsist [in without these attributes which are originated. nor the existence of an accident its such as blackness. so that the whole really possible for a part to exist without and for the essence to exist without the attribute. and then establish the existence of others by proof. nevertheless there must be a distinct between the part and the whole. it is conceivable without locus. is for just as the existence of ten impossible without a unit. besides. for example evident. Maker. Yet it is we may conceive the existence of some of them like Knowledge. and it is quite [of essence evident that the complete separation possible. if But this calls for consideration. This. the world is which must be taken along with its which follows its locus. And if they consider the matter difference from one standpoint only. Even if it is impossible. to exist alone it would not be one of the The result is that explanation of the relationship some consideration must be given to this [between the two entities]. so the existence of a unit of it ten is impossible without the ten. it is distinctly unlike the originated attributes. This is different from the question of the part and the whole. beis cause His non-existence impossible. and attributes] is im- For we say that the Early Theologians have clearly stated that the butes are not distinctly different from one another on the basis that non-existence tain that is attri- their cer- inconceivable because they are from eternity. and later the establishing then by proof of a Maker is to be sought for. so they are other than His essence.J4 of the ten ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAH means the existence of the one. even as a mere supposition. since were ten. the world may be conceived of as existing. One must not say that this means that it is possible then to conceive of the existence of each of them along with the non-existence of the other. there would be no .

10 This is possibly the Ja'far b. or we say. rather there would be no distinct difference between two different things (ghayrayn). or beas between cause and effect. He as far as existence is concerned. or between the things related. This was reckoned a is bit of ignorance on his part. 153 is ff. in order that a may be valid. So also if the hand of Zayd were other than Zayd. "Man is a writer" and "Man is a man. The things that have to do with Knowledge are unveiled when connected with this attribute.) where his position Harb spoken of by al-Baghdadi (al-Farq bayn al-Firaq. . pp." even though the statement regarding these latter attributes refers to Him. it would be other than itself." which means argument is not "Man a nothing. as between father and son. and there must be a distinct difference insofar as to be is something understood about them so that the predication just as may is mean something. So one were other although ten is than ten.*' which is unsound. but not sound in the case of the attributes "Knowledge" and "Power. then the hand of Zayd would be other than itself. Harith. Nor does the argument apply to parts which are other than those which arc predicated. because ten the term which applied to all the individual units [75] and which includes if each individual of the units along with the others.ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAH tinct difference 55 tween two brothers. Mu'tazilites. for it is one of ten. This is what Ja'far says. In al-Tabsira is there is mention of the argument that a unit of ten that the something other than ten and the is hand of Zayd is something other than Zayd. We butes say that this suggested sound in the case of the attri- "Knowing" and "Powerful" in relation to the essence [of Allah]. for there unity between predication there is them insofar as existence concerned. formed from something else besides. and what it implies is evident. None of the Mutakalall 10 In this he differed from lims said this except Ja'far b. And are they/that is. as is the case of all must be some stipulation of is predicates in relation to their subjects. But no one holds this. It may be suggested that it is possible that the idea of the Early Theologians was that the attributes are not nor are they other than He according to what is usually understood. This stone. regarding the part of the whole as different from the whole mentioned. the attributes from all eternity Knowledge (al-'ilm)/ which is an attribute from eternity. such as a unit of ten or the hand of Zayd. for ghayr is a term for showing relationship.

nevertheless there must be a distinct difference between the part and the whole. so that the whole it is really possible for a part to exist without and for the essence to exist without the attribute. which follows the world is its must be taken along with its locus. for if they mean that from the standpoint is of each of the two entities a real separation in existence valid. What the Early Theologians have said about the impossibility of the one [of ten] continuing without the ten appears to be unsound. and attributes] is im- For we say that the Early Theologians have clearly stated that the butes are not distinctly different from one another on the basis that non-existence tain that is attri- their cer- inconceivable because they are from eternity. it is distinctly unlike the originated attributes. it is conceivable without locus. This. which Maker. and it is quite [of essence evident that the complete separation possible. besides. the world may be conceived of as existing. But this calls for consideration. and later the establishing then by proof of a Maker is to be sought for. This is different from the question of the part and the whole. and then establish the existence of others by proof. so the existence of a unit of it ten is impossible without the ten. so they are other than Thus did the Early Theologians argue. to exist alone it would not be one of the The result is that explanation of the relationship some consideration must be given to this [between the two entities]. for itself] is conceivable that the essence subsist [in His essence. this is to be contradicted in the case of the world. It is for example. Yet it is we may conceive the existence of some of them like Knowledge. One must not say that this of means that it is possible then to conceive of the existence of each tion. for is just as the existence of ten impossible without a unit. and the accident. since were ten. for example evident. beis cause His non-existence impossible. nor such as blackness. known that they did not have this idea in mind even though two it does not apply to the example of an accident and its locus. there were to be given to would be no dis- . even as a mere supposiEven if it is impossible. them along with the non-existence of the other.54 of the ten ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAH means the existence of the one. If consideration explaining the relationship between the entities. All this is quite certain that there must be a distinct difference [between the two entities] in order that they may be made to agree. inasmuch as the existence of the existence of an accident its inconceivable is if the Maker of the world were non-existent. however. And if they consider from one standpoint only. without these attributes which are originated. [74] and so also between the esthe matter sence and the attribute.

And are they/that is.ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAH tinct difference S5 tween two brothers. such as a unit of ten or the mention of the argument that a unit of ten that the hand of Zayd. but not sound in the case of the attributes "Knowledge" and "Power. So also if the hand of Zayd were other than Zayd. and there must be a something to be understood about them so that the predication is mean something. and what it implies is evident. the attributes from all eternity that have to attribute. Harith. as between father and son. as the case of all predicates in relation to their subjects. 153 is ff. for it is one of ten. then the hand of Zayd would be other than itself. whole as different from the whole mentioned." even though the statement regarding these latter attributes refers to Him. This was reckoned a bit of ignorance on his part. formed from something else besides. The things do with Knowledge are unveiled when connected with this is possibly the Ja'far b. In al-Tabsira there is is something other than ten and something other than Zayd. is "Man a is a writer" and not may "Man is a attri- which is unsound. for ghayr no one holds this. or u We butes say that this suggested man. rather there would be between two different things (ghayrayn). None of the Mutakallims said this except Ja'far b." just as we say.) where his position regarding the part of the of by al-Baghdadi (al-Farq bayn al-Firaq." which means nothing. or beas between cause and effect. Harb spoken pp. in order that a distinct difference insofar as may be valid. So one were other although ten is than ten. This stone. for there must be some stipulation of unity between predication there is them insofar as existence is concerned. 10 In this he differed from all the Mu'tazilites. . is nor are they other than He as far as concerned. 10 This Knowledge (al-il m) /which is an attribute from eternity. argument is sound in the case of the in relation to the essence Man "Knowing" and "Powerful" [of Allah]. Nor does the argument apply to parts which are other than those which are predicated. or between the things related. But It may be suggested that it is possible that the that the attributes are not idea of the Early Theologians was He according to existence is what is usually understood. is no distinct difference a term for showing relationship. This is what Ja'far says. because ten is hand of Zayd is the term which is applied to all the individual units [75] and which includes if each individual of the units along with the others. it would be other than itself.

56

ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAH

and Power (al-qudrd) /which is an attribute from eternity. It makes an impression on things over which He has power on their being connected with
it

and Life

(al-hay at) /which

is

an

attribute

from

eternity bringing about the

validity of

Knowledge
(al-qutva) /which has the
1

[76]

and Might

meaning of Power

and Hearing (al-sam ) /which and Seeing
(al-basar) /which
is

is

an attribute connected with things heard
It

an attribute connected with things seen.

comprehends completely

n

neither by the use of the imagination (al-ta\hay-

yul) nor of the estimative faculty (al-tawahhum) nor by an impression

being

made on some
two

sense organ

and

a current of air reaching

it.

The

eternity

Hearing and Seeing does not require the eternity of the things heard and seen, just as the eternity of Knowledge and Power does not require the eternity of the things which are known and in His
of these
attributes of

Power, because they arc

all

eternal attributes,

and connections with originated

things are originated for them.

and Willing

(al-irada)

pressions for an attribute

and Desiring (al-mashi'a)/These terms are in the Living One [77] which brings it about

ex-

that

one of two alternatives among the things over which He has power is specified and actually comes into being at a certain time, even though His

Power maintains an equal

relationship to each of
it is is

them and even though
its

the
into

connection of Knowledge with

a consequence of

actually

coming

being. In this statement attention

one

who

asserts that

Desiring

is

answer made in refuting the eternal and that Willing is originated and

drawn

to the

subsistent in the essence of Allah,
that the

and

also in refuting the

one

who

asserts

meaning of Allah's Willing His own action is that He is not comnor heedless nor overcome, and that the meaning of His Willing the pelled action of others is that He commands them. How can this be the meaning of
it,

when He

has

commanded
all

12

every legally responsible person (tnufallaf)

to believe

and perform

the rest of the duties?

Had He

desired that,

it

would have happened.
11
A.J., p.
1 1

6, reads

"there
I,

12 Sec Enc. of Islam,

is comprehended completely by both of them." 239; Diet, of Tech. Terms, p. 1255; al-Bdbt4 'l-Hadi 'Ashar,

pp. 3

ff.,

46

ff.,

and 82

flF.;

also

below Chapter

10.

ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAH
and Doing
an
being).
13

57

(al-fi'l)

attribute existing

and Creating (al-tatyliq) /Thcsc arc expressions for from eternity which is called at-tal(win (bringing-intocomes
later.

Its verification

\halq (the creation) inasmuch
thing created).

as

it is

Al-NasafI avoided using the word atoften used in place of al-matyluq (the

and Sustaining

(al-tarztq) /It

is

a special kind of bringing-into-being

which which

al-Nasafl explained thus in order to point out that things like creating, sustaining, forming, bringing to life

and death, and other things

as well

are ascribed to Allah are traced back to a real attribute existing

from

eternity

and

tafyum). This

which is bringing-into-being (alunlike the position of al-Ash'arl, for he asserted that these things are relationships (idd]dt) and attributes of actions.
subsistent in the essence of Allah
is

13 See below, Chaps. 7, 9,

and

10.

Chapter 6
THE ATTRIBUTE OF SPEECH

id Speech. He speaks with a kind of Speech which is one of His attributes, from all eternity, not of the genus of letters and sounds. It is an attribute incompatible

And

with silence and defect Allah speaks with
hibiting,
is

this attribute,

and narrating. The Qur'an, the Speech of Allah,
ears, [yet] is

commanding, prois uncreated and it

written in our volumes, preserved in our hearts, recited by our tongues,

heard by our

not a thing residing in them.

And

Speech (l(alam)/\\.

is

an attribute from eternity which

is

an expression

composed of letters called the Qur'an. [7$] [This is similar to] any one of us [who] whenever he commands, prohibits, and narrates finds of himself an idea and then indicates it by an expression or by writing
or by a gesture. This attribute

for that context

something other than the attribute of Knowledge, since a man may narrate something which he knows not to be a fact], but rather knows the contrary to it. This attribute is an attribute difis
[

ferent

from Willing,

like the person

for one may command something who commands his slave to do something

he does not

will,

in order to reveal
is

his disobedience

and insubordination. This kind of speech
nafst).*

called "speech

of the

mind" (\alam

Al-Akhtal

2

referred to this kind of speech in

saying,

Verily speech

is

in the heart,

And the tongue has been made only
1

as a guide to the heart.

is the ideas of the mind which do not need letters or them. Enc. of Islam, II, 671; Diet, of Tech. Terms, p. 1270; al-Fa^ali, Kifayat al-Awamm, p. 54; al-Iji, al-Mawdqif, pp. 63 ff.; A.J., pp. 120 2 Al-Akhtal, an Arabian Christian poet, born about A.D. 640. A eulogy of the Umayyad

Kalam

nafst, or hadlth nafst,

words

to express

.

regime, under which he flourished,
cross

is

considered his masterpiece.

He

is

remembered espe-

cially for his refusal of the khalifa's offer that

which he wore about
I,

his

neck after

he become a Muslim, and for the golden the manner of the Arabian Christians. Enc. of
ff.;

Islam,

234
I,

ff.;

Nicholson,
fT.

A

Literary History of the Arabs, pp. 240

Brockelmann,

Gcschichtc,

49

SPEECH
And 'Umar may
"Verily there
is

j9
said, "Verily,
I

Allah be well pleased with him

made

a saying right and sound in myself."

And
I

often you say to your friend,
to relate to you."
is

speech within me, which

wish

The

proof
1

for the establishment of the attribute of Speech

of the

Muslim people

[79]

and mutawdtir traditions

Agreement (ijma ) from the prophets, which

the

Allah is a Speaker since it is certain that speaking is impossible without the attribute of Speech being established. It has been established that Allah has eight 8 attributes: Knowledge, Power, Life, Hearing, Seeing, Willassert that

ing, Creating,

and Speech. And

since the last three are

more open

to dispute

and more obscure, he again referred eternal and went into some detail in
firmly established.

to their being established as sure

and

his statement of the fact that they are

So al-NasafI

said,

He/that

is,

Allah

speaks with a kind of Speech which

is

impossible to affirm the derivative of
sistence in that thing of the source of

one of His attributes/Of necessity it is any thing without affirming the subits

derivation. In this

way

al-Nasafl reis

futed the Mu'tazilites, 4 inasmuch as they took the position that Allah

a
is

Speaker of Speech

which

subsists in

something other than Himself, and

not one of His attributes.

from
in

all

eternity/Of necessity

it is

impossible that originated things subsist

His essence.
letters

not of the genus of

originated accidents, the occurrence of
fact that others

and sounds/Of necessity letters and sounds are some of which is conditioned on the

that

it

is

have been finished. By immediate perception we know impossible to pronounce the second letter [of a word] without
first letter.

finishing off the

This

is

a refutation of the Hanbalites
is

6

and the

Karramites,

who

say that the Speech of Allah

an accident of the genus of

sounds and
3

letters,

and

yet in spite of that

it is

eternal.

This

is

the Maturiditc position, since the Ash'arites omit Creating (tal{win). See alis

Razi, Muhassal, pp. 135 ft.; al-Iji, al-Mawaqij, pp. 71 ff. 4 This position of the Mu'tazilites regarding the Speech of Allah Shi'ites. The Kharijites like the Mu'tazilites said that the Qur'an
Murji'ites differed

also that of the

was

created.

The

among

themselves in the matter. Al-Ash'ari, Maqalat, pp. 124, 153;
II,

al-Bdbu 'l-Hddi 'Ashar, pp. 25 ff. 6 Cf. Enc. of Islam, I, i88ff.,

6701!.; Ibn Khallikan, Biographical Dictionary,
f.

I,

44

fT.;

Macdonald, Development, pp. 157

which denies that speech should be divided into a variety of attributes corresponding to the various kinds of speech. mean by that silence and dumbness. We reply that this is impos- nay rather. the Eternal and Infinite One. uttered and in the mind. 127. 'I. as in the case of dumbness. al-Iji. prodivisions of Speech. 7 These are the connections which according to the Mutakallims are the relationships between the Knower and the thing known. SPEECH Speech is an attribute/that is. pp. p. 23 f. 1014. (Klein. 7 In this. Speech is analogous to Knowledge. Allah speaks with this attribute. To of this and dumbness arc incompatible with verbal utterance only.. Because of the difficulty of explaining the real nature of the connection between Allah. [80] or because and immaturity. al. for example. and the rest of the attributes. attribute. inasmuch as that is more fitting to the perfection of the unity of Allah. And there is no proof that each attribute has variety within itself. 189. Each of them is a single eternal but variety and origination occur only in making connections and adding relationships. and al-Bayjuri in his commentary says that al-Fadall omitted one and there should be eight connections for this one attribute. of Tech. sible. AlAsh'arl. is capable is its So just as I of both kinds. 80. so also contrary. 66 ff. prohibiting. Objection may hibiting. without which it is un- reasonable to think of the existence of Speech. pp. that Speech becomes one of these divisions only when the 6 This is the orthodox position. Diet.).D. 134. commanding. Power. Muhassal.A? art's Al-lbdnah. al-Mawaqif. so that it. the Decreeing One and the thing decreed. we answer that the meaning here is internal silence and internal one neither desires utterance within himself nor Speech is defect. etc. prohibiting. in contrast to speech of the since silence mind. p. 44. Al-Fadall. Terms. enumerates seven distinct varieties of connections for the attribute of Power. See Wensinck. as in infancy. Objection may be made that this definition applies to uttered speech only. 1061 f. .60 It/that is. al-lbana.. Kifayat al-Awamm. and the originated things which exist through his Power and Will the Scholastic Theologians went more and more into great detail. See al-Razi. and narrating that differ according to the matters with which Speech is connected. and narrating] are be raised that these things [such as commanding. pp. p. The Muslim Creed. Al-Fadall. an idea subsistent in the essence incompatible with silence/ which the is the leaving off of speech while yet having power to speak the lack of fitness in the organs of speech either because and defect/This of weakness is of the nature created within one. pp. and narrating/ This means that Speech is a single attribute 6 with a variety of forms for commanding. 68. p.

all eternity there was no [81] And some took the position that from all all eternity Speech it. prohibition. which is analogous to he had a son.SPEECH connections [with originated things] are made. because He is far removed from all time. to say that on the part of Allah narration which assumes the past time is a pure falsehood from which Allah must be far removed. but in the beginning from division whatsoever. the narrative and the seeking a response. the Speech of Allah. It is sufficient then that there be in the knowledge of the one commanding the it existence of the one to be for granted that after to do something he should come into existence. fact that some of them require the others does not Objection who is demand their being united into one. nor commanded. just as His times. The Qur'an. then the command from eternity is to compel the one commanded thereby to obtain it at the time he comes into existence and to make him fit to obtain it. is and the result of asking for in- formation (al-istitybdr) instructed. was narrasay that tive (jkjiabar) and that other kinds of Speech go back to is They the result of the command is to give the information (al-itybdr) that perfailure to forming the act deserves reward and do it deserves punishment. so he said. is uncreated (ghayr maJ^hluq) /He fol- lowed the term "al-Qur'an" with the words "the speech of Allah" because of what the Early Theologians had stated saying that the Qur'an is the uncreated Speech of Allah and not that the Qur'an is said to be uncreated. summoning Answer may be made and the result of is which comes from seeking to be the narrative which comes from that of necessity we know there are differences in these meanings. since with Allah there is no past. and narrative. and that prohibition just the opposite of this. prohibition. This is 61 true of Speech which does not pass away. and narrative. Narration that refers to eternity is not described by any time at all. Knowledge is eternal and is unchanged by the changing of our attention to the fact that And when wanted al-Nasafl spoke explicitly of Speech as being from eternity. If we do make His Speech to be command. may be raised that command and prohibition without someone commanded or who is prohibited is a bit of foolishness and unreality. To this we reply that no difficulty results if His Speech is not eternity there is and that from made from eternity to be command. and then commanding him a man's taking present. he this to call term "al-Qur'an" just as it is some- times applied to the eternal Speech of the originated context (al-nazm) which is mind is applied to the read. future. .

to call attention to meaning. being heard by the ear of man. says A.J. Ibn Khaldun. and so on. of Islam. pp. II. created] has only to do with the Eternal 8 For the history of the conflict over the significance of the non-creation of the Speech of Allah. their oneness in first. 4 ft. Wensinck. 92. And al-Nasafi used "uncreated" instead of "unoriginated" in order. bit having been being in the brought down whole and then revealed by 9 bit. So the whole question to be inter- preted as the question of the creation of the Qur'an.. pp. it is The proof for our position has already been stated. I. . 6701!. The verifying of this matter on which they and of the we differ goes back to whether or not the Speech mind can be established. expressions (al-alfaz) and letters However. its its Arabic language. 146*?. that established by Agreement and mutawatir tradition of the prophets may the blessing of Allah be on them that Allah is a Speaker. 124). and they do not say that the Speech of the mind is originated. we do not say that the verbal are eternal. or in actuality. the sending down of the Qur'an from the Preserved Tablet (see note 10) to the lowest heaven. namely. second. the Speech which is described as originated is described as eternal and in the mind is designated as the attribute of Allah. Cf. This just the position that the Hanbalites took out of ignorance and obstinacy. show its its origina- such things as as a its its composition and arrangement. al-Baydawi. 50 ff. the latter from there to the down at Prophet. to make his statement agree with the tradisaid. to take into account the dispute between the two parties 8 on the well-known subject of is whether the Qur'an is created or uncreated. Anwar al-Tanzil. i49rT. III. 17 f. it is tion in which the Prophet is may Allah bless and give him peace says that "The Qur'an is the uncreated Speech of Allah." the latter is used for "sending down by degrees. All this only raises being rhetorical posi- and inimitable and an argument against the tion of the Hanbalites and not against us. Enc. 72. Ibn Hazm. Development.. and whoever created not a Believer in Allah the Majestic One." The former is probably. for we admit that the arrangement of the Qur'an is originated. of Islam. third. The Mu'tazilites have inferred that the Qur'an is to be described by attri- butes which pertain to a created being and by marks which tion: that is. Kitdb al-Fisal. (p. Macdonald. tanztl.. p. since the subsistence in which is the essence of Allah of the verbal Speech impossible. verbal nouns of the IV and II stems of nazala: the former means "sending one time or in general. al-Kastali (Constantinople text). Our statement [about the Qur'an being unIdea. al-Ta'rifdt. III. see Enc. Muqaddima. p. II.6z [82] This distinction is SPEECH made lest the mind jump to the conclusion that the is thing composed of sounds and letters is eternal. 9 Inzal." and... the only meaning of which is that He has the attribute of Speech and that. 1064 ff. The Muslim Creed.

They moved differed about this last point. Diet. they held that means letters in their places or that He brings into existence the sounds and He brings into existence the written characters of the Preserved Tablet (al-lawh al-mahfuz) y 10 which may or may not be read. Believing heard by their that the ears. So al-Nasafl pointed out the answer by saying. The Tablet is very often identified. however. All these things are of necessity the name for that which has been transmitted this requires that the Qur'an be written in the volumes. p. II. nor in the hearts. You [orthodox people] are to us agreed that the Qur'an between the two covers of the volumes by tawatur. And Allah far exalted above anything like [83] that. does not reside in the volumes. Hughes. and it/that is. nor in the ears. Otherwise would be sound for the Creator to is be described with accidents which are created of Him. al-BayclawI. III. is You it are well aware that the one who is the one in whom the motion subsists and not the one who brings the motion into existence. One of the greatest ambiguities [regarding the Qur'an] according to is the Mu'tazilites stated by is them as follows. This Idea is expressed and heard The Preserved Tablet. is a body (jism) above the seventh heaven in which is written all that has been and will be until the Day of Resurrection. of Islam. with the original copy of the Qur'an and is then identical with T. With the Wise Men it is the Active Intelligence and with the Philosophers it is the Universal Soul. 1291. according to the Multitude of the People of the Law. the Qur'an. Terms. with written characters and with forms of letters which indicate it preserved in our hearts/that is. 285. 19. . 10 umm al-fydb. of Tech. by verbal expressions which are imagined recited by our tongues/with letters which are pronounced and heard heard by our ears/and with these also not a tiling residing (hall) in [yet] is them/He means to say that in spite of all this the Qur'an. 396. but it is an Eternal Idea subsisting in the essence of Allah. p. and marks which indicate to this Qur'an was originated.SPEECH when He speaks it *3 Since the Mu'tazilites were unable to deny that Allah speaks. Enc. the Speech of Allah. recited by the tongues of men. P. nor in the tongues. of Islam. and with the Sufis it is the Divine Light. The Dictionary Anwar al-Tanzil. which is the speech of Allah is written in our volumes/that is.

Systemc der spe^. he was a contemporary of al-Ash'ari. and also in Sayyid Murtacla's commentary on the IhyS of al-Ghazzali. Enc. who came from a village in was the leader of a reform in theology in the lands of the 333 (A.D. memorized the Qur'an. 195). the it is meaning is its true existential essence in external reality. and by characters which are used conventionally for the letters that indicate the Qur'an. al-Ash'arl took the to be heard.. of Islam. Systeme der spe%.D. as So whenever the Qur'an is one of the things inseparably connected (lawdzim) with the is what in the substance. 556f. 324 (A. since that is who is defiled to touch the Qur'an. This is is analogous to our saying that fire is is a burning substance. I. position that al-Isfara'ini 1X was and al-Ustadh Abu Ishaq 12 denied Abu Mansur [al-Maturidl] also chose this [latter] position. Horten. which a pen. Geschichte. p. Dying in A. in Horten. pp. and still minds (al-adhhdn). Brockelmann. II. 944). Theologen im Islam.H. the verbal exas pressions which are spoken and heard are meant. Geschichte. another in another in writing (al-I(itdba) The writing . b. . 86 ff. 935). they applied it not only to it the Idea. letter. Die phil. 531 ff. who died 4 pp. Trans-Oxus. which is Enc. 414 f. I. the it fundamental matters of dogma defined as that which is written volumes and transmitted by tawdtur. 309. Theologen im Islam. The differences between his position in dogmatic theology and that of al-Ash'ari have been well summarized in the book al-Rawda al-Bahtya (see Brockelmann. 14. when we say that the Qur'an is uncreated.D. of Islam. In re- gard to the Eternal it Speech which possible for it. in so far as indicates the Idea.. Die phil. the expression indicates it what is in the mind. [84] "I have recited half the Qur'an. and III. Mahmud al-Maturldi. recalled to it mind by a verbal expression and written down with but does not follow that the real essence of verifying of this fact is fire is a sound and a The that a thing has a kind of existence in sub- stances (al-a'ydn). "I have imagined in the mind as when unlawful for one we say. Man$iir II. but to the context as well. 12 Abu Muhammad Samarqand called Maturid. by forms. another kind of existence in an expression (al-ibdra)." or the characters that are "It is written down are meant as when we say.64 SPEECH by means of the context which indicates it. "Until he hear the speech of is Allah" (Qur'an 9:6) 11 Sec that he heard that which indicates it.. and in turn indicates described as Eternal. I. I. in A. indicates the expression. The meaning of the saying of Allah. that is. and preserved by the context which is imagined in the mind and is written by marks. is it an attribute of Allah. And they applied the name [Qur'an] both to the context and the Idea. 195.H. is Whenever described as that which inseparably connected with things created and originated. 48." or the expression when we say." And Imams in the which is indicated in the legal judgments by the term "Qur'an" in the verbal utterance (al-lafz) and not the Eternal Idea.

SPEECH analogous to one's saying. Moses was given the special name of "interlocutor" (al-tyllm) Objection may be raised that were the Speech of Allah really in an it Eternal Idea and metaphorically in a constructed context. II. Enc. Anwar al-Tanzil. 174 Macdonald. Fleischer. p. then would be sound to context which was sent deny Speech of Allah. 16 Some 13 See of the Verifiers (al-muhaqqiqiin) maintained that the Early It Theologians used the term "the Speech of Allah" as an eternal Idea. I. and al-Taftazanl himself. 130. The claim made by some of the Early Theologians that this expression is metaphorical does not mean that it is the conventional usage applied to the it context which has been composed. So there is conventional usage of the word and giving it no dispute with them about the this name. Anwar al-Tanzll. So denial of the Eternal Speech as suggested above is not at all sound. Qisas al-Anbiyd'. That which is inimitable and over which they contended can only be the Speech of Allah. pp. al-Baydawi. 15 See Qur. II. but rather as a reality means that in being verified and subsists in the which Speech mind. by saying that the inimitable (al-mu'jiz) down from above bit by bit and divided into suras is and verses not the Speech of Allah. 699. 2:21. 14 Cf. But the Agreement [of the this last statement. but since it was without the means of a book or an angel. 36. al-TusI. of Tech. p. was I. 149. "I hear the 65 of So-and-so. Qur. al-Baydawi. Development. ff. 241. To this we reply that the verifying of this is opposing the Eternal attriis to be found to in the fact that the Speech of Allah a the first place it applies to the Eternal Speech of the name common mind two things. Terms. of Islam. I. 16 A "verifier" was a term sometimes applied to many of the later Scholastic Theologians Diet. Annales. al-Iji. it would be positively certain that this be conceived of the context which was composed and divided into suras. al-fabari. Muslim if people] opposes Also it may be objected that 13 the inimitable thing which was an object of contention reality the in recitation were in can only Speech of Allah. al-Tha'labi... Cf. 463 ff. composed of suras and verses conveyed by the relationship [of Speech to Allah] here is that it is created by Allah and not one of the compositions of His creatures. Kleinere Schriften. 4:162. 336. . 772. since there would have been no meaning to their bute of Speech.*' knowledge So Moses ia heard a sound which indicated the Speech of Allah. In the idea conveyed attribute of Allah by the relationship here in the phrase "Speech of Allah" is that it is an and in the second place it applies to the Speech which is the idea originated and to verbal utterance. like al-Razi. Giving the verbal utterance the name ["Speech of in essence the is the name of the Idea [#5] Allah"] and making it the conventional usage for this Idea are only re- sults of its indicating the Idea.

66

SPEECH

not something that was contrasted with the verbal utterance so that it meant that which is indicated and understood by the verbal utterance, but it was

something in contrast to the substance itself. The meaning of the term was: that which does not subsist in itself like the rest of the attributes. They meant
that the Qur'an, being eternal,
is

the

name which

is

used for both the verbal
is

utterance and the Idea

and includes them both. This

not the position held

17 which was composed by the Hanbalites, who maintained that the context and arranged in parts is eternal. We know by immediate perception that it
is

positively impossible for
first

out

one to pronounce the "s" (sin) of bism 'illdhi withpronouncing the "b" (ba). But they mean that the verbal expression

which

subsists in the
like that

mind

is

His mind
it,

which

subsists in the

not arranged in parts [one after the other] in mind of the one who has memorized

parts.

without any arrangement of parts and without some of it preceding other The arrangement takes place only when one gives expression to it in

utterance or

when one

reads without using the organ [of speech]. This

is

the

explanation of their statement,
is

"That which

is

read

is

eternal, but the reading

originated.'*

arrangement of parts, so that

But that Speech which subsists in the essence of Allah has no whoever hears His Speech hears it without
Verifiers. It
is

any arrangement of parts, for He needs no organ [of speech]. This is the conclusion to be reached from the statement of the

well for one then to conceive the Speech of Allah as verbal expression, subsistent in the
it is

mind, not composed of

letters either uttered or

imagined, since

stipulated of these that the presence of
is it

composed of the characters And we do not conceive the speech which subsists in the mind of the one who has memorized it except as forms of letters which are

others; nor

some precludes the presence of which are arranged in order and

which
stored

indicate

it.

up and
it

inscribed in his imagination (J^hayal), so that

if

he turns to

becomes speech expressions which are imagined, or of marks which are so arranged that whenever he gives utterance to them they become [86] speech which is heard.
them,
constructed
of
verbal
17
A.J. (p. 128) reads lafz, "verbal expression," instead of

nazm.

Chapter 7
THE ATTRIBUTES OF CREATING AND
WILLING

id And
time of
it

Creating

is

an attribute of Allah from
its

all eternity.

And

it is

Allah's

creating the world
its
is,

and every one of

parts, not in eternity,

but rather at the

becoming

existent, according to
is

His Knowledge and Willing.

And

[that

the attribute of Creating]

not the thing created, according to our

opinion.

And
essence.

Wilting

is

an

attribute of Allah

from

all eternity, subsistent in

His

And

1

Creating (al-tafain) /It

is

the idea expressed by such words as al-pl

(doing), al-tyalq (creation), al-tatyltq (producing), al-tjdd (bringing-intoexistence), al-ihdath (originating),

and

al-itytirtf (inventing). It

is

explained

as the bringing of the non-existent
existence.

(al-ma'dum) from non-existence into

is

an attribute of Allah/because both Reason and Tradition agree that He is the Producer (al-^hdliq) and the Creator (al-mu1(awwin) of the world,

and because

it is

impossible to apply a derivative term to a thing without the
it

source of the derivative being a descriptive of

and

subsistent in

it.

from

all

eternity

(azallya) /because of certain reasons.

originated things cannot subsist in Allah, as

we have

seen.

The first is The second is
would

that
that

Allah in His Speech, which

is

from

eternity, described His essence by the
all

term

al-1(haliq, so

were

He

not from

eternity Creator, that

either

necessitate falsehood [on
1

His part] or a resorting

to metaphorical language,

used here in the special sense of creatio ex nihilo so it has been translated "Creator," rather than by the more elaborate and cumbersome terminology "causing to come into being" and "the one who causes the coming

Ta\win

is

"creating,"

and mu\awwin

t

into being"

which the terms

really signify. Diet, of Tech.

Terms,

p. 1276.

68
by interpreting
it

CREATING AND WILLING
to

mean

that

He

is

the Creator in the future or that
is

He

is

able to create without difficulty.

The

real fact

that were

it

permissible to apis

ply the term "the Creator" to Allah as
create,"
it

meaning "the One who

able to

would then be permissible
there

to apply to

Him

all

of the terms having third reason
is

to

do with the accidents over which

He

has power.

The

that

were
(a)

He originated (hddith), If He were originated by
is

would be two
would

alternative absurdities.

another creation, that would necessitate the
necessarily follow then that
it

Endless Chain, which
is
is.

impossible. It

impossible for the

world to be created,

in spite of the fact that

we

see that

it

were originated He would be so without another creation, and thus that which is originated dispenses both with the originator and the act of origination. This statement does away with the Maker [of the world
(b)

Or

if

He

although the fact of His existence has already been proved].
reason
is

The

fourth

that

were

He
else,

originated,

either in

His essence and therefore
[#7]

(b) or in something

He would have been originated: (a) He would be the locus of things originated; 2 maintained, saying just as Abu al-Hudhayl
is

that the creating of each

body (jism)

something subsistent in

it,

so each

body is the producer and creator of itself. Clearly this is impossible. These [four] proofs are based on the fact that Creating is a real attribute
like

8

Knowledge and Power. But
is

the Verifiers

among

the Mutakallims say

that Creating

one of the relationships (al-idafat) and rational expressions
example, that the Maker
is
is

(al-i'tibdrat al-aqTiya), like the statement, for

be-

fore everything

and with everything and
is

after everything;

His name

on

our tongues.

He

the object of our homage,
to be

He

causes us to die
is

and

to live,

and so on. The conclusion
is

drawn from
and

this

that

from

eternity

He
life

the beginning of the acts of producing

sustaining, the giving of

and of death, and so on. There is no proof for the position that Creating is another attribute in addition to Power and Willing, for although Power has a relationship equal
to the existence or non-existence of a thing created,
2
it is

only
A.D.

when Willing

Muhammad

b.

al-Hudhayl, al-'Abdi al-'Allaf (A.H. 135-226;

752-841), one of

the outstanding Mu'tazilitcs, taught that the attributes of Allah were his essence. For the remainder of his doctrines see al-Shahrastani, al-Milal, pp. 35 fT.; al -Baghdad!, al-Farq bayn
al-Firaq, pp. 102
spet(. Theologen 8 This is one
fT.;

Macdonald, Development, pp. 136

fT.;

Horten, Die

phil.

Systeme der

im

Islam, pp. 246 fT.; Enc. of Islam, I, 93. of the points of difference between the Ash'arites and the Maturidites

(those from beyond the River Oxus) the former denying that takwln was an attribute of Allah, the latter asserting that it was. Cf. al-Rawda al-Bahiya, pp. 39 fT.; al-Razi,

Muhassal,
PP- 337
;

p.

135; al-Faclali, Kifayat

al-Awdmm,

pp. 57

fT.;

Macdonald, Development,

al-lj

al-Mawdqif, pp. 77

f.

CREATING AND WILLING
embraces one of the two
actual]*
potentialities that this

69
[and becomes

one

is

specified

Those who

assert that Creating
it

is

originated

make

the deduction that
is

we
So

can not conceive of
act of striking
is

without there being that which

created, just as the

inconceivable without there being the one

who

is

struck.

were Creating
that
is

eternal, the eternity of things created

must be

posited; but

impossible.

