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By BANDA, Erika Shayne M. DELA CRUZ, Vergel ENALPE, Annalyn FAGARANG, Keyzl G. FLORES, Rhona FRANCIA, John Mark M.
but the public awareness and the knowledge regarding their organ and Genito-urinary Cancers such as Penile Cancer.INTRODUCTION Men are often referred as sex symbols. or roughly 13 percent. and infection. This figure is in addition to the existing 2 million who have already been diagnosed to have it. to catch prostate cancer before it spreads. Studies have .000 men in the United States will be diagnosed with prostate cancer this year. and about 30. even those without symptoms.000. Prostate Cancer or Testicular Cancer is not. When you're told you have prostate cancer. Philip S. research has shown that men with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop prostate cancer. According to the Philippine Cancer Society Inc. Prostate cancer is considered as one of the most common cancers among males around the globe. It is estimated that prostate cancer kills one man almost every 19 minutes while a new case is detected every two and a half minute. In the Philippines. it's natural to wonder what may have caused the disease. including a digital (finger) rectal prostate examination. this type of cancer does not cause symptoms early because the malignant tumor usually develops in the outer portion of the prostate. This is the reason why a regular checkup. once or twice a year is very important among men who are 40 years and older. it is reported that one out of eight males develops prostate cancer and it is now the second most common cancer among Filipino males following lung cancer. this form of early stage of the cancer may be detected during a medical examination. Doctors seldom know why one man develops prostate cancer and another doesn't. However. The American Cancer Society estimates that more than 232. wrapped around the urethra and in front of the rectum. The prostate may appear small and insignificant in the diagram but an unhealthy prostate can result to enlargement. But no one knows the exact causes of prostate cancer. will die of it.’s (PCSI) population-based cancer registry. Even without symptoms. about 4000 new prostatic cancer cases were found. the second leading Cancer in men next to lung cancer develops in the prostate. Prostate cancer . lower urinary tract symptoms and the worst. and therefore does not cause blockage of the urethra. Chua of Philippine Daily Inquirer Global. it is one of the top five cancers among men. A troubled prostate can lead to health conditions such as prostatitis. According to Dr. Cancer. and in 2005 alone. a gland in the male reproductive system which is located below the bladder.
A study conducted in Johns Hopkins University in the United States revealed that another factor is Family history. he reconsidered further treatment.5 ng/ml. radical prostatectomy. On other studies. brother. most studies have shown that the chance of getting prostate cancer is not increased by tobacco or alcohol use. Both he and his wife were disappointed to learn that the final pathology indicated seminal vesicle involvement. . At that point.” They related that although the subsequent risk of incontinence and impotence were high. that if in case your father. although he did report problems with incontinence and impotence. which they describe as a “couple decision. Initially the patient was depressed and stated that he wanted no further treatment. biopsies revealed malignancy in both lobes.0 to 5. or a diet high in animal fat or meat. at clinical stage II. a sexually transmitted disease. who is a former registered nurse. Also. They ultimately chose surgery. opting for external beam RT. The urologist discussed the potential treatment-related side effects in great details with the patient and his wife of 27 years. but most studies have found no increased risk. HISTORY The patient was a 52y/o male. When the bone scan was negative. He reported having a numerous bouts of prostatitis over a 10 year period which became increasingly severe.found that Age is the main risk factor for prostate cancer. obesity. he received 30 treatments over the course of 6 week. Many other possible risk factors are under study. Certain prostate changes like high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) can also increase the risk of developing this type of cancer. Prostate cancer is more common among black men than white or Hispanic/Latino men while it is being considered as less common among Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native men. a lack of exercise. Researchers have studied whether vasectomy( surgery to cut or tie off the tubes that carry sperm out of the testicles) may pose a risk. they chose the treatment that they felt had the best odds of cure. or “doing nothing”. or son had prostate cancer. although his wife was not ready to “give up”. The couple was presented with treatment options by the urologist: radiation. PSA levels rose from an initial 3. BPH. The chance of getting prostate cancer increases as you get older specifically when you reached 50 years and above. it might increase your risk of getting it. The patient recovered from the surgery without complications.