Al-Nasafi pointed out the answer to them by saying,

And it/that
is

is,

Creating

Allah's creating the world
its

and every one of

its parts,

not in eternity, but

rather at the time of

becoming

existent, according to

His Knowledge and

Willing/

So Creating continues from eternity to eternity (azalan wa abadan) [88] and the thing created is originated by the origination of the connection
[between Creating and that which
is

created], just as in the case of

Knowl-

edge and Power and other eternal attributes, the eternity of whose connections does not follow from their own eternity, inasmuch as their connections
are originated. In this there
is

the verifying,

first,

of the proposition that

if

the existence of the world

is

not connected with the essence of Allah or with
it

one of His

attributes, then

follows that the

Maker

[of the world] has

been deprived of His function and also that there is no need for verifying the fact that originated things come from one who brings them into existence, but these conclusions are impossible [so the existence of the world must be
connected with the essence of Allah or one of His attributes]; and, second, of
the proposition that
if

the existence of the world

is

connected with the

es-

sence of Allah then this (a) either requires the eternity of that with which
its

existence
is

is

connected, and that necessitates the eternity of the world,
it

which

unsound, or (b)

does not necessitate
is

it;

so Creating then

is

eternal also,
is

even though the thing created which
is

connected with Creating

originated. In this there

also the verifying of

what

is

to be said of the

proposition that the connection of the existence of the thing created with

Creating
Eternal"

is

just as

much

as saying that

it

is

originated,
is

inasmuch

as "the

is

defined as that the existence of which

not connected with anyis

thing

else,

and "the originated"
else.

is

defined as that the existence of which

connected with something

This

is

a matter for consideration, inasmuch as this

is

the

meaning of

however. which what the Philosophers held in claiming that its eternity is one of the possibles. Striking is an attribute showing relationship which is inconceivable without the two things related. that the world proceeded from the rather than of necessity. proceeding from it and lasting as long as it lasts. meaning that its existence was preceded by nonexistence. Certainly whenby means of a proof that does not rest on the origination of the world. This eternity is unlike the action of the Creator. asserts that who Or The ing is conclusion to be drawn from this is that we do not admit that Creat- inconceivable without the existence of the created thing. . but Creating is a real attribute that is the basis for the relationship. But "the originated" defined by the Mutakallims as that thing the existence of which had a beginning. which. And this [proposition that Creating bears the relation to the thing created that is striking does to the thing struck] not to be rejected by saying that strikis ing is an accident the continuance of which it impossible. meaning the Philosophers that they were not preceded by non-existence. And from one may go on to say that it applies to every part of the world. and pain must the thing acted upon.70 "eternal" CREATING AND WILLING and of "originated" according is to what the Philosophers say. but mere connection permits it to be in need of is else. according to this meaning. are maintain that some parts are eternal. Yet even were it the relationship itself. that something just it be originated. continuing until the time of the existence of the thing acted upon. inasmuch as it exists at the same time were it as the action. just like ever we establish. since delayed [until another time] it would become is non-existent. then the proposition. thereby answering the one eternal. for example. which is the bringing of the non-existent out from non-existence into existence. and "the eternal" is the contrary of this. some parts. primary matter (al-hayult). for [even if it is an accident] pass on to must be connected with the thing acted upon. but not the relationship itself. the striker and the one struck. namely. The mere connection of the originated thing with something else does not require. and that Creat- ing has the same relation to the thing created as the act of striking has to the one struck. then the proposition that Maker by [His] its choice existence is connected this with the Creating of Allah is a proposition that it is originated. according to the terminology used by the Early Theologians. does not mean [#9] that the world was not created by something outside itself. like primary matter. which verifies this relationship as true without there being a thing which was is actually created. His action from and of necessity endures. would be a contention and a denial of that which necessary.

is since of necessity the only idea that the Creator conveys in that He is the one whom Creating subsists. it is All of this calls attention to the fact that necessary to make a clear between the deed and the thing done. Second. it would require that Allah not be a creator [90] of things. They are one locus is one and the same. It is not something verified as distinctly different from the thing done in the world of reality. then there with the thing created means nothing in this but the doer and the thing done. the Creator would of necessity have no connection with the world. Fourth. and also because certain absurd things would follow were Creating the thing which First. This does not require exercises is is and Him false. since it is created by a creating which is the thing itself. thing would of necessity be a thing created and pro- duced by itself. Rather let him seek valid ground for the statement which they make which serves as a basis for dispute among the Learned and for controversy among those who use Reason. the one who uses Reason must ponder such investigations as these and not ascribe to the among those learned in the principles of the faith something which is known by immediate perception to be impossible by anyone who has the least discernment. since there is a relation between the doer and thing done. inasmuch as the only is meaning of and blackness the one in whom their and the same thing. This Third. and that the rock creator the creator of the blackness. yet an impression on it. This is impossible. just as striking differs from the one struck and eating from the thing eaten. would require one is to admit the validity of such a proposition as that the is creator of blackness in a given rock. for example. it except that He is before it it in eternity without having made or without its a necessary consequence of His power over it. For whoever says that creating that if well grounded is identical is the doer does anything. But whenever creating it is is identical with the it thing created then not subsistent in the essence of Allah. black. this being making being created by itself. But the idea denoted by terms like "creating" and "bring- ing into existence" is an expression for that which takes place in Reason. the created is itself created. consequently it Maker of the world. so would be eternal and independent of the Maker. according to our opinion/This distinctly different true because of necessity the action from the thing acted upon. He does not mean that what is understood by creating is identical with . However.CREATING AND WILLING And it [that is. 71 the attribute of Creating] is is not the thing created (al-mutywis wari). and distinction creating and blackness subsists. to be a Creator nor the not valid to say that He is the Creator and the world to be created by Him.

al-Ash'ari. Strange to say. 213 fT. moon and then close the it is are open perfect clear that. pp. f. pp. is to say that whenever we look at the full by means of the sense of sight. read ithbdt. 66 f. and al-Kastali.. 13 fT. Miiller. 179. 56 rT. Muhasfal.... 344.. The Comparers. Wensinck. Fadali. pp. al-Taftazani does not mention the Mu'tazilites. pp. "affirmation" or "establishing/* instead of idrdk- The Muslim 2 Creed. p. pp. 78 fT.J.H.Chapter 8 THE BEATIFIC VISION OF ALLAH allowed by Reason and necessary by Tradition. al- Mawdqif. 103. Macdonald. A.A. 145. Maqalat.. p. pp. See al- Bdbu 'l-Hddi 'Ashar. 296. its being unveiled is more complete and in gazing at it. fT. hat there is T a Vision of Allah is any material being] not in place nor in a direction so far as being confronted. al(also the commentary of al-Bayjuri). Development. A proof on authority has come down affirming that Believers have a vision of Allah in the abode of the next World. And He is seen [unlike . al-Shahrastani. The Philosophers and the Shi'ites also denied die possibility of the ocular vision. That there is a Vision (ru'ya) 2 * of Allah/This veiling (intyshaf) through the [sense of] sight. 35 pp.). 433 al-Ash'ari. Philosophic. the Corporealizers and the Karramites because of their extreme anthropomorphic ideas held in a very real sense to the possibility of the vision. is allowed by Reason/This means that Reason is when acting by is itself does not decide that the Vision against 1 impossible so long as there it. 63 88 A.. Nihdyatti 'l-lqddm.. 141. pp. al-Iji. al~A? 'art's Al-lbdnah. 1310. (Klein. though we see the moon unveiled both when the eyes and when they are closed. p. pp. Constantinople text of A. Ibdna. it means the complete unwhich is defined as the comprehension of a thing as really is That eyes.. 73 fT. fT. nor by the conjunction of the rays of light. So we have in relation to the object seen a special state called Vision. fT. 136 fT. nor by a certain definite distance between the one who sees and Allah.J. pp. al. .. 356 Kijdyat al- Awdmm al-Razi. in spite of the fact that at first no proof brought there was no Vision [before it was This matter of the Beatific Vision was one of the principal points on which the orthodox Muslims differed from the Mu'tazilites. pp.. 136..

flavors. It may be objected that it is not proper [for us to say that sounds. flavors. The People of Reality ways. has been demonstrated as being true concerning Him. one based on rational argument tional authority demonstrated the possibility of the Vision in two ('aqli) and the other based on tradifirst (saml). But cannot enter at all into consideration of causality [for non-existence cannot be the cause of anything]. And even if this fact were A. inasmuch as we of necessity distinguish by the faculty of sight between one body and another body and one accident and another accident. would be proper to say that other and their like may be seen. Undoubtedly various [bodily] substances and various accidents are seen by us. it own nature.J. Origination is a term explicatory of the fact that the existence took place after non-existence. The establishment of the proof is as follows. (p. and possibility a term explicatory of the fact that both result of the necessity of their existence and non-existence are not the as for non-existence. and this both to the Maker and to that which is made by Him. this cau$e as there either existence or origination or possibility." the .VISION OF mentioned in revelation]. [92] That sometimes a thing is not seen [even though it exists] is due to the fact that it is of the nature of that kind of possible which depends for its on the presence of a certain condition. it is Thus it has been established that possible for Allah to be seen by reason of the fact that the cause for such a possibility. (p. so no cause 3 required. and not because and the fact that they are not seen is only because Allah did not create in the creature the vision of them in the they cannot be seen.J. 137) explains this term to mean here the early theologians of the People of Approved Way (ahl al-sunna). Therefore it existent things such as sounds. the is Now is common designation inevitably implies a common cause. These three. so whosoever claims impossible must produce his proof. namely existence. is inasmuch no 4 fourth alternative which common is to both substances and accidents. Consequently [whichever of the three alternatives is taken] existence has been established [inasmuch existence is as origination common and possibility also imply existence]. odors. origination or possibility are common to both substances and accidents. or as may be said the such a condition acts as something which of necessity is a preabsence of realization venter [of its being seen]. "in which there is partnership. customary way. but non-existence cannot be considered as being common to them inasmuch as we see that some of them do exist at some time. 5 A. 138) adds mushtarakp. existence. 4 That is to say the existence or the origination or the possibility of these things is the cause of their being seen. This that the Vision of Allah is 8 ALLAH 7J is a necessary ruling. 5 is and odors may be seen].

and sometimes we may not be is So that which is con- nected with the Vision substances the fact that are in we may it. So that which connected with a Vision is the fact that the thing existence. and Moses fell down in a swoon. let look unto Thee" 6 (Qur'an 7:139). He made it a level place. and second. or would have been some sort of foolishness." Al-Baydawi (Anwar al-Tanzil. 292 fT. be able to distinguish what and accidents there is and that sometimes is we may and not be able. After first seeing it as connected with the "itness" of the shape. or trifling. VISION OF one specific thing ALLAH may heat is caused by the sun and by is fire. But then that must not be first see a body from afar we comprehend of it only a sort of "itness" shape approaching (huwlya) rather than anything which specifies it as substance or accident or which pertains especially to or accident. existence in general is not admitted to be a itself. etc. then if it abides in its place.76 to be admitted. and were be admitted. The statement of proof from the second is first. thou shalt see me. the non-existent suitable as a cause for the non-existent. from authority] me Moses requested a vision. there are in we may it. IV. for a much more detailed statement. but rather the existence of each separate thing in To all this it may be answered that the meaning of cause in this case that which connected (mutaalliq) quite clear that this it with the Vision and the one receiving the Vision. It is a proof that the vision in general is permissible. "O my Lord. that Allah connected the vision of Moses with 6 The remainder of this verse in the Qur'an reads. but the prophets (al-anbiya) are far removed from any- thing like that. . make me see." [95] This necessary that existence be eration. so had the vision not been possible. it is has some sort of "itness. and even were this fact admitted. So in be caused by different things.' And when his Lord manifested Himself to the mountain. 343) maintains that the answer "thou shalt never see me" instead of "I am never seen. is common is cause. saying. but look towards the mountain. just as this instance the one specific thing [to it did not require a cause that common and other things this fact to that have a is common designation]. be able to distinguish what substances and accidents able. because the thing fact that it it what all is meant by common which is to things seen. or a request for the impossible. I. Mafdtih al-Ghayb. for when we man or horse and so on. See al-Razi." calls attention to the fact that the vision depends on the preparation of the person seeing. that the request for as to what it is would have been something of ignorance on his part permissible and not permissible in regard to the essence of it Allah. 'Thou shalt never see me. This calls for consid- connected with the Vision may be the possesses body and whatever there are of accidents accompanying its without considering particular characteristic (tyusufiya). It is connection must be something having existence. "He said. standpoint [that is.

al-Sahih." Answer may be made meaning to tell was moving each of these two stateit ments contrary to the literal to of the verse." This is a well-known (mashhur) tradition reported by twenty-one of the principal Al-Baydawl (Anwar al-Tanzll. I. Second. alGhazzali. for the only thing that is impossible is the joining together of motion [94] and rest. IX. beaming faces to their which gives the statement of Allah. Then some objectors say. Handbook. "We do not admit that Different objections have sometimes been the thing to which it was connected its is possible. 77 is which is something possible the idea in That which is connected with the possible possible statement being to give the information that the establishing of a thing connected [with something else] goes along with the establishing of the this thing with which lished it is connected and the impossible is not to be estab- any of those things the determination of which is [so the vision requested by Moses and connected with the mountain's possible basis of on the abiding firm. for it was the abiding of the mountain firm in place at the very that time that and that is is impossible.. Muslim. So he asked that they might know that it was impossible. was if sufficient for Moses them that the Vision was impos- sible. There if was no neces- sity for Moses it commit a fault [like this] because the people were Be- lievers. 61) in commenting on this verse says that it is possible for Allah to be seen in a vision that is far removed from modality. 585. is something possible]. 17. al-Sahih. "Verily you will see your Lord just as you see the moon on the night when it is full. 8 See al-Bukhari. I. they would not have believed him in that Allah had ruled that the Vision was impossible. there is A proof on authority has come down affirming that Believers have a vision of Allah in the abode of the next World/ the Book. First. 279 f. made to this view. Muham- madan Traditions. until we see Allah openly" 7 (Qur'an 2:52). 368 . p. and The abiding of the mountain firm in its place at the time of motion is also possible [if the verse means] that rest occurs in place of motion... and necessary by Tradition. I. The strongest objection is that this request of Moses was made on behalf of his people when they said. . Ihya'. just as he knew that it was. "On that day Lord shall be looking" (Qur'an 75:22). pp. no. In any case the saying request would have been [under such circumstances] a sort of trifling. indeed. For other traditions concerning the vision see Gold sack.VISION OF the abiding of the mountain firm in in itself. and that the vision is for Believers in the next world and for individuals from among the Prophets 7 in this. "We will never believe in thee. its ALLAH place. 153. 85 f. II. 8 Tradition (al-sunna) gives the statement of the Prophet. Wensinck.. they were Unbelievers. Musnad.

but this We reply that this is it impossible. This is a matter for consideration. differed Later there appeared the statement of those their equivocations who [from this]. it agreed that the Vision of Allah occurs in the abode of the next Muslim people were World and and is which have come down regarding it are to be taken literally. although He perwe admit that the meaning although made]. [95] for the statement concerning the is Vision says that it is by the sense of sight. so that he who is seen is neither extremely near nor extremely far away. "Eyes do not perceive ceives the eyes" (Qur'an 6:103). that a stipulation of a person seen in a vision that he must be in place. of necessity He would be seen. otherwise would be possible for lofty is is mountains sophistry. were the senses sound and the other stipulations existent. is Now Him. it] The is objectors say that among the authoritative proofs [against there the statement of Allah. to be in front of us and yet we should not see them. Al-Nasafi referred to in saying. nor by the conjunction of the rays of a certain definite distance between the one who sees light. All they say. The answer it is to make this stipulation impossible. not vision from is all sides of the one seen. Their it is greatest equivocation the rational one. And He is seen [unlike any material being] not in place or in a direction so far as being confronted. The fact that it is not stipulated that Allah see us [with the sense of sight] sometimes adduced as a proof [that Allah is not seen in a place. be a conjunction of the rays of light from the eye with the one seen. and interpretations spread.78 Companions. It a general statement may be deduced from the verse quoted that the Vision of Allah is al- . and does not necessarily follow when all the stipulations are met. yet our answer that this is that no indication regarding perception covering all times and states. is impossible in the case of Allah. Objection may all it be made that were the Vision a possibility. Third. and that perception here the standpoint of encircling there is is absolute vision. nor by and Allah/To draw analogy for the Unseen (al-gha'ib) from the Seen (al-shahid) is unsound. for the Vision according to us by the creating of Allah. and that there this. and so on]. in a direction and [in a position] confronting the one who sees. that the verses VISION OF as for ALLAH states that the Agreement. and of eyes in the verse inclusive [without any exception being is that the purport of the verse a general negation and not a negation of per- ceiving in general [to which there might have been a particular case as an exception]. that there be a certain definite distance between the two.

VI. V. just as he did when they asked him to make 9 gods for them. 15. Mtisnud. 339 f. Otherwise Moses would have prevented them from doing it. For this reason the Companions of the Prophet differed as 10 saw his Lord on the night of the Ascension (#/to whether the Prophet mi'rdj) or not.VISION OF lowable. I. yet He is not seen because of its being made impossible and unat- tainable by the veil of Majesty. possibility. Chap. 49 f. al-Sahth. 7:i34. III. 9 Here at-Taftazani has quoted from the Qur'an Lot's statement qawrnun fajhalitn). 285. And this is a mark of the possibility of the Vision in this world (al-dunyd). ALLAH for 79 not it impossible there would be no reason being is just as the non-existent commending commended for its But non-vision. "Nay rather you are an ignorant people** (Qur'an 27:56). 10 Traditions denying that Muhammad ever saw his Lord are to be found in alBukhari. not because it was impossible. some affirming it are in Musnad. for the Vision itself [in this supposition] is impossible. IV. rather the commendation appears in the fact that though the Vision of is Him possible.. for meaning is He and not perceived by the eyes because above being limited and described by boundaries exalted of Himself that Allah although seen. nay rather is verified even is more clearly as real. If we make is encircling one from perception an expression for vision from the standpoint of all sides and boundaries.. 447. Doubtless is a species of observation by the heart (al-qalb) rather than the eye. . since were the negation of it. See also below. And he said. 170 f. The answer to this is that it was for the purpose of distressing the people of Moses and opposing them in asking for the Vision. whereas Moses' words (innakjtm qawmun to his people (bal antum tajhaliin) are given in Qur. Also objectors say that the verses of the Qur'an expressing a desire for the Vision are joined up with a desire for magnifying [Allah] and disapprobation [of the people of Moses]. And the differing about its occurrence is But [the occurrence of] the Vision it in sleep has a proof [96] of its been recorded of many of the Fathers. sides. then the verse indicates that it is the Vision the allowable.

Allah is the creator (\hdliq) of all the actions of His creatures whether of Unbelief (al-fafr) or of Belief (al-iman). of Reality objected for certain reasons.. were he asked about the actions he would not know. See al-Babu 'Ashar. Kitdb al-Fifd. his actions. since of necessity the bringing a thing into existence through power and choice cannot be anything but all that. And the obligation [to know the particulars] is unsound. by His ruling. 54 ff. nay rather. and by His decree^ ing. namely "the one who brings out of non-existence min al-adam 'ltd 'l-wujiid) they became bold (al-tydliq). His creatures have actions of choice for which they are rewarded or punished. And they are all of them by His Will and Desire. same position regarding a creature's acts. pp. who asserted that the is creature the creator of his own actions. The first is that the were he the creator of would know all the particulars of these actions. Uaqalat. of obedience (al-taa) or of disobedience (al-isyan)/T\\\s is unlike the Mu'tazilites. The early Mu'tazilites refrained from using the expression "creator" when speaking of the creature (al-abd). 72 f. 42 Ibn Hazm.. "inventor" (mul^htari'). and only used expressions like "bringer into existence" (mujid). But when al-Jubba'I and his followers saw that the terms all into existence" (al-mu^hrij meant the same. yet all the while the person walking has no feeling of this. of obedience or of disobedience. This is not because he is diverted from the knowledge of it. al-Ash'ari. and so on. some swifter and some slower than others. III. by His judgment. vile in And is the good in these is by the good pleasure of Allah and the them not by His good pleasure. pp. for walking from place to place may comprise a series of interrupted rests and of motions.(Chapter 9 THE CREATOR AND THE ACTIONS OF HIS CREATURES JLjLllah i is the creator of all the actions of His creatures whether of Unbe- lief or of Belief.* and used the expression "creator" The People creature. Yet 1 this happens with the most Some i of the Shi'ites hold the ff. .

252. 174. the Early Theologians of the Trans-Oxus went so far in attributing error to them as to say that the Magians were in a happier state than the Mu'taziiites to ments which are [given since the Magians only posited of the Deity one partner. which is the bringing into existence and the bringing to pass. Terms. and the action of the creature is is a possible thing. See Qur. for example. This commends the office of creator. William Wright.. II. II. and so on. 2 the ma (what) is no necessity for and this it means "your deed. and what their particulars]. I mean what we observe be forgotten the is of motions and rests. 97 ff. The fine point that may on the ma being may masdarlya. and moreover they do not make the office of creator in the creature like that of Allah. But action it must not be said that he who asserts that the creature creates his is a polytheist (mushrit() rather than a monotheist is (muwahhid). 267. 277. III." being masdarlya (related to a verbal noun) so that there omitting the pronoun. "And Allah has created you and that he does not all know what you do" (Qur'an 37:94).. al-Kashshdf. However. 220. al-Mufassal. 57 f. grasping. al-Baydawi. 22:17. 1896-98). 8 . 179 f. because the creature lacks causes and instru- him] by the creation of Allah. seizing. 13:17). I. necessity 2 See The Mu'taziiites argued that of we distinguish between the motion of one who is walking and of 270. meaning for we say that polytheism positing a partner for the Deity. 1211. clearer The second reason is that there are the statutes (al-nusus) which have come down regarding this subject. Anwar al-Tanzll. or a partner deserving such adoration as the idolaters render their idols. This means "your doing. "Allah is creator of everything" (Qur'an 39:63. for infinitive ma. he needs for is movstill ing his muscles and straining his nerves and so on. al-Zamakhshari. but the result of the masdar (verbal noun) which is connected with the bringing into existence and the bringing to pass. Arabic Grammar (Cambridge. Enc. II. al-Shahrastam. whereas the Mu'taziiites posited innumerable partners. also the statement of Allah. This by rational proof means There does it everything possible. of Tech. 160. 273. or (relatival). II. al-Milal. we do not mean by the action the masdarlya meaning. and connects up with being worthy of receiving adoration (al-ibdda). such as the statement of Allah. I. a neces- sarily existent partner just as the Magians (al-Majus) 8 assert. the matter [that is. for relative ma. And that one fancy that the citation of the verse depends there is the statement of Allah. 147. "Is the one who creates as the one who not?" (Qur'an 16:17)." the ma being mawsula comprises actions. The Mu'taziiites do not assert that. 1330.CREATOR AND HIS CREATURES evident of actions. [97] For if we say the actions of the creatures are created by Allah or by the creatures.. p. Diet. of Islam. pp. al-Zamakhshari. But 81 when you consider the motions of the members of his body in walking. pp.

It is shall establish this point power on grounds which we shall verify. 185. al-Mawaqif.. 157. the actions of creatures are all of these them by His Will and Desire 6 /It has been shown [two terms] to be an expression for the same idea. ff. Terms. that But we wills. pp. al-Wasiya.. 200. See Enc. as [98] would be un- would this And and blame. Terms." Enc. al-Milal. the imposing [on the creature] of a legal responsibility (ta\lij) sound. 1 This is an expression for the action taken together with the judgments in addition [to it]. also explains fyalq when used by al-Masih as taqdir. for the if first movement by choice.. *The Jabrites were the believers in absolute predestination. p. general and eternal "The decree and al-qadar the individual development or application of that in time. II. 603 ff. al-Razi. pp. I4off. 8. maintained [that the creature creates] because of the sayings Allah the best of creators is blessed" (Qur'an 23:14). to them] is quite clear.82 one not. but they are not predicated of Him? Or perhaps of Allah. 64. I. the of acquisition and of the creatures. cf. if Allah sometimes maintained that if Allah were the creator of the actions is the creature. Diet. for the one of one in whom it subsists.. pp. accepted position in Islam is that al-qadd' Abu tfamfa. and the adulterer and the ignorance. He would then be the one thief who stands. The Muslim Creed. al-Shahrastani. Kifayat al-Awdmm. 59 f. 19. 181.. of Tech. pp. H79f. II. 213.. Do they and so on. pp. is that we hold by His judgment (hut(m)/lt direct not unlikely that the reference here is to the command (J(hitab) [of Allah] in creating. Diet. al-Rawda al-Bahiya. pp. abso- him. p. . His decision (qada).. 5 Al-BaydawI. p. 1234 f. pp. sits. al-Iji. 106. Muhasfal. al-Ttfrifat. of Islam. Objecby His ruling (qadiya) /that is. The answer is that this [according also praise to the Jabrites (al-]abriya) 4 argument should be addressed lutely to who deny choice. of Islam. 156. p. Wensinck. 6 Cf. CREATOR AND who is HIS CREATURES is trembling. 605. 105 7 means the universal. reward and punishment [of him]. Kifayat al-Awdmm. is stupendous something is predicated (al-muttasif) is that not the one who brought it into existence. it is "And is The answer that creating here means decreeing (al-taqdir). 67 f. al-Fadall. And they/that is. But this is a bit of whom not see that Allah the creator of blackness and whiteness and all the other things predicated of bodies. eats and drinks. Anwar al-Tanzil. al-Fatfali. but the second is They also said that everything were by the creative act of Allah. "Since thou dost create 5 from clay as it were in the shape of birds" (Qur'an 5:110). of Tech.

incumbent on us to submit is The obligation [suggested here] is unsound.CREATOR AND tion is HIS for CREATURES it it is 83 not to be made that were Unbelief by the decision of Allah. A. "No one ever siwas on a ship with me.. Biographical Dictionary. even to the extent that they said that that they believe He wills of the Unbeliever and the evil-doer and obey. bejust cause they [that as is is. 1132.D. p. and to what he occupies of time and place and to what results thereby and punishment. Enc. the limiting of each creature to the and by His decreeing (tag dir) /This is limit within which he exists whether of reward of goodness or vileness. 243 .H. of use or harm. of Islam. . lenced 8 It was said of 'Arm* b." "one who acts unjustly" is a more general term. I. is vile. is more general than kafir. abominable. in turn. We preclude that by rather the vile is that which is acquired by the vile creature and That indeed predicated of him. and not that they disbelieve and disobey. II. Fdsiq. This [creation] calls for Power and Will [in Allah] since there is no coercion or compulsion [of cerning the Will and Power of Allah because of what has already been said Him]. 81. Why dost Fdsiq. 145. "one who departs from the right way. So with the Mu'tazilites most of the actions of creaposition is tures that occur are contrary to the Will of Allah. of Tech. would be necessary to be well pleased with to Allah's decision. for we say that Unbelief is not a decision but something decided. To this we reply that Allah willed for them Unbelief and evil-doing by their own choice. it. pp. me as did a Magian who 9 'Ubayd that he said." Zdlim. For just as knew that on their part they would choose Unbelief and evil-doing. of Islam." "one who has taken upon himself to observe the law and has fallen short. He He had make them legally responsible for the impossible [because they The Mu'tazilites denied that Allah wills wicked and vile things. 762) was an early Mu'tazilite. 9< Amr b. Lexicon. Ibn Qutayba. so did not choice]. Sec Enc. 336. for being is well pleased with Unbelief Unbelief. I said. A. Lane. The purpose is to make a general statement conabout everything being by the creation of Allah. 2398. the Mu'tazilites] asserted that willing the vile it the creating of saying that is and bringing it into existence. al-Ma'drif. Diet. so there is no compulsion. 'Ubayd (d. 393 # Ibn Khallikan. II. p. so it is and the evil-doer (al-fdsiq) 8 in legally responsible for not sound to make them Belief and obedience. Terms. and that being well pleased with the decision and not with the thing decided. "wrong-doer. [99] Objection may be raised that the Unbeliever (al-^aftr) is made an object of compulsion in His Unbelief (fafr) his evil-doing (fisq).

" And the and Mu'tazilites believed that command (al-amr) requires willing that prohibition (al-nahy) requires non-willing. and yet does not will that he do it? [/oo] Both sides [the orthodox and the Mu'tazilites] may hold fast to verses is [which they parties. he be to Him who removed from wickedness (al-jahsha)" And al-Ustadh immediately replied. "Praise Ishaq al-Isfara'im. 995). cite] on the subject. This of the Jabrites. A. 212 fi. nor and Al-Qadi Abu '1-Hasan 'Abd al-Jabbar (d. He He wills it. 411. is When he saw al-Ustadh.D. 'Because I my shall become a Muslim/ So said to the Magian. Gcschichte. "Praise be to Him in whose kingdom nothing transpires but what far He wills. was a vizier of the Buwayhids (d. a leading Mu'tazilite Qa^I in Ray. and the door of interpretation open to both His creatures have actions of choice actions of obedience for which they are rewarded/if they are or punished/if they are actions of disobedience. and no purpose or choice. 1024). A. would not be sound to impose responsibility on him 10 or to base his deserving reward and punishment on his actions.H. movements movements of the creature having no power over them. that his is unlike the position who claimed that no action at are merely the all belongs to the creature and solid bodies (al-jamadai) . this is unsound. a ShafVite . A. 'In that case I shall stay with the more victorious partner/ " It is related that al-Qadl came on a visit to his friend Ibn 'Abbad 1X 'Abd al-Jabbar al-Hamadanl 10 with whom was al-Ustadh Abu said. 11 The ahib Abu '1-Qasim Isma'H Ibn 'Abbad al-Talakam. not. So they made the Belief of the Unbeliever the thing willed [by Allah] and his Unbelief that which But we know that a thing may sometimes not be willed and commanded and may sometimes be willed and yet prohibited because yet of wise and beneficial matters which are within the knowledge of Allah. or was not willed. because of necessity of grasping the second is and that of trembling. It is also unsound because were the creature not it And we distinguish between the movement We know that the first is by choice and to have any part at all in action. See Brockelmann. 'Allah wills your becoming a Muslim but the Shaytans do not leave you alone/ So the Magian replied.84 CREATOR AND if HIS CREATURES Allah has not willed I thou not become a Muslim?' becoming a Muslim. Do you not perceive that a master whenever he wishes to demonstrate before those present with him the disobedience of his slave commands him to do something.D. Sec Ibn Khallikan. said. Biographical Dictionary > I. I. 415. 385.H. because He is not to be asked concerning that which He does. A.

" The decisive statutes deny the position [101] for that [of the JabritesJ as seen in the sayings of Allah. To we is reply that this position impossible. will of the creature enter into some actions like the movement though not into others like the movement of trembling. We reply there is no use discoursing about the force and strength of this statement. Enc. will To this we reply that it He knows and wills that the creature is do the action or not do that. The 785 *. and that it has already been shown that Allah independent in creating actions [102] and bringing them into existence.." "he fasted. . which with free choice. 26 II. Terms. unless he be the one existence by purpose is who brings his actions into and will. 1243 . pp. the position glorious is the mention of actions. we needed to escape from this perplexing problem by saying that is Allah is the creator (al-^hdliq) of everything and the creature an acquirer 12 Al-Taftazanl here introduces the Ash'aritc solution. so there by be made that his act of free may his fact is inconsistent is no confusion is choice either this necessary or impossible. "Whoever wills let him believe and whoever wills let him be an Unbeliever" (Qur'an 18:28). of Tech." which are different from "the boy grew tall" and "his color darkened. "choice.." and "he wrote. Maturiditcs emphasized ik^htlydr. ff. pp. 46:13. necessity and impossibility. We can only say that since it has been established by proof that the Creator is Allah. "A reward which they were doing" (Qur'an 32:17.CREATOR AND would it HIS CREATURES 8j that purpose be sound to ascribe to him actions which demand for being real and choice precede them. about Or objection own choice. And there are other verses." which is the use of the term and its derivatives. Objection may be raised that since the Knowledge and Will of Allah have it is been rendered universal follows. for necessity by choice verifies it. and that of necessity the power and of grasping. that is. 56:23). "acquisition. b. for absolutely certain that compulsion [of creatures] the action Knowledge and Will are either connected with the existence of and so it is necessary. 419 ff. or with the non-existence of the action and and there can be no choice when there is then it is impossible. and also that it is a well-known fact that a thing over which someone has power does not come under two independent powers. such actions as "he wor- shipped. Objection may be raised that there is no meaning to the statement that the creature acts by choice." See Diet. al-Ratvda al-Bahlya. choice as a reality and is not inconsistent with contradicted by the actions of the Creator for Furthermore. of Islam. so it Him His knowledge and Will are connected with His follows that His action is necessary to Him..

as for example a bit of ground belongs to Allah from the standpoint of creating and to creatures from the standpoint of the establishment of control over it." even though we are unable to go beyond this in summarizing the expression used which already proves that the of the word is by Allah's creating and bringing into existence exercised with what the creature has of power and choice. and necessarily deserving of blame and punish- ment. and creating is a maqdur which does not occur in the locus of its power. Acquisition is that which occurs is by the use of some instrument. creating and acquisition]. and it is not valid to separate acquistion from the one creating. and a maqdur of the creature from subject to (the thing which the standpoint of acquisition (al-tysb). And someone may (al-qabih) is object. . This statement is necessary from the meaning "decreeing. pp. so the maqdur power) comes under two powers but from two different standpoints. for example. who has power over it. [103] So that would be place. Acquisition a maqdur which occurs in the locus of its power. 43 f.86 CREATOR AND will in action it is HIS CREATURES when the creature expends his The it verification of this position is that power and an acquisition (fab)> and when Allah brings that. Tatvhid. but it is valid to do so with And someone may lites. Although : we do not perceive Rissalat al- 8 Cf the answer of a modern Muslim theologian . just as though the creature were creator of all made a creator of his own acts and the Maker were made is the rest of the accidents and be the bodies. it is into existence following is upon a creating (tyalq)." object. but creating does not. along There are a number of ways of expressing the difference between the two creature's action things [that is. and because he does not create anything unless 1 it has a praiseworthy outcome. The act is a maqdur of Allah from the standpoint of being brought into existence (al-tjad). "You have thereby established a co-partnership (al-sharifa) [with Allah]. vulgar. Mohammed Abdou. "How is it that the acquistion of the vile vile. then each may detach himself from the other along with that which his own. saying. the very thing with We is 13 reply that co-partnership is which you charge the Mu'tazithe coming together of two for a like the partners of a village or a certain thing. whereas the creating of it is not?" We reply that it^s because it has been established that the Creator is wise. or just as the act of the creature is ascribed to Allah from the standpoint of creating and to the creature from the standpoint of acquisition. This related to quite different from the position that something may two things from two different standpoints.

And the good connected with praise now and reward hereafter. HIS CREATURES vile 87 and we must hold that those actions which we deem sometimes have in them wise and beneficial matters. of the actions of the creatures. for sometimes the good may be done and sometimes the vile. whereas it is not so in the case of acquisition. or it may be better interpreted as that which is not connected with blame and punishthat which is ment is in order to include that which is permissible (al-mubah). by the good pleasure (rida) of Allah/that is. And is the good in these/that is. by His Will without any ob- jection and the vile in them/and it is that which is connected with blame now and punishment is hereafter in not by His good pleasure/since there is objection to His having pleasure it. and Decreeing are connected with all actions.). 14 just as in the creation of the base harmful bodies which give pain. Allah said. al-Tatvhid. while good pleasure and desire and command are only connected with the 14 This is good to the exclusion of the vile. "And He does not take pleasure in the Unbelief of His creatures'* (Qur'an 39:9). So together with the prohibition of that which is vile we make his acquisition of it vile and vulgar and necessarily deserving of blame and punishment. Desiring. 46 tf. a point much emphasized by Mohammed Abdou (Rissalat pp. . This means that Willing.CREATOR AND it.

and it is is the real essence of the This a reference to that is power by which the action comes into being/ which was mentioned by the author of al-Tabsira. And the validity of imposing a legal responsibility depends has no legal responsibility imposed upon upon this him which ability. Everyone receives his Appointed Sustenance whether from things permitted or forit is man is dead at his The in full bidden. and it is not incumbent on Allah to do that which is best for the creature. Allah leads astray whom He wills and guides aright whom He wills. forbidden thing is still Appointed Sustenance. instruments. and it is the real essence of the power by which the action comes into being. And ability (al-istitaf a) accompanies the action/This is contrary to the posi- tion of the Mu'tazilites. is and the creature not in his capacity. and inconceivable that a man will not eat his own Appointed Sustenance or that another than he will eat his Appointed Sustenance. and such things all that is something The creature has no part in the work of its creation. or the state of being broken in glass as the consequence created by Allah. and a appointed time.Chapter 10 THE CREATURE'S LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ALLAH'S SUSTENANCE AND GUIDANCE nd And ability accompanies the action. and this word applies to the soundness of causes. the ability being the cause ('ilia) of the action. The appointed time is one. in that ability an accident which Allah creates in the animal. slain being broken by some man. 1 its The majority of the Mu'tazilites said that Power was connected with the action before existence and that it was impossible for its connection to be at the time of the origina- . and members of the body. And of its the pain which exists in the one beaten as the consequence of being beaten by some man. whereby he 1 performs actions of choice.

J.. you make it a similar to the action. A. If they say that the existence of the action permissible through similar new powers coming whereby into being one after the other. you thereby admit that the is power by which the action can only be one that concomitant with it. 157 104.. This rests on what has already been said regarding the impossibility of the continuance of accidents. and if he purposes an evil action Allah creates power to do the power to do evil [104] and he thus loses the power to do good and deserves blame and punish- ment. pp. p. Objection may new continuance of accidents sibility of similar be raised as follows.. If ability then is an accident.RESPONSIBILITY The Multitude (al^umhur) which Allah So hold that its AND GUIDANCE it is 89 a condition (jsharf) for the peris formance of the action. "Suppose the impossibility of the is admitted. Wcnsinck. in the tion of the action. 150. is Or it they say that the existence of the action impossible in this way. then follows that there was a making of a decision by someone and a pre- ponderance of one thing over another without a determinant (murajjih) to make the preponderance. . Uaqalat. where then the necessity for saying that the action occurs without there being any power?" In reply is we say. "We claim that this is necessary only if the power by which [you say] the action takes place to the action. was impossible is for the action to occur when the power Let us consider then what to be said were we to suppose that the power by which precedes the action continued similar until the time of the action either new powers coming is into being one after the other or by the con- tinuous recurrence of accidents one after the other. otherwise having] any ability would take place without and power over the action.. it. 229 tf. 'I. p. still there is no dispute about the posaccidents coming is into being following upon the pass- ing away of these. For this reason Allah blames the Unbelievers because they are lacking [in the ability] to hear. since the power [705] remains unchanged f. if cause. but if that power which was there prior new power which is concomitant is. ability an attribute creates [within the creature] following upon the soundness of when there is the purpose for acquiring the the creature purposes a good action Allah creates the good. it is necessary that it it be concomitant with the action [his and not prior to the action. they abandon their first position they if made it permissible for the action to be concomitant with the power.D. al-Ash'ari. Then first if you claim that there must have been similar powers prior to it you must explain why occurred. but not the causes and the instruments action. In general. pp. The Muslim Creed.

79 ff. al-Razi. for in the first case to be impossible because of it is permissible for the action some unfulfilled condition or be- cause of the existence of something that prevents the action.J. first. 14. nor do they say that the origination of every action a power absolutely prior to action at the it must be through all in time. This is also a matter for consideration.. assert that ability precedes the action third. and yet in the second case to be necessary to fulfill the conditions although power is equally an attribute of the one possessing power in each case. etc. A. pp. is Why then the action caused by the in the first case power in the second case a necesis sary action and an impossible action? This a matter for consideration. and the one who neglects worship time for that the it is legally responsible for worship it after the arrives. 321. itself all the making the impression (al-tathir)^ is is meant by the word else it then the real fact that it accompanies the action or precedes As on for the fact that 8 it is impossible for accidents to continue: this is based certain premises which are hard to explain. 152). Muhoffal. and that unsound.. See his Aqtda Ahl al-Sunna 8 wa 'l-jamffa (Kazan. Diet. and preceding the action. of Tech. p. A. for in the case of acci- dents impossible [that a change occur without a determinant]. that the continuance of a thing second. which gathers to conditions for "ability. a Hanafite and a contemporary of al-Maturidi. the expression "ability" 2 This is the position of al-Razi (A. for of necessity the Unbeliever is legally responsible for Belief. 2 So some took the position that if the power. impossible for an accident to subsist in an accident. said that there are two sorts of ability. and this word/that is. that it is something verified as real and superadded to it. p.90 state in RESPONSIBILITY which it it is AND GUIDANCE was. Cf. Al-TahawI (d. These is are.H. 1902). 988. then if ability were not verified as real. But this conveys no meaning.D. would follow is one who is powerless is legally responsible. 933). one having to do with the help from Allah which comes along with the action. . Terms. thus precluding the origination of the same time as the origination of the power other condi- tions having been fulfilled. because those who say that ability precedes the action to be do not say that it is impossible for the power and the action concomitant in time." it. and subsist together in a locus. so al-Nasafi referred to the refutation of this by saying. p.. that the two accidents cannot Since those who have made the de- duction that the imposition of legal responsibility (al-ta%lif) occurs before the action. the other having ' to do with soundness of instruments.

for it may be that the soundness of the causes and the instruments takes place prior to the action. 43. . p. for one's power to be- while yet in the if Unbelief is undoubtedly prior to Belief. 193. that the soundness of causes and instruments not one of and that how then is is it valid to interpret ability as soundness? We reply that the purpose the soundness of the causes and instruments which he possesses. und pos. pp. p. power which is spent in There is no difference be- for the Unbeliever possesses power to be- legally responsible. there is "ability. yet from the 4 Sec Hortcn. so then ability is may be predicated of the one who is legally responsible just as this soundness. Unbelief is the same power that is spent in Belief. The Mus. Because no derived name of the agent compound expression which may be predicated of him. p. If upon and the instruments. for itself. Objection his attributes." And the validity of imposing a legal responsibility (al-ta^llf) depends is this ability /which ability ability the soundness of the causes first definition. his position on takfij. for lim Creed. even though the real essence of the power by which the action takes place has not yet that come 5 power is something potential Answer may be made (saliha)* applicable to [either of] two into being. 191. Therefore one may say [106] this that he is the possessor of soundness of causes is and instruments.Awamm. Theologie dcs Islam. Cf. And Die spel^. This does not require a difference in the power lieve. which is not true of the word (ism fail) used. may be raised that ability an attribute of the one is legally responsible. we do not admit that it is impossible to impose responsibility on the one who is powerless. instruments. It is evident that in this answer which Belief he is there lieve is an admission that power precedes the state of action. someone answers that the purpose of this statement is that even though the power is potentially applicable to two contraries. only he has spent his power in Unbelief and by choice has wasted the opportunity of spending it in Belief. of "And Allah demands him who is able (istataa) to is men Pil- find a way" (Qur'an 3:91). so that the contraries according to Abu Hanlfa. 5 See al-Rawda al-Bahiya. and members of the body (d-jawarih)/dL$ in the saying of Allah. so he deserves blame and punishment. 53 fi. Kijdyat al. If it is understood to have the second meaning we do not admit the necessity of it. tween them except in the connection which is made. grimage (hajj) to the House. use of the term fttluhi by al-Fadall. Cf Wensinck.RESPONSIBILITY AND GUIDANCE of 91 applies to the soundness of causes. not according to the is meant according to the first by powerlessness (al-'ajz) lack of definition.

Allah. See al-BaytfawI. and refraining from the action is the power conthe so the power itself may be something antecedent it is and connected with the two contraries. I. it The proving of mitted it it on rational grounds. as in the case of the Belief is of the Unbeliever or the obedience of the disobedient. or possible in the creation of a body. and the creature has no in his capacity/whether legal responsibility imposed upon him which is not something impossible in itself. on the sup- position that actually occurred. 6:153. 7:40. since this is power of the one who is is legally responsible when seen from his viewis point. is gether of contraries. From the saying of Allah. not to impose a legal responsibility. The dispute is it is permissible [to impose Mu'tazilites. something impossible would not neces- al-ldzim (the necessary) sarily follow. "Allah does not impose its upon a soul legal reits it capacity" (Qur'an 2:286). 23:64. Anwar al-Tanzll. disapper- a legal responsibility beyond the creature's ability].92 RESPONSIBILITY it AND GUIDANCE them so that standpoint of connection applies to only one of is what must be concomitant to the action what must be concomitant nected with this refraining to power connected with the action. This was to baffle them. nay rather it is futile. me the names of these" (Qur'an 2:29). there no disputing something the fact that legal responsibility in the is imposed upon him. itself like the uniting tobut not possible for the creature. The statement of this is that were to being per- permissible impose legal responsibility on a creature beyond it its capacity. as seen in the statement of upon a soul legal responsibility beyond its u There is also the command in His saying. the denial of sponsibility beyond mitted is sometimes inferred. said that is was impossible. The which he spoke our Lord. This is a matter which should be taken into consideration. 143. Then again it is a matter of agreement that there no imposition of legal responsibility which not in his capacity. For of necessity the impossibility of brings about the impossibility of al-rnalzum (the thing 6 Other verses made necessary) in from the Qur'an with the same meaning arc 2:233. we reply that inconceivable that there should be a dispute about this. 6 "O ability" (Qur'an 2:286). Tell capacity'* (Qur'an 2:286). . do not burden us beyond our meaning of "burden" here is not the imwhether or not posing of legal responsibility but the introduction [107] of limiting obstacles beyond their ability. Al-Ash'ari is because nothing which from Allah to be disapproved. like As for what impossible on the basis that Allah knows something different or wills something different. "Allah does not impose There is also the statement of Allah in of the state of the Believers.

Maqdlat. then it results by way of immediate causality. said that if the action proceeds from the doer without the interposition of another action. Is it not seen that when Allah brought sible in itself.. p. Muhassal. p. n6f. 145. Cf. But that is impossible. but when consider something superadded to itself. and this question is that Choice of Allah. Horovitz. The solution of we do not admit in regard to everything possible in itself that. al-Mawaqij. pp. Al-RazI uses the term tawallud. it then follows that on the supposition that this there was an impossible [as an alternative]. we we do not admit that there is no necessity for the impossible [as an alternative].. 400 if. the thing caused followed necessarily the complete cause? the upshot as is And this is impossible. possible thing occurred. as the consequence of killing all that is something created by Allah/because of what has already been said about Allah alone being the Creator and about all possible things being ascribed to Allah without there being any intermediary. The Mu'tazilites. And the pain which exists in the one beaten as the consequence of being beaten [108] by some man. world into existence by His power and choice. 7 The meaning of this is that the one action makes it Macdonald. al-Ash'arl. Otherwise it would be permissible to say that the impossible is necessary on the basis of its being the precluded by something else. and such things/as death. 142. then an impossible an alternative does not necessarily follow on the supposition that the thing occurred. the impossible] not precluded by something else which happens to it. its non-existence was poseven though on the supposition that it occurred. This is when we consider the essence of the thing. al-Iji. Will. Ucbcr den . Development. in ascribing some actions to something other than Allah. or the state of being broken in glass as the con- sequence of its it way because being broken by some man/The statement is limited in this is valid that there be a ground for difference as to whether it the creature has a part in or not. pp. And that because something is possible in itself. otherwise it is by way of mediate 7 causality (tawlid). and that this is necessary only were it [that is. for example. This occur is a telling point in showing that is it is impossible for anything to if its non-occurrence connected with the Knowledge.RESPONSIBILITY AND GUIDANCE 93 order to verify the meaning of al-luzum (necessity). but were this actually to occur it would necessarily follow that the Word of Allah is false.

at the time decreed for his death. 78 8 ff- A. in it] and as for acquirement [of the action. mutawalliddt the creature has no in it] because it is As for creation. Allah. The Mu'tazilites objected to this. so pain is derived from the blow and the state of being broken from breaking. nor would the payment of blood-money or chastisement be slain necessary. then his slayer would not deserve blame or punishment.fl/)/That is to say. the hand motion of the key in the hand.94 necessary for RESPONSIBILITY him to AND GUIDANCE motion of the do another action. he has this reason the creature is no part not enis because it is impossible for the creature to acquire that which does not subsist within the locus of his power. There are not two necessitates the things created by Allah. . [/op] and also saying that if one should die thus at his appointed time. For abled to do anything of this because he has not obtained this power. were the man not perform such and such an obedient action. lah. "Whenever their appointed time comes." for in those acts resulting from mediate causality which they part at all." because with the Mu'tazilites the 157) suggests that al-Taftazanl should have said "the killer" instead of "Al"mutawallid" is one of the creature's actions. for example. We hold that everything is by the creation of The creature has no part in the work of its creation/It would have been call better not to have limited the statement by saying "creation. man is neither by the creation of the slayer nor by his acquiring to the first objection is The answer to that Allah knew that. III. but He knew that he would perform it. as is to be seen in the verse. as. unlike the assertion of some of the who say that Allah 8 cut short his appointed time. This increase in his age that is related to that action of obedience because Allah knew were it not for this action there would not have been an increase in his Einflttss der griechischen Philosophic auf die EntwicJ(lung dcs Kalam (Brcslau. which in contrast to actions of choice. and a slain man is dead at his appointed is time ('0. so his age is seventy years. 16:62). (p.J. citing traditions which mention the fact that some actions of obedience increase one's age. his age would be forty years. since the death of the it. We believe that Allah has decided the appointed times of His creatures according to His knowledge without any changing of His mind. 9 Cf. pp. [he has no part impossible for the creature to create. Musnad. something created by Allah. 1909). they will neither delay nor outstrip it an hour" (Qur'an 7:32. This Mu'tazilites. not 229.

which is the death through the dissolution of its moisture and the snuffing out of heat. p. 157) makes this sentence a part of the text of al-Nasafi. although not his by way of creation.RESPONSIBILITY age.. p. and sometimes as that by which one 10 may be benefited A. the one being slain and the other death.H. Terms. 580 fT. 1461 f. The appointed time is serted that the slain 12 one/This is unlike the position of al-Ka'bi. whereas He must With be taken into consideration from the very meaning is of the term. for slaying it is is the action of the slayer by way of acquisition. al-Ta'rlfdt. because the slayer the customary way of things. however. cut off contrary to the requirements of and other appointed times which its nature through plagues and sicknesses. . The for forbidden thing (al-haram) is is still Appointed Sustenance (rizq) to the 13 / Appointed Sustenance eats it. of Tech. that which Allah conveys animal so that he This may sometimes be a lawful thing (halal) and sometimes a thing forbidden (haram). who its asserted that its time of an animal has a natural appointed time.D. of Tech. 4. 1310. because such a definition lacks any relating of Appointed Sustenance to Allah. AND GUIDANCE is 95 To the second objection the answer that the necessity for punishing the slayer and making him accountable for his deed is linked up with committed a thing forbidden by Allah and thereby acquired the action which resulted in death to the one slain by service to Allah. puts the words "and death subsists in the dead man*' in al-NasafTs text.J. 115. 126). in proof of which there is "He created death it and life" (Qur'an 67:2). p. hold that is non-existential ('adami) that and that the meaning of the creation of death is He ordained it. as the words of al-Taftazani. and the remainder text agrees with 'I. and the This is creature has no part in it either in creating is or in acquiring based on the fact that death the statement of Allah. the Mu'tazilites the forbidden thing it not Appointed is Sustenance. 12 For al-Ka'bl see above. Terms. both of it which are implanted in it. This is a better way of defining Appointed Sustenance than by saying that it is that by which the animal is nourished. 10 it. Chap. so that were he not slain he would live until his appointed time which is his death. The Cureton 11 Sec Diet. The ll majority. pp. existential (wujudi). 25 on al-Balkhl. who asman had two appointed times. n. (p. 13 See Diet. Al-Kastali (Constantinople text of A. This is also unlike the position of the Philosophers. because they explain sometimes as something possessed which eaten by the possessor. is it And death subsists in the dead man and created by Allah.

Allah leads astray (yudillu) He wills 14 (al-dalald) whom He wills and guides aright (yahdi) whom He does so by creating the acts of going astray /meaning and being guided (al-ihtidd') for He alone is Creator. then it is not impossible [that one's Appointed Sustenance may be the pos- session of another]. 14 expressions in the statements of the Early Mef*iA. is And his according to both definitions he life is who eats what forbidden throughout whole not sustained by Allah at all. Indeed. . who does this and so [they say that we should hold that] not deserving of blame and punishment. guidance is figuratively related Prophet by way of assigning causation just as it is ascribed to the Qur'arJ? and leading astray may be ascribed to Satan figuratively just as it is to idols fyl-asnam) [yet it is Allah who leads astray and guides aright]. nor is way of Reality something general for leading astray an expression for "finding the creature astray" or his "being called astray. In condithat . Moreover. follows then according to their first definition that beast eats not Appointed Sustenance. that which is sup- not a is is vile thing. and if is impossible that another than he eat but Appointed Sustenance means possession. Theologians such as Cf. 246 ff." for the explanation of the everyone. I.'* since to connect these things will of Allah to thu with the would mean nothing. nourishment for him. Everyone receives in full his Appointed Sustenance whether from things permitted or forbidden/for he obtains nourishment from both of them and it is inconceivable that a man as will not eat his own Appointed it Sustenance or that another than he will eat his Appointed Sustenance/for a person must eat what Allah has ordained it. al--**zl. This difference of opinion sideration the relationships rests upon the question of taking into conwhich Allah bears to Appointed Sustenance. [They reason as follows trying to show the fallacy of our position]: there is no provider of Appointed Sustenance save Allah alone.9$ and RESPONSIBILITY what the AND GUIDANCE But it is that can only be something lawful. the creature deserves [no] blame and punishment ported by Allah the one is for eating forbidden things. The refuta- tion of this argument that the creature has made a wrong contact with the causes of the action through his free choice. tioning [the leading astray and guiding aright] lujon to the fact that the upon His is is will there is an al- meaning of guidance not "to explain the way of Reafty.

in the most of the Mu'tazilite principles.RESPONSIBILITY AND GUIDANCE 97 "With us guidance is the creation of being guided" and "Allah guided him but he was not guided" are figurative terms for "indication of the way" (al-dalala) and "the call to be guided.D. al-Mawaqij. "in this III. pp. of Islam." This position. [in] "Verily thou dost not guide him whom thou lovest" (Qur'an and because of the statement of the Prophet. in. are so clear that they cannot be hidden and are so 16 many that they cannot The Mu'tazilites of Ba$ra said that Allah the Judgment. It is well known that guidance with the Mu'tazilites means the indication (al-dalala) of the (al-hidaya) way.J. p. cf. Baghdad Mafdtih. 1175 # 1187. See Enc. those of A. must do what is best for His creatures in world and the Judgment. . them to be rightly guided." 'I. for these things would be the performance upon Him. is and it is not incumbent on Allah to do that which best for the creature 15 / otherwise in this He would not have created the poor Unbeliever who is tormented world and the next. Ibn Hisham. al-IjT.. nor would the power of Allah continue to bear any relation to the welfare of creatures. Sirat Rasul Allah. (commentary of Sayyid Murtao'a). pp. guide my people. And [also were it not true] there would be no meaning to the question of a prophet's being preserved from error (al-istna) 9 of succor [in time of trouble].. 190 al-Tabari.. ibid. And [furthermore were of a duty incumbent not true] the favor of Allah to the 16 Allah curse him Prophet would not be above that of His favor to Abu Jahl since He should go to the limit in doing the best within His power for each of them. one of the bitterest opponents of Muhammad. 83. i47f." Muhammad said this in spite of the fact that he had declared the 28:56). and of the exposure of some to harm and the giving to some abundance of fruitfulness and ease. 1307. which indication actually reaches the goal. 155 lfl F. Ihya' Abu Jahl. And this swear that the causes leading to corruption which are found in principle I mean. Annalcs. f. What Allah failed to do in the case of each one would be for each one something of a cause of corruption from which Allah ought to desist. "O Allah. I. 160. I. al-Razi. 440. but with us guidance is the indication of a way which reaches the goal.. pp.. [one creatures might say]. nor would for guidance.. He have shown favor to His creatures all and deserved thanks and poured out this kinds of good things upon them. since that He would have performed which I is incumbent on Him." all But with the Mu'tazilites of these usages are "a declaration of the right way. whether it actually is arrived at way and called and one is really guided or not. though. p. that it is incumbent on Allah to do the best for his rather. said. Muhassal. i86f. II. is unsound because of the statement of Allah.

of something being Then what. and His knowledge of the outcome cisive proofs. This fact because of their limited consideration of the various kinds of knowledge dealing with divine matters and because by tempera- ment they are firmly intent on finding an analogy between unseen. His generosity. or nonsense. . The extreme tenacity with which they hold to because of their belief that for Allah to forsake that which best interest is and the is their position for the creature's means niggardliness is and The refutation of this that since foolishness [on His part]. since the meaning incumbent on Allah. or ignorance. This position of theirs rejects the principle of choice and is a leaning towards that type of philosophy the shame of which is quite evident. [112] so if there is of events have been established by de- one who it has the right to deny. this then pray. There is no need then for even supposing that something contrary to what is incumbent on Him proceeds from Him. His wisdom. since He is not enabled to forsake that which is incumbent on Him on the basis that this requires something im- possible in the way of foolishness. or niggardliness. docs not mean in this case that he who forsakes the duty incumbent on him deserves blame and punishment? This is plainly so.98 RESPONSIBILITY is AND GUIDANCE the seen be counted. or something like that. is any denial of good to the creature by the is absolute justice and wisdom. His grace.

p. 430. which are confined to establishing the punishment of the grave rather than the bliss. See A. the Tank is The punishment some of ('adhab) of the grave l for Unbelievers and for some of the disobedient Believers/Al-Nasafi specified some of the Believers. the Questioning a Reality. prophets. Gcschichtc. I. and also the demented are not asked. they shall not pass away. Sec Enc. Sec al-Ash'arl. 1 The Mu'tazilites and the Kharijitcs denied the punishment of the grave. and the of the obedient in die grave by that which Allah knows and lished and the questioning of Munkar and Nakir are estabby proofs based on authority. And the Quickening of the Dead is a wills. and they both are created. his religion. 3 Some say that children.D.Chapter n some of the dis- SOME ESCHATOLOGICAL REALITIES T is JLhe punishment of the grave for Unbelievers and for bliss obedient Believers. 107. pp. Maqdldt. 1042) was the author of a much-used manual of jurisprudence. nor shall their inhabitants pass away. existing and continuing. . the Garden is a Reality and the Fire is a Reality. of Islam.H. 2 Abu Shujja' (b. 434. Brockelmann.J. A. Al-Sayyid Abu Shujja* said that children are questioned. and the bliss (tanlm) of the obedient in the grave by that which Allah knows and wills/This statement is better than that of the majority of books. and some 8 say also that the prophets are questioned. so it is more fitting to mention the punishment. Reality. A. 127. for there are them whom Allah does not will to punish. and his 2 prophet. the Book is a Reality. the Weighing is a Reality.. and the questioning of Munkar and Nakir/They are two angels who enter the grave and ask the creature concerning his Lord. 161. and the Bridge is a Reality. martyrs. it on the ground that there are many more statutes (nusus) referring to and that the people of the grave in general are Unbelievers and disobedient. a Reality. 392. I. so they will not be punished.

it.' al-Bukhari. Ihyd' (commentary of Sayyid Murta^a). XXIX. 66. I. II. commentaries on See al-Bukhari. 216 ff. The answer to this that possible for Allah to create in all or in 4 some of the parts a kind of life such as Annalcs. The Muslim Creed. p. Cf.. cf. 6 was revealed regard to the punishment of the grave. although the individual traditions taken separately do not xl attain the rank of tawatur. on to the end of the of the 10 Munkar and the other Nakir" 8 and The Prophet said." 6 for the punishment of the grave in this in general comes from The Prophet also said that the statement of Allah." 26. Kitab Ahwal al- Qiydma. Am.J.ioo ESCHATOLOGICAL REALITIES is. The Muslim Creed. al-Sahih. Muslim. what is thy religion. and who is thy prophet?" he should Allah. the Jubba'ites. al-Ghazzall.. one being called tradition. p. pp.. Wolff (Arabic). al-Tha'labi. 12 Some of the Mu'tazilites and the Rawafid is denied the punishment of life is the grave because a dead man a solid body (jamad) devoid of is and it comprehension. 430.. 40 f. said. 491. 162. however. Wensinck." 9 of the meadows Garden or one of the In general the traditions states of the which have come down on this subject and on many of the next world are mutawdtir in meaning. 488 ff. "Jana'iz. "Jana'iz. p. Systeme der spcl(. and A. A. and is my prophet is Muhammad. al-Farq bayn al~Firaq. 'I. 118. and al-Ka'b! affirmed it according to al-Ash'arl. p... 164 f. I. 1(>Scc Muslim.n. sec Index. For the story of the torture of Pharaoh and ff. ed. 1312)." 1x4. Theologen im Islam.. 113. Sunan (Cairo. 6 7 See also al-Baydawi. 481. al-Sahih. two black angels with blue eyes so him. most of the later Mu'tazilites. Qisas al-Anbiya'.. al-Mu'ammar (j/r).J. and "They were drowned and made to enter the Fire" (Qur'an 71:25). al-$ahih. The Prophet the statutes. "Allah will establish those who believe with His established word in world and the next" (Qur'an 14:32)." The Prophet "Whenever come to a dead man placed in his grave. 9 This is given by al-Tirmidhi. $ahih. III. this text. . $ahih.. Wensinck. Or. al-Baghdadi. many of them. arc established/that every one of these things by proofs based on authority (al-samlya) /because they are possible things which [113] the Veracious One has narrated concerning things spoken of by "The Fire. pp. Horten. 162. 1 said. so punishing is him impossible.H. 137 ff. 11 That is. 8 See al-Tirmidhl. Soc. 7 is thy Lord.D. Anwar al-Tanzil. is "My Lord my religion is Islam. 127. pp. "Avoid contact with urine. A. and that whenever [the occupant of] it is asked. al-$ahlh. 171 8 as well as the I. "The grave is either one pits of the Fires. his people see al-Tabarl. al-Nasa'I. 22 ff. "Who reply. like Abu al-Hudhayl. 12 See Jour. I. to which they will be exposed morning and and the day when the Hour shall arise 'Bring in the people of evening. See Mufnad." 70. I. Maqalat. Die phil. p. " Pharaoh (Fir awn) 4 for the severest torture* (Qur'an 40:49). p. Bishr b. 267(1.. Allah said. "Qiyama. 4.

is a Reality /because of the statements of Allah. Flugel. Path Qur'an in which the expression "yawm al-qiydma" al-Rahmdn. al-Sahih. Am. pp. pp. let alone impossible. you (yawm al-qiydma) who formed them at there are 14 will be first quickened" (Qu'ran 23:16)..ESCHATOLOGICAL REALITIES would be able bliss. may be [114] And the Quickening of the Dead f (al-ba th)/thzt is to say that Allah quickens the dead from the grave by gathering their original parts and restoring their spirits to them.. He explained the Reality of each of them for the sake of verifying [us] them. in Jour. 77. so they are established facts. al-Nasafi put this in a section apart and then went states then that since the on to explain the Reality of the great Assembly (al-hashr) and the details is connected with the matters of the next world. "Then on the Day of Resurrection and. or the one not see this it. for emphasizing them. "Say. 487 . For jabarut in contrast with mul\ and mala^ut see al-Ta'rifdt. or the one devoured [and] in the bellies of beasts. p. The Philosophers denied the Quickening impossible. IV. Or. for even the drowned man in water. iiSff. pp.. 206 ff. al-Bukhari. See also al-Razi. Wensinck. Goldsack. I. See Concordantiae Corani Arabicae. 159. pp. 101 to comprehend the pain of punishment or the enjoyment of This does not require that the spirit (al-ruh) be returned to the body nor that it move or be troubled or show any mark of punishment. pp. t XX. Terms. Muhasjal (Ma'dlim). 'He 36:79). 200. . and in order that their importance realized. 1339. al-Mawdqif. al-$ahih. Know this (ahwaf) of the grave are midway between world and the next. Enc. 15 See Muslim.. 13 of the Dead on the restoration of the non-existent thing (al-ma'dum) with its substance is Although there is no proof worthy of consideration for their Tech. " will revive them* (Qur'an 15 And many other decisive statutes which speak of the the basis that Day when the bodies will be assembled. that they are possible things about The proof of all these which the Veracious One has informed and of which the Book and the Tradition speak. II. Diet. Kitdb Ahwdl al-Qiydma. Selections. 246. pp. 205 f.. 373 f. There are about 70 verses in the occurs. pp. Handbook^. Soc. al- Shahrastani. although we do Whoever ponders the wonders of Allah in the kingdoms of world (mulJ() and of Heaven (mala1(ui) and the marvels of His Power and His Might (jabarut) 1S will not consider such things improbable. ed. Macdonald. 49 ff. al-Iji. of I. 244 ff. for al-btfth. [who hangs] crucified in the air is punished. Nihdyatu 'l-lqdam. 14 ii6ff. 986!. of Islam.. p. pp. 467 f. 235 ff.. 269.

The Mu'tazilites 21 deny the weighing because deeds are accidents and so. 220. 17 Cf. Reason 16 Cf. Goldsack. 218 ft. and al-Dasuqi's supcrcommcntary on al-Sanusi. 21 Some of the Mu'tazilites like Abu '1-Hudhayl and Bishr b. Ibn Hazm. Kitab Ahwdl al-Qiydma. for our meaning spirit is that Allah gathers the original parts of is man and restores the to him. and the parts eaten are superfluous in the eater and not 16 original. then those parts must be restored in both of them.J. is name.ESCHATOLOGICAL REALITIES statement it does not harm the purpose [of the Quickening]. pp. . of Tech. d-Mawaqif. pp. ate which is that if a man man so that he became part of the one who is him. 35. Ibn Sina. p. Ihya' (commentary of Sayyid Murtada). 165). Selections. falls short of comprehending the manner in which the Balance works.J. So from seen that in every school of thought [the idea of] transmigration has a firm footing. and ornamented with fahl. 81 f. Cf. 253 Mtih&fsal. and there whether or not this is called transmigration. al-Baghdadi. al-Shahrastam. 249 ff. 165. Diet. Weighing (al-wazn) Allah. II.. p. In this ate a way their supposition falls down. al-Najdt. Terms.. Umm al-Barahin. pp. al-Milal. and thus the other falls is not restored with his parts. 178. 19 This is given by Afrmad (b. "The Weighing on (al-mizan) is the 20 is a Reality /This is is based on the statement of The Balance day the expression used for that by which the amounts of the that the Reality" (Qur'an 7:8). whether or not that called the restoring of the non- existent thing with its substance. al-Iji. If anything like that is called transmigration the dis- pute is only in the store the spirit no proof that it is impossible to reto such a body." 8 and 12. A. p.. al-Mu'tamir held it possible (A. Cf. but the proofs rest on the fact of its reality. and that the molar tion (al-tanasuty). 1380. p. 90. 271. al-Razi. pp. is Someone may object that this statement admits that there 17 transmigra- body [//5] because tradi18 relates of the people of the Garden that they are without hair on their tion bodies and beardless. pp. p. is for the second not the first tooth 10 of one of the people of this it is jahannam (Hell) is like the mountain of Uhud. f. I. even if they were restored. Hanbal) from 20 See Abu Hurayra. i66f. But we reply that transmigration would only be necessary were the second body not a creation out of the original parts of the first body. Sahih. or in imall one of them only. This [supposition down] because the restored parts are the original parts continuing from the earliest of one's life until its end. and that possible.. III.. Musnad. "Janna. tf. they could not be deeds are known. p. Kitab al-Fisal.. 309 18 Al-Tirmidhl. al-Farq bayn al-Firaq.

Ahwal al-Qiyama. their right The Believers receive their books in hands and the Unbelievers [theirs] in their left hands and behind their backs. pp. 165) says that the tradition concerning al-bataqa is given by al-Tirmidhi and al -Hakim. 362. The Mu'tazilites denied the Book. 79 f. place over "Allah will bring the Believer near and He shall him His wing (fonaf) and cover him and then say. AI-Bukharl. then Allah will say. will be easily accounted with" (Qur'an 84:7). p. and I will forgive them to thee this Day. it does not necessarily in the make the it to be nonsense. offered to is him wide open" (Qur'an 17:14). al-Sahih. and His saying. Cf. "We shall produce a book for him on the day of Resurrection. have veiled thy sins over thee in this world. 22 The answer Since to them is that the books of deeds that are in tradition. is "We shall certainly question 25 them all" (Qur'an 15:92)..J. "There is no god but Allah. 77 ff." which will outweigh the 99 scrolls recording the sins of a man. 23 See Kitab 24 A. Taj al-Ariis. exaway any anthropomorphic interpretation that the saying might have. we admit is that there are purposes in the acts caused by Allah.' He will be given the 22 This Book of his good deeds. IV. 'Yes. 491 f. 'Dost thou know such and such a sin? Dost thou know such and such a sin?' Then he will answer. where it says that the Lord will uncover His leg and every Believer will prostrate himself before Him. per- chance there just because some wisdom we have not Weighing which we do not discover. . "Whosoever presented with his book in his right hand. al-Bukhari. my Lord. and discovered the wisdom of it. p. VI. III. 218. plains . cording to what has come down acweighed so there need be no difficulty. Book 23 (al-tytdb) /in which are established the acts of obedience and disobedience belonging to creatures. (p. which is a paper on which is inscribed. The author did not mention the Accounting (al-hisab)?* considering [the mention] of the Book as sufficient. al-Sahlh. also Kitab Ahwal al-Qiyama pp. AJ. is a Reality/This is based on the saying of Allah. and since they are 103 known it is to Allah it is nonsense to weigh them. 238. 296.ESCHATOLOGICAL REALITIES weighed. the Questioning (al-su'dl) a Reality/This is based on the saying of Allah. The answer to them has already been is given. sins. 165. II. Lane. AJ. Lexicon. But the Unbelievers and the Hypocrites is by means of al-bataqa.' This goes on until He makes him 'I confess his and see himself lost. Muslim. asserting that it was nonsense. There also the statement of the Prophet. 25 This tradition is given by the Two Shaykhs from Ibn 'Umar. al-Sahih.

116. 170. pp. The Muslim Creed. Many authorities differ from al-Taftazani and distinguish between the Tank and al-l(awthar. ditions on according to the tra- on this subject. II. the Garden (alcanna) is a Reality and the Fire (al-nar) traditions (al-ahddith) 2e is a Reality/ for the verses (al-ayai) and the which have come down 20 II. pp. Wensinck. Handbook^. 132 fT. 75. p. Anwar al-Tanzil. which they say is a river in the Selections. Hughes. over which the people of the Garden will pass.. V. pp. pp. many For Muslim. al-Bayo'awi. p. Wensinck. 261. as well as sweet-smelling water. Wcnsinck. lievers so that And He makes and the way easy for the Be- some go over as quickly as swift lightning so and others as a gust of wind. al-Mawdqif. 162 ff. II. Goldsack. Kitab Ahwal al-Qiyama. II. See also Enc. 108:1). al-nar. f. Handbook. is Tank (al-hawd) 26 is a "Verily we have given thee the Reality/This based on the saying of Allah. pp. 40. . See Concordance Wensinck. 254 f. while the feet of the people of the Fire will slip on it. al-Ghazzali. 232 f. regarding these two matters are too plain to be hidden and too traditions about al-hatvd sec al-Bukhari. 449. al-Fatfali. al-$ahih.." There are numerous 2S traditions about the and the Bridge middle of (al-sirat) is a Reality/It is a causeway stretched over the hell (jahannam)> finer than a hair. 29 Al-janna. al-Sahih.. The positions taken regarding the creation of the Garden and the Fire are discussed by Ibn Hazm.. 105 ff. 134. 221. and honey. Diet. 283 ff. 419. are symmetrical. 33. The tradition of the Prophet describes the Tank and its contents. the stars of the heavens. Most of the Mu'tazilites deny it on the grounds that it is impossible to cross such a bridge and that were it possible is it would be a punish- ment for the Believers.. 464 ff. 272. them never thirsts. Musnad. p. 368 p. 180.. alRazT.. IV. 81 f. IV. pp. Cf. 247. II. (Flugel). 96. 834. Ibn Hisham. 231 p.. 'I. 275 fT. al-\awthar" 27 ( Qur'an and also on the saying of the Prophet. of Islam. II. Handbook. Sirat Rasul Allah.. II. II. p. 45. Kitab al-Fisal.. pp. is an Among abundance of milk. Kijdyat al-Awdmm.D. pp. sharper than a sword. pp. 28 For traditions about al-sirat see al-Bukhan. 246. 27 the delights to be enjoyed by the Faithful in the Gardens of Paradise Garden. The answer is that Allah Powerful to make possible the crossing of the Bridge. *These arc they who denied their Lord. Musnad.. 86 ff. The Muslim Creed. IV. 238. while others go over like a steed. al-Sahih. A. and its goblets outnumber Whoever drinks from Tank. For references in tradition and description of I. p. Muhassal (Ma'dlim). 220. cf. al-Sahih. p. Ihya' (commentary of Sayyid Murta^a). is not the curse [//6] of Allah on all wrongdoers?' " (Qur'an 11:21). al-Iji. wine. 200.. its "My is water tank is a month's journey long. of Islam.io 4 ESCHATOLOGICAL REALITIES (al-mundfiqun) shall be proclaimed above the heads of all creatures. and its corners whiter than milk and more fragrant than musk. 90 ff. f. them see also Muslim. Kitab Ahwal al-Qiyama. 82. Kitab Ahwal al-Qiyama. 166.J. There are many references to these in the Qur'an. Ihyd' (commentary of Sayyid Murtada).

p. Anwar al-Tanzil.J. everlasting (daim)" (Qur'an its They also say that the necessary [conclusion in that case that is food be not destroyed] perishes possible unsound because of the statement of Allah. al-Baytfawi. but "ever- lasting" here means that if any of its food passes away something takes its 80 See above. But we reply that it is clearly imexcept for the food of the Garden in its substance to last forever.. 47. pp. I. A.J. and they both/that are created/now 81 is. Annalcf.D. 26f. 3. al-Tha'labl. Most of the Mu'tazilites assert that they will only be created on the day of Recompense. 2:33. They is to other say that if the Garden and the Fire were in existence now. makes "now" a part of al-Nasafi's text. such as. beis cause of the statement of Allah. We reply. To support our position there is the story of Adam and Eve and their being made to live in the Garden. 82 There are also the verses [//7] which plainly show the preparation of the Garden and the Fire. tense of the verb to be present we reply that If it it is possible for the and continuous. Chap. prepared for the Unbelievers" (Qur'an 3:126." and its we have al- ready spoken of that in 80 proper place.. 7:18. it would not be permissible to speak of the destruction (halal() of the food of the Garden. I. "This is the abode we will prepare for those who do not desire an exalted place in the earth nor corruption" (Qur'an 28:83). I. "This is based on the corrupt foundation of your position. world of spheres the insertion of one world into another or into another world outside it necessitates the passing ing together again (al-iltiam) y and that [they say] through an opening (al-J(harq) and its joinis unsound. Qi/af al- Anbiyd'. "Its food 13:35). 127). But posi- opposed by [the citation] of a statement of Allah such as. . [They are to be is taken according to their evident meaning] since there deviating from what tion final is no necessity for if this is the plain teaching [of the statutes]. 82 See Qur. the Garden and the Fire existing/He said this for sake of repetition and emphasis. 75. p. "Everything His face" (Qur'an 28:88). 52.ESCHATOLOGICAL REALITIES to be 105 that since it numbered. 81 A. "prepared for the pious. were admitted [that the reference above of Adam than the present continuous tense] the story remains unaffected by the one who opposes [this position]. is And those who deny the Garden maintain and its is breadth described as being the breadth of the heavens and the earth in the therefore an impossibility in the world of elements. al-Tabari..