Four years after the completion of treatment. Infection (STI) Bacteria (E.1ng/ml: however. Ethinicity (Less Asians. They state that ‘”we can live with it.coli/Klebsiella) Colonization of Urinary Tract Infection of the Prostate PROSTATIS mutation of genes/cells growth of tumor in the prostate obstruction in the bladder neck/urethra difficulty in urination urinary retention hesitancy in urination metastasis in bladder interruption in urethra metastasis in bones DRIBBLING URINATION hematuria sexual dysfunction . without success. the patient’s PSA remains at 0. More on AfricanAmericans). Occupational Exposure(Pesticide). They attempted several methods of dealing with the erectile dysfunction. History. urethral prostaglandin suppositories and sildenafil. much earlier than he had originally anticipated. more manageable home. he is plagued with worry that the disease will return. “referring to the changes in their sexual relationship. the couple states that they are closer now than even before. he retired at the age 54. Age (50 above).Because of difficulties managing urinary leakage and bowel urgency. including a vacuum device. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Risk Factors= Idiopathic. They down-sized to a smaller.
literally "one who stands before". from Greek prostates. "guardian" is a compound tubule-alveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals. "protector". .UTI irritable bladder dysfunction painful ejaculation blood in semen suprapubic pain weakness frequency of urination nocturia hip pain backache weight loss perineal discomfort rectal discomfort ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY “PROSTATE GLAND” The prostate.
They are generally composed of simple sugars and are often slightly alkaline. In actuality. milky or white in appearance. REGULATION: To work properly. STRUCTURE: A healthy human prostate is classically said to be slightly larger than a walnut. together with most of the spermatozoa. prostatic acid phosphatase. and prostatespecific antigen. The main male hormone is testosterone.000 times the concentration in blood. In human prostatic secretions. SECRETIONS: Prostatic secretions vary among species. In comparison with the few spermatozoa expelled together with mainly seminal vesicular fluid. The alkalinization of semen is primarily accomplished through secretion from the seminal vesicles. longer survival and better protection of the genetic material (DNA). it is approximately the size of a kiwifruit. it is dihydrotestosterone that regulates the prostate. The alkalinity of semen helps neutralize the acidity of the vaginal tract. which is produced mainly by the testicles. However. The secretory epithelium is mainly pseudostratified. that usually constitutes 20–30% of the volume of the semen along with spermatozoa and seminal vesicle fluid.FUNCTION: The function of the prostate is to secrete a slightly alkaline fluid. Some male hormones are produced in small amounts by the adrenal glands. prolonging the lifespan of sperm. The epithelium is highly variable and areas of low cuboidal or squamous epithelium are also present. comprising tall columnar cells and basal cells which are supported by a fibroelastic stroma containing randomly orientated smooth muscle bundles. It is the only exocrine organ located in the midline in humans and similar animals. The secretions also contain zinc with a concentration 500– 1. which are responsible for male sex characteristics. The mean weight of the "normal" prostate in adult males is about 11 grams. the protein content is less than 1% and includes proteolytic enzymes. with transitional epithelium in the distal regions of the longer ducts. It surrounds the urethra just below the urinary bladder and can be felt during a rectal exam. those expelled in prostatic fluid have better motility. The prostate also contains some smooth muscles that help expel semen during ejaculation. The prostatic fluid is expelled in the first ejaculate fractions. the prostate needs male hormones (androgens). Within . usually ranging between 7 and 16 grams.