." for it perishes within the limit of its essence. Development. pp. This is without doubt an unsound nothing in the verse to indicate passing The Jahmiya position contrary to the Book. no perpetual non-existence befalls them. Beyond the an argument [it is of no consequence]. The Muslim Creed. 146. ESCHATOLOGICAL REALITIES not inconsistent with the destruction momentarily of some although destruction does not require passing away (al-fand'). nor shall their inhabitants pass away (yafna)/That is to say. But as for what has been for a said about the Garden and the Fire being destroyed even though 28:88): this that there is moment in order to verify the statement of Allah that "Everything perishes except His face" (Qur'an meaning 38 is not inconsistent with their abiding. who was a Persian rebel Arab rule. pp. He held that belief is an affair of the heart and denied all anthropomorphic attributes of Allah and the eternity of the Fire and the Garden.H. Macdonald. al-Shahrastam. These were the followers of Jahm b. pp. 138. took the position that both the Garden and the Fire and their inhabitants with them pass away. You well know away. A.106 place. 60 f. 167). al-Milal. afwan (d. but This is of it. 199 f. Wensinck. Even were it admitted [that everything actually perishes except the face of Allah] it is permissible that the meaning is "every possible thing. "They abide forever in it" (Qur'an 4:60. 119. of the Fire]. fact that this 33 is and the Agreement. al-Baghdadi. Garden and those 121. 128). al-Farq bayn al-Firaq. p. This means that possible existence when considered as non-existence. 126. merely passing beyond the limit of its being used. the Sunna. against the . because of the statement of Allah in regard to both parties [that those of the is.. from the standpoint of necessary existence ranks and continuing: they shall not pass away. everlasting.

. p. A great sin has been the corruption of which is like the corruption of the things already mentioned or more than it. Abu Hurayra added to these usury. . al-Baydawi. 313-14. and also the pardon of a is not of the nature of considering lawful what forbidden. and contravening the ordinances concerning the sacred territory (al-ilhad ji'l-haram). IV. adul- tery. 151 and 193. or it is that concerning which the crea- Law 1 2 threatens a punishment. Ratvda al-Bahlya t p. XI. of Religion al-Sahih. if it is is of a small sin is permissible. magic. (p. The number of great sins differed in tradition. disobedience to Muslim parents. also. Enc. al-Ash'ari. but He this. of Islam. 60. Maqalat. Anwar al-Tanzil. See al-Bukhari. Allah does not forgive the one who any joins sin. I. and everything for which he asks pardon II. II. Handbook. slandering a chaste woman by a charge of adultery. 215. fleeing from war against Unbelievers. 49. said to and 'All mean anything added stealing and wine drinking. every disobedience in is which the ture persists a great sin.. 567 ff. the Lawgiver. A great sin (al-1(abira) 1 /The traditions differ about this term. It is related Allah be well pleased with both father and son that the sins are said to be nine. great sins do not remain forever in the Fire. 269. pardons whomsoever He wills whether great or small. 925 ff. For other statements of the Muslim doctrine of sin see Enc. al-Sahih.J. for that Unbelief. nor does it lead him into Unbelief. great sin does not remove from Belief the creature who believes. another with Himself. Wensinck. p. 475. except The punishment great sin.Chapter 12 SINS A . 206. Muslim. polytheism (al-shir^ bi 'llah) unlawgreat 9 by Ibn 'Umar ful manslaughter. I. namely. 1 68) reads al-Shdri'. al- A. devouring the property of an orphan. The intercession of the Messengers is established by narratives in the case of those And those of the Believers who commit who commit great sins. 2 and Ethics.

and compared below it. In general the meaning of "great which ranks above is sin" here includes other things besides Unbelief. have some points to stress. resolution to repent. I. according to them.D. or whenever even laziness got the better of him is not inconsistent with Belief it is joined with the fear of punishment. And merely per- severing in a great sin because appetite. or indignation. 392463. or an outburst of anger. the creature who believes into Unbelief/This is unlike the Kharijites. (A. for they took the position a great sin or even a small sin is that one who commits is an Unbeliever and that there We no middle position between Belief and Unbelief. 4 The absolutely great sin is Unbelief. This is known from proofs based an idol. So then the Believer not removed from being described by is Belief through doing that which inconsistent with it. Sacred lief. And in is the solution of what has been stated. 6 Cf. and that even the continuance of some thing permissible might become a small sin. and the But whenever light of it is by way of making lawful Unbelief because it is the unlawful (al-istihlal) or making is it. 5 This unlike the position of the Mu'tazilites in that they assert that a Believer nor an Unbeliever. said that in reality [118] separately. uttering throwing the words of Unbe- this there 8 and other things which are established by proofs to be Unbelief. the statement of which comes the real essence of Belief is is later. is that the assent of the heart (al-tasdtq al-qalbi). which is the real essence of Belief. the hope of forgiveness. 'AH b. pp. the two are relative terms. does not remove from Belief the creature is who believes/because assent. 1002-1071). nor does it lead him/that is. 329. There disobedient acts no doubt that the Lawgiver made some an indication of denial. Muhasfal. on the Law. 511) said that persistence in a small sin becomes a great sin. al-Kazi. it. is great. Thabit al-Khatib al Baghdad!. no offence greater than it. al-Iji. 174. The first. if to that which is since there small. in that if Belief is an ex- The author was Abu Bakr Ahmad b. See Brockelmann. A. VI. .H. p. it is a sign of denial (al-ta1(dhib). continues. 4 Al-GhazzalI (Ihya'. that works are a part of the real essence of Belief. 264 f.io8 is SINS The author of al-Kifaya 8 a small sin (saghira). This the whoever commits a great sin is neither is the rank which they make between two ranks [that of the Believer and that of the Unbeliever] on the basis. Geschichte. al-Matvaqtf. if it is is which cannot be defined to that Thus every disobedience. as seen in such acts as prostration to Volume (al-mushaj) amidst filthy things.

6 Believer. 254 fT. turn to (Qur'an 49:9). especially in the light of the tradition of the Prophet's statement to Ghazzali. although of one understood that not permissible in the case who is not a Believer. Therefore [say the Mu'tazilites] to the point we hold saying that hypocrite. which is the position of the people of the Approved Way which is the position of the Kharijites. or an Unbeliever. nor a to The answer them is that this position is [only] saying anew that that which contradicts the position on which the Fathers agreed. and the Community. and adulterer. upon which there is agreement and forego the point in dispute. The second great sin] is [of the Mu'tazilite objections] is that he [who commits a not a Believer.SINS pression for assent 109 assents and confession. Muqaddima. nor an Unbeliever. And prayer (al-du'a) for full them and their petition for their forgiveness are made with it is knowledge of this is having committed great sins. "Was is the Believer like the evil-doer?" (Qur'an 32:18) where the Believer contrasted with the evil-doer." "He who 7 is devoid of trustworthiness (amana) 6 is devoid of Belief (imdn)" is They also say that anyone who com- This tradition capable of an antinomian interpretation. which is the position of al-Hasan al-Basri. on the statement of the Prophet. differed as to on two grounds. or a hypocrite (munafiq). interprets it to mean that one not be a Believer.. Agreement of the Muslim people (al-umma) from this subject are the time of the Prophet till now that worship (al-sala) be performed over one of the People of the qibla [worshiping in the direction of Mecca] any who dies unrepentant. "The when he commits adultery does not commit adultery being a and also his statement. The he who has committed is first was that the is Muslim a great sin an evil-doer whether he a Believer. retaliation for the slain who believe. so it is unsound. "O ye who is prescribed for you" (Qur'an 2:173). as seen in the sayings of Allah. Ibn Khaldun." believe. The second point is that the verses and the traditions apply the term "Believer" to the disobedient. 34. They based this on the statement of Allah. Cf. the one who and confesses does not become an Unbeliever by committing any of the acts or utterances of Unbelief so long as denial or doubt on his part is not established. II. "If two parties of the Believers are carrying on warfare against one another. after agreeing that (jasiq). he is an evil-doer. "O ye Allah in sincere repentence" (Qur'an 66:8). namely there is no [middle] rank between the two ranks. Sayyid Murta^a on alwho commits such a deed could Musnad. 135. Ihyd'. III. neither a Believer. The verses on The third point is the many. 7 Abu Dharr which comes later. . III. etc. The Mu'tazilites objected people.

because of the mutawdtir tradition that kill the Muslim people did not to this is is him. citing the statutes which clearly say that the is an Unbeliever. "decisive. VIII. Lexicon.no tnits SINS a great sin is not an Unbeliever.J.J. [//p] stated in strong "Unbeliever" since Unbelief tradition that has been one of the greatest of The handed down in this connection and emphatic language in order to counsel strongly against disobedience. and by the settled Agreement which is what has already been said. "And those who do not judge according to what Allah has sent the verse. 170. and dl-qdt?a. 159. Raghima l~anfu literally 1113. and therefore no recognition is to be made the Allah does not forgive the one who joins another with Himself/This is by Agreement of [all] Muslims. such as. 314. The evil is answer that the meaning of "evil-doer" in the verse referred to is (Qur'an 32:18) deeds. become an Unbeliever. . They cited also the statement of the Prophet.D. 10 A. 'I. those are the Unbelievers" (Qur'an 5:48). and. evil-doers" "And those down. means "The nose touched the dust." for al-ndtiqa. A. V. p. 171) reads al-zawahir (plur. which [definitely] say that he who commits a great sin according to the settled of them. This is by way of proof from the verses and traditions which indicate that the evil-doer is a Believer inasmuch as the Prophet said so to Abu Dharr connection. "Verily this day shame and evil shall be on the Unbelievers" (Qur'an 16:29). but they buried him in a Muslim cemetery. who denied and turned his back" (Qur'an 92:15-16). XV. 8 to his great humiliation if when he asked repeatedly in this "And he commits adultery and steals?" evil-doer But the Kharijites objected. The Kharijites are secessionists from position of Agreement.) for al-zdhir (sing. However." See Lane. Taj-al-Arus. 137. which say that punishment applies to the Unbeliever such "Punishment is for him who denied and turned his back" (Qur'an 20:50).)." They also cite statutes as the statements of Allah. and al-Khayali. while some took the position that 8 9 p. p. and. (p. not an Unbeliever. "None shall burn in it except the most wretched. they disagreed as to whether is. those are the "Whoever forsakes worship intentionally has (Qur'an 24:54). [to the Kharijites] is And there are other verses. nor did they carry out the judgments in his case regarding apostates. Lisan al-Arab. is set The answer is that [120] the literal 10 meaning aside by the statutes. or not forgiveness of ishral^ [that missible the joining of another to Him] is per- on the basis of Reason. but from authoritative proof it is known not to be permissible. is impossible on the basis Musnad. and who become Unbelievers after that. Some took the position that it it is permissible on the basis of Reason.. "literal". 119.

However. the Verifiers. in contrast with the rest of the offenses.. lift im- possible to permit the forgiveness of i$hra\ or to it the ban from it at all. p. to Allah.SINS of Reason since ness izi between the doer of wickedit is wisdom demands a distinction is and the doer of good. .. so eternity (al-abad) so it is unwise to pardon him. The and to great sins accom- panied by repentance. This is inconsistent with the to this him in his wisdom of [Allah possibility of at in] sending Messengers. 'The word which comes from me changes not'?" (Qur'an In the second place the Mu'tazilites say that should the sinner know that he was not sin to be punished for his sin. this possible since it is who hold to the opposite of say. The Unbeliever also has the conviction that this is a Reality and does not seek pardon and forgiveness. The Ash'arites. And the reply [to the Mu'tazilites] is that these verses application. so does not admit of being pardoned and cleared of the damage done. and traditions. How threatened [with punishment] in general is accompanied by the declaration that punishment will very probably occur when related to each individual case? For this reason. and Allah has said. is a changing (tabdif) of Allah's word. Since Unbelief the extreme offense. A. "How 50:28). but He pardons whomsoever He wills any sin. Also this is a con- viction which.D. whether great or small. This tion of the Mu'tazilites.J. exis cept this/whether accompanied by repentance or not. indinecessarily docs. there is specified who is forgiven in general terms. the author con- [do they say this] when being sidered 11 it sufficient to give warning. 172. that would only is establish and incite others to sin. has to it do with demands a recompense that shall be to eternity. Some X1 assert that the non-fulfillment of a threat a favor permissible this. They held firmly to two points. on the supposition that they have a general cate only that forgiveness may take place rather than that it Since there are the sinner many statutes that have to do with pardon. First there are the verses and traditions which have come down regarding [121] the threatening of the disobedient. In the statement of this is unlike the posi- judgment consideration to be given to that type of verse which indicates that this has been established. the being threatened [with is punishment]. The verses and traditions giving this Mu'tazilites applied these especially to small sins meaning are many. 121. The answer that the is mere pardon does confirm the opinion [of some] that there all in no punishment addition to the [fact that we have] knowledge [that there is]. See I. p.

al-Kastali (p. and. This is according to what has been fixed by the rule that putting a plural alongside a plural say." The intercession 12 of the Messengers is established by narratives al-Shahrastani. ff. There is the statement of Allah for this. al-Razi." and this pardon (al-a]w) of a great sin/He has already mentioned it might be understood that the neglect to punish sin may be termed "pardon" just as it may be termed "forgiveness" (almaghfira). 63 al-Ash'ari." which suggests the position of the Shi'ites. Nthdyatu 'l-lqdam. that others than Messengers have. See al-Bdbu 'l-Hddi Ashar. A. sins it is Some of the Mu'tazilites took the position that if one avoided great it is him. because comes under the category of the statement of Allah. There are other statements [in proof of this] in the verses "He does not pass by a small sin nor a great and the traditions. 173). Maqdldt. namely. In this way to are interpreted the statutes which indicate that the disobedient are made remain forever in the Fire and that they are deprived of the term "Be- lief. Muhassal (Ma'alim). but he repeated that it if it is not of the nature of considering lawful what it is forbidden. 13 in the 12 Cf. demands the separation of the units into units. pp. we shall blot out your faults" is (Qur'an 4:35). 80 if. f. al-Fisal. (p. just as their beasts we "The people (al-qawm) rode also the and wore their clothes.. i43f. 116). pp. in the verse above] because of the different kinds of Unbelief. The noun plural [kaba'ir. Kitdb 1 IV. ' p. and that the following statement might be connected to it. pp. [722] even though or the statement is all are of one degree from the standpoint of judgment. one without counting them" (Qur'an 18:47). for that is Unbelief/since in there is a denial that is inconsistent with assent. "If ye avoid great sins (J(abair) which are forbidden you. it is Answer is made that the great sin is which is absolute Unbelief because the perfect sin. . The Muslim Creed.. 148) and the Cureton text (p. And counting is only by way of questioning and of giving recompense. of individual sins subsisting in the individuals addressed. but that not permissible for is it to there ground to believe that it happen. Wensinck. This does not mean that it is not permissible to punish impossible on the basis of Reason. 474. p. 3) read wa lil~akjiyar "and of the excellent. 88. 470 13 Ibn Hazm. since in proofs based on authority does not happen. wills" "And He forgives less than this to whomsoever He (Qur'an 4:51.. . the power of Intercession.J.SINS The punishment committed it of a small sin is permissible/whether or not the one it who avoided a great sin.

" 20. when the purpose to render vile their state is and to verify as certain their misfortune." traditions cession." b. et extraits. 484. We have on this the statements of Allah. but reads Mustafida Notices equivalent of mashhur. see Guillaume. namely. on what has already been be with neither it! stated. 16 Abu Da'ud. answer might be made that this is raising an argument only against the one who takes the sense to be that Allah does not carry out His threat. them" (Qur'an is "Then the intercession of the intercessors will not avail 74:49). There is also [as a proof of intercesconnected with anyone so that sion for Muslims who have committed great sins] the statement of the Prophet. such statements of Allah "Dread the day [/2_j] when in quoting nothing a soul render satisfaction for a soul. both men and women*' (Qur'an 47:21). al-Tirmidhi. and 'I. that pardon and forgiveness are per- missible without intercession. "My lo intercession is for those of is my people who have committed great sins. "ifat al-Qiyama. make commentary. yet there must be a make the proofs consistent (jam' an bayn al-adilla). otherwise there established in it would be no meaning is in denying the value in for Unbelievers. and. 182. The answer [to their position] that although we admit that these verses apply in general to persons. "Kitab al-Sunna. This kind of statement indicates that intercession general.D. [to this conception of intercession]. "The wicked shall have no friend nor inter- cessor is who shall be obeyed" (Qur'an 40:19). XX. Sahth. This is unlike the position of the Mu'tazilites. This tradition well as known (mashhur). to moreover. Sunan. special application to Unbelievers here times and to states. Al-Kastall follows the Cureton text. And when in Islam the foundation for 14 it pardon and text intercession became established by de- The Cureton makes part of Taftazani's a^hyar again for a\hbar. "Ask pardon for thy sin and for the Believers. nor shall any intercession be received for it" (Qur'an 2:45). This mean that connecting the who commit judgment [regarding intercession for with the Unbeliever indicates that it is not great sins] else. b. so how much more permissible they would is But the Mu'tazilites held that when pardon is not permissible. The Traditions of Islam.J. for in such a position there a demand that they [who are Unbelievers] be stamped in is some particular way rather than by something that does not those a general characteristic of them and others as well.SINS case of those n3 narratives widely spread abroad 14 It rests who commit great sins/by the is (al-mustafid). there are subject of inter- which are mutawdtir meaning on the The shall Mu'tazilites objected as. and. i. ii. 16 is the a p. intercession. . this a part of al-Nasafi's text whereas A.

reads "Believers. Similar 17 for a resting place" liever is of the people of the Garden. an Unbeliever or the unrepentant since from what we have seen of their principles the person preserved from error (al-ma'sum). for he is either who has committed a great sin. "Verily those who bestatutes indicate that the Be- and do good works [124] have the gardens of Paradise (al-firdaws) (Qur'an 18:107). such as that the creature not removed from Belief is because of disobedience and that remaining forever in the Fire of punishments. The one Mu'tazilites took the position that the one it who is consigned to the Fire remains in forever. A. which is a genuine. so pardon means noth- The statutes indicate in the second place that intercession has the offense. 175. and Agreement. so it is impossible for the Believer to behold the reward of to before entering the Fire and then to enter the Fire is remain there forever. which is the greatest of offenses. both dens beneath which the rivers flow" lieve men and women. Both of these claims are unsound.ii4 cisive proofs SINS from the Book. the Mu'tazilites claimed that the small sins were pardoned absolutely and the great sins by repentance and through intercession to augment the reward [of Believers]. everlasting benefit. for two reasons. p. The first is unsound. by reason of the statement of Allah.. punishment according them.J. as well as other things is which have already been stated. "Whoever has done an atom's worth of good shall behold it" (Qur'an And Belief itself it is a good work.*' . There are also other statements of Allah in sup- port of this. were others than the Unbeliever so recom- offense deserves pensed [and remain forever in the Fire] that would be more than their and therefore an injustice to them. Gar(Qur'an 9:73). Since the Fire has been the severest made the recompense for Unbelief. 99:8). so al-Nasafl speci- fied the exit from the Fire. "Allah promised to the Believers. The who comis that he deserves such punish- ment as a genuine everlasting injury to him. the repentant one. because neither he who is repentant nor he who has committed a small sin and abstained from to a great sin deserves ing. meaning of asking pardon for an And those of the Believers who commit great sins do not remain forever in the Fire/although they die without repentance. basis of he has avoided great sins are not The Unbeliever remains forever in the Fire on the say] does the unrepentant first is mits a great Agreement and so also [they sin. the Sunna. That unsound by Agreement. and this punishment incon- sistent 1T with his deserving a reward. sin if and the one who commits a small of the people of the Fire.

him He makes enter the Fire. which in- . forever he remains in it" (Qur'an 4:18). forever he remains in it" (Qur'an 4:95). and. The second reason [for the unrepentant is has committed a great sin remaining in the Fire] that there are the statutes which indicate that he remains forever in the who Fire. "Whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger and transgresses His restrictive ordinances." yea rather to preclude the meaning of "deserves" [such punishwhat they mean to say is that there "necessarily follows" [such punishment]. the term "abiding forever" is sometimes used to express an extended period. reward is "Whoever answer acquires an evil. forever they remain in [to the Mu'tazilites] is (Qur'an 2:75). his Jahannam.SINS The answer ment] since to this is to preclude the restriction of the meaning of "ever- lasting. and so also is anyone who transgresses all the restrictive ordinances and so also the one whom sin environs and surrounds from every side. and punishment an act of justice. and. if He wills He pardons. and if He wills He punishes and then causes him to enter the for a time Garden." Also were their position admitted [as a rational one] it nevertheless opposes the dicate that abiding is not forever as already stated. And the is who kills a Believer because he a Believer can only be an Unbeliever. Even were the Mu'tazilite position to be admitted. just as they say "perpetual imprisonment. "Whoever kills a Believer purposely. and he whose that the one sin environs it" him those are the dwellers of the Fire. like the statements of Allah. But reward is only an act of grace from Allah. statutes.

of Tech. This means "one who assents. security) as though the real meaning of "he believed in him" were "he rendered him secure from denial and disagreement. 1170 ff. 201 ft. 4 that Ibn Cf . "that thou The 1 real essence of assent does not bear the relation to the heart Diet." The not fitting that he should say. And whenever him to say. Ihyd'. Terms. attributes of Allah Belief (al-tmdn) 1 /linguistically is assent (al-tasdlq) [725]. p. p..J. pp. hut Belief neither increases nor decreases. pp. Alt. 94. Majdtih. assent to." The with the preposition It as when Allah relates. 24. 221 Ghazzall. 172 f. and the changing in happiness and misery.. of Tech. The Muslim Creed. Hazm. "of the brothers of Joseph (Yusuf). As relief is assent to that for works.. accepting and from to be veracious. that is to say.. And and Belief and Islam are one. 8 ff. Wcnsinck. The text of A. VII. for these are both and there is no alteration in Allah and His attributes. they increase in which he brought from Allah and confession of it. al-Baydawi. Rel." etc. Razi. i88flF. al- . Diet. (p. pp. not in making happy and making miserable. pp. al-Fadali. Macdonald.Chapter BELIEF B. and Life." that is. 125. p. if Allah wills. 226. "I am a Believer. 77. Anwar al-Tanzil I. it. Nihdyatu 'l-lqdam. p. III. Kitdb al-Fisctl. al- Sec Taj al-'Arus." happy one sometimes becomes miserable and the miserable one someis times becomes happy. 3 "And thou art not a Believer on us?" (Qur'an 12:17). and of themselves. al-Shahrastani. 470 t ff. Umm al-Barahin." 4 Cf. Imdn the noun on the measure of ifdl al-amn (safety. it is it is right for am a Believer in reality. 131 ft. "Belief means that thou believe in Allah. "I assent and confession are found in the creature. I. 2 Kifayat 15. al-Awdmm. IX. acknowledging (al-idh'dn) the considering it judgment is of a narrator. al-Rawda al-Bahlya... Terms." Or it takes its object with the preposition hi as in the statement of the verb takes its 2 object Prophet.. al-Sanusi. 176) adds. 22 ft.

contract. we should consider him an Unbeliever because the Prophet made such things a sign of denial the zunnar 11 and rejection. And of assertion (al-tasdiq) as contrasted with conception. The fies verifying of this position according to what I for you the explanation of many of the If difficulties have mentioned simpliwhich have come real essence down regarding the question of Belief. 9 Ibn Slna. pawn. assent in general to the Prophet with the heart regarding that his coming from Allah made Belief. 4 ff. It is just as though we should suppose that someone assented to all that the Prophet brought and confessed it and practised it and yet girded himself with 126] 1 by choice or bowed to an idol by choice. vetements chez 12 The honors due to Muslims only should not be paid to him. Dozy. 33. p. (p. For though this meaning [of assertion] were some Unbelievers. 9 applied to idea that made this clear. al-Risdla al-Shamsiya. Kleinere Schriftcn (Leipzig. admire. 1085. al-Najdt." Steingass. i. 3 fT. Terms. 3 fT. confide in" from the root giratv meaning "to wager. Enc. 1 See Diet. Dictionnaire des noms des les Arabes. Lexicon. pp. Maqdsid al-Falasifa. then know 1 that Belief according to the Law is assent to that which he 2 brought from Allah/that all is.. See al-Ghazzall's Ihya' II. pp. you would know the of the idea of assent. known. Fleischer. 11 Zunndr. 1251 f. believe. of Islam. 240. 10 the term "Unbeliever" would be used with the the person has some signs of denial and rejection.. .BELIEF veracity docs to the narrative or to the narrator without 117 ment to or acceptance [of the object]. of Tech. it any acknowledgan acknowledgment and an so that the term "surrender'* (al-tasUm) may be applied it is as the is which in general it has the meaning expressed in Persian by the term girawidan? It has the meaning Imam al-Ghazzall 5 explained. pp. 649 f. IV. p.. Girawldan.J. in order that the Lane. al-Ghazzall. 178) inserts "the Prophets. This is the belt worn by one who pays the jizya. p. Ibn Sma. Diet. Persian -English Dictionary (London. 1 96 fT. but not ac." p. to distinguish him from Believers. Terms. "to follow. Belief. text in A. pp. 10 Cf. 1930). adore. al-Najdt. 1241 f. 13 See Hemrich L. Ibn Sma. but acceptance of that. just as first 7 principles of the science of logic (al-mizdn). I. 1885-88). for a full statement of the definitions of kdfir. is is said in the either con- "knowledge ception (tasawwur) or assertion (tasdlq)? The leader of the logicians. See 1258. and that it is The degree The Polytheist attributes 5 of this 13 into the category of bring one out kind of Belief is no lower than that of detailed sufficient to (al-mushrit() who asserts the existence of the Maker and His is only a Believer according to the uses of language. of Tech. II. *Cf.

Ahmad al- Halwam. The Multitude (al-jumhur) of the Verifiers took the position that assent is on which judgments [as to by the heart but that confession is the condition whether one is a Believer or not] are passed in this world (al-dunya). So then whoever assents with his heart and does not confess with his tongue according to the is yet a Believer with Allah. that Belief is assent and 14 confession. because. but though he is not whoever confesses with his tongue and does not assent with his heart like the hypocrite is just the opposite. 373. 16 This must be either Fakhr al-Islam Abu '1-Hasan 'All b. A. . even judgments of this world. because he falls short of monotheism. both of whom lived in the fifth century of the Hijra and wrote extensively on Fiqh from the Hanafite standpoint. I. we reply that assent continues in the heart. VII. 179.J. Geschichte. who was a Hanafite writer on jurisprudence. This position that al-Nasafl mentioned. Muhammad al-Pazdaw! (d. Ahmad b. This is the position chosen by Abu Mansur [ai-Maturldi]. And [when one objection made that assent may not [always] continue as is] in sleep or in a state of un- mindfulness. by the tongue. Lexicon. See references in Haji I. Allah alludes to such a one in the statement. Geschichte. The those statutes support this position. the that the kind of Belief which has been verified is that against Lawgiver considers which there has not occurred any judgment to the contrary. Abi Sahl al-Sarakhsi. whereas if it is one not to confess as when under compulsion. probably to Shams al-A'imma Abu Bakr Muhammad 4 b. namely. or Shams al-A'imma Abu Muhammad 'Abd-al. it is a hidden thing which must have a sign. Fluegcl (London. since assent is by the heart. 482). VII. ed.. 373. and. and. 1071 and Brockclmann.H. p. 1858). Brockelmann. Lexicon. and confession of one it/that is. Ahmad al-Qaffal (d. A. "Belief has not yet entered your hearts'* 14 This is the position of 18 The reference is Abu Hanlfa. "And most of them do not believe in Allah. Belief] only being a neglect of realizing Even were we to admit the ob- jection [that assent does not always continue].n8 BELIEF cording to the Law. without being polytheists as well" (Qur'an 12:106). for Allah said.Aziz b. It is not permissible at permissible for is all for to fall short in the matter of assent.H. is the position of some of the Learned (al-ulama) and it was also chosen by al-Imam Shams al-A'imma 15 and Fakhr al-Islam 16 Allah have mercy on them both. or Fakhr al-Islam Abu Bakr Muhammad b. [727] "On the hearts of He has written Belief" (Qur'an 58:22). 1213. "His heart being tranquil in Belief" (Qur'an 16:108). the neglect [of it. Khalfa. A. See Haji Khalfa. so that the word "Believer" is applied to the one who believed in the past or present and in whom there appeared no sign of denial. 507) who was a Shafi'itc.

there is no dispute about his being called a Believer from the standpoint of the language. religion killed 119 The Prophet to said. Wensinck. Musnad. etc. "Didst thou not cleave his heart?" 19 And to if sent by the tongue. but something like dumbness action of the tongue prevented him. Allah said. V. Sahih. 239. 294. 29 55. 1T O Allah. also Handbook^ p. 18 and obedience Thee." is He said to Usama. you say that Belief is assent. Biographical Dictionary of Qutayba. Musnad. Ibn Ha A Persons 19 See Who Knew Muhammad. "Qadar. 'We have believed/ Say thou. Wensinck. one who confesses with But the dispute Allah. 7. 207. "Some people say. "I assented [to him]" was [of necessity] one who assents to the Prophet and believes in him. It is evident that the real essence of Belief is not merely the two words of the Witnessing Formula as the Karramites asserted. my heart in Thy when Usama had one who said that there no deity but Allah. 71. and I." b. The Muslim Creed t pp. 18 See Ibn jar. I answer that it is clear that what we express by assent is the work this of the heart. 257. 1 "The desert Arabs say. p.BELIEF (Qur'an 49:14). f. III. is whether he is a Believer when after it is a matter between him and that one that The Prophet and those who came him. (Qur'an 49:14). or had a usage other than the assent of the heart. 'Ye have not believed. also ruled a hypocrite was an Unbeliever. 251. but rather say. 'We believe in Allah and the last day/ but they are not Believers" (Qur'an 2:7). "Establish. Thus the Prophet indicated that the is not sufficient for Belief. . Therefore it is quite sound to deny Belief in the case of some who confess with the tongue. We have become Muslims But " his tongue only. And is since the Multi- tude of the Mutakallims and the Traditionalists (al-muhaddithun) and the Canon Lawyers (al-juqaha) take 17 the position that Belief the assent of the Al-Tirmidhi. yet the lexicographers know only asand the Prophet and his Companions were content have Believers utter the words of the Witnessing Formula (al-shahada) and judged one a Believer without asking for an explanation of what was in his heart. Kitab al-Ma*arif. Also the Agreement of the Muslim community confirms the Belief of him who assented [128] with his heart and purposed to confess with his tongue. so even if we should suppose that assent did not have conventional usage. and. 112. just as they ruled was a Believer who uttered the Witnessing Formula. VI. nor about the application to him in outward matters of the laws dealing with as for Belief. none of the lexicographers and the people who know common usage would rule that whoever uttered the words.

Belief was made a condition of the soundness of as in the statement of Allah. pp. since it is itself. And yet is no real verification of a It is thing without that which these points only raise is its fundamental element. and yet it is quite certain that the conjunction of the two together demands a distinction between them so that the thing joined on does not enter into that to which it is Secondly. IV. as the 24 holds. 104 ff. etc. is affirmed of one who even neglects some of the [required] works as in the saying of Allah. Biog. Development. Macdonald. al-Mawdqif. p. Muhassal. one of the four Sunnite schools of jurisprudence. p. 23 This expression occurs about sixty times no. joined. of Islam. the obedient acts and of themselves.. the BELIEF author alludes to the denial of inner heart (al-jandn) 9 confession by the tongue and the performance of the this by say- ing. see Concordantiae. 24 Al -Shaft'!. membered . Enc. The first is that works do not enter into Belief." 21 The text of A. II. is reemphasis he placed on Ijmd' (Agreement). so that. p. Path al-Rahman. p. "If two factions of Believers are at it is as has already been said quite certain there war" (Qur'an 49:9). See al-Nawawi (Wustenfeld). 569 ff. Belief is quite certain that the thing conditioned does not enter into the condition. (b) works "Whoever does good deeds. 256 flF. 277. As for works 20 /that is. 252. 56 ff. Diet. II. (a) In the place works are coupled with Belief as in the saying of Allah. But it is not an argument against those who hold that works are a fundamental element of perfect Belief.).. Veber das Leben. he who omits works is not a Believer...J. but Belief 21 neither increases nor de22 creases /Here then are two matters [for consideration]. 175 f. "Verily those who believe and do good deeds" 23 (Qur'an 2:23. l/iyd' (com17. Ibn Khallikan. as from al-Taftazam. "in itself." 22 See al-Razi.. 282 f. al-Ghazzali. mentary of Sayyid Murtada). whether a it male or a female.no pillars (al-arl(an) of Islam. so that he who omits them is not outside the real meaning of Belief. pp. as the Mu'tazilites held. clear then that an argument against the one who makes obedience a fundamental element of the real essence of Belief. 181) inserts. the founder of especially for the in the Qur'an. and yet impossible to condition a thing on (c) Thirdly. being a Believer" (Qur'an 4:123). since we have already seen they increase in that the real essence of Belief is assent and because of certain things that first have come down to us in the Book and the Sunna. 3) adds in the text of al-Nasafi "and they are obedient acts. 258. al-fjl. (p. And the tenets of the Mu'tazilites and the reschool of al-ShafVl 20 Cureton (p.

It has been suggested that the meaning [of increase in Belief] is. or increase is In this no decrease conceivable. so whoever attains to the real essence of assent. the consequence is that Belief increases as it is an accident which only continues by the continual it.BELIEF plies to said. It is that the real essence of Belief does not increase or it has already been said that is the assent of the heart 25 which reaches the point of decision and acknowledgment. saying that after people had believed in general there came one obligation (fard) after another. it incumbent upon people known in general. it because the occurrence of something similar to a thing after existent does not has been made non- mean an increase at all. 181) adds al-qubtd. [/2p] The verses which in the an increase of Belief may be interpreted way that Abu Hanlfa mentioned. "acceptance. (p. for example. the in- crease of the fruits of Belief and brilliance. This taining knowledge a matter for consideration. but varies indeed as to power and weakness since the assent of the individuals of a 2n The text of A. came] the consequence was that Belief increased just as Belief in each and that this [increase in Belief] was inconceivable is except in the time of the Prophet. and in detail in matters that are is known in de- being clear that detailed Belief perfect. his assent conno change at all." . for obis of the details of the ordinances is possible in other than in general in matters the Prophet's time. "We problem of obedient do not admit that the it real essence of assent does not permit of increase and decrease. in in be made to them have been mentioned what we have already The second matter decrease. [something] additional nay rather. Belief increase It being described as the has been suggested that as fixity and perseverance in times increase since hour by hour. Belief that are tail. more What has already been said about general Belief not being its lower in rank that detailed Belief has to do with foundation of Belief. It is it increases through and the shining forth in the heart of its light works and decreases through dis- obedient quite evident that he who holds that works are a part of Belief accepts the increase and decrease is [of Belief]. consequently this problem of increase and decrease acts as a part of Belief.J. whether he does obedient tinues in a state in indicate acts or is which there commits disobedient ones. for acts. just as in the case of the blackness of a body. and as they believed each special obligation [as it obligation necessitated. renewing [of Beliefs] similar to But this calls for consideration. a part of the [larger] Some of the Verifiers said.

Muqaddima. "Hast thou not believed?" Then he replied. yet undoubtedly they were Unbelievers because of their failure to assent Muhammad's being a prophet]. pp. 67. I. "O Lord. Annales. 27 Al-Qadariya. and the choice of the one who something acquired (fosbi). An. pp. were cognition. 261. rather than one of the voluntary actions. it were to occur in the heart without choice. pp. established by assents. It one of the qualities of the soul (al-foyfiyat al-nafsaniya). Vorlesungen den Islam. III. Wensinck. it would not be assent. and because there were among the Unbelievers those who knew the truth very well indeed and yet through stub[to bornness and pride denied their souls it. pp.." The Lord answered. Therefore it is to be rewarded and conit is sidered the chief of religious duties (al-ibdddt) rather than cognition which sometimes occurs without any acquisition." See al-Baydawi. is held that Belief is agreed that this position (ahl al-J(itdb) namely that some of the 28 Our Learned Men cognition (al-ma'rifa). Mac- donald.. I. Kifdyat al-Awamm. Anwar al-Tanzil. cf. pp.122 people BELIEF Abraham said. al-Milal. 127 ft. al-Shahrastanl. but let my heart be confident. So of necessity there a distinct difference between the cognition of the judg- ments and deciding that they are true on the one hand. my is not like that of the Prophet. 260 flF. that assent if it means that by your choice you ascribe veracity to the Narrator. "But let There remains Qadarites 27 yet another subject for discussion. 33 f. Goldziher. al -Baghdad!. 95 28 Al-Ghazz5H took the position that there are three different degrees of Belief. unsound because the People having Scriptures a prophet. also Ibn Khaldun. and Life. Abraham was Abraham's dispute concerning his Lord's power to give life to prayed. iiber p. 245 ff. See al-Ghazzali. So it is sound to call the second kind Belief in distinction from the first. "They denied it though knew them is [that is. and the assent to them and conviction about them on the other. for whenever we conceive the relationship between two things and doubt whether it is to 26 The occasion the dead. There is a problem about this. is different from that of the Qadarites for his is essentially a ufi attitude. . al-Farq fi. bayn al-Firaq. as when one's glance falls on some This body and there results to him knowledge that it is a wall or a is what has been mentioned by some of the Verifiers who say stone. is Some of the Early Theologians mention the suggestion that assent is an expression for binding the heart to that which known of the narratives given by the Narrator. Macdonald. 52 ff. 236 fl. His position that cognition (mtfrifa) was the highest. the signs] to be genuine" (Qur'an 27:14). for assent is is even though one of the divisions of knowledge. show me how thou bringest the dead to life. Ihyd'. Thus. The Muslim Creed.. al-Fadall. 29. Rel. just as their descendants knew that Muhammad was do. 134. p. al-Tabari. Development. "Yes. VII. the name given to the free-will party." For this reason heart be confident" 26 (Qur'an 2:262).. Allah said of them.. however.

. This is the meaning of assent. and then proof is adduced for establishing it. that as is. pp. so on. by coming occurs. There is no objection to this. 80 The reference here is to Abraham and his honored guests and their visit to the wicked city of Lot. Cognition its being acquired and of not sufficient for obtaining assent. 18 and 19. 29 This is al-Razi's position also. and realization (tqff). 88 ff. the use of speculation. And Belief and Islam are one 29 /for . things as are signs of denial and rejection. Annalcs. In this as it way the imposition of responsibility for Belief its This were. Qisas al-Anbiyd''. the removing of objections. as seen in is what was mentioned that Belief assent to what Allah has narrated is of positive commands and is prohibitions. And we mean nothing more than this by their being one. the meaning of is being by choice. That is the those meaning the acceptance real essence of assent. And if their obtaining were a possible would become Unbelievers through denial with their their perseverance in obstinacy and arrogance. and Islam submission and resignation to the Deity. "So we brought out the Believers of who were in it and we only found one house of Muslims" 30 (Qur'an 51:36). So Belief distinct is command and prohibition [of inseparable from Islam as to to from one another. and submission (al-inqiyad) acknowledgment. and through such tongues. affirmation (ithbat). . so that one [term] that term is is inseparable from the other. and that not verified except by acceptance of the positive Allah]. al- Tabarl. for it is sometimes devoid of assent. The evident purpose of the statement of the Early Theologians was [131] that they intended to make no distinction in meaning [between the two]. for It is and Assent are nothing but that. I. p. Islam is resignation of judgments seen. it haughty Unbelievers supposition they to obtain that. 332 f. for in this way one Belief attains the idea expressed else by the Persian word girawidan. al-Tha'labi. judgment. See Muhassal. 174. Most assuredly this absolute cognition which is acquired by choice must be assent. And in general it is not sound in the Law to judge one a Believer who is not a Muslim nor to judge one a Muslim who is not a Believer. One may say judgment and they are not him who makes a distinction. Yes. it is true that these qualities are arrived at [130] through choice. into contact with the causes. yet there is no absolute unity in al-Kijaya. understood. as and is we have This supported by the statement of Allah. Gen. impossible for the obstinate. that which takes place in us is the acknowledgment and acceptance of this relationship.BELIEF 123 be affirmed or denied. and is. Cf.

Maja. Muslim. it is right traditions in general seem to make a distinction between Belief and Islam. i33 3- 319. 228." 32 To we reply that the meaning the fruits and signs of Islam. . 51 f. I. I. grimage to the House." He said. IV. 90. Ibn by al-Taftazani. his statement is well and good." 33 Or it is as the Prophet said. 414. al-Sahih. is The may be cited as evidence that Islam not necessarily Belief. 23 fT. "The desert Arabs say. "Do you understand what Belief in Allah alone means?" They replied. "Muqaddima. I. 445. and make the pilthat mad is the Messenger of Allah. 34. "It means witnessing that there is no deity but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. otherwise the unsoundness of following statement of Allah clear. "Belief is seventy-some 8B sects: is 34 the highest is to say that there is no deity but Allah. I. I. bring the poor rate (al-zafa).124 BELIEF believes but docs not be- "What is the judgment to be applied to one who come a Muslim. but rather say. See Musnad. 10. One tradition given by the Musnad (II. in al-Bukhari. the former having to do with doctrine. Sunan. 417. as seen in the section [above] on Be- Objection is may be made that there seems to be an indication that Islam works 31 and not an assent of the heart in the saying of the Prophet. 499 differ in some details. "Allah and His Messenger know better. and [it means] the performance of worship. 134 # Al-Bukhari.. u) says sixty-some sects. Al-Bukhari (I. just as in the case of the one who utters the words of the Witnessing Formula without lief. We have become Muslims' believed/ Say thou. fast the month of Ramadan. this if you are able is to make the journey there. The Islam referred to in the verse above is an outward submission devoid of an inward submission. II." b. " To this we would reply that the is meaning of Islam (Qur'an which is con- sidered as such in the Law not to be found without Belief. or who becomes a Muslim but affirms for one of does not believe?" If he them a judgment not established as applicable to the other.. The 97. also Muslim. just as the Prophet said to some people who came as a delegation to him. Cf. the latter with practice. al-Sahih. the bringing of the poor rate. the fast of Ramadan. The accounts tradition being as given 36 Cf. and the lowest the removing of that which is harmful from the path. the remainder of the I. and that you give a fifth of the booty. assent. 49:14). 27 f. 'We have 'Ye have not believed. 26. 34 See Musnad. 23. "Islam means you bear witness that there is no deity but Allah and that Muhamand that you perform worship (al-sald). 379) says there are 64 doors to Belief. HI. and also Musnad. 33 Al-Bukhari." And whenever 81 assent and confession are found in the creature. al-Sahih.

Some of the Verifiers held that the result for the creature was that real am abstinent from if He wills. or because of fact that it Unbelief." Some of the Learned said. "I am a Believer in reality" 36 /because Belief in him has been verified. See Wensinck. 6 f. pp. Al-Nasafl said. or in his state well. and no more serious punishment in the Fire than that of the one who claims to have them. for if you say 'No' you become an Unbeliever. in to clear himself of self-righteousness it is and of glorying it any case preferable to omit is it it. if is Allah wills" in this way] as though you said. (p. "I worldly pleasures and devoted to the service of Allah. "I am 88 This is Allah. "Verily I.BELIEF for 12 j him to say. Fuo'ayl said. "Are you a Believer in the sight of Allah?" He replied." when asked if he were a Believer. "I am a Believer. The story is told in al-Rawda of Abu Hanlfa who answered. "It not fitting" rather than else "it is not permissible.) gives some narratives that teach the humiliation that may lie back of the Ash'arite position. nor final am a youth. reported from some of the Ash'arites we learn that it is right to say. nor does selfresult from it. if Allah wills "/If is he says that because of doubt there is no avoiding the If one says it because of good breeding and in order will of Allah. "We are asking you about your knowledge. al-Rawda al~Bahlya.. is it if Allah wills". "Those in reality are the Believers. 138 ff. or that of Allah?" They said. 621 ff. It is only by the will of Allah that one is attains to that perfect saving assent which referred to in the saying of They have ranks with their Lord. From what has been forgiveness. a point of dispute between the Ash'arites and the Maturidites. pp. "Are you asking me about my knowledge and fixed purpose." is . "Yes. even 38 Companions and saying." es- sence of assent by which he escapes from Unbelief. know that I am a Believer. but [saying "I am a Believer." 37 The text of A. because being a youth is to be conceived that one will continue [to be a youth] as a righteousness and glorying consequence [132] and outcome [of his life]. to refer matters to the doubt about 37 the final consequence and out- come [of his life]. Do you love Allah?' be silent.J. "There no higher blessedness in the Garden than that of the People of knowledge and love of Allah. "in the present. used this expression? This is not not your an acquired action. They said. and if you say 'Yes' t 4 your saying so is not the description of those who love." since were [the saying of] due to something than doubt there would be no reason to deny the permissibility of using the expression. "If you are asked. or because of an expected since blessing from mentioning Allah. and it is not fitting that he should say. may give the impression of doubt. The Muslim Creed. by my knowledge. and a generous sustenance" (Qur'an 8:4). not as to his present [Belief]." Then said he. 186) adds." 38 Al-Ghazzali (lhyd' IX. of the like How would that be possible when many of the Fathers. "I their Followers. even though assent in itself admits of being strong or weak.

Unbelief. ." on the basis that the real account of Belief and (al-sa'ada) and of happiness life. for if the meaning of Belief and happiness is merely the obtaining of the idea expressed in these. So whoever is certain of obtaining Belief and happiness now means the first definition." 89 Al-Nasafl in order to show the unsoundness of this statement [of some of the Ash'arites] said. and the miserable Unbeliever is the one who dies in Unbelief we seek refuge in Allah from such although all his life was spent in assent and obedience. and there is no alteration in Allah and His attributes/This is due to what has already been said about the Eternal not being the locus of originated things. 406 f. and likewise the miserable is he who was miserable in his mother's womb. The happy one sometimes becomes miserable/in believed we seek refuge in Allah from such. "And he was one of the Unbelievers" (Qur'an 2:32. "The happy one is he who was happy in his mother's womb. is that thing from which salvation and works result. apostatizing after having and the miserable one sometimes becomes happy/by believing been an Unbeliever after having and the changing is in happiness and misery. The real fact of the matter is that there is no disagreement in the meaning. and fruitful if the meaning is. Muslim. There is also the statement of the Prophet. though happy was spent in Unbelief and disobedience. is for these are both attributes of Allah/since making happy and making happy is the bringing of happiness into being and making miserable the bring- ing of misery into being. al-$ahlh. 38:74). and whoever commits the matter to Allah means the second. not in making miserable. This is as all end of so the Believer and misery (al-shaqdwa) is made is the one who dies in Belief even his life Allah pointed out in the case of Iblls. there according to the will of Allah.126 a Believer. II. it is obtained in the present. no certainty in obtaining it now. ae Cf. at the if BELIEF Allah wills.

AND BOOKS OF ALLAH JLn the sending of Messengers there is wisdom. al-Fa^all. al-Maivdqij. and Allah has sent Mes- mankind announcing good tidings.Chapter 14 THE MESSENGERS. The most excellent of the prophets is Muhammad. al-fji. p. Ibn Khaldun. "Of some told thee their stories. or of there being excluded some who are of them. of Islam. And He has aided them with evidentiary miracles sengers of to mankind which contradict the customary way of things. pp. Terms. And there no security in a statement of their and of others we have not" (Qur'an number against there being entered in some who are not among them. positive He has sent down to His prophets. 31. | which and it on the measure of faul from [the noun] riscila (a message).. The angels mand. veracious and sincere. for Allah said. and explaining to people what they need [to know] of the matters of this world and of the judgment. Kifayat fT.. All of them were narrators conveying information from Allah. . is of them we have 40:78). The first of the prophets is Adam and the last of their erable is Muhammad. but it is prefnot to limit their number in naming them. They has are the creatures of Allah and they do according to His com- are not described as being male or female. 165 ff. pp. 169 Mohammed Abdou. pp. III. 57 ff.. ff. 53 f. Rissdlat dL-Tawhid.. Enc. His promise and His In the sending of Messengers (al-rusul) l /Rusul is the plural of rasul. /?_?] means the sending of a creature between Allah and intelligent beings is (dhaw'iyi 'l-albab) defects 1 among His creation in order to remove thereby those this by which their reasons have fallen short of the benefits of world See Diet. Mnqaddima. pp. Allah has books which shown His threat. 68. and in them He commands and His prohibitions. AJ..D. and warning. 1127 'I. ANGELS. A statement number has been handed down in several traditions. of Tech. p. I. al-Awamm. 584!.

and He prepared in them reward and punishment.. p. 187 Sec al-Fatfali. 197. since in is it Messenger is incumbent on Allah.. f. advantage derived therefrom. And if it did have a way. 2 In this there an allusion to the fact that the sending of a it necessary. a benefit and a praiseworthy consequence. Sec al-Ghazzali. and explaining to the people what they need [to know] of the matters of this world and of the judgment/for Allah created the Garden and the Fire. 'I. 3 The Shi'ites say that it is absolutely incumbent on Allah to send Messengers. 68. but the Shark of the Maqdsid states that the Barahima did not deny the possi- Sayyid Murtaa*a). pp. Kifdyat Ihyd' (commentary of Sayyid Murtada). to the method of establishing the sending [of Messengers]. but the necessity of sending prophets (A. See al-Bdbu 'l-Uddi 'Ashar. and Allah has sent Messengers of mankind (ol-bashar) to mankind an- nouncing good tidings (mubashshirin)/ot the Garden and reward people of Belief and obedience. p. to the and warning/the people of Unbelief and disobedience of the Fire and punishment. MESSENGERS OF ALLAH You have already understood the meaning of Messenger and prophet in a section at the beginning of the book. it one. and to the designation of some whose being sent has been established. bility al-Ijl. there is wisdom (hi^ma)/thait is is. The 4 sending of a Messenger assert.D. 8 but meaning that there are wise and beneficial things. p. He also created useful and harmful bodies and He did not give Reason and the senses complete independence for knowing - It is also called a luff (a favor) II. d-Atvdmm. for these are among the things of which Reason has no way would be by minute speculations which would not be easy except for individuals one by [of obtaining knowledge].J. Cf. from Allah. n Then to the al-Nasafl referred to the actual fact that Messengers had been sent. 4 Al-Biddya and other books assert that this is the position of the Sumaniya and the Barahima. 54. al-ljl. both alternatives of the possible is being equal. by saying. p.. II. 187). 133. is it not impossible as the Sumaniya and the Barahima [merely] a possible thing. The details of the different states to against the Fire are revelation be found in both of them and the way to attain the Garden and guard among the things in which Reason is not independent [of from Allah]. pp. and also 5 al-Mawdqtf.ii8 and the next. Ihyd' (commentary of 199. cd-Mawdqij. as the position of some of the Mutakallims. 182 . not meaning that is wisdom demands nor it. f.

the prophets 1 with evidentiary miracles (al-mu of things /Mu'jiz at is 6 jizdt) which contradict the customary way it is the plural of mu'jiza and contrary to the customary way office of things (al-'dda) at the it something that appears hands of one who claims [134] the those of prophet. even though the non-creation of the knowledge [of his veracity] is possible in itself. nor would the veracious office man be clearly distinguished from the false in claiming the of Messenger. Chap. Chap. n. the group would have [as a result of this action] the necessary customary knowledge regarding If made]. which are not clear to Reason until after endless speculation and complete way of investigation. trary to group and then he would say to this king. And He has aided them/that is. 15. since it is one of the means of decisive knowledge just as the senses are. as He said. he would deprive himself of most of their benefits. It is as presence of a to them. for the falsehood [on the part of the prophet] were possible in essential possibility means the rational permissibility it would not that the pre- clude the attaining of absolute knowledge.MESSENGERS OF ALLAH them. . or 6 See above. just as tain of we know moun- Uhud did not turn into gold although that in itself were possible. 129 no And he also made some propositions that are possible. "We have not sent thee except in mercy to the worlds" (Qur'an 21:107). n. act conyour custom and rise from your seat three times. But at the appearance of the evidentiary miracle the cer- tainty of his veracity results in the customary way whereby Allah creates evi- knowledge of his veracity as a consequence of the appearance of the dentiary miracle. "If I am veracious. is not from Allah. Therefore it was of the grace (fadl) of Allah and His mercy that He sent Messengers to demonstrate that. 20. So were a man to spend his time in [studying] them. there being [knowing for a] certainty which one of the two alternatives [is and some propositions that are either necessary or impossible. [and who deny are unable (yu'j/zu) to do the if happens] in such a way that same thing that he does it when they compete with him." So when the king his veracity in the statement [he has itself of people that he though one were to claim in the was the Messenger of a certain king did that. and below. The possibility that the evidentiary miracle 2. 6. For he were not aided by the miracle would not be necessary to accept the statement of the prophet. So here the knowledge of his veracity results because the customary way requires this. but right].

Annalcs. 7 I. p. al- though they applied themselves to this task until they risked their hearts' blood and turned from opposition by letters to fighting with swords. And that indicates absolutely that it [that is. 134. which points out certainity that there that he was commanded and prohibited along with the in his time. [These things are so many that they reach] the point of a mutawatir tradition. Thereby the customary way veracity of the Prophet's claim it is known in such a purely that detracts nothing that are possible according to Reason such as are to from the things be found in other customary knowledge. al-Nawawi Sec Hughes. The The first of the prophets (al-anbiya) office is Adam and the last is Muhammad/ prophetic of Adam 7 is seen from the Book. 151. This also [the position] according to Tradition (al-sunna) and Agreement so the is denial to belief. 123.. In the first place he manifested the miracle. the Qur'an] is from Allah. Muqaddima. 209. Enc. mean. Dictionary of Islam. 1 68 ff. I. Muslim.. it is would not follow then impossible. al-Tabari. and as for the manifestation of the evidentiary that is seen from two viewpoints. the evidentiary miracle.D. Mafatih. Ihyd' (commentary of Sayyid Murtatfa). His claim to the office is known tradition. This it means that. II. al-Sahih. II. Veber das Leben. There has not been reported of any one of those who strove with the Prophet that he produced anything that came anywhere near it. who.130 that it is MESSENGERS OF ALLAH not for the purpose of gaining assent or for a false prophet's gain- ing assent. I. 350. does not detract from this knowledge. 8 I. al-RazI. from mutawatir speech (\aldm) of Allah and strove thereby with the eloquent. p. was no other prophet is This is only by revelation (al-wahy). 2:33. 7:18. 127. of Iflam. 8 it is so because he claimed and manifested the evidentiary miracle. just as the possibility of there not being heat in fire does not detract from is the necessary knowledge through the senses that there that heat in fire. as has been reported by some. 232 ff. so even though their details are individual traditions like those of the courage Sec Qur. p. among attains a the things which annul the customary way. p. although many claims have been preserved. In the second place there has been reported about Muhammad. and 'I. Un- But as it for the prophetic office of Muhammad. or any other possibility. were unable to match the shortest sura of the Qur'an. 279 f. . Ibn Khaldun. in spite of their eloquence. him of the office of prophet.. were the non-existence of the evidentiary miracle a supposition. that which I rank sharing with it. For the Shi'ite statement see al-Bdbu 'l~Hadi 'Ashar. 56. (Wiistenfcld).

Ihya' (commentary of Sayyid Murtada). 130. 258. from mutawdtir tradition there are derived certain facts concerning his circumstances before being a prophet. as some Christians assert. perfected virtues. Muhammad claimed 10 this great distinction amidst a people who were without a book and devoid of wisdom and showed them the laws. and that then He would would aid him with victory give his religion mastery over other religions. I. Cf. his speech and the Speech of Allah which descended on him having indicated that he is the seal (\hatam) n of the 12 1S and nay rather to al-Jinn prophets. 281. Firstly. II. and that Allah united these per- him of for twenty-three years whom He knew that he would be maligned. p. Qur. so that his enemies in spite of all their bitter him could not find place for is enmity and their eagerness slander nor was there any way to slander to impugn is him. Qur. d'$ahlh. his confidence in the power of Allah to preserve him under all cir- cumstances from errors. 1202. many people in the theoretical Belief and practical and enlightened the world by and good works. And Allah gave his religion mastery over all religion as He promised him. . Therefore Reason possible in fections in certain that the union of all these things all im- anyone except the prophets. also 38:87 . 13 12 II.MESSENGERS OF ALLAH of 'All 131 is and the generosity of Hatim. Annalcs. and yet He would make him patient. his wise judgments. See also al-Bay^awi. and the one sent to all mankind. and after the fulfillment of it: his great moral charac- teristics. Anwar al-Tanzll. Since his prophetic office has been established. II. 36:69!. and would keep alive his memory after his death until the day of resurrection. 32:2. II. This is the whole meaning of the office of prophet and Messenger. it has been established that he is the last of the prophets and that his prophetic office to the Arabs. 33:40. for [135] each of these facts sup- ported by tawatur. 34:27. fulfilled the most Book and wisdom. Cf. 281 fT. mankind too. and his steadfastness before terrors. Qur. Secondly. at the time of his call. Those of his real insight having had the prophetic sometimes deduce from two standpoints proof for office. is not. Ibn Hisham Sirat Rafiil Allah. 9 his boldness when the gallant heroes held back.. especially confined 10 Muslim. 36:5. over his enemies. al-Tabari. although the details are individual traditions which have been mentioned in the biographies of the Prophet. al-Baydawi. 46:28. He taught them judgments and noble characteristics. Anwar al-Tanzil. 11 9 Qur. 202 ff.

And there no security in a statement of their numis. is naming them. "Of some them we have told thee their stories. p. "Yes. . (p. for Jesus is more [in wor- excellent and his leadership (imdma) is preferable. p. that to say [in explanation of the desirability of not mentioning a definite number] the narrative of an individon the supposition that it fulfills all the conditions mentioned in the foundations of fiqh is useful only for opinion. p. we answer. So it is posof the Book.MESSENGERS OF ALLAH If it is objected that there has been after 15 handed down a tradition that Jesus will descend u Muhammad. 497. n. 190) adds "so the Prophet then would not be the III. al-Tabari. and he replied. Annales. 305. Anwar al'Tanzll. Ucbcr das Lebcn. to say that Thus it is more correct ship]. sible that something may be stated contrary to the actual fact. but he will be a follower of law of Jesus has been abrogated (nusikjiat)." 18 See Hughes. 1T and in another narrative it is two hundred twenty-four thou- but it is preferable not to limit their of number in said. of Islam. if ber against there being entered in some who are not among them/that one mentions [/_j6] more than there are or of there being excluded some who are of them/that is is. Handbook. There will be no revelation nor setting up of judgments on his behalf. but he will be the Khalifa (vicegerent) of the Messenger of Allah. 14 See al-Nawawi (Wiistenfeld). 113. 204. he will perform worship with the people and lead them and the Mahdl 16 will follow his example. Dictionary of Islam. 217. The Muslim Creed. Muqaddima. Wensinck. p. al-Bay^awi. for Allah and of others we have not" (Qur'an 40:78). The statement that affirms [a fixed number of prophets] arrives only at a contradiction of the plain which is meaning some of the prophets were not mentioned to the Prophet." sand. 152. 18 The text in A. "One hundred twenty-four thousand. Wensinck. for the him. and the non-prophet among the prophets. the conclusion reached] includes something about which the records handed down that differ. Ibn Khaldun.J. 17 II. if one mentions a number ual less than their real number. Enc. in." A statement of their number has been handed down in several traditions/ According to what has been handed down the Prophet was asked about the number of the prophets. in counting the prophet among the non-prophets. taken of opinion in the case of This is true especially if it [that is. last of the prophets. 142 ff. I. and no account is to be beliefs.

al-Mawaqij. Al-Fa^ali. are preserved also from errors committed] will- on the basis of through inadvertence according to the majority. In the matter of being preserved from the remainder of sins there detail [to be given] . meaning veracious of the office of prophet 18 and of Messenger (al-nubuwa wa and sincere /to all creation. tolerated lam. But as for were impossible for them is based on tradition great sins committed through inadvertence. Kifdyat al-Awamm. a great sin is The Mu'tazilites held that for prophets impossible since it compels such a judgment in regard to them (Umin al-Bardhln. 20 They were the literal Anthropomorphists. pp. alMawaqif.. . p. pp.. There is no appeal here to the Qur'an and Traditions since this doctrine rests on Agreement of the Muslim people (Ijmff). except such sins as indicate con- temptibleness. 73 ff. I.MESSENGERS OF ALLAH since it is 133 it on the basis that the number is a specific one in that which indicates. especially in what is connected with the commanding of laws and [They Agreement. the majority make this permissible. Sec Enc. like stealing a morsel ure. adds one to each group. 58. p. is some By Agreement the prophets were preserved from Unbelief both before and after the appearance of Revelation. of Ital-Rawda al-Baklya. al-Babu 'l~Hadi 'Ashar. the Multitude in op- position to aljubba'i and his followers make them permissible when will- fully committed. al-Ijt. the difference between them being only whether the proof for believing that great sins or on Reason. al-Milal. lest the benefit of the mission and message be in vain. 57 ff. lying. and giving a grain less for short meas- But the Verifiers stipulated that the prophets after the appearance of Revelation must be made aware of such things and refrain from them. faithfulness. pp. 57. Hashwiya because they al-Iji. al-Shahrastanl. namely their opposites. and the conveying of judgments and the guidance of the people. intelligence and stupidity.. pp. As for the small sins. likewise from the willful commission of great sins according to the Multitude in opposition to 20 al-HashwIya. 173 ff. p. yet is there no proof for the impossibility of a great sin proceeding from them before the appearance of Revelation. 77. 219. 157 rT. veracity. In this there is an allusion to the fact that the prophets were preserved (masumun) 19 from falsehood. and concealing of the message. p. 287.. 218 flf. al-Razi. pp. Majatlh. and by common consent (bi'l-ittifaq) they are permissible when committed through inadvertence. anthropomorphic expressions. The Mu'tazilites called all of the Ashab the 19 18 Al-Sanusi al-Hadlth. Muhassal. 318 ff.) says there are three qualities necessary in a prophet. fully. See al-Rawda al-Bahiya. not possible then that there be increase and decrease in the number. All of them were narrators conveying information from Allah/for this is the 'l-risala). unfaithfulness. and conveying the message. and three that arc impossible. II.

To cite as proof the saying of the Prophet. pass away. and [137] is to be changed from its ing if possible when it comes by way of tawdtur. and extravagant. belittles their state. 261 ff. pp. d-Sahlh. of Islam. Uajatlh. [subject] is The detailed account of this to be found in the more extensive books. for the saying docs not indicate that he was better than children. They are not described as being male or female/ since there it is neither record of this in tradition nor any indication of in Reason. 278.J. Enc. otherwise it explain it literal is mean- possible to as a case of doing the less preferable of two actions. but better than his The to angels (al-malai^a) are the creatures of Allah and they do according His command/ As the statement of Allah indicated. excellent of the prophets is Muhammad/because of the statement "Ye were the best people (ummaY (Qur'an 3:106). 237 ff. neither are they wearied" (Qur'an 21:27. pp. al-Razi.134 MESSENGERS OF ALLAH and so the benefit of the mission [of the as to prevent their being followed prophet] would ever compels vices. pp. marking them with sins before Revelation after. If this which we have said is feigning settled. I. just as the statement of the Jews that one of the angels may commit the sin of Unbelief and be punished by Allah with metamorphosis is also an extravagant statement which d-Bdbu 'l-Hadi 'Ashar. 28 Cf. There is no doubt that the measure of the goodness of a people is their perfection in religion (al-dtn) 9 and that follows the perfection of their prophet whom they follow. p. Muslim. 21 See 22 Cf. Kit&b al-Fifal.. III. 58 II. then whatever has been reported about prophets. 19). Ibn Hazm. pp. The Muslim Creed. al- Wensinck. 2S Adam. 1337 f. is to be rejected (mardud) if it is recorded by individual traditions. . and al-Razi.. ipSf. II. and small Shl'ites sins which indicate contemptibleness. is The statement of the idolaters that the angels are the daughters of Allah impossible.. 189. The forbid the procession from a prophet of great and small however they permit dissimulation in Unbelief for a pious reason (taqlya). unsound. III. and falsehood and disobedience. Terms. al-ljl. 315. "They do not precede Him in speech and they do according to His command. or as some- thing that happened before the prophet's mission. The true position forbids [in prophets] whatlike the men 21 to forsake them debauchery of [their] mothers. A. Diet. Uawaqij. The most of Allah. "I am the lord (sayyid) is of the offspring of Adam without glorying on my 22 part" weak. 259 tf. and they disdain not His service.. Mafatih. of Tech. tf..

I. al'Mawaqif. I. the most excellent the Zabur. 297 ff. al-Sahlh. or because the 28 name of Allah mentioned oftener. 3480. 26 See Ibn Qutayba. 351. al-Iji. it [138] but it is [Unbelief] to 26 have a conviction approving and to work it. 2:96. Mafdtih. Anwar al-Tanzll. p. 25 These two angels. al-RazT. Kifayat II. Muslim. them He has shown His positive commands and His His promise (wa'd) and His threat (wald)/M\ the books are the speech of Allah. "Did Iblis 24 not become an Unbeliever and he it was an angel. were sent to the earth to be tested. the proof of this being that was valid for him to be made an exception from them?" we reply. The Devil. Their punishment was only by way of rebuke. the multiplicity and differentiation of them is only to be found in the context which is recited and heard. Diet. it him an Mariit. Muslim. and then he strayed from the command of his Lord.. pp. f. Allah has books (fatuV) in which He has sent down to His prophets. then one speech.MESSENGERS OF ALLAH If 135 someone objects saying. . With the it is this consideration in Injll. But. al-Nawawi (Wiistenfeld). al-Sahth." It is not Unbelief to teach magic. 190 ff. 51. just as prophets are rebuked for a slip or inadvertence. 20:115. 137. al-ahih III. are only a exhorted the people and taught them magic. Qur. 27 The of the preferability of some parts over others is for the reason that the recitation of them is more excellent. Enc. pp. 2:32. then the then And as the Qur'an is inconceivable to think that there are preferable parts. Hughes. so do not "We become Unbelievers. 71. is the Qur 'an. al-Atvamm (com- mentary of al-Bayjurl). See Qur." But was proper to make as for Harut and 25 more proper to say of them that they were angels from whom They means there proceeded neither Unbelief nor a great sin. II. Uber das Leben. Enc of Islam. of Islam. mind. See Qur. 28 Cf. he was one of the Jinn. however. 18:48. yet said. Kitdb al-Ma'arij. p. The Koran. Tawra.. "No. because there is is more benefit in them. The books have been abro- gated by the Qur'an as to the necessity of reading and copying them and as to the authority of 24 some of their judgments. 27 See al-Bukhari. of Islam. I. 17:63. 272. of testing. 193. 299 t f. 440 ff. 54. Rodwell. since he had the attributes of angels in regard to service and exalted rank. failing to appreciate the frailties of human beings. exception. I. and since he was a lone JinnI inexperienced in worship in the midst of the angels. since he it is had been outnumbered. 27 al-Fao!alI. which is one. III. alBay^awi. 7:10. and prohibitions. 237 if. pp. from the standpoint of writing recitation real fact and some suras may be preferred to others as tradition states. 61:9. p.

and the ward- clothing at the time of need. 505 ff. Wall by way of contradicting the customary way of things.. al-Bukhari. in his person to heaven and thence The Graces of whatsoever exalted place Allah willed is a Reality. such as covering and the appearance of food and drink and and walking on the water and in the air. The Ascension 1 (al-miraf) of the Messenger. Allah powerful perform possible things. p. of Islam.. 76 . I. and the protection from enemies of him who is anxious. pp. Muslim.Chapter THE ASCENSION OF THE PROPHET AND MIRACLES T JLhc Ascension to of the Messenger. Cf. . Handbook. and his the confession of the message of the Messenger. The Grace appears on behalf of the a great distance in a short time. and other things of the same kind. Al-Nasaffs statement "while awake** (fi 'l-yaqza) alludes to the refutation of the one who asserts that the Ascension was in sleep. 263 ff. such as the speaking of ing off of an approaching calamity. d-$ahih. III. 99. and inanimate solid objects and of animals. Slrat Rasul Allah. Wcnsinck.. in his person to is heaven (al-sama) and thence to whatsoever exalted place Allah willed Reality/It is established by so well-known a tradition that he who denies sible are it a it is an innovator (mubtadi). I. 25. because it is evident from it that he is a Wall. The denial of it and the claim that it is imposbased on the fundamental position of the Philosophers. the Walls are a Reality. tom and sound to All bodies are similar to each other so it it is is of one body what all is sound to say of all. and he could never be a Wall unless he were right in religion is his religion. while awake. Enc. And such a thing is reckoned as an evidentiary miracle on behalf of the Messenger to one of whose people this act appears. Ibn Hisham. otherwise is permissible of heavenly things that there be an infringement of cusa compliance with say to it.. while awake. which is in ac1 83 . d-^afuh.

Al-Nasafi's use of the term "in to the refutation of the his person" (hi shatysihi) an allusion It is who says that it was of the spirit only. The Unbe- denied the matter of the Ascension entirely. 544) says that the reference here is to the Ascension. "The body of And Allah has said. some saying. Both appeal to tradition from I These are "wonders by the divine grace.D. Answer is made to this that the meaning here is vision through the eye. "to the Throne" (al-arsh). Development. See Macdonald. (3) fardma which comes from a wall. 17:1 and the references to the mi'rd] above. (p. (4) ma'una which proceeds from any one Cor. Terms. others. The Ascension from earth to heaven to the is a well-known tradition. individuals.) favors the position that his heart was given the sense was with the heart that he saw Him. insofar as f. (p. Acts that contradict (k^haraqa pierce) the customary way have been listed as follows: (i) mu'jiza which proceeds from a true prophet when claiming the prophetic office. Goldziher. I. yea many Muslims apostatized on account of it. 194) maintains as the correct doctrine that Muhammad saw his Lord with his fl eye (hi 'aynihi). but spirit was along with the one spirit. and body. "to the Garden. 'I." others. 4 See Qur. II." and 4 still others. or the Throne. it is Cf. of Tech. 174. it and from heaven on his Garden.137 cordance with a tradition from Mu'awiya. 6 it f. 138 of sight and that Ibn 'Abbas. although some say that it refers to an incident in the Battle of Badr. . 3 Muhammad was not absent the night "We have made the vision which we showed thee only as a testing for mankind" (Qur'an 17:62). and that his so the Ascension body was not deprived of was both by is his spirit (ruh). pp. is [a tradition based] But the sound position is that 5 heart (ju'df) and not with his eyes. (2) irhas which appears at the hands of a prophet before he is described as one. who when asked about the Ascension said. 373 f. 600 3 Al-Baytfawi (Anwar al-Tanzil. His use of the term "to heaven" is an allusion to the refutation of the one who asserts that the Ascension made by Muham- mad while awake was only to the House of the Holy Place (bayt al-maqdis) as recorded in the Book. "to the edge of the world. [139] is clear however that the Ascension in sleep or in spirit lievers not something to be denied absolutely. Muhammadanisehe Studien. "It was a proper vision" (ru'ya sdliha)? And there is a tradition from 'A'isha who of the Ascension. Diet. AJ." They seem related to the Xap^/iara o f 12:9. or wheresoever was." said. p. And the term "then to whatsoever place Allah willed" is a reference to the different statements of the Fathers. "above the Throne." The night journey which was from the Sacred Mosque (al-masjid al-harani) to the (al-isra') House of the Holy Place is an absolute fact established by the Book. Muhammad saw his Lord with The Graces is <$ (al-{aramat) of the Walls (al-awliya} 7 arc a Reality/The Wall pos- the one - who knows (al-arif) Allah and His attributes.

Macdonald. (6) ihdna which proceeds from a false prophet making a claim to the prophetic office. Anwar al-Tanztl. Enc. for Allah says. Qisas al-Anbiyd'. Annales. pp. 69.. II. p. al-Tabari. 153. of the world. He said. A. Cf. Qisas al-Anbiyd'.: al-Shahrastani. Rissalat al -Taw hid. and the appearance of food and drink and clothing at the time of need/ 9 as in the case of Maryam. 271 fT. 58 f. 444 M. Abdou. 236. See al-Fadali. ff. The proof for the real existence of the Grace is that so much has come down by tawatur from many them that denial of is it is of the Companions and those [who came] matter is after impossible. 262 f. Umm al-Bardhln. 1 528 fi. "Whenever Zakariya went in to of the generality of Believers.J.D. al-Tha'labl. Diet. especially when the something that testimony of] common even though the details individuals. al-Razi. 460 f?. 139. is little are [based on the manifestation of estab- Graces on behalf of Having once lished their occurrence there need to prove the possibility of them. pp. (and al-Khayall). 69. As intimated by al-Taftazam. The Muslim Creed. of Tech. Cf. p. Barakhya was the messenger sent by Sulayman. 243. al-Tha'labl. . pp. The Book also speaks of the Maryam and the friend of Sulayman. but office. who shuns acts of and who avoids being engrossed in the pleasures and appetites The Grace which nuls the customary belongs to him is the appearance of something that anhis behalf. such as covering a great distance in a short 8 time/as when the friend of Sulayman. 'I. p. Terms. 224 al-Matvdqif.. I. Ihyd'. Mnhassal. Wensinck. pp. 497 f. p. 328. I. II. Diet. Terms.. Anwar al-Tanztl. and that which is accompanied by the claim to the prophetic office is an evidentiary miracle (mujiza).. Al-Nasafl next introduced a statement which refers to the explanation of a Grace. 576. 744. pp. Attitude and Life in Islam. 9 See al-Baytfawi. 8 Sec Qur. of Tech.i3 8 MIRACLES disobedience. Rel. Nihayatu 'l-1qddm. of Islam. brought the throne of Bilqis before the twinkling of an eye although it was a great distance off. pp. which ended in his good eye being taken..). 194. sible. VII. and to the details of some of the very strange particulars regarding Graces. way of things on which is not in any is way connected with a claim to the prophetic Such an act which not ac- companied by Belief and good works is only a deception (istidrdj). The Grace appears on behalf of the Wall by way of contradicting (naqd) the customary way of things. but who is not engaged in the improvement of creatures as is the prophet" (al-Ghazzali. ff. namely Asaf b. 27:40 and al-Baydawi. (5) istidrdj which is performed by an evildoer. p. 151 Mafdtlh. ff. Barakhya according to the most noted traditions. 271 f. 7 The Walt is "one to whom the real essence of things is unveiled. The stock ex- ample of ihdna is Musaylama's attempt to give a one-eyed man another eye. not all the accounts agree that Asaf b.. p. Kijdyat al-Awdmm (commentary of al-Bayjuri). p.. al-Iji. pp. for the general discussion of miracles II. al-Sanusi. who perseveres in acts of obedience.