The idea of "zones" was first proposed by McNeal in 1968. The prostate can be divided in two ways: by zone. ~10–20% of prostate cancers originate in this zone. The central zone accounts for roughly 2. It is from this portion of the gland that ~70–80% of prostatic cancers originate. two of which arise from different segments of the prostatic urethra: Name Fraction of gland Description Peripheral zone (PZ) Up to 70% in young men The sub-capsular portion of the posterior aspect of the prostate gland that surrounds the distal urethra. DIVISION OF PROSTATE: A. as its name Transition zone (TZ) Anterior fibro- ." The prostate gland has four distinct glandular regions. It is sheathed in the muscles of the pelvic floor.the prostate. The transition zone surrounds the proximal urethra and is the region of the 5% at puberty prostate gland that grows throughout life and is responsible for the disease of benign prostatic enlargement. Approximately This zone is usually devoid of glandular components. which contract during the ejaculatory process. This zone surrounds the ejaculatory ducts. McNeal found that the relatively homogeneous cut surface of an adult prostate in no way resembled "lobes" and thus led to the description of "zones.5% of Central zone Approximately prostate cancers although these cancers tend to (CZ) 25% normally be more aggressive and more likely to invade the seminal vesicles. or by lobe. the urethra coming from the bladder is called the prostatic urethra and merges with the two ejaculatory ducts. The prostate does not have a capsule. and composed only. rather an integral fibromuscular band surrounds it. Zones The "zone" classification is more often used in pathology.
Anterior lobe (or isthmus) Posterior lobe Lateral lobes roughly corresponds to part of transitional zone roughly corresponds to peripheral zone spans all zones Median lobe (or middle lobe) roughly corresponds to part of central zone NURSING PHYSICAL ASSESSMENT RELATED TREATMENTS NURSING CARE PLAN RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES 1. Prostate Cancer Awareness http://www.net/thepoc-features/health-and-wellness/health-and-fitnessfeatures/8153-prostate-cancer-awareness-month-mens-health. LOBES The "lobe" classification is more often used in anatomy.html Philippine Online Chronicles. ofmuscle and fibrous tissue.thepoc. Ma Rachel Roxas Yapchionco. B. 2010 .muscular zone (or stroma) 5% suggests. June 28.
Wikipedia.2.cancer.htm Issued December 26.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/prostate/page4 National Cancer Institute. 6. Philadelpia PA.html. http://www.J.net/cebudailynews/opinion/view/20080107110897/Prostatic_cancer Philippine Daily Inquirer: Lifestyle (Heart to Heart Talk). 2011 4.org/wiki/Prostate . "Complex carbohydrates in the secretory epithelium of the goat prostate" http://www. http://www. Tsukise.aspx August 2011. Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer. 3.com/alerts_index/prostate_disord ers/25-1. 12. 2007. March 10. 2012. Anatomy of Prostate Gland http://medicalcenter. (2010) Brunner & Suddarth’s Textbook of MedicalSurgical Nursing. 2008.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/prostate_health /anatomy_prostate_gland/Pages/index. 2012 8. Health Alerts.cancer. http://www. http://en. 11. 2012.com. Published by Lippincott-Raven Publishers. National Cancer Institute. Instant Anatomy. 2009. 9. March 15. 2012. Published by Elsevier Pte Ltd.psa-rising. .wikipedia.Wexner Medical Center. 1 of 8 Filipino men get prostate cancer. Retrieved February 21. Sinapore. 10. Retrieved February 21. Langhorne M. November 20.inquirer. 2011 5.S et. 8. 7.johnshopkinshealthalerts. Trax. Fifth Edition.springerlink. http://www. http://www. Dated August 2011. Retrieved February 22. John Hopkins Medicine. Volume 2 (12th Edition). 13. Smeltzer C. Phillip Chua. Manongdo. 2009.html Zones and Lobes of Prostate. al. Jenny F. Retrieved February 21. November 20. 2012. Dated November 23. Prostatic Cancer http://globalnation.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/prostate/page7.net/abdomen/vessels/vprostaticplexus. Winsland House I.osu.com/prostatecancer/prostate.al (2007) Textbook of Oncology Nursing.ph/node/247804/1-8-filipino-men-get-pro Manila Bulettin Publishing Corporation. Dr.instantanatomy.com/content/j7p435385n140463/. 2010. Retrieved February 21.E et.. Dated November 26. Page 1516-1523. http://www. PSA Rising. A. What you need to know about prostate cancer.mb. Page 164-171.
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