775 fT. Kashf al-Mahjub. 13 Abu '1-Darda' (d. A. 68 and 376. Companion from al-Khazraj. 124 f. II. Abu Talib 10 and Luqman al-Sarakhsi xl and such of is as the speaking of inanimate solid objects and of animals/ 2 and the warding off of an approaching calamity. cf. puts the rest of the sentence in al-Taftazanl's commentary. 361 ft. II. there 13 Allah be well pleased Sulayman and Abu 1-Darda* with them both who had it in front of them a bowl 14 which praised [Allah] and both of them heard is praising. is is related of many of the Walls related of Ja'f ar b. Al-Bukhari. " 'O Maryam. An16 I.. Qisas al-Anbiyd' . the mountain. Anwar al-Tanzil. The text of 'I. while on the pulpit at al-Madlna. pp. army saying. 382. 245. so sleep and I shall guard you. pp. Enc. 32) was a . 195) gives the reading followed. 152) says that the commander at Nihawand was al-Nu'man b. . translated by Nicholson (London. 'It is from Allah' (Qur'an 3:32). The story as given by al-Taftazanl is to be found in al-Suyutl's Tariff* al-Khulafd'. 246. and the protection from enemies him who is the tradition of anxious/ As for speaking of inanimate solid objects. 10 See 11 See 12 al-NawawI (Wiistenfeld). pp. 195) says that the story of the "bowl" is given by al-Bayhaqi in "The Indications of Prophecy" (Dald'il al-Nubuwd) (Brockelmann. 17 Ibn Qutayba (Kitdb al-Ma'drif. III. 260. speech. I. Uusnad. p. p. p. He said. Ibn Qutayba. it " The not created for this but for plowing/ which he used "Allah be praised! Does a cow speak?" it. "I am the most beloved of the loved of Allah. I.MIRACLES 139 her at the sanctuary (al-mihrab) he found that she had sustenance. Biographical Dictionary. "There was a man among turned to people "I said.J. It said. Ibn Ha jar." See Qur. 137. A. us driving a said. (p. al-Baydawi. cow 10 him and 1 was for bearing burdens. 363). al-Hujwiri. and as for the speaking of animals there the matter of the is dog 15 addressing the Companions of the Cave (al-fohf). I.J. There also the tradition of the Prophet [140] that he said. so that he spoke to the commander of his order to warn tain. (p. 18:17.H. Allah gave nales. 89 14 A. p. the mountain." The Prophet replied. of Islam. Ueber das Leben. Geschichte. have believed and other things of the same kind/such as 'Umar's seeing 17 his army at Nihawand. and al-Ghazzall's lhya\ VII. d-Sahlh. al-Tabari. 82. al-Tha'labi. 1911). and walking on the water/as and in the air/as and others. "O Sariya. 502. Kitdb al-Mtfdri]. 15 The dog followed it the men and when the men of the Cave tried to drive it away. 193 f. 557. Lo.D." in him of the stratagem of the enemy there behind the mounand like and such as Sariya's hearing his speech in spite of the distance. 188. how dost thou get this?' She replied. Muqarrin.

"that to the Reality. he must purpose to manifest those things that annul the customary way. There are examples like these which are more than can be numbered. 195) inserts a comment as from al-Taftazani.J.. from this Grace that he a Wall. 852. pp. so that even if the to be independent and not would not be manifested at a follower. and his religion is the confession/by the tongue and assent by the is heart of the message of the Messenger/accompanied by obedience to respect to his commands and prohibitions. I. and he must give absolute judgment as to the necessity of evidentiary miracles. 165 20 The text of A. Tarity al-Khulafd'. whether it appears on his behalf or on behalf of individuals of his people. 18 See Ibn Hajar. deduced proof which annul the customary way of things. would be confused with evidentiary miracles and the prophet in no way would be distinguished from the non-prophet. assenting . Muir's Caliphate. pp. the manifestation of acts that annul the customary way on behalf of Walls [in general] or an individual Wall who is one of a certain people an evidentiary miracle on behalf of the Messenger to one of whose people this act appears because it is evident from it/that is. but when related to a Wall it is a Grace because he it is free of any claim to the prophetic office of the one on whose behalf was manifested. al-Nasafl alluded to the answer which is made to them by saying. I25f. and like the Nile's flow- on receipt of the letter from 'Umar. he his hands. and he could never be a Wall unless he were right 20 in his religion. Since the Mu'tazilites." f. is. were they permitted to Walls. (p. that the manifestation of acts And such a thing is reckoned as/that is to say. [all of which is] in contrast to the Wall. The prophet must know that he is a prophet. 19 See al-Suyuti. who deny the Graces of the Walls. would not be a him with Wall claimed Wall and the act is The outcome is that something which annuls the customary way an evidentiary miracle when in any way related to a prophet.140 MIRACLES drinking poison 18 Kha lid's ing 19 without being injured. Biographical Dictionary.

the equipping of their armies. The of] a Khalifate was for and a thirty years and then after it [the form of rule was that kingdom principality.Chapter 16 THE KHALIFATE AND IMAMATE excellent of mankind after our Prophet is Abu Bakr. and he must legal rights. neither hidden nor expected. since were he to mean all mankind in existence after our Prophet this [statement] would be refuted by [the descent] of Jesus. It is a stipulation that he should be of the people who have free and complete authority. The Imam is not to be removed for The most excellent of mankind after our Prophet/It would have been better to say "after the prophets" but he meant "after" in point of time. an administrator. nor that he should be the most excellent of the people of his time. who will carry out the administration of their decisions. He is not restricted to the Bam Hashim nor to the children of 'All. the receiving of evidence based young men and maidens who have no and the division of the booty. the settlement of disputes which take place among creatures. most then 'AH the Approved. the receiving of their alms. [141] . the subjugation of those who get the upper hand and robbers and high- waymen. Their Khalifate was in this order. The Muslims must have an Imam. evil-doing or tyranny. the maintaining of their restrictive ordinances. It is not a stipulation that he should be preserved from error. Nevertheless he should have made a special excep- tion of Jesus. on the performance of worship on Fridays and Festivals. Then the Imam must be visible. the Very then 'Umar the Divider. the giving in marriage be of the tribe of Quraysh and not of any other. then *Uthman. the guard- ing of their frontiers. able to execute decisions and maintain the limits of the territory of the world of Islam and to give the oppressed equity against the oppressor. guardians. since there is no prophet after ours. he of the two lights. Veracious.

p. and l if all would not convey a meaning which includes the Commankind on the face of the earth at that time were [of the meant. XXIX. omit taraddud. 704. he of the two lights (dhu 'l-nurayn)/He was so called because the Prophet married his daughter Ruqayya to him and. But relating to practice." 4 Al-khatan means any relation on the side of the wife. Here the meaning is evidently "son-in-law. the Very Veracious (al-siddiq)/who assented to the Prophet's 2 office without delay and hesitation and to the Ascension with- out hesitating.H. XVI. is Abu claim to the Bakr. (p. 295. also. "Had I a Umm third. Ltsan. 2 The The text of A. 1310 (p. And if the meaning were all people to be found on the face of the earth in general. 69 f. and Journal of the American Oriental Society. it would be refuted by the case of Jesus. 196. 196) and al-Kastali. when she died. It is evident that if they did not have some proof for this [order] they would not have so ruled. 137 ft. and when she died. p..J. The impartial position of the signs of the texts of A. 178). then it would not convey a meaning that includes the Followers Companions] and those who came after them. we do not consider one on nor does hesitation to commit one's self about the matter cause any confusion regarding the duties incum- bent [on Muslims towards either of the two parties]. pp." then 'Ali the Approved (al-murtada) /by the creatures of Allah and by the Companions. This [is the order in which] we have found [them] according to the Fathers. sincerest of the Messenger's However we have found which hangs any matter that the proofs given by the two sides of the it question are in opposition to each other.J. then 'Umar the Divider (al-faruq) /who made a distinction between the real and the unsound both in legal cases and quarrels then 'Uthman. (p. he said. It appears that the Fathers were hesitant about preferring 'Uthman to 'AH of Allah approve them both since they made one 4 the Community the preference of the and the love of the Khatans 1 Approved Way and two ShayJ^hs 3 (Abu Bakr and 'Umar) ('Uthman and 'All)." 8 For the Shi'itc position. "hesitation. 196) reads "since" for "and. see al-Bdbu 'l-Hadi 'Ashar. Lexicon. he married Kulthum to him.J. ." Lane. Constantinople text of A. this stating of a preference panions. I would marry you to her.I4i and since if all KHALIFATE mankind to be AND IMAMATE after born our prophet were meant. A.

Maqdldt. . 87 al-Iji. 197. 1825. The text of A. (p. I. Biographien Muhammeds. Taiikh al-Khulafa'. after hesitation on his part. I. Muir. Caetani. and then to This is based Companions. 9 If the Khalifate had not been Abu Bakr's right.KHALIFATE to take tion to is AND IMAMATE I43 that if being more excellent commit oneself in the matter has a place. 179) makes the III. 5. Enc. Annales. 617 ff. pp. IV. al-Mawdqif. Annales.. "also" that follows part of the text of al-Nasafl. p. 296!!. pp. 55 to 8 Muir. al-Tabari. f. Enc.. Annali dell' Islam. III t npff.. 197) adds "established" and with al-Kastall (p. 3353 ff.. the Khalifate after the Prophet 'All. When 'Uthman had written the paper. of Islam. then hesitaif it means that as virtues 'Uthman had more of those things which are reckoned by people who use Reason. III. 205 ff. II. p. of Islam. i ff. as the ShI'ites assert. 79. They all agreed to this and 'All followed him 8 too in the presence of witnesses. their vicegerency it is of the Messenger in maintaining religion so that to follow (niydbatuhum) incumbent on all peoples was 6 in this order/also. p. Caliphate. 7 See Ibn Sa'd (Sachau). then to 'Umar. a.. pp. 2137 ff. al-Tabari.. 70 10 See al-Tabari. 5 Their Khalifatc (tyilafatuhutn) /that is. 133 f. The texts of A. pp. 460 6 Hazm. al-Bukharl. I.. (p. having gathered on the day of the Messenger's death under the shelter of the BanI Sa'ida. 881 ff. al-Bdbu 'l-Hadl 'Ashar. settled upon the succession of Abu Bakr 7 to the Khalifate after some discussion and disagreethe fact that the ment. Biographien Muhammeds. 179) read bdya'ahu. "he pledged fealty Annales. [142] and 'All would have contended with him as he contended with Mu'awiya 10 and would have argued against them had there been some statute in his favor. then to 'Uthman.J. Caetani. 344 f. p. al-Suyu^l.J. he sealed it and took it out to the people and commanded them to swear allegiance to the one whose name was written 5 Cf. II.. Muqaddima. of Tech.J. 128 f.. 77. him.. II. I. ff.. Diet. a. 11 See Ibn Sa'd (Sachau). then hesitation does not [have a place]. Musnad. 173 f. p. I. al~$ahih. 197) and al-Kastali (p.. Terms. 421. Annali dell' Islam. Khaldun. 92. How is it conceivable that it was right for the Companions of the Messenger to agree on something unsound and according to the statute which had come fail to act down to them? called Then when Abu Bakr felt dictated to him the letter of that his his end was near he 'Uthman and 11 appointment of 'Umar. al-Ash'ari. Ibn ff.. pp. Ibn I. but means a greater reward. 528." for taba'ahu. III. Caliphate. Tarify al-Khulafd'. i8i5ff. Caliphate. al-Suyutl. was not present: A. was to Abu on Bakr. that is to say. Kitdb al-Fisal. Some say 'AH Cf.. the Companions would not have agreed to him. 9 See al-Tabari. Annales. ff. Muir.

Kitab al-Ma'drif. This is a difficult problem. al-Zubayr. 8. Annales. The and conflicts which took place were not because of a quarrel over the question of his Khalifate but because of an error in ijtihad.. below. II. I. such as is Muslim people were agreed on the 'Umar b. . The Caliphate (Oxford. The Khalifate was for thirty years and then after it [the form of rule was is that of] a kingdom (mulJ{) and a it principality (imara)/ \Th\s 14 based] on a statement of the Prophet. me there will be for thirty years a Khali- having died as a martyr at the beginning of the thirtieth year following the death of the Prophet. Muir. fT.. ment. for the People of Loosing and 15 Binding (ahl al-hall 16 wa l-'aqf) of the Khalifate of the 'Abbasids and some for example. 3066 fT. Uebcr das Leben.. "After fate.. al-Suyufl... Abu b. agreement upon 'Umar's Khalifate occurred. pp. even 'All when the paper passed him said. pp. 152 f. "We So they swore allegiance. of the Marwanids.. 16 See al-Tabari. al-'Aziz.J. 'Awf. and per- formed worship with him on Fridays and on cessor] undecided. Ibn Qutayba. 12 See al-Tabari. Festivals. Annales. and the replies that were given on both sides are all mentioned in the more extensive books.. 163. Helpers (al-ansdr) agreed upon They swore allegiance to and besought him to accept the him since he was the most excellent of the people of his time dissensions and the most fitting candidate for the Khalifate. 15 See al-Mawardi. Waqqas. did likewise and submitted themselves to his commands and left prohibitions. Tarikh al-Khulajd' p. V.i 44 KHALIFATE have sworn allegiance AND IMAMATE therein. 7 ff. Caliphate. 19. Arnold." 'All kings and princes. Then 'Uthman died a martyr's death and This was by Agreethe matter [of a suc- The older men of the Refugees (al-muhdjirun) 'All 18 and the Khalifate. pp. 463 Caliphate. pp. . al-Aht^dm al-Sultdnlya. even if it is 'Umar. 134 f. p.. 12 'Uthman. Talha. rather that the 'Abd W. al-NawawI (Wustenfcld). 198. 369 fT. 107 f. then. al-Ta'rifdt. Perhaps the meaning here T. I. 229. 2724 ff. 220 f. pp. pp. 283. 14 See Musnad. Tankh al-Khulafd'. and Sa'd b. Then the [other] five committed the matter to 'Abd al-Rahman 'Awf." In general. Caetani. he left the matter of the Khalifate to a council of six. Enc of Islam. Then when 'Umar died a martyr's death. p. 1340*!. p. V. al-Suyuti. sions The dissen- which took place between the Shi'ites and the People of the Approved on this matter. 1924). For the definition of ijtihad see the paragraph on Mujtahid in Chap. 'Abd al-Rahman b. 'All. Arnold. They. A.. to the one mentioned in it. I. Annales. 21 ff. Annali dell' Islam. They accepted his decision and he chose 'Uthman and swore allegiance to him in the presence of a group of the Companions.. 13 See al-Tabari. 184. and how each party claimed statutes to substantiate its Way position on the Imamate. Mu'awiya and those after him are not considered Khalifas but then will become a tyrannical kingdom. 48.

"Why we is it not permissible to have sufficient men of power in different districts. Development. in inclination AND IMAMATE 145 which there is no dross due to difference [of opinion] or away from following it [the right Khalifa]. the subjugation of those who get the upper hand and robbers and Festivals. p. the guard- ing of their frontiers. The Imamitcs and the Isma'ilites say the appointment is of Allah. [143} the equipping of their armies. al-Mawardi. the maintaining of their restrictive ordinances. p. The correct position is that the creatures must appoint 18 a Khalifa on the basis of authority because of the statement of the Prophet. the giving in marriage of the young men and maidens who have no guardians. 20 Muhas$al. al-Ka'bi. the receiving of evidence based on legal rights. al-Shahrastam. as and quarrels is which end in disorder both in religious to be seen 17 The Kharijitcs say the Khalifate is permissible. The Muslims must have an Imam. who will carry out the administration of their decisions. I. 198. dies the death of the days of Ignorance (al-jdhiliya) . as al-Nasafl has indicated in his state- ment which follows. and Abu'l-Husayn al-Basri say both (see A. will be for a period of thirty years. .KHALIFATE perfect Khalifate. 198) reads this phrase as part of the text of al-Nasafl. 142). Nihayafu 'l-lqdam. IV. 346 iff.D. And they must appoint someone for so many legal obligations are dependent on the Imam. Musnad. (p. pp. Macdonald. I." And they must appoint someone. and thus do away with the and necessity of a general authority over all?" reply that this only leads to disputes secular matters. the orthodox say it is of His creatures on an authoritative basis. The difference of opinion is on the question whether the appointment must be by Allah or by His creatures. (sec In- dex). Ibn Khaldun. 'I. but not necessary... the highwaymen. al-Uawaqtf. Muqaddima. 96.. the Zaydites and the most of the Mu'tazilites say on a rational basis. and so also has it been after the death of each Imam. And like these if objection is made. "Whoever dies not having known the Imam of his time. al-Ahkam al-Sultdniya al-Razi. also Ibn 18 19 Khaldun. pp. and then after fate. A. al-Iji.J. the receiving of their alms. 196*1.. p. See al-Jahi?. the performance of worship on Fridays and settlement of disputes which take place among creatures. i8F. and the division of the booty 10 /and things 20 with which individuals of the people are not entrusted. since the made this question the most immatter of consideration.J. Cf. and whether the basis [for appointment] is authority or Reason. Muqaddima. 478. there might be or there might not be a Khali- The position of Agreement is that it is necessary 17 to appoint an Imam. 342. pp. so important in fact that they considered it portant people at the time of the Prophet's death more important than the matter of his burial.. 176*!.

p. there would be a sort of order in secular affairs." 28 Cf." If objection is made that since the period of the Khalifate was thirty years. On this basis they the 'Abbasid Khalifas the matter of the Khalifate speak of the Khalifate of the three Imams. then his brother al-Husayn. If objection made all. al-B&bu 'l-Hadl 'Ashar.J. then his son 'Ali Zayn then his son Muhammad al-Baqir. which reads al-Jawid for al-Taqi. on the basis that general term than "Khalifa. Imamites among then his son al-'Abidln. then the time subsequent to the rightly guided Khalifas (al-tyulafa' al- rdshidun) is devoid of the Imam and the whole of the Muslim people are thus disobedient and when it they die.) and ai-Kastal! (p." However. al-Hasan. (p. we reply. (p. then his son Musa al-Kazim. at the cutting off of the sources loosening of the rule tion] is (mawarid) of evil and corruption and at the of tyranny and obstinacy.146 KHALIFATE is AND IMAMATE that it is sufficient is at the present time. to have a man of power with general authority over so that the organization [of rule] whether he called an Imam or not. would be very much like the days of the Turks. 199) reads this phrase as part of the text of al-Nasafi. And were admitted [that the period of the Khalifate was for it thirty years only] then perhaps after the era of the Khalifate ends with- out the era of the Imamate ending. "materials. of differentiating thus the Shi*ites "Imam" is a more we have not found this technicality who assert that "Khalifa" two terms used by any people except those of the is a more general term.J. texts of A. they die as in the days of Ignorance. [That is to say the right posi- 22 unlike that of the Shi'ites that after who assert especially the them Muhammad the rightful Imam is 'All. is we reply that is it has already been pointed out that the perfect Khalifate what meant. then his son Muhammad al-Taql. 182) read mawddd. to accomplish that for which the of neither hidden/from the eyes of men out of fear of enemies and the mastery which oppressors have gained nor expected (muntazar) /His coming forth will be at the suitable time. but the religious affairs which are more important and which are the great mainstay of the state would be in disorder. 199 f. then his son Ja'far al-Sadiq. and so that he office may perform what is Imam was established beneficial. 78. not of their Imamate. But after is a dubious affair (mush- Then the Imam must be visible/that he may be resorted 21 to. and al-Hidi for . "Yes. then 21 22 his son 'All al-Rida.* 8 The A.

198 "nor the children of 'AH'*) who makes this phrase a part of al-NasafTs text. al-Tha'labl. al-Bukhari. rather the end of the whole matter is require him to hide his claim to the Imamate. Jour.. No party has dissented except the some of the Mu'tazilites. it is it an as individual narrative... Or. l. II. XXIX. Ibn Khaldun. 199. 311. (p. and the prolonging He will be like Jesus and al-Khadir 25 and others in this respect. 181 f. III. III. 26 2T Sec Arnold. Musnad. pp. Islam although that of the expected ligion Guided One. who appeared among men but did not claim the Moreover when times are corrupt and there arc differences of opinion and tyrants reign. al-Sahih. the Muqaddima. I. of Islam.. You [O reader] are well aware that the hiding and the non-existence of the Imam of the are alike in failing to attain the purpose to be sought in the existence Imam. I. while Hashim was al-Naql and $ahib al-Zaman for See also Enc. then his son 24 al-Qa'im. However. p. the Mahdl. just as in the case [144] of his ancestors office. the people's need for an Imam is just that much stronger and their submission to him is just that much easier. 336 II. 2 * The doctrine of the coming of al-Mahdl. Biographical Dictionary. 80 f. al -Mahdl. 189*?. 129. of Islam. and he must be of the stricted to the is tribe of Quraysh. p. inf. al-$ahih.. not confined to Shi'ite inf. Kinana. 332. IV.KHALIFATE Muhammad self fill AND IMAMATE who 147 then his son 'All al-Naql. al-$ahlh. 407. The name Quraysh is applied to the children of al-Nadr b.. Ibn Hajar. Ethics. V. 363 ... Here I have adopted the reading of A. then his son al-Hasan al-'Askari. 52 ff. Enc. He is not reBan! Hashim nor to the children of 'All 26 /This means that it stipulated that the Imam be of Quraysh. Kharijites that the and Imam must be a Hashimite or an 'Alid. HI. II. 107 f. Enc. and thus became agreed upon. .D.. no one contradicted him. The Kharijites quoted traditions to contradict it See al-Bukhari. 882ff. Muslim." This is correct although related it. is and Ethics. however. JJsdn. 861 f. 47. because of the saying of the 27 Prophet. reads it as a part of the commentary. [They believe also that] he will appear and the world with equity and justice just as it has been filled with injustice shall prevent his length of years and oppression. I. of Real-Bdbu 'l-Hddt 'Ashar. 'Umar and 'Uthman who were of Quraysh although they were not of Bam Hashim. There is no stipulation. Soc. and that his fear of enemies should not require his hiding. VIII.. Muslim. Imam is. Qisas. 25 See Enc. "The Imams are of Quraysh. al-$ahlh. Caliphate. has hidden him- out of fear of his enemies. pp. Nothing of his days. IV. when Abu Bakr adducing it evidence to the Helpers (al-ansar). 421. the expected one.J. Am. A. by proof regarding the Khalifate of from what has already been established Abu Bakr. Sec Enc. VTI.. of Islam. fT. of Religion and 693 f.J. 183. since nothing but the that fear does name now exists. and not of any other.

Abu Abu Bakr 29 was from was the son of Abu Quhafa. Nufayl for he b. without there being any repentance for the served from error is act. al-Nawawi (Wiistenfeld).i 48 KHALIFATE AND IMAMATE Murra b. Ibn Qutayba. Ueber das Leben. Slrat Rasul Allah. Ghalib b. Ibn Sa'd (Sachau). b. 80 Al-NawawI Muhammeds. 28. 'Adnan. Muhammeds. 'Abd Allah b. 447 and Ibn Sa'd (Sachau). . Slrat Rasitl Allah. Khuzayma Mudar b. Hashim b. i. 'Abd Manaf Fihr b. Ibn Sa'd (Sachau). whereas the lack of proof for the stipulais tion sufficient to show that the stipulation as is lacking. 36. Muhammeds. Biog. The one who differs from this position adduces covenant does not apply to fore the one an argument the saying of Allah. Abu l-'As b. Ka'b b. this The real fact about matter of preservation from error (al-isma) is that Allah does not create a sin (al-dhanb) in the creature while his power 28 Cf. 190 say clearly that Rabah in 'Umar's genealogy is Riyah. p. Talib were sons of 'Abd al-Muttalib. p. 'Abd Allah for he Ka'b. Kitdb al-Ma'drif. Ibn Hisham. The one who is not pre- not necessarily a wrong-doer. 119. ior he was the son of al-Khattab b. Ma'add b. 328. Lu'ayy b. Ibn Hisham. Kitab al-Ma'arij. 161. See al-Babu 'l-Hddt 'Ashar. al-Yas for al-' Abbas and Quraysh. 3. b. Ueber das Lcben. and so also was 'Umar. i. 'Amr b. Biog. Therehe who differs says that who is not preserved from error is a wrong-doer. b. III. 'Abd Manaf. the grandfather of the Messenger of Allah. 32 ff. 80 Lu'ayy. 29 Cf. Rizah b. Qusayy b. Biog. 409. "My wrong-doers (al-zalimin)" (Qur'an 2:118). p. Biog. p. 28 The 'Alids and the 'Abbasids are of the Bam Hashim. in spite of the lack of absolute certainty as to his being preserved is Furthermore.. so the covenant of the Imamate does not apply to him. Umayya It is 'Abd Shams b. b. or reformation. the father of 'Abd al-Muttalib. 83. Ibn Sa'd (Sachau). b. b. III. for a wrong-doer is one who commits an act of disobedience which brings to pass the downfall of justice. i. II. 'Amir b. Ucber das Lcben. The answer is to preclude this. 'Abd al-Muttalib b. the stipulation the thing here that needs proof. not a stipulation/of the Imam from error (ma sum) from error. p. Ka'b b. Diet. Qurt b. pp. 'Uthman b. 'Abd al-'Uzza b. III. Ibn Qutayba. Biog. Nizar b. p. 'Addl was the son of 'Affan b. al-Nawawi (Wiistenfeld). There are slight variations in Abu Bakr's genealogy as given in some of these. 32 that he should be preserved that there is /We have already seen proof of Abu Bakr's Imamate.. Muhammeds. for he was Muhammad b. 31 See also (Wiistenfeld). Malik al-Nadr Kinana b. Kilab b. Mudrika b. p. And so also was 'Uthman. I. 82 The Shi'ites hold that the Imam is ma'fum. 656. Ibn Hajar. b. i. 66. Ribah b. 81 b.

al-Mawdqij. See Muslim. II." reality [145] of For this reason al-Shaykh Abu Mansur al-Maturidl said. This from doing is 149 is. Nikdyatu 'l-lqddm. Ibn Khaldun. meaning of the him on saying. 36 Cf. (p. male Muslim who mature. nor would he be rewarded for so doing.. since Believers (see Allah has not Qur'an 4:140). pp. 185) and AJ. "Preservation this this (al-mihna)" From there appears the invalidity of the statement of the one who says that preservation from error is a special characteristic of the soul of a person from error does not remove testing or his body.. since is not per- missible to appoint is two Imams is at one time?" we answer that the thing not permissible to appoint two independent Imams. Muqaddima. "How can be sound to it make the Imamate which a matter for consultation among six persons. on account of which characteristic no sin is it able to proceed from him.. 118. But of one Imam. 200) read "More excellent than. I. Shi'ite position requires the p. "It [that to td-isma] is do good and restrains him although the power of choice remains in order to verify the trial. For reason 'Umar made the Imamate a matter for consultation (shura) warding off evil six persons. among along with the certain fact that some it of them were more excellent than others. 69)." Imam to be the most excellent man of his time (al- Bdbu 'l-Hddl 'Ashar. 5 ff. especially whenever the appointment of the less excellent is better for this and removing the outbreak of sedition. intelligent. 349. and more able to perform the necessary duties. . al-Shahrastam. al-Sultdniya. 496. pp. for How could this be? If the sin were impossible would not be sound him to be made responsible for forsaking sin.KHALIFATE AND IMAMATE and choice remain. a free. 230 ft. al-Ah^dm II. both of whom must be obeyed tation all of separately. p. 83 made a way for the Unbelievers over the The slave is busy in the service of his master. 33 nor that he should be the most excellent of the people of his time 84 /for the less fit as to one who is equal fto the most excellent] in virtue and even knowledge and practice may be more experienced in the things of the Imamate that are conducive to good and evil. 85 There is an interesting tradition suggesting that one of two contemporaneous Imams should be killed. al-Sahlh. the a favor (luff) of Allah which leads evil. If someone 35 asks. since compliance with mutually opposing de- cisions follows the appointing of them took the place two independent Imams. Ihyd' (commentary of Sayyid Murtatfa). al-Mawardl. 301 ff. al-Iji. al-Ghazzall. in consulta- It is a stipulation that 36 he should be of the people who have free and complete is authority /that is. despised in the 34 The The texts of al-Kastall (p.

Macdonald. 'Umar. of Islam. This is is [also true] because preservation from error not a stipulation for the it Imam on assuming office]! office. See ff. and in mander [may be removed]. in possessing management over the affairs of Mus- lims by the force of his opinion and by his deliberation and the aid of his able/by his knowledge.. justice. pp.1 50 KHALIFATE AND IMAMATE women arc deficient in Reason and religion. to how can he look after others? According Abu Hanifa an evil-doer it is is a person of authority even to the extent [146] that valid for an evil-doer is who is is a father to give in marriage his daughter who a minor. so how much more would not be for continuing [him in According to al-ShafVl the Imam may like be removed on the grounds of evil-doing and tyranny. pp. 734. for evil-doing has appeared and tyranny has spread manders after the time of the rightly-guided among Imams and comKhalifas [Abu Bakr. That which written down in the books of the ShafVites permits the removal of a judge for evil-doing. without thinking of rebelling against them. an administrator/that boldness and might is. Vorlesungen. Development. The Fathers were accustomed to submit to such [Imams and commanders] and to perform worship on Fridays and Festivals with their permission. . for departing from obedience to Allah or tyranny (0/-. 'Uthman. III. but not 8T This an Imam. The manner any judge (qadt) or comview is basis for this that the evil-doer ac- cording to al-Shafi'I is not a person of authority (min ahl al-wildyd). and a boy and a demented man are wanting [in ability] for the regulation of affairs and the management of the common welfare. 122 ff. for since he does not look after himself. 37 The Imam is not to be removed for evil-doing /that is. eyes of the people.'0#/r)/that is. competence and courage limits to execute decisions and maintain the (hudud) of the territory of the world of Islam (ddr al-Islam) and to give the oppressed equity against the falls oppressor/since failure in these matters lishing short of the purpose of estab- an Imam. 87 Enc. the was the Murji'ite position. Goldziher. and 'All]. the oppression of Allah's creatures. This is so.

and if he should make a decision it should not be enforced. in four volumes. Qadi Khan in his Fatawl are agreed that whenever a judge is bribed. Some of the Early Theologians but if. In the book al-Nawadir 38 it is the judging of an evil-doer is not say that a stated that the three Learned Ones say that permissible. Gcis 89 Qadi Khan. of Islam. His Fatawi. a Hanafl mufti and See Enc. II. may 164. may being an evil-doer may be invested [with the office of judge]. 88 This schichte. his decision on the matter in which he was bribed should not be enforced. a widely . Brockelmann. 608. 'All al-Tirmidhl. I. And whenever a judge procures the position of judge by bribery he should not become a judge. 376.KHALIFATE another there is AND IMAMATE Imam and up sedition. he does evil he be removed because the one who invested him with the office depended after being invested man on his being upright. with the office as an upright man. known work. scholar. Geschichte. be the book by Muhammad b. since 151 difference being that in the removal of the the appointment of occasion for stirring he possesses power which the judge does not. I. and he would not be pleased that he should act as a 30 says that all judge devoid of uprightness. See Brockelmann.

55. and worship to be performed for anyone whether right- eous or immoral. A. wiping on the two inner shoes on a journey and dates. in Calverley. Kitab al-Fisal. AND NABIDH orship is allowable behind anyone [acting as is Imam]. Maqalat. al-Bukhari. al-Mawardl. 136) quotes a saying from Sufyan who said. al-Wajiz (Cairo. We bear witness that in the Garden are the ten Blessed to whom the Prophet tidings. IV. people of personal desires. whether 1 righteous (barr) or immoral (fajir) /[This is based] on the statement of 2 the Prophet. since there 1 its purport is that such an act is to be is no actual statement about the disapproval of Most of the Mu'tazilites did not permit worship behind an immoral person. "Worship behind every one. Ibn Hazm. except one addicted to wine. III.. one with an innovation. tr. Muhammadan Traditions. p. al-Ah^dm al-SuItdntya. one notorious for transgression. 49. 176 f. . Only the good concerning announced the glad the Companions should be mentioned of them. at one's We approve the abode. THE WIPING ON THE INNER SHOES.H. p. 171 ff. Worship in Islam. according 450 L Cf. whether right- eous or immoral." Cf. 2 Al-Ghazzall (Ihyd'. p. and the innovator worship without [there being any] disapprobation.Chapter VARIOUS ARTICLES OF BELIEF CONCERNING WORSHIP. We do not prohibit as unlawful the nabldh of Worship (al-sala) is allowable behind anyone [acting as Imam]. Goldsack. one disobedient to parents. disapproved. or one who is a runaway slave. With regard to what has been on the fact that the reported from some of the Fathers concerning the prohibition of worship behind an evil-doer or an innovator. al-Ghazzall. 181 f. 175. just or unjust. THE COMPANIONS OF THE PROPHET. 1317). "Worship behind anyone whether righteous or immoral. pp. p. al>Sahlh t I.." also and Learned of the Muslim people were accustomed to behind evil-doers. to al-Ash'ari.

Muha^al. al-Razi. but is they do. pp. since they stipulate for the Imam an absence of Unbelief and not the presence of Belief. then [one of the] necessary [articles of Belief] and questions of fiqh are. flf." these are of the details of fiqh It perform worship for anyone of the may be objected that such questions as in the fundamentals of this and have no place l(alam. 47. yet they permit worship behind him. al-Bukhari. pp. and worship whenever he is to be dies in Belief. d-Sahlh. 26. all taken together. lexicon. 416. performed for anyone whether righteous or immoral/ This is on the basis of Agreement and the statefail to 3 ment of the Prophet. Musnad. . and His world to come (al-mctad}? the prophetic office. Allah. of fiqh or some particular matters connected with the articles of Be- This Only the good concerning the Companions should be mentioned of them/ is on account of their merits which are mentioned in sound traditions. "Allah. and good works. or the the to Shl'ites. This [is 153 if the case] if evil-doing and innovation do not reach the point of Unbelief. then there [in that case]. 6 "Honor my Companions. p. no question about the impropriety of worship behind them Although the Mu'tazilites make the evil-doer something other than a Believer. and so forth. fi.. no. 54 f. 290 4 5 Sec Lane. "Do not People of the qibla who dies. nof. al-Sahth. III. 2191. whether these matters are details lief. then he attempted to draw attention some of the matters by which the People of the Approved Way are distinguished from others who differ from them. al-$ahlh. and the Imamate according to the law of the people of Islam. for if one of you should spend much as Mount Uhud in gold he would not attain the standard of one it. as necessary to refrain from reviling them since the Prophet "Do not vilify my Companions. al-Mawaqij. I. or the Philosophers or the Heretics (al-Malahida) or any others of the people of innovation and personal desires. p. not even half of for they are the best of you. and regarding I. 82 III. Muslim. Al-Bukhari. and the path of the People of Approved Way and the Community. all To His this we reply that when he had completed \alam actions. confession. it is and because has said. 163. 3 He also said. the the explanation of the purposes of the science of attributes in investigating the essence [of the Deity].VARIOUS ARTICLES OF BELIEF worship behind an evil-doer or an innovator. meaning [by Belief] assent. al-Iji. Musnad. I." 5 of them. and that if al-Nasafl means by is statement that a conviction regard- ing the reality of this doctrine of the fundamentals." and. such as the Mu'tazilites. Cf. 6 al-Bdbu 'l-Hddi 'Ashar.

Muir. alBaydawT. 1517 ff. ." b. Sahih. 10 This is probably Khuldsat al'AhkjUm. II. differed so However. I. al-Suyutt. II.. with my love loves them." 7 There are sound 'Uthman. 11 See I. Mu'awiya it or not] that was stated in and the Learned] [whether cursing him was permissible al-Khuldsa 10 and other books that it was not [that is. since the Prophet prohibited the cursing of those for that who performed worship and who are of the people of the qibla. 9 See al-Tabari. Enc. 'All. "al-Manaqib. and whoever has harmed Allah is about to be loves them. al-Sahih. Muh. Yazid the killing of al-Husayn. II. Annales.. 153 ff. and whoever harms them has harmed me. II. pp. al-Sahth. 178. 198 .. Ibn Qutayba. pp. of Islam. taken by Allah. pp. 272 ff. Gcschichte. al-Tabari. V. *Umar.. See Margoliouth. there are Then as to vilifying and reviling them. for permitting on Mu'awiya and his Allies. al-Hasan. See Brockelmann.. pp. Muslim. reathis Unbelief contradicts the absolute proofs [147] such as in the case of 8 defaming of 'A'isha. or commanded it. Annales. 829 ff. pp. 298 ff. II. Kitab al-Ua'arij. Henri Lammens. that was because he knew things about the affairs of men knew. 16. 216. the Fathers 9 fitting to curse him nor 11 al-Hajjaj.. As which has been reported about the Prophet 's cursing some of the people of the qibla. who were who were of good repute. al-Husayn and others of the important Companions. Some pronounced a curse on Yazid because he became an Unbeliever when he ordered the murder of al-Husayn. 87. Studien. with my hatred hates them. and whoever harms me has harmed Allah. for whoever and whoever hates them. his rejoicing in of the Prophet are and his contempt for the family among those things the tawatur although the details of 7 meaning of which is based on the incident are from individual traditions. 132 ff. Le Calijat de Yazid ler (Beyrouth.. Goldziher. Anwar al-Tanzil. Musnad. al-Tabari. Strut Rasul Allah. Life of Mohammed. for the aim of their affair was rebellion and secession from obedience to the real Imam.. 205 ff.154 VARIOUS ARTICLES OF BELIEF target after I my Companions do not make them a am gone.. I. by al-Nawawi. and al-Tirmidhl. real fact is that the consent of it. Ibn Hisham. IV. Tarity al-Khulajd'. etc. As for the disputes and conflicts sons is and interpretations for these.. traditions regarding the merits of Abu Bakr. Vebcr das Lebcn. 731 ff. p. In general there is no basis in what has been reported from the Fathers. 396.. 8 Mohammed. or to permitted it. 1921). they about Yazid b. 57. 59 ff.. 55. 97. and this does not require Mujtahids and from the Learned a curse that they be cursed. 340 ff. Annales. 58.. Musnad. if it which occurred among them. otherwise it is an innovation and evil-doing. 863 ff. 455 ff. VI. II. or consented to it. They agreed which no one else to permit the cursing of those who The killed al-Husayn. al-Bukhari. al-Nawawi (Wustenfcld).

Traditions given Musnad. the Shi'itcs. b. al-Tirmidhi. The remainder of the Companions are only remembered for their good. Garden. 14 See Musnad. 5. IV. inasmuch as the Prophet said. 16 Al'k^huffayn. and al-Kastali." Ibn Hajar. Dictionnairc des vetements arabes. Abu Talib. p. 18 The names are not always in the order given here. I. 'Awf is in the Garden.VARIOUS ARTICLES OF BELIEF So then we do not hesitate at all concerning 155 [to decide] about his Belief [as to him. of Islam. replied. the Garden. IV. 187 ft." See also Ibn Hajar. that the mistress of the women who dwell in the Garden. more is to be hoped for them than for any other Believers. 'Uthman is in the is in the Garden. 17 This rite. is We do not or in bear witness that any [special] individual in himself the Fire. and his Allies. III. al-Jarrah is Fatima and al-Hasan and related in in al- Husayn Fatima are in the is Garden because 14 of what is sound tradition. II. 219 f. make "of the Garden" part of the text of alis Nasafi. I. when asked about the wiping on the inner boots. "Abu Bakr is in the Garden. his Helpers. II. 62. Ihya'. "The Messenger of Allah made the period three days and nights for the traveler and a day and a night for the 18 Abu Bakr relates that the Messenger of Allah sanctioned the dweller. 119 f.!. 182. We bear witness that in the Garden are the ten Blessed to whom the 12 Prophet announced the glad tidings/of the Garden. 676. Musnad. . in ablutions. and 340. I. 391. 392. III. "Manaqib. idem. pp. Muslim. 30. in al-Bukhari. which permits the wiping of the inner shoes instead of washing the feet was a distinguishing mark between the Sunnites. al-Sahih. Sa'd b. Biog. 18 We also bear witness that Abu 'Ubayda b. rather we do not hesitate whether he had any or not] the curse of Allah on him. 16 Garden and the Unbelievers We approve ney and the wiping on the two inner shoes 17 (al-1(huffayn) to the on a jour- Book. 'All the Garden. 18 Cf. and the Wensinck. 23. but in the Garden we bear witness that the Believers are of the people of the are of the people of the Fire. 133. yet it / Although is established by a well-known narrative. Ueber das Lebcn. 188. A. al-Wajiz (Cairo. I. 158. 3. 207. al-Zubayr is in the 'Abd al-Rahman b. 'All b. The Muslim Creed. Diet. VI. p. 391. 64. Biog. nor the number always ten. 727. al-Sahih. Muslim. See Dozy. al-Nawawi (Wiistenfeld). See also p. 1317). Sahlh. Enc. Abu Waqqas is in Garden. al-Sahih. 64. say "mistress of the women of the Believers" or "of this religion. Sa'Id b. Zayd is in the Garden. al-Ghazzall. V. 'Umar is in the Garden.H. pp.. V. Talha is in the Garden. 85 fi. Kharijites." at one's abode this is an addition wiping on the inner shoes three days and nights for the 12 traveler and a day Cureton... Diet. 416 fT.. SecMusnad. 155 ff. and that al-Hasan and al-Husayn are the two masters 15 of the youths who dwell in the Garden.

. "the dates. for the precedents on this subject have come down in the form of tawatur" So in general whoever does not approve the wiping on the inner shoes distinctive that is when Anas b.VARIOUS ARTICLES OF BELIEF and a night for the dweller. "the jar. Musnad. This [judgment] and the Community. wipe on the inner shoes. earthen vessel. 27. one of the people of innovation. p." instead of al-tamr." as unlawful the nabidh of dates (al-tamr) 19 /This means that the dates or the raisins are brewed in water and then put in an We do not prohibit of beerj. Therefore Abu Hanlfa said. So then the non-prohibition of nabidh is of the rules of the People of the is Approved Way contrary to the position of the Rawafid. 38. 5. if one has purified himself and then put them on." omits both and reads "al-nabidh" only. "I fear him to be an Unbeliever who does not approve the wiping on the inner boots. Cureton. and III. which is different from become strong and intoxicating. not to revile and to means two to love the two the bjiatans ['Uthman and 'All]. "I did not admit the wiping until the proof was as clear to me as the light of day. I. until a stinging taste develops in the brew as in juqqa [a kind 20 at the It seems as though this [nabidh} had been prohibited beginning of Islam when jars (al-jirar) were the vessels for wines (al%humur)\ then it was abrogated. little much of it is prohibited. 203 reads al-jurra. [Abu Bakr and 'Umar]. ." Al-Karkhl said. he said. It became so Malik was asked who were the People of the "It Approved shayl^hs Way and the Community. 237. 182. p. Al-Hasan al-Basri said that he met seventy of the Companions who ap- proved the wiping of the inner shoes.J. al-Sahih> II. 20 Muslim. Many of the People of the Approved Way and the Community took the that which has [to do with nabidh or that has] position that 19 A.

and by seeing the Angel [of Revelation. and ordered to convey judgments and to lead mankind. Gabriel]. THE FEELING OF SECURITY AND DESPAIR. and from them meanings which the People of the Inner Unbelief. secure from fear of their latter end. The non-existent not a thing. The is rejection of the statutes The making is of disobedience lawful ridicule of the Unbelief. despair of Allah Unbelief and feeling secure from Allah narrates of the Unbe- To assent to what a diviner is Unseen is Unbelief. The statutes are to turn aside [to be interpreted] according to their literal meanings. The Wall 1 does not reach the rank of the prophets/for prophets are pre- served from error. and making is Law are Unbelief. AND PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD T tion is JLhe Wall does not reach the rank of the prophets. And the creature does not to come to the place where command and prohibito do not apply him. THE NON-EXISTENT. And there is in prayer of the living for the dead advantage for them. is Unbelief is whether the rank of prophet than that of Wall [in the same individual] is sometimes reopened and error. Chap. 15. Certainly this question of better after [it 1 Sec above. THE DIVINER. And lief. in addition to possessing the perfections of Walls. THE PEOPLE OF THE INNER MEANING. light of disobedience Meaning and assert is heresy. [148] in that they permit a Wall to be more excellent than a prophet. . honored by revelation. That which has been reported of some of the Karramites. n.Chapter 18 VARIOUS ARTICLES OF BELIEF CONCERNING THE RANK OF THE WALI. Allah answers prayers and the giving of alms for them and supplies needs. 7.

Theologen im Islam (Index). 61 4 The verses of the Qur'an suggesting al-Iji. for the most perfect of people in love of Allah are the prophets. III. and the do not apply to him. The statutes/of the Qur'an and the Sunna are [to be interpreted] according to their literal meanings/unless a decisive proof sets them aside. 3:5. I." it means visited him with the harm shall that He has preserved him from sins. literalists were called al-Zdhiriya. As for the saying of the Prophet. Muqaddima. Anwar al-Tanzil.. This is Unbelief and Error. pp. of this attitude that of Abu Sa'Id b. we say that the See al -Baghdad!. the poor rate. Studies in Islamic Mysticism (Cambridge. 208 6 Sec Qur. pp. al-BaycJawi. And some said that service such as worship. See Macdonald. 108. Abu 1-Khayr regarding the non- necessity of the Pilgrimage.158 is FURTHER ARTICLES OF BELIEF admitted that] there is decisive proof that the prophet is characterized by both dignities and that he is more excellent than the Wall who is not a prophet. .. 145 f. '. 71 ff. fasting. Mafdtih. 415 ff. 5 The extreme fT. 3 f. Mttqaddima. pp. al-Farq bayn al-Firaq.. Die phil. III. Horten. nor has He of them. 44 tf. Nicholson. and because (al- the Mujtahids are in Agreement on Some of the Antinomians Mubahlyun) his heart was then 2 held that whenever the creature reached the limit of love and pure. Systeme der speJ^. [on the part of the Deity] and the One does not say that these is [literal meanings] B are not of the statute but rather that the statute 2 3 equivocal (mutashabih)? For f. but rather his service is meditation (altafatyur). Ibn Khaldun. pp. Ibn Khaldun. Development. Goldziher. 251 is An example f. And the creature does not come to the place/as long as he is rational and mature where command and prohibition do not apply to him/This is is because the manner of address in the imposing of responsibilities it. A. R. and yet the im3 outward forms of pilgrimage posing of responsibilities in their case was more complete and more perfect. II. and he chose Belief instead of Unbelief without hypocrisy. the early theologians. 41 rT. al-Razi. as in case of the verses the literal 4 meaning of which refers to a direction or to corporeality like.. general. especially the Beloved of Allah. Die Zahiritcn. 1921). See anthropomorphic ideas were the battleground of al-Mawdqij pp. "Whenever Allah loves a creature no sin harm him. command and prohibition did not apply to him and Allah would not make him enter the Fire for committing great sins.

258. pp. pp. p. Farq bayn al~Firaq. IV. Rel." p. . 147 tf. VII. 17. a swerving attaining to Unbelief meanings there are in the statutes hidden allusions to fine points which are unveiled to the lords of the Way (arbdb al-suluf() 9 and (daqd'iq) which it is nevertheless possible to harmonize with the purpose of the their literal literal meanings well. for example is Unbelief/for it plainly makes Allah and His Messenger 10 liars. 8. 549. but rather is that meaning or that the which embraces all the con- ventional divisions of the context. / They who are called al-Bdtinlya 7 because of their assertion that the statutes are not to be interpreted according to their literal meanings. d-Mawdqif. I. The making of disobedience lawful (istihldl)/ whether the disobedience is a small or a great sin 7 See al-Shahrastam. p. because it is a denial of the Prophet in that very thing by which his coming was of necessity known. Diet. Muqad- 9 Al-sulul^ is the Mystic's progress in the way to Allah.. al-Iji. from the literal meanings al-bdtin) assert meanings which the People of the Inner Meaning (ahl are the Heretics. Attitudes and Life. The rejection of the statutes/by in the decisive statutes. of Islam. aUGhazzall. such as the resurrection of bodies. 669 dima. 247 ff. 348.. See Enc.. Ihyd' (commentary of Sayyid Murtatfa). of Tech. So whoever defames 'A'isha on the charge of adultery becomes an Unbeliever. 8 away and a turning aside from Islam and an and being so described. but that they have inner meanings which only the Teacher knows. 265(1. Chap. this position is of the perfection of Belief and absolute knowledge. n. But that along with as for the position which some of the Verifiers have taken is heresy /that is. . and to to turn aside from them/that is. denying the judgments which are indicated whether they are from the Book or the Sunna. alIbn Khaldun. al -Baghdad!. 363. Terms. al-Milal.FURTHER ARTICLES OF meaning of the statute here is is BELIEF is 159 not that which contrary to the literal meaning. 10 Sec above.. adds "and Unbelief. pp. 204. 8 A. Macdonald. or to that which to be explained as the it meaning is perspicuous.J. Their purpose in this is the disavowal of the Law entirely.

Whoever makes lawful an Unbeliever. and this is the sound As to the question of making lawful the committing of position sodomy with one's wife." Ac- cording to d-Nawadir [there is a statement] from position. n. 1. otherwise he does not is [become an Unbeliever] because it made no distinction between what else forbidden to someone else. in order to sell one were to say of something forbidden. "This is lawful. whenever one wishes that adultery or that killing a soul without just reason were not forbidden.160 is FURTHER ARTICLES OF it is BELIEF dis- Unbelief/whenever established by decisive proof to be an act of obedience. 18 s <* above. 16. 159. From these fundamental principles there are derived many particulars which have been mentioned whenever one in legal decisions (al-fatdtvt) . he would not become an Unbeliever. On the other hand. Whoever wisdom. 1X then desires to forsake wisdom desires that Allah decide contrary to his part. of Islam. and making light of disobedience and ridicule of the Law are Unbelief/be- cause they are among signs of denial. if it is For example. to the soundest 11 Al-ImSm al-Sarakhsl. 172. "Were one to make copulation with his wife who is menstruating a lawful act. according such a one does not become an Unbeliever. or eating whom one should not. Some have is forbidden for himself or for someone and have said. Chap. this forbidden to the person himself based on opinion having been established by decisive proof or by a proof then he becomes an Unbeliever. Muhammad [that] he would not. thing. because of the hardship come an Unbeliever. and that has already been explained. 12 he would become an Unbeliever. If he should wish that wine were not forbidden or that the fast of Ramadan were it brings to him.H. which has been stigmatized such as marrying those of one's kin of wine. "He is an Unbeliever whoever makes lawful a forbidden as forbidden in the religion of the Prophet. and that is ignorance of his Lord on Al-Imam al-Sarakhs! in the section on menstruation said. IV. believes a forbidden thing to be lawful. See Enc. the most important Hanafl lawyer of the 5th century A. 37. Brockelmann. or the drinking what dies of itself. he is an Unbeliever because the forbidding [149] of these things is established in all religions and is in accord with wisdom." his merchandise or because he is ignorant." the drinking of nabidh until one is drunken if is However. 476- . or blood. And doing these things without making them lawful evil-doing (fisq). he would not benot an obligation. II. or swine's flesh except when is necessity demands. Cf. Uusnad. Geschichtc.

is Garden It follows then from the ob- jection that the Mu'tazilite for an Unbeliever. al-Bukhari. So also would he become an Unbeliever were he were he to intend so to order to order a man to deny Belief in Allah. in fact they all would become Unbelievers.J. to say. In like are manner there many [further] details [on this subject]. because of contempt or enmity. So also does Allah's promises of reward and he become an Unbeliever were he to wish that there had never been a prophet. 492. even though it might really be the qibla.FURTHER ARTICLES OF Whoever of Allah's attributes to Allah BELIEF 161 something that is not fitting or mocks at one names or commands." So also would one become an Unbeliever were he to worship intentionally towards some other direction than the qibla. (p. or were he to render a legal decision advising a woman to get a divorce means of Unbelief. it occurs . be objected that the decision that the disobedient will be in the and the decision that the obedient will be in a feeling of security from Allah. or denies punishment. and 14 Cf. or were he to sit on an exalted seat surrounded by a group who propounded problems to him and made him laugh and pelted him with pillows. I. So also would he become an Unbeliever were from her husband by he. spirit of Allah except the people who 35 and feeling secure (al-amn) from Allah is Unbelief/since "no one feels secure from the 7:97). or were he to laugh in approval of one who speaks of Unbelief. Approved this Way that no one of the people of the qibla supposition that he for repentance is an not To we reply that this position of the Mu'tazilite despair nor a feeling of security. 205) inserts makr. or him. On the fit disobedient he does not despair that Allah will him and good works. So also would one become an Unbeliever were he to utter the word of Unbelief in contempt but not really as a conviction on his part. whether obedient or disobedient. "In the name of Allah." doubtless because in the Qur'an verse that follows. "craftiness" or "stratagem. or were he to worship intentionally without purification. And despair (al-ya's) of Allah is Unbelief/because no one despairs of the are Unbelievers (see Qur'an 12:87). 49 and III. d-Sahih. on 14 drinking wine or committing adultery. although one of the rules of the is is people of the Unbeliever. becomes an Unbeliever. It craftiness of Allah except the people who lose" (Qur'an may is Fire the is a despairing of Allah. it is he is either secure or in despair. 15 A.

. is knowl- something His creatures except by a communication from Allah." b. II. 624 ff." To and assent to what a diviner (al-^ahin) what he 17 10 narrates of the Unseen is Unbe- lief/because of the statement of the Prophet. or by an Illumination through an evidentiary miracle. "No one of the people of the qibla is an Unbeliever. or through Grace. The astrologer (al-munajjim) whenever he demon of the Jinn pretends to know approaching Unseen for is events in is like the diviner. Cf. pretending that it is by knowledge of the Unseen and not a sign." and their saying. Among the who tells of things that shall come know secret things and to explain Arabs there were diviners who preasserted that they tended to know matters. assents to "Whoever consults a diviner says becomes an Unbeliever in that which came down one on Muhammad. In general. is So much al-Ash'ari for that. Therefore it has been recorded in the legal decisions (al~ fatdw) that whoever predicts that there will be rain on seeing a ring around the moon. 408.. 25 ff. require Unbelief. "a Grace" instead of 'alama. And Allah knows better. VMusnad. There a difficulty in reconciling sayings like those [of and some of his followers]. Ibn Maja. obedient he is not secure from Allah's for- him with the result that he will acquire acts of disobedience for him- From this the answer is clear to what has been said regarding the Mu'tazilite in that is whenever he commits a great sin. and some [150] pretended to comprehend matters by a kind of understanding which had been granted them. reads tyrama. "Whoever declares the creation of the Qur'an or that the Vision is impossible or like is vilifies and curses the two shay^hs [Abu Bakr and 'Umar] and the an Unbeliever. "al- Tahara. 122. and tiff. Sahih." 18 b. Sunan. 206." The diviner is into being in the future and pretends to the science of the Unseen. al-Tirmidhi. II. on the basis that there is a negation of works.162 FURTHER ARTICLES OF is BELIEF on the supposition that he saking self. A. "al-Tahara. . Rel. it must follow that he an Unbeliever because he despairs of Allah's mercy and is convinced that he is not a Believer. pp. 16 See Enc. confession and works does not. There is no way Unseen guidance (irshdd) in making a deduction from signs in matters in which this is possible. Macdonald. some of them had a familiar and an adherent who informed them of the news. or through to the edge of the which Allah unique. That [answer] means that we do not admit that [his] being convinced that he deserves the Fire [when he commits a great sin] requires despair. Att. 18 is an Unbeliever. 102.J. nor that his being convinced of his lack of Belief interpreted by which is them to include assent. of Islam. p.

Sunan." Also "thing" it inserts known of Allah "nor an object of II. 150 ff. If there had been no advantage said. existent in the outside who say that the possible non-existent is world. "Water. Fi$al." pass by a village. or of it." See Macdonald. for they maintained that Destiny (al-qada) does not change. this The Fathers inherited in this it [custom]. 78. 17. above. 20 Non-existence dis- a synonym of negation. for the there is an advantage for them/that is. is The Prophet replied. We have in support of our position that which has come down in the sound traditions regarding prayer for the dead. IV. "Prayer averts 22 The Prophet also said anger of the Lord. especially the funeral prayer. 40. 97. a well trial what alms "This is best?'* and said. Sahlh. and the giving of alms (tasadduq) /that on the part of the dead living for them/that is. I. p. This a necessary judgment which no one putes but the Mu'tazilites. 79. cf. VI. for the dead would have meant nothing. al-Nasa'I. pp. and that man is recom- pensed for his own action but not for that of another. Musnad. VI. whether what may be validly known and narrated of It goes back to tradition (al-naql) and to tracing the sources of the use of these expressions. 350." "is something after just as the existent known of Him. II. 391. Musnad." So Sa'd dug Umm Sa'd." The Prophet said. 20 Cf. al-Shahrastani. n. Umm Sa'd has died. 230. Kitdb Nihdyatu 'l-Iqdam. al-Sahih. And in prayer (dud'} of the living for the dead is. that every soul has a pledge of what it has acquired. al-Razi. verified as having reality according to the position of the is This means that being a thing (al-shayiya) equivalent to exist- ence." b. Allah will remove the 5. i. 314. 40." it is merely a question of language based on the explanathe existent or the non-existent. real existence. Development. 22 Al-Bukhari. 164. is and being verified as is having real existence. for that 19 and alms quenches the if the learned and the learner The Curcton text." 21 Of Sa'd b. "Jana'iz." b. is "O Messenger of Allah. for the dead. Chap. . And if they mean that the non-existent it is really is not called a thing. 21 Muslim.FURTHER ARTICLES OF The non-existent is BELIEF meant the 163 really existent is not a thing 19 /if by thing is and that which Verifiers. 42 fT. without their intercession for him being welcomed. "Jana'iz. then tion of "thing. 32. This is unlike the Mu'tazilites. variants of the tradition in alTirmidhl. inserts after "non-existent.. p. vision. al-$ahih. Ibn Hazm. all of them inof terceding for him. 192. Mafdtih. Kitdb alV. VI. The Prophet a "No group a hundred in number performs worship over it is Muslims amounting to dead person. 'Ubada related that he said.

23. 374." 24 and. Du'a. Ill. 207) remarks that this tradition clearly has no foundation.D. Abu 28 and '1-Qasim al-Hakim al-Samarqandl Abu '1-Nasr to it al- DabusI took this position. 28 Cf. 437. Al-Sadr al-Shahid 29 said. Abu Dawud. only in error" (Qur'an 13:15. and the presence of the heart. precludes it Unbelievers is on the ground of the statement of Allah." 25 Know that the pillar of prayer truthfulness of intention. Gcschichte. 40:53). JJusim al-D!n 'Umar b. "Witr. is has been related in tradition regarding the prayer of the one that he. 13. 28 The traditions and the precedents to be followed on this subject are more than can be numbered. and because the Unbehe does not The Multitude "The prayer of the if liever does not pray to Allah. 27 See also Qur." b." b. 7:13-14." 26 answer the prayer of a careless and thoughtless The Early Theologians differed on the question as to whether is it was per- missible to say that the prayer of an Unbeliever answered. I. and know ye that Allah will not heart. $ahih. 1141) . al-?ahih. 438. AJ." b. Allah answers prayers and supplies needs/This Allah. "Da'wat. V. al-Bukhari. "O my Lord. II. "Thou art of those to whom time is granted" 2T (Qur'an 15:37). Anwar at~Tanzil. 29 (d. b. Allah replied.1 64 FURTHER ARTICLES OF BELIEF torment from the cemetery of that village for forty days. even though an Unbeliever. being certain that He will answer. (p. 2* 28 See Jacut (Wustenfeld). because of the statement of the Prophet. "Verily. for know Him. grant me time until the day when men are raised from the dead" (Qur'an 15:36). and Ibn Maja. "Pray to Allah. 320. "According your legal decisions are to be 28 made. Mnsnad. your Lord Living and Generous. A. Gcographische Wdrtcrbuch. "Call I will is based on the statement of answer you" (Qur'an 40:62). 194. A. 2* Al-TirmidhI. the statements of the Prophet. IV. lifted He is ashamed to turn back empty the hands of His creature when is towards Him. There are also upon me. I. 536. ?ahih." 104. al-Tirmidht. "Da'wat. 65. "The creature will be answered so long as he does not pray for evil or for severing the ties of relationship. Sunan. and he confesses Him he vitiates his own What oppressed confession in not ascribing proper attributes to Him. 137 f. This is one answer. Some permitted this on the basis of the statement of Allah regarding Iblls.H. d-$ahih. Sunan. the sincerity of aim. 'Abd al-'AzIz al-$adr al-Shahid was a writer on fiqh* Sec Brockelmann. is and so long as he does not hurry. Muslim. 38:80-81 and al-Baytfawi. is who answered that applies to his lack of Belief in the favor of Allah.

and the descent of Jesus from heaven. all possible things 4 5 which [/5/] the Truthful One reported. Annales. 20:8. HI. Handbook. al-$ahih. 10:2. 92 ff. said. 38-39. Sunan. its of the Hour 1 (al-saa) /that signs such as the appearance of al-Dajjal. 1050. References to the numerous traditions concerning al-Dajjil (the Anti-Christ) arc given by Wensinck. 886. 1142. Enc. Concordancef IX. in. pp. 32. p. What the Prophet has reported of the indications is. . 25.. of Islam. Gen. 29. AND THE COMPARATIVE EXCELLENCE OF MEN AND ANGELS the Prophet has reported of the indications of the Hour such as the appearance of al-Dajjal. IV. 28. 263. Handbook. of Islam. and the rising of the West is a Reality. MUJTAHIDS... Koran with Preliminary Discourse.Chapter 19 VARIOUS ARTICLES OF BELIEF CONCERNING THE LAST HOUR.. and the Messengers of the angels are more excellent than the generality of mankind. 8 (Cf.100. 5 See Muslim. The Mujtahid sometimes errs and sometimes hits the mark. and the Beast of the earth. pp. Hudhayfa came upon us conversing together and he 1 Cf. II. and Ya'juj and sun in the and the descent of Jesus from heaven. Handbook. 650. Diet. Sec. 2 See Asld al-Ghifari said. Biog." b. Sale. I. Wcnsinck. 53 ff. and Ya'juj and 8 Ma'juj. of Islam. Gog and Magog. Jacut. Ma'juj. 50 . Gcographischc Worterbuch. Enc. III. Rev. and the generality of mankind is more excellent than the generality of the angels. 2 and the Beast of the earth. 501 f. "Fitan. II. "The Messenger arc of Allah 'What you conversing Enc. I. Ibn Maja. Wensinck. 68. and the rising of the sun in the West is a Reality /for they are b. I. P. * See Ibn Hajar. The Messengers of mankind are more excellent than the Messengers of the angels.) See al-Tabarl. Ezek.

wonders (dydt) preceding the Beast. is The verifying of [the possible aspects of] this position that in the matter ijtihdd of the is of ijtihdd. There is is thus no difference [of views] regarding the position that he who misses not a sinner (athlm). judgment which Mujtahid for it fixed. (tyusuf). about?' *Wc were mentioning the Hour. Then absolute or based on opinion. the descent of Jesus (Isa b. The one which we have chosen and that there is is that the judgment If [of Allah] is fixed proof for is it based on opinion. the rising of the sun Ya'juj He said. They are to be found in the commentaries. at the The question is only his whether he misses the mark both * Sec above. The Mujtahid 6/both in matters relating to Reason and the Law. or there it is is proof from Him. he mark. n. . Maryam). striving for a which the opinion of the Mujtahid has arrived. the biographies of the Prophet. Some have taken every possible viewpoint. Arabia. hits the the Mujtahid finds the it. one in the East. 2. is not legally responsible for hitting the mark misses in the is is obscure and hidden. 'It will not He then mentioned the in the West. nay rather he to be rewarded. and three eclipses of the moon one in the West. beginning and at the end of Chap. Traditions (al-ahadlth) [from the Prophet] and narratives (al-dthdr) [from the Com- panions] have related in detail these matters and the manner of their occurrence. Therefore he is who excusable. The difference [of opinion] is based on their differing as to whether Allah has a fixed judgment for every incident or whether His legal judgment) is that at judgment in matters of ijtihdd (that is. either Allah has no fixed judgment before the Mujtahid occurs or He has [a fixed judgment]." The sound traditions concerning these indications are many. and Ma'juj.' it. whether fundamental or derived sometimes errs and sometimes hits the the Mu'tazilites held that every Mujtahid hits the of the Law which are not absolutely mark/Some of the Ash'arites and mark in derived matters fixed. and the books of history. if he loses he misses. al-Dajjal. Then there either no proof from Allah for cither this proof is this judgment. and a third in the peninsula of is At the end of that [time] there a Fire which will come forth from al-Yaman driving the people to the place of their assembly for the last Day.1 66 THE LAST HOUR We said. 29. The judgment.' come until you sec ten Smoke.

" 7 said. IV. In the fourth place. given to the fact that although he missed the mark in judgment. and then brings in all those is considerations for which he is legally responsible. one. II. is the Early Theologians took this position. it" "We gave Solomon (Sulayman) understanding of (Qur'an 21:79). If "it" refers to judicial authority or to making each of the two ijtihdcFs [on the part of David and Solomon] had been correct there would have been no reason for particularizing [752] Solomon. a legal de- The pronoun cision. Or does he miss the mark at the end only? That is. Companions accused one another of error in ijtihad. In the third there is Analogy (al-qiyds) which makes a declaration but does not which statute. so if every Mujtahid were to hit the mark. Analogy declares this to be a principle in ijtihad]. In matters of ijtihad he not legally responsible for establishing an absolute argument. as prohibited T Cf. there are traditions [from the Prophet] and nar- [from the Companions] which indicate that in ijtihad there was a wavering between hitting and missing the mark. then it would follow that the one action mutually negating opinions. two rewards. 8 who hits the mark is gets you miss. "If if you hit the mark. for each would then have hit the mark in his judgment and understood it." well known that the place. 438 and permitted. 8 Cf. so that established by Analogy must be estab- lished as to is its meaning by Agreement has been reached that there is only one right position regarding that which is established by statute. Uusnad. otherwise from me and Satan. 20). the I hit one who By Ibn Mas'ud it is [the saying reported]. 187. First. 205.THE LAST HOUR effort. Some of among them al-Shaykh Abu Mansur (al-Maturidl). in which the thing to be proved is absolute reality. since there a statute proving that the Mujtahid does sometimes miss the mark. must be described by as sound and un- and other traditions noted by Wcnsinck (Concord- ance. "If It is the mark. you will have ten good deeds [to your account]. that is 167 both in consideration of the proof and in the judgment. and In another tradition the one misses. In the second place. is establish [of itself]. yet he hits the mark in [his use of] proof. [so. In proof of the proposition that the Mujtahid may sometimes is miss the mark there are the following points. The prophet one. dl-ahih. I. . al-Bukhari. so that the idea [that one ratives might miss the mark] became mutawdtir. inasmuch as he establishes it. consideration combining all the stipulations and principles. it is from Allah. no distinctions are made between persons in the general definitions that have come down in the Law of our Prophet. there the statement of Allah. IV.

adds "of the Believers. Curcton. From is this has been specified by Agree- ment that the generality of mankind not to be preferred to the Messengers is of the angels. and the family of 'Imran above the worlds" (Qur'an 3:30). .1 68 THE LAST HOUR The completion ft sound. me of fire. that the purpose was to Adam to the angels and to demonstrate that he had more knowledge prefer He and deserved to be magnified and honored. Anwar al-Tanzllt I. 49. In the fourth place. Enc. 216. In the place. otherwise the rule [that operation. are tions and more trying and go further in sincerity. Noah.* excellent than the Messengers of The Messengers the angels. it is so of necessity. as necessary and unnecessary. "Verily Allah selected Adam. all The angels are a part of the worlds. In the third place. Gcschichte. of Islam. Sec Brockclmann. "I am better than he. of the verifying of these proofs and the answer to the convictions held by those who differ from us may be found in our book. Allah ordered the angels to prostrate themselves to him. 94 ff. when done in spite of preoccupavicissitudes. are to be preferred to those of angels. "Seest thou this man whom Adam thou hast honored above Thou hast created me?" (Qur'an 17:64). III. n and the generality of mankind is more excellent generality than the generality of the angels/That the Messengers of the angels are to be preferred to the generality of mankind is based on Agreement. 214. Secondly. and Thou has created him of clay" (Qur'an of this requires [us to believe] that he com- 7:11." 191 . as is by way of magnifying and honoring indicated in the statements of Allah. II. 38:77). al-BaytfawS. man achieves virtues and perfec- as lust knowledge and practice in spite of such hindrances and impediments and anger and the recurrence of necessary wants which divert his attention ligious from acquiring the perfections of life. But there are certain reasons why the Messengers of mankind and why the generality of men is to be first preferred to the generality of angels. Al-Talwih Shark al-Tanqih. "And 12 taught Adam all the names" (Qur'an 2:29). al-Tabari. there is the statement of Allah. 12 Cf. and.. The wisdom manded the lower to prostrate himself to the higher and not vice versa. Anndcs. every lexicographer understands from the statement of Allah. 10 of mankind are more and the Messengers of the angels are more excellent than the of mankind. 5. so man is more 11 excellent. p. it [153] the family of Abraham. I. There is no doubt that reservice and acquiring perfections. 10 Cf. It is clear mankind is to be preferred] remains in however that this a matter of opinion based merely on proofs from tions in opinion. nay rather.

3:43 is in the first person. only because he had no "He heals the blind and the and raises the dead" 14 in contrast to other creatures of Allah among the children of Adam. actually and defects like lust. without error. "The strong in power taught" (Qur'an 53:5). capable of doing wonderful things and knowing the things that come into being. Ibn Hazm. Terms. so Belief in in [their] having preceded them is [to be emphasized] more and [Belief] is [man in time] more fitting. I. p. rather. the angels are pure spirits and free from the principles of evils (arwah mujarradd). Allah said. of Tech. [according to the argument]. "The Sultan does thing. The third argument that there are many cases where the angels are mentioned before the prophets in the Book and the Sunna. and. not." Then no one says [that this verse has to do with the higher. a paraphrase of two Qur'an verses. 14 This p. The second argument is that the prophets. The answer is that the learning process is from Allah. they even held that he must be a son of Allah father. The fourth argu- ment is the statement of Allah. The proof of this is in the statements of Allah. al-Iji. The answer to this position is that it is based on philosophical founda- and not on Islamic ones. and the obscurities of matter and form. "The vizier does not disdain this nor does the Sultan. their past and future. perfect First. is second. p. The answer first that they were placed it is because their existence was prior to that of man or because more of a mystery. So Allah refuted them by saying that al-Masih did not disdain being a creature ** Sec also al-Razi. and maintain by the following arguments. 299 ff. 1337. Kifayat alKitab al-Pisal. the question] whether Jesus is more excellent than others of the prophets. 69. anger. 169 Ash'arites it and some of the ls took the position that angels are more excellent. The answer he is is that Christians (al-Nasdra) so magnified the Messiah that exalted above being one of the creatures of Allah. the Philosophers. because they are to this is advanced in honor and dignity. it is "The faithful spirit brought down" (Qur'an more 26:193). "Al-Maslh never disdains being a creature of who are nigh to Him" (Qur'an 4:170). and the angels [are only intermediaries who] pass on the information. Majatlh." but not the opposite order. cographers since the analogy in such cases of exaltation is to proceed from the lower to Allah. learned from angels and tions were benefited by them. V. al-Fatfall. nor does the vizier.THE LAST HOUR The Mu'tazilitcs. who is praised leper. There is no doubt [they claim] is that the teacher excellent than the learner. 237. al-Mawaqif. Their being mentioned first is only. . although they are the most excellent of mankind. 20 ff. nor do the angels The following is the usage. 5:110 in the 'Awamm.. Diet. The lexiunderstand by this that the angels are more excellent than Jesus.

37:164 that Allah has granted angels fixed ranks. the recompense and the return. 15 Al-Ghazzal! (Ihya' . which answered in such a marvelous manner that it proved that men may be more excellent than angels. not in absolute honor and perfection. They did not know. Elsewhere (Ihyd'.) he tells of a mystic who asked the two recording angels about a matter. that is. VIII. while men are elevated from rank to rank. Their exaltation and eminence is only in being born without father and mother and in manifesting powerful signs. So there is no indi16 Allah knows better and to Him is cation that the angels are more excellent. but the mystic asked his heart. .1 70 THE LAST HOUR who is of Allah. 263 f. nor did the one the angels more exalted than he in this respect. 165) argues in commenting on Qur. III. who have neither father nor mother and who arc able with the permission of Allah to perform greater and more wonderful acts than heal- ing the blind and the leper and reviving the dead.

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x. 42. statement on Belief. teachings on Messengers by.. 158 Apologetics. 16511. xxvii. 41. xxvi. 91 122/1. proof of attribute of speech established in. 49-57. 32. speech 139 of: traditions concerning. 153 . 85. 144. n. xxxi the first 164 Almsgiving. ability created common f. Willing an attribute of. ability the cause of. hammad. attribute of creating. its application. pardons whomsoever He wills. "the Approved. ix. tee also Dajjal 62. a key word in Ash'arite doctrine. world consists of accidents Yiisuf. 81 Adultery: one of great sins. 43. narrative of. 88 f. 126. an accident. 37. the efficient cause of all knowledge. analyzed. xxiv. despair of. 58-66. xxii. 168 f. letters and sounds are originated accidents. 135. on the disobedient as Believer.. and feeling secure from. xiii. ability an accident. Originator of the world. on Messengers and Prophets developed out of. xii. final Abu Abu Bakr. 45. xv Ability: Akhlal. 89. no alteration in attributes of. Agnostics. 99.. subsistence of. 59. 109. attribute of speech. 44. Maturidite and Ash'arite views. does not come to an end in Himself. unaffected Abu xv Accidents: in atomic theory.. ortho- xxviiif. x Angels: questioning by. 48. 13 Agreement of the doctrine Anthropomorphic ideas." 142-44.)> 139 knowledge and power of. no. great sins listed Abu Shujja (al-Sayyid). omniscience and omnipotence of. 99 Abu TaKb ('All b. 41. see also Pantheism. 89. 86 will in action bent on. 75. 36-48. 88 f. as a basis for future change. Knowledge and Will of. xi. joining of another to Him not forgiven by. 41 n. xvii Allah: His purpose revealed through Mu- Abraham. 155 Abu Taiib (Ja'far b. He is not an accident. 80. 143 Hanifa. 107 Agnosticism. the expending of power and by creature. messengers of. 86. 142. 93 Adam: prophet. xi worship. 65. quality. 133/2 Anti-Christ. 23.) claims to position on attributes of. 158^. attributes destiny of individual and essence of. 17. agreement on Beatific Vision. xviii. rests with. is not compounded. dox Khalifate by family of. 130 Adoration of the Creator. 73.Index 'Abbasid Khalifas. xxx Abu Hurayra. possibility. Early Theologians. 59. 78. Polytheism Anthropomorphists. need for: as a reason for development of Muslim dogmatics. 146 action accompanied by. Action: Allah as creator of. Hanbal. made universal. existence. as Creator. 43. xxiv. books of. on Antinomians. AI-. the Very Veracious. Allah not an accident. Animals. coming of. xxxii. and substances.. attitude toward mystics. prayers answered by. analyzed. 29. 102 Acquisition. ix. the creatures of Allah. considered Unbelief. xiv. 107 and Prophets. xiii. as resulting by way of 161. immediate or mediate causality. 6773. or an atom. 88 deeds do what is within creature by. ing resembles Him. as Creator of all actions. quoted on wiping on inner shoes. real essence of power. noth47. difference between creating and acquisition. 123/1 Ahmad b. xxx. to best for creature not incum- are accidents. is not described by by time. xxvii. 97. unity of. 88. to. xxvii. origination. great sins listed by 107. 46. xxv. 146. 43. 37 f. 5811 Al-Fiqh al-Akbar (I) (Abu tfanlfa). xvi-xviii passim. x. 41. descriptive terms as. debated by Muslim Community. is not placed in place. 134. 24. 163 Analogies: a source of guidance. in. or a body. analysis of attributes of.

definition of shay'. of. the term applied to the disobedient." 125. ix 66 Cognition. 51. H9f. endless. 16 91 xiii. a unique contribution of Islam. a great sin does not remove creature from. 20. unnecessary during Asaf b. assent of the heart comment on beliefs of various sects. Muslim contacts with. 114. ix. Ash'ari. 99. summary of. interpretation of term substance. position on angels. soundness of: ability applies Certainties and non-certainties. 131 . three eternal beings established by. 5341. as assent and confession. xx . 29. on destiny of the Belief of the of. xxxi. teaching of. 44 bility of. an attribute created by Al- on lah. 33. effect of modern Western atomic speculation Canon laws and judgments: science of. see Accidents Sunna 79. 30. 89 b. neither increases is nor decreases. 45. Muhammad's lifetime. Barakhya. Jesus exalted above Allah's creatures by. xxvi f. 47 xxv. xviii. 169 Assent: essence of. of Allah. 138 Ascension of the Messenger. plurality of eternal. dividual. 47 on. ability subsistent is in His essence. 13 Attributes of Allah. 99. of. Mu'tazilites influenced by. xi. definitions. 260. and proof. xxiv. exponent of atomic theory. xviii Muslim Community: xiii. see also belief Katitai. 9 Ash'aritcs: position on way of the mystic. Allah's relationships to. I2of. by 74- Mu'tazilites. Allah is not an atom. xxviii. x. Atomic philosophy. Al. 32.. knowledge defined by. 27. Books of Allah. . xxvi. xxiv f. 123. "in reality. Allah happy and unhappy. the Creator of actions of. xxiv Church last Barahima (Brahmins). asserted by. its development into one of fundamentals of scholastic theology. al-Nasafi's and al-Taftazam's commentary. ability of members of. 96 Beatific Vision of Allah: denial of. meaning Approved Way. Baghdad!. 108. Al. 6 to. xi. indivisi- Bliss of the obedient: in the grave. xxix. Un- on actions of individual. 103. distinction be- articles of Belief tween Belief and Unbelief. 7412. 42. 118. the: term not applicable to Allah. xiii. xii. definition of. 26/1. xxviii. 20/2. A1-. real essence of. 123 . defined. doctrinal position of orthodox Islam formulated by. 95. 31. sanction for fatalism found in teachings of. Islam and Belief synonymous. 80 punishment of the grave for disobedient. 117 ff. articles Believer: identification of. see also Unbeliever Atom: term explained by al-Nasafl. xxiv. known by observation. varying opinions on. analysis of. does not remain forever in Fire even if he has committed a great sin. ix. science adopted dialectic of Mu'tazilites in defending orthodoxy. 42. 40. 10. on attributes of Allah.. \\n\ views on attributes and essence of Allah. views real essence of. xxviii.. 101 Body. xiv Christians. 137 statement of. xiv. prophetic office of Muhammad confined to Arabs. 108. 169 xx Baqillani. propositions of Mutakallim a torn 1st s as given by Maimonides. 128 Beast of the earth: by. statement of creed. 1 lution of Christian doctrine councils: their importance in evoand their ab- Hour to be preceded sence in Muslim development. the subject matter of \alam. their narrative concerning crucifixion of Jesus. 91 of." and "if Allah wills.. 53. xxv. 135 Books of deeds: weighing 103 Bridge: reality of.(Nur al-DIn Ahmad). see Endless chain Christian philosophy. boundaries of.INDEX Appointed Sustenance. doctrine orthodox Islam on. Allah wills. 4112. interpretation of Belief. corporeality of Deity. views Biday a.(Ibn Tahir Muhammad). held by Philosophers and Early Theologians. 21. xxvi. 7. xv. joyment of. acceptance of atomic theory. position of Chain. xii. 136 f. Belief: Muhammad's ascension. 49-57. xvi. 109. al- (al-Bukharl). tee A'rad. on. 51. 41. xvi. en- 30-32." on responsibility of inon use of words "if xxix. 130. xi. 109. xxviii. 165. question on obedience and disobedience. 116-20. 104 Bukhari. has boundaries but not dimension. Causes.(Abu '1-Hasan). Al. 42/2.

96 Creation (created beings) in contrast to Creator: knowledge for. see alto Anti-Christ Parlr. coming of: last Hour to be pre- Companions of the Prophet. interpretation of: in modern Muslim reform movements. 57. extent of legal responsibility imposed upon. reality of Compulsion: inevitability of. 67*1. judgment and ruling of Allah. xi. Deeds. 118 Corporealizers. Dimension. assent and Belief. ix. Enneads (Plotinus). Necessarily 36. 158/2. 108. rise of laid brought into existence by Allah. xix. narration of: acceptance of. body. xxvi Council of Nicaca. 97. x. making lawful of. distinction between deed and the thing done. xix. 53-55. 94. meaning of no part in creation. death created by for. 154 the subject of numerous supcrcommenxx. 94. 86. x. Colors." 124. "Vision. al-. 32 treatise xx Commentaries. 21 importance of al-Nasafl's statement of creed. of. Muslim of. 87. 68. as an act of denial. 12. method used by al-Taftazanl. 50. 79. meaning 44 an attribute Disobedience: persistence in. ix am Endless chain. relationship to 159 Diviner. 153 Comparers. Existent. 5. has of: the good is 65. Allah the plurality of . ix Creating: as an attribute of Allah. prayers 163 Death. reality of existence of. of Allah. actions of. 164. xvi. 1 6. 26 Dialectics. al-Taftazam's taries. proof of existence of. 31. an action Dogma: discussion of. mean- ing of accident. ceded by. 36. attri- butes and essence of Allah. considered Unbelief. 94 Creator: knowledge belongs to essence of. 87 Deductive knowledge. 40 Dead: only good concerning them tioned. his right to say a Believer in reality. creature has disputation. 61. 22. by Christian teachers. 96. the vile is not by His pleasure. 56. Allah as creator of acts of going astray and being guided. sec also Theol- ogy. 1 66. Al. 45. definition of Qur'in in. 125. Cursing: permitting of. fundamental and doctrinal legal judgments. command and to. 45. 16. is to be men74 belief in Beatific Vision. succession to Khalifate settled by. 162 Power and Willing. 95 Confession of Belief. 48 Dajjal. difference between creating and acquisition. xiv xii. 81. belief in Beatific Desiring: as an attribute of Allah. analysis of. 46. actions of the creature. books of: weighing of. 71. 97. Allah's guidance. 86. 143. 84. 70. time appointed for: Allah's mind remains unchanged. x. 68 of things. xxvii. foundations for science of. 107. xvii. anthropomorphic ideas of Qur'an. xiv. xxiii Da h rites. evolution of. 69. 45. early forms. in the Doctrine. 74 Corruption of the heavens and earth. 20. quickening of. 82. classified as Unbelief. xvi. 28*2. 39 Cosmos. Allah not obliged to do what is best for. 134.(al-Imim tfamid al-DIn). n. x. actions by pleasure of Allah. its continuance from eternity to eternity. nature of.INDEX Collective opinions: value of. Ash'arite view stated by al-Taftazanl. definition of. discouraged by Muhammad. 89. xi. 92. Desire. xiii. acquired Muslim. 17. obedience and disobedience. 122. 101. 165. theory Essence: of Allah. 38.. as connected with all actions. prayers of Unbeliever. 57 theological no part in. Qur'an as uncreated speech of Allah. 41. 6n\ differ- ences of opinion on Beatific Vision. x sense of decreeing. 103 42. 82. Philosophers Ecclesiastical authority. 13/1. 123. actions of choice: Early Theologians. atom. 80 ff. 67-73. development xvii-xx. ability created by Allah within. 22 Creature: differing views on acts of. relationships of Creating. 23. xxvi. xxii. 158 Creed -making: prohibition always apply of. angels are the creatures of Allah. 85 Allah. "I terms Belief and Islam. first three stages. original. written and interpreted by learned men. see also Later Theologians. are by Will. classified as a great sin. views held on: pure atom. specific meaning of takwln. method of. 64 Doing: as an attribute of Allah.

xxi. 31. xxiv. propositions of Mutakallim atomists as given in.. 138. xxvi. xvi. tee also Predesti- need for. 128. 34. 146. 43. 151 Heresy: defined..(Abu Hamid Muhammad Imdn. as Al- (Muhammad). i37fT. on rank of angels. 62 xix al-.. xxi Ibn 'Umar. 40. al-Taftazam's reference to. 139 Indian philosophy. 45. xiv Hearing: an attribute and essence of Al56 f. 35. 41 . the Qur'an as an eternal idea. views on attribute of speech. xii. 41.i So Essence (Continued) eternal. xxxi Fatatvl (Q3# Khan). be removed for evil-doing or nation may not tyranny. claim to prophetic office accompanied by. Fatalism. xiv Farabi. xvi. ence the. Al. present existence of. xiv. 159 Hour. xiv. the: as essarily synonymous with the NecExistent. 75 Hanbalites. 21 . xxv Graces: of the Walls. 105. xxi 1 al- Ijmff. stipulations and nonstipulations concerning. for Unbelievers and disobedient Believers. 6n Illumination (al-ilham). 129. xi. 9 Hayuli. distinguished (Gospel): a book of Allah. reality of. Ibn Khaldun xi. the last: signs of. 96 Guide for the Perplexed. 128 Five senses. Mu'tazilites influenced by. 102. 144. xxv Hadith. the: committed interpretations of statutes to Allah. speech of: traditions concerning. problem of. 7. manifested by Muhammad. attributes ot Allah point to. Garden. 47. 153 Fire. 166. The (Maimonides). attributes of Allah sistent in His. (ftira). brought by Messengers.(al-Qao ! 'Ao*ud al-DIn). varying views INDEX from evidentiary miracle of a prophet. 165 Fathers. 145. the. adoption of formal logic in Muslim thinking. xx. tee Primary matter Hasan al-Basn. fee also Al. requirements of. 21. will: Muslim xxvii. a leader of later scholastics. common to Maker and Christianity. knowledge of. defined. x. attribute of Creating is from. xvi. on essence of sub- Allah. ix quoted on worship. duties of. xx Fiqh. Believer does not remain forever in. distinguished from Grace of a Wall. (Abu Zayd Abd al-Rahman). Taftazanl a pupil of. Muslim creed. Experience. xiii. trans- Eternity. tradition concerning peo- 150. the: punishment of. 109 Fatima: claims to Khalifate by family of. see also Khalifate ple of. Senses Followers: defined. 99. essence of. 145. 155 Ghazzali. 101 Greek philosophy. Allah as creator of all action. 50 ff. 59. 114. statement of creed by. great sins listed by. adapted to use of 67 Evidentiary miracle: defined. 39. lah. Infidelity. Muhammad). 40. Allah's attributes are from. xvi Guidance. xiv. 51 Eternal. 104. 46 HuJ(m t see Judgment Hypocrite. not a cause of cognition. 33. lations of texts. 1520. xv Individual. knowledge of. xi. xxii. 135 . reality of. xxiv. 105. definitions of: similarity between al-Taftazam and other commentators. present existof.(Sa'adya). importance of: in formulating b. Muslim contacts with. 104. Faith. 27 Form Free xiii. i48fT. 130. xv. 17 Fao'ali. see Belief Inanimate objects. 51. 63 Iji. 132. distinction between Khalifa and Imam. 4 155 Fayyumi. A1-. reasons for. names of those in. 43 doctrines Imam: concerning. proof of. tee Agreement 167 Ijtihdd. 146. Traditions that made by Him. see also n. 140 Existence: definition of. 13. 49. xviii. summary of. brought by Messengers. the mistress of women in the Garden. idea of: in Injli atomic theory. xiv. xii Infinite. 52 140 Grave. 170 xix. kinds of. u. xxxi. 64. the. 32. Al. 107 Idea: existence of. xxi. states of.

the. Islam. xxvii. followed by principality. 41 /w. kinds of originated knowledge: necessary and acquired. on the incorporeality of. 20. interpretations of the statutes. 169 Jews. Rea- son. ing the: codification of. Philosophers John of Damascus. 141 f. 48. their narrative concerning religion of Moses. xii. Unbelief. 9 5/1. xxvi. extent of: imposed upon Kalam. xii Jubba'I. actions of creatures are by Allah's. Leading astray: meaning of. 20. al-> 108 Kitab al-lbana expansion of.. xviii Knowledge: sources of. 33. 6. 106 ]awhar. assent one of divisions of. inseparability of theology cal theory in. be- lief in Beatific Vision.. 81 Magic: one of great higher than prophets by. xxix. xi. propositions of Mutu- Magians. xv. xiii. 19-24. sci- ence 7 ff. x. 'an Usul al-Diydna (al- Ash'arl). 64 5. xxii. 20#. 10. clude xiv. Al- Law. as an attribute from eternity. 132. Legal judgments. as established narrative concerning crucifixion of. punishment of the knowledge. 132. Intelligences. xxii Justice of Allah. 46. xiii t(aldm the foundation of. see dto sin Intel Icctualism. 99/1. 82. of Allah.INDEX Innovations: rise of. 181 Khalifate: claimed by families of 'All and Fafima. 107 Mahdl. xi. ix. 160 Judgment. 156 Instruments. 37. 91 146. 128 Jurjanl. 41 Logic: attitude of orthodoxy toward. Speech Kaltn. 17. xi. varying views on. 1 66. 147. Legal responsibility. xxiv. Mahdi's resemblance to. as reality corresponding with actual fact.(al-Sayyid al-Sharif). disagreement on Imam. exalted above Allah's creatures by Christians. wide enough to in- xxvi. (Abu 'All). 122 scent of. necessary knowledge con- Atom trasted with acquired. i in. xx. doctrines concerning Intercession of the Messengers. 10. broad usridicule of. rapid and politi- M7 Kijdya. see also under Existence kallim atomists as given by: summary of. afwan. Walls rated sins. 56 many of. 147" Maimonidcs. "excellent of mankind after the Prophet. 143. Allah. 24-27. tradition of His descending. Logical contradictions. Living. Belief and Islam are one. Ash'ari. 26. 1 08 fT. see Wound. opinion on relation of unity and plurality in God. kingdom and tion 144. 160 Intuitive closely resemble Christian. 46. disapproval of wiping on inner shoes a mark of. 26. in the writings of al- creature. xx grave denied by. xxi. types of. xv analyzed. 134 see Body Later Theologians: f^aldm of. 59. illumination not a cause of knowledge. see also Belief. the Karramites: views on eternity of attributes. 123 believers in predestination. 4211 . xxv 53 53. tee also Early Theologians." sity. causes of: five senses. io6 Jahmlya. see Jesus: essences. soundness of: ability applies to. as a more general term than imdn. xviii. the: as an attribute of Allah. 5. xxv. x. 12. 91. 15-19. 58-66. shades of doctrine. 92. answers al-Ash'arl on obedience and disobedience. 96 Learned from beyond the River. 142.. xiv Imam Kharijites. of the real 84 Jahm b. xxiv. see also Responsibility Life: as an attribute and essence of Allah. Jabrites. validity of: depends upon ability. angels may commit sin of Knowing. 34 x. 136. denial of Muhammad's ascension considered as one of. xi. 145/1. see also Senses Intoxicants. 13. 50. 27. classified as Unbelief. the meaning of Qur'an in. 82/1. 156. 74/2. to precede last Hour. as xxiii. Unbeliever as defined by. an attribute of Allah. xi. unnecessary durMuhammad's lifetime. true narrative. al-Taftazani's reference to. Al. 157 Kawn. stated by. as an attribute of Allah. 165. 50. 113 Internal senses. distinc- between Khalifate and Imamate. age implied in term. 10. 72 knowledge of. on attribute of Speech. de- by narrative of Messenger and by neces22. 55. from Heaven. order of the. brought by Messengers. xix. views on committing a sin. doctrine of coming of. the: as an attribute of Allah.

propositions of Mutakallim a torn is ts as given by Maimonides. by. position on writings of John of Damascus and doctrines of. definition of shay'. the great sin. 131. as disinter- tinguished from prophet. xii. xxx. Muslim Community. on plurality of eternal attributes and essences. 'Abbasid Khali- fas supported teachings of. 133.. 21. his Beatific Vision of Allah. theological viewpoint of: given by al-Nasafl in his statement of creed. 77. the most excellent of prophets. 7911. 76. 113. 87/1 Mujtahid: definition of. xix.(Abu Mansur). 74^. xxx. dis- pretation of Belief." on the destiny of the happy and of. origin of. position on Belief and assent. i oo. his position in dogmatic theology. 166. 40. on attribute of Speech. The (A. 47. Motion and of. 104. Qur'an and consideration given to. see Ya'juj INDEX and Ma'juj as quoted on: a Malik Anas. in Traditions. boundary defined by. 89 Maturidites. time as the measure 45 his ix. "originated" de- opment of doctrine narrative of. views on Qur'an as speech of Allah. 64/1. 65. evidentiary. the: views on ability as a condition for performance of action. marks maturity of orthodox Islam. ment. 8. later develin reference to. ix. . xii. xvii Muslims: their division into sects. decline of. xiii. see Early Theologians 153 Material atoms. 29. some actions to something other . wisdom in sending. Munkar.. xxviii.^ doctrine of delayed judg- free will. 117. xxiii. definition of. quoted. numerous his traditions power connected with existence asserted action before ascribed its by. narrative concerning perpetuity of religion of. their proof of unity of Allah. by. opinions on sins of prophets. n. xxiii. worship. punishment.. xxix. xxvii. Belief as acceptance of message of. Mary am. Agreement of. 35. see Evidentiary miracle Moon. xxx. dialectic of. xxv . al-Ma'dnl (al-Taftazani). 1 eclipses of: last Hour to be preceded Mu'tazilites: refutation of. "existence" defined by. J. 35. xxix Measurement: laws Messengers: little 32 Mutakallims. 103. 68. xvi. meaning of their name. interpretation of Belief. xi unhappy. on use of words "if Allah wills. cessors depended Companions and Sucon authority of.. the last prophet. 130 131 .. 107 Tank. 62. 131. beliefs of. reality of his ascension. xxix. on Creating as attribute of Allah. 134. Al. reasons for. about. xxviii. xviii intercession. Wensinck). similarity. 79 . cession of. 59 f. 86. and essence of Allah. al-Nasaf! a disciple of school of. their proof and judgment not always correct. on power of Allah. xxvi.182 Ma'juj. 138 Mashayikh. 130. 34. 113. questioning Murji'ites. xv . on attributes of Allah. controversies about al-k^aldm. xxviii. Greek philosophy. 70 from error and 133. x. inter- his message. unlawful: classified b. xiii. xi.. xxi Might: as an attribute of Allah. 66 influenced by Christian xiv. great accomplishments. 88*. MaqSlat al-Mamiyin (al-Ash'ari). mean- ing of self-subsistence. manifested the evidentiary miracle. xxi Multitude. xiii Manslaughter. of mankind and Mutatvdtir narrative. see under True narrative of angels: their relative rank to one another and to mankind.. creature the creator of his actions asserted by. 49-51. nn. 56 Miracle. 136 f. xxiif. 21 and Allah's meaning of of. xiv. xv. writings lack systematic theocentric nature of used by al-Ash'ari in defending orthodoxy. position on Allah as creator of alt action. office and . 48. 6o. questioning by Allah. 27. Mutawwal ( al-Taftazani). xiv. xxvii. 80 f. 168 f. 9. 62. x. xiii. xi. thought denial of and the Moses. Qur'an as uncreated speech of Allah. xiv views on actions of individual. xi. Beatific Vision. sin. Muhammad: arrangement. 20. a vision requested by. ai. xxvif. 8. xiv. xxiv Maturidl. xxvi. fee Agreement of the Muslim Community Muslim Creed. 37. 118 Muhammad 'Abdu. xii. on responsibility of individual. their preservation fined by. sound heard by. 1278.. xix. 99 close resemblance between accepted as orthodox. on variety of forms of speech. rest. on attributes couraged discussion of dogma.

93." 28. see Nasaff. $n Personal desires. punishment of the ideas. types of. 101. xx. 163 the. 102. the. people of. his text written from viewpoint of al-Maturldl. 35. 144 People of the Inner Meaning. 13 Oriental philosophy. Polytheism Pardon: meaning of word. see under True narrative Narrative.. dissension between them Mystics. 117. 95 f. xxii. Greek philosophy. 33 Omnipotence of Allah. xii. analysis of his statement of faith. xx. 107 to. position on worship. relative motion. 08 f. 93. a great sin impossible for prophets. views on Allah's guidance. angels. x meaning of term. People of Agreement. quickening of dead denied by. xxiv. 39. xx. 29. on motion. xix. 144 People of Reality: definition of term. one of the great sins. 75 Originator: Allah as the.. classi- and the 1 Fire. belief in future creation of the Parents (Muslim): disobedience fied as one of great sins. 100.. statement on Belief. xxiv and Shi'ites over Imamate." 70. 74*1. 49. views on pardon and intercession. as related to at- meaning of term as Non-existent: a synonym used by al-Taftazani.. 42. makes no mention of sins of prophets. position on angels. and to forgiveness. al- (Al-TirmidhI). see also Early Theologians. Nakir. 151 Necessarily Existent. substances and accidents are origi- relation impossibility of. xxv Theologians Philosophy: attitude of orthodoxy toward. 169. 140. 43. views on Belief 161 f. 29. 94. his Creed makes no mention of Mu'tazilites.INDEX than Allah. denied by. on attributes and essence of Allah. 970. meaning of subsistence of a thing. 118. Polytheism. 7/1. Indian philosophy. position Garden on great sin. denial of Beatific Vision. atomic theory a unique contribution of Islam to. Speech and Qur'an distinguished by. xiv Plurality: xii. alTaftazani's commentary on. their views i52f. Obstinate. xv . xxvi. xviii. in God. and Unbelief. on the incorporeality of Allah. the. asserted by. 48. cited on sources of knowledge. 107. see also Unity Political theory: inseparable from theology in Islam. 2871. views on appointed time of death. on defined. 101. but not according to the Law. Muslim Plotinus. in. in Deity. see also Punishment Pantheism. xxx Natural law: in atomic theory. 113. xix. the: their use of term "being originated. interpretation of forbidden thing. denial of Muhammad's ascension. 13 Permission (jatvdz). time as the measure of Nabldh of dates. xxviii. Oriental philosophy. views positions of al-Nasafi and al- on "eternal" and "originated. 9911. 75. see Agreement of the Muslim Community People of Loosing and Binding. the Book denied by. Pan- theism . 6n Philosophers. 48 Opinioners. Graces of the Walls. true. disagreement on judgment corresponding with Imam. Eternal. 136. 45. 99 Narrative of the Messenger. 30. 95. 163. value of prayer for the dead rejected by. views on appointed time of death. 50. xxiv-xxxi. views regarding a creature's acts. questioning by. 97. reality the 711. 107 of. of unity and. see also Anthropomorphic its relation grave denied by. Al- True narrative (Abu tfaf? 'Umar). Nawadir. 10. 133. 38. 48 Omniscience of Allah. 105. 169 actual fact. 45. possibility of the Vision demonstrated by. xxiv. xv Origination: distinguished from creating. 80 People of the Approved Way. 31. Later Taftazam. see also Orphans: devouring property as one of great sins. 13 Theology. gn. 36 nated. 112 183 Pain. as tributes of Allah. classified Anthropomorphic ideas. 147. Weighing denied by. views on the atom. on Allah's obligation to do what is best for creature. Odors. Belief according to the uses of language. 81. 103. see Mu'tazilitcs Perception. synonymous with 52 of negation. on power of Allah. xxiv. importance of his statement of creed. 159 156 People of Unity and Justice. see also Christian philosophy.

the Schisms: inherent wickedness Scholasticism. citations from. Beatific Vision. attributes of Allah as classified by. opinions on Belief. Vision of Allah. 109. 61-66. Allah as Creator. as the speech of Al- atomic theory. 102. Later Theologians Prophet. 32 Reality: the judgment corresponding with actual fact. 38. 132. 130. in the Fire 103. 37. Al. 49*2. xiii Pain Qadarites: close resemblance between writings of John of Damascus and doctrines of. 101 Reason: as source of knowledge. xxviii. xxviii. Qa^li Khan. 101. xx. of the grave: for Unbelievers and disobedient Believers. legal responsibility of creature. Day of. 82 Sacred territory: contravening ordinances concerning. 135. xiii. xiv Possibility: Power: as xii. 74. xiii. the most excellent book of Allah. attitude toward and Prophets. see Rawafig . Jabrites believers in. on sins of the prophets. literally. xxxi. classified as one of great sins. 10 1 xiii. Allah's guidance. xxiv.(Al-Imam). resurrection. 131. xvii. punish* ment. 46. xx. Muhammad the last. 67. 77. 102. 85. Weighing. xxx. 128. xxi 1 creator of all action. 100 Preserved Tablet. Free Will 82. 157 Pseudo-Dionysius. 16-18. Al. the. choice of Porphyry of Tyre. 100. xxix. i6on Sarakhsl. the disobedient. 99 . gave rise to theological disputation. 97. comprehension by. 32 Primitive Theologians. xvi.(Luqman). in the grave. views held on Belief. the most excellent. early reverence for. on Allah as creator of all action. Muslim Seeing: as an attribute and essence of Al- . and Questioning. 58. 41. 161. 114. real xxvi. 30. the. xi. 48. earliest statements of creed found in. Belief and good deeds. 75. 104*1. whether spent in Belief or Unbelief. see also Early Theologians. 112. Allah answers. 1 164 Predestination: fluence 20 Christian doctrine xiii. to be interpreted Theology. of. 2 1 n . obscurities in. tribe of. problem xxxi. ix. accepted doctrine of free will. of. Weighing not hammad of. 91 Practice and commands of Muhammad: the source of guidance. see also Believer 154. xvi. xxvii. allowed by. xv. 129 about.. xii Punishment: debates comprehended by. xxvii. 31/1. little consideration to Messengers and later scholastics. 63/2 Primary matter (hayull). 24. Mu- knowledge.1 84 INDEX meaning of term. 79. 109. 133. Responsibility: debates about. Believer's stay and entry into the Garden. of essences.(Muhammad). 78. see also lah. 133. 107 SanusI. xi. on: unity of Allah. Qihla. rank higher than Walls. 103 Quiddity: Allah not described by. 158. xvi. possibility of Vision. 96. 163. its teaching on Allah as Creator. xi. ix Prayers. 24-27. Qutb al-DIn. possibility of its replacement by agnosticism. 10. distinguished 21. views held by Ash'aritcs and Maturidites. 122 position Ruling: actions of creatures are by Allah's. as a cause of meaning of office of. xxxi. among heretics. references to the Garden and the Fire in. disagreement concerning. Adam the first. of a small sin. in- Quraysh. people of. Al. 92. see also Repentance. 56. xiii. xxiv. ability the 88 f. essence of. xi. Al. Allah as of. action. 162. 99. xix. 160. xii. sameness of. 134. xxx. 50*2 Sarakhsl.(Fakhr al-DIn). x Early Theologians gives use of words Belief and Islam in. also Fatalism. 12 Reality of the great Assembly. 15. 147 on Muslim thought. non-committal on atom. 151 153. 139 Questioning: reality of. their preservation from error and sin. for the dead. Messengers provide knowledge unobtainable through. views on sins of prophets. questioning of. 76. xvi. statements as to their number. see also Legal responsibility Resurrection: Christian emphasis on. in agreement with. see Prophets: Razi. 77 an attribute and essence of Allah. 44 Qur'an: systematic arrangement lacking in. verification of existence Muhammad from Messengers. 84. reality of the Book. 37.

21 Sound senses. 60. self-subsistence 18 Sense perception. see also Belief.. xxviii. while al-Nasafi wrote from Sight: Beatific Vision see also Seeing is by the sense of. 15. xxv. xxiii. defined. 107 f. see Attributes Taftazani. Khalifa a more general term than Imam. al-Taftazani's treatise a standard texttion . not compounded. 6. Khalifate accepted by. tive xxii. attribute of. 56. xxi. 16-19. on sins of prophets. in the West: preceded by. as narrative. as dis- tinguished from other attributes. possibility. xxiif. see Shi'ites: Thing 'All and Fatima family claims statutes of. xxi Tank. 1 8. dif- delayed judgment on. accepted Maturidite views ory. Shay'. 128. Ash'arite and Maturidite position on. xvi. xv. A1-. in atomic theory. Talwth (al-Taftazanl). to be interpreted 158. xi. xv Theology. 41 to Sumaniya. viewpoint of al-Maturldi. 166 Sophists: on existence of real essences of xixn. x Sufasta..(Abu Ahmad). xiv. 107 Smelling: one of five senses. 21. xxx. author of outstanding commentary on al-NasafTs articles of Muslim Belief. the subject of controversy. see Senses Speculation. 135 Testament (Waslya) (Abu Hanlfa). 58. xix. 620. Tahawi. followers of al- Matundi. xxvi. refutes Mu'tazilites. not free from originated things. as. 57 amalgama- Substance: in atomic theory. 33 Tawdtur. xv. xviii Theology. reviews rise of kalam. Muslim: system of theology re. heavenly: motion of. five kinds of. xiv. preservation of prophets and Messengers from. accepted atomic theposition on attribute of 112. 7. the atom. the: reality of. common to. last Hour to be Shar'. a single attribute with a variety of forms. xii. xii. 33-35. xxv. views on attributes of Allah. one of five senses. 32 States of coming into being. opinions on sins of prophets. Ja'far xxxf. sin. use of negative terms in defining relationship between essence and x. 13. 14. see also Traditions Sunnites: 'All and Fa$ima family claims to literally. 129 Sensibility. analyzed. his life and environment.INDEX lah. incompatible with silence and defect. relative terms: small positions of al-Nasafi and al-Taf- tazani. Christian: adapted Greek philosophy to its use. as op- of theology and philosophy. 33. Messengers provide knowledge unobtainable through. and on responsi- on follows Maturidite position Belief. 144. 133 Slander of a chaste woman: classified as a great sin. doctrines on sins of prophets. views on knowledge. punishment 107.. Spheres. Khalifate rejected by. x. 19. Christian. varying xxx. acts. xxii. posed to accident. Muslim and xiii. xx f. xxiv-xxxi. 24. 58-66. 30. 165. 90 Ta\wln. 14 17 quoted. rela- fering traditions on meaning and number of great sins. xii. a body. Shafi'i. and great Allah. 57 80.. 12 f. origination. the: to precede last Hour. $iira> see xxiii 49.. xxvi. xiii. asserted by. 78. 18 on good and bility. attributes of Allah. 108. evil actions. 75*1 Successors of the Companions of the Prophet. 8. 25 Speech: as an attribute and essence of Allah. as a cause of knowledge. x. xxvi. xii. pardoning by of a small sin. 18. xxv. an Ash'arite. 17 Senses: as source of knowledge. dissension between them and People of the Approved Way over Ima- mate. method used in his commentary. 1319. rising of. views regarding a creature's Surmise. denial of Beatific Form 74. 50*?. early contro- 60 f. x. his Speech. 17. jected by versies. 104 Taste. Kalam inseparable from political theory. 23 see also under Traditions Tawra: a book of Allah. Vision. 128 Sun. 41. of. x. 5/2. Muhammad. existence. 61. Al- (Sa'd al-DIn). 30. 29. I2O canon law. as. 146 Sifat. compounded. conflict over non- creation of speech of Allah. 17 Sustaining: as an attribute of Allah. 16. Smoke. xxviii. xxiv. xxvi. 166 Sunna. Al. Sin: doctrines of. see Creating things. comprehension by. in.

xxiii. 74. element of fatalism in. 157 War Wasil against b. 19 Usury: classified as a great sin. possesses believe. development of doctrine in reference to Messengers and toward. little conMessengers and Prophets xxx. speech as. in Deity. differences on meaning of a great xiv. prayer for the dead and almsgiving upheld by. created power to by Allah. 118. cited sideration given in. 99. 107. xxii Touch: one of five Unseen. 108. connected with all actions." xiv nf. 133. 155 lites True as source of knowledge. 'Umar the Divider. numerous traditions concerning last Day. founder of orthodox. of Allah. varying opinions on angels and their messengers. varying views on preservation of prophets from sin.. not equal to that of prophets.. xxiii. 'Uthman of the two Utterances of 107 142-44 as the instru- Muhammad: x Muslim and other religious sects listed ment of revelation. cursing as permitted by. 8. distinction between those on Vacuum: existence of. 122. fleeing from: on mean- classified as ing of a great sin. see also Plurality Time atoms. intercession of the Messengers es- tablished by. xxvii. narrative of the Messenger. xii. varying opinions held on Belief. 144 of al-Nasaf! and al-Taftazam.. essary by. 112. differences of opinion ff. 113. x. 25*1. earliest statements of creed found in. Atomic Universe. the 117 Unity: relation of plurality and. 142. blamed for Allah the Creator of actions of.. xxxi. 37. Ummayyad rulers: attitude of Murji'ites atomic philosophy. 100. 67. differing opinions on Beatific Vision. concerning people of the Garden. Traditions: systematic arrangement lacking in. graces distinguished from evidentiary miracle of a prophet. Theologians. 8. see also Atom.. proof of attribute of found in. 17 Walls: Graces of the. 163. J. punish- 68 ff. xxi. xvii Willing: as an attribute and essence of Al- Weighing of deeds: lah. xxiv philosophy Timur. Allah as Creator. Thing (shay'). commission of a great sin Prophets. Unbelievers. many individual traditions concerning Muham- a great 'A$a'. 21-24. xi Unbelief: distinction between Belief and Unbelief. xxx. 159-62. subjects covered by. essence of.INDEX Theology (Continued) book of. 65. xx. 102 drinking: classified as a great sin. 9 107 mad's ascension. Philosophy The. sin. Later ment of the grave for. sin. nec- Wahm. 73. 137. can not be pardoned. xxix. $ee also Early Theologians. 108. science of. n . prophets preserved from. diviner's narration of: acceptance of. see Beatific Vision Muhammad and to CompanSpeech ions. Wensinck. kinds of: mutatv&tir narrative. actions of crea- tures are by Allah's. 10412. Muhammad described in numerous. 23. see also Traditions dox. 59. xvii. origin of: Allah as Creator. in Beatific Vision. 87 True narrative narrative: Wine Transmigration. or Secessionists. inability to hear. 62. 6. no compulsion in his choice. 125 Vision (of Allah). ix. 41. Withdrawers. 28 Time: Allah not affected by.. xxiv. 133. 68. considered Unbelief. see also Belief Unbeliever: identification of. method of Early Theologians. 16. al-Ash'ari considered 19-21. xi. on the subject of punishment. does not lead into. xxiv-xxxi. 143. concerning the Tank. wickedness of schisms taught by. 89. 107. 1 80. 44*1 to Verifiers. 140. 131 f. traced to Belief. atomic theory of. x. xxxi. lights. see Mu'tazi- xxiv. 107 Wiping on the inner shoes. xiii. relative positions 61 . 97. . 102. 162 senses. by. 166. definition of. 102 f. xxiv. future of. xxiv Allah as crea- tor of all actions. ixx. 83. 137 agreement with. xxviii. 154. 56. as the absolutely great sin. schools of al-Maturidl and al-Ash'ari both orthoxxiii. enumeration of acts of. tendency of modern writers toward liberalism. 82. f. xxvi. xii. 45 "Theology of Aristotle. rank of. see alto reality of.. other possible sources of. world as a thing originated. A. 17. 77. 91.

1 66 its parts. 8 Zmdiq. appearance of: last to be preceded by. xv . 165. xvii. 152 Zabur: a book of Allah. origin Worship. as acts of obedience. 28. the (/-*/m). xao the: totality of f. 135 Wound. 119 187 Hour Works: World. Ya'juj and Ma'juj.INDEX Witnessing formula.