s

Planning & Optimisation
of

Frequency Hopping
in

GSM Networks
Authors: U. Rehfuess, ICM N MR Dr. K. Dietrich, ICM N MR A. Volke, ICM N MR B. Kronmueller, ICM N ST

Network Design and Consulting

s
Planning & Optimisation of Frequency Hopping in GSM Networks

Outline
Implementation Aspects Frequency Assignment in FH Networks BSS - Database Parameters Optimisation Aspects Summary

Network Design and Consulting

s
Planning & Optimisation of Frequency Hopping in GSM Networks

Implementation Aspects

Network Design and Consulting

.s Implementation Aspects Key Differences Between Baseband and Synthesizer FH Baseband FH RF1 RF2 RF3 RF4 Frame Frame Frame Frame N° N° N° N° 0 1 2 3 Logical Channel 1 2 3 4 Synthesizer FH RF1. synthesizer retuning and power up again within guard period ⇒ 2 Synthesizers are implemented Network Design and Consulting ..n RF1.n RF1.n Logical Channel BB1 BB2 BB3 BB4 1 2 3 4 BB1 BB2 BB3 BB4 • Mobiles use Synthesizer Hopping only • BS implementation: power down...n RF1.

..n RF1.s Implementation Aspects Combining Equipment in Baseband and Synthesizer FH Baseband FH TX Antenna RF1 RF2 RF3 RF4 BB1 BB2 BB3 Synthesizer FH TX Antenna RF1.n RF1.n BB1 BB2 BB3 Filter Combining Hybrid Combing 1 2 3 1 2 3 BB4 4 BB4 4 • Narrow Band • Low insertion loss (3-4 dB) Network Design and Consulting • Wide band • Higher insertion losses (~3 dB/stage) • On-air combining possible (DUCOM) ...n RF1.

7 6.3 2.0 3.s Implementation Aspects Combiner. Link Budget of Synthesized Frequency Hopping Example: GSM 900 Combiner Losses and Output Power • • • • • Determine configuration and hardware status before SFH implementation Determine necessary upgrades (TPU.5 2. number of TRXs per cell depends on hardware configuration Network Design and Consulting Combiner Type DUCOM 2:1 DUCOM 4:1 HYCOM 1:1 HYCOM 2:1 HYCOM 4:1 FICOM 2:1 FICOM 4:1 FICOM 6:1 DUCIT Attenuation dB 2.5 5.0 3.4 3.8 Power Amplifier PA HPA Output Power W 25 W 40 W 60 W . Combiner) Actualize and check Link budgets Introduce further HPA where necessary Max.7 2. PA.

s Implementation Aspects TPU. PA for Synthesized Frequency Hopping BFH TPU TPU 2 PA HPA X X X X X SFH X X* X * not all types of first generation power amplifiers are suitable for for SFH Network Design and Consulting .

0 • BS11: SFH only (BR 4.7 or higher up to 2/2/2 BS 6x/2x up to 8/8/8 BS 24x • No.0) Network Design and Consulting . 15 per cell (SFH w/o BCCH) max. of Hopping Frequencies: max.s Implementation Aspects Hardware and Software for Synthesized Frequency Hopping • Software Release: • Cell Synchronization: BR 3. 16 per cell (BFH incl. BCCH) max. 64 per cell with BR 6.

of RF > No. of RF = No.s Implementation Aspects Key Differences Between Baseband and Synthesizer FH • Baseband hopping Narrowband RFcombining sufficient One TRX per hopping frequency required! • Synthesizer hopping Wideband RF combining required More hopping frequencies than TRXs feasible • No. of TRX • No. of TRX BCCH TRX except for TS0 may hop BCCH TRX must not hop Network Design and Consulting .

s Implementation Aspects Hardware Requirements: Repeater  Wideband Repeaters: • Usable for SFH and BFH • Careful implementation (amplification of signals in the whole frequency band)  Channel selective Repeaters: • Usable for BFH • Number of frequencies is limited • Usually not usable in tight reuse scenarios Network Design and Consulting .

s Planning & Optimisation of Frequency Hopping in GSM Networks Frequency Assignment in Hopping Networks Network Design and Consulting .

s Frequency Planning Process Frequency Assignment Split of Band BCCH .TCH Dedicated Common Multiple Reuse • • • • Planning of Boundaries Hopping – Non Hopping Guideline for RF-planners Tool optimized frequency assignment Available Spectrum for Hopping Focus on SFH planning and hopping TCH .carrier assignment: planning with tool is always recommended Planning must be adjusted to each individual network Frequency assignment with fixed reuse schemes • Tools • Interference Table • Separation Settings Cyclic Hopping Random Hopping • Reuse 1x3 • Reuse 1x1 • other MAIO and HSN Planning Planning of Anchor Frequencies in SFH Database Generation Network Design and Consulting .carriers BCCH .

s Frequency Planning Common Band .7% Common Band 54.Dedicated Band .3% MRP [%] 71. DTX on Dedicated Band 59.Multiple Re-Use Patterns Common Band total operator bandwidth 8.6 MHz = 43 carriers Achievable System Load 43 carriers for both BCCH and TCH Dedicated Band 15 BCCH carriers 28 TCH carriers 90%@FER≤2% 5 hopping frequencies PC on.8% Multiple Re-use Patterns (MRP) 15 BCCH carriers 12 TCH + 9 TCH + 7 TCH carriers Network Design and Consulting .

1/3. 1/1 Network Design and Consulting Tool supported frequency assignment based on interference matrix considering FH gains .s Frequency Planning Frequency groups TCH 2 - Tool supported planning TCH 2 TCH 1 TCH 3 TCH 1 TCH 1 TCH 3 TCH 1 TCH 2 TCH 3 TCH 2 TCH 3 Fixed reuse scheme to all hopping cells possible reuses: 3/9. 2/6.

4 x 12 Reuse Network Design and Consulting .s Frequency Planning Planning of BCCH BCCH 1 BCCH 4 BCCH 3 BCCH 2 BCCH 7 BCCH 6 BCCH 9 BCCH 5 • Reliability • Neighbor Measurements • BSIC Decoding • BCCH Frequency active at all timeslots in the downlink -> no interference averaging BCCH 10 BCCH 8 BCCH 13 BCCH 11 BCCH e.g.

..s Frequency Planning Examples for frequency groups (I)  Cluster 1/3 TCH A TCH A TCH A TCH A Channel 1... 3. . 11. 10. . 5. 4.. . 7. . ...... . TCH C TCH B TCH C TCH C TCH B TCH C TCH B TCH B TCH A TCH A TCH A TCH B TCH C TCH B TCH C TCH B TCH C Co-channel interference is avoided by the frequency groups With a deliberately MAIO assignment and identical HSN assignment to sectors you can avoid adjacent-channel interference between the sectors within one site Network Design and Consulting MAIO Sector 1 Sector 2 Sector 3 Min # RF TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 0 1 0 6 2 3 2 12 4 5 4 18 . 2. 12.... 6.. 8.. 9.

g.s Frequency Planning Examples for frequency groups (II) TCH 2 • Each sector within a site uses a different Frequency Group TCH 2 TCH 1 TCH 3 TCH 2 TCH 1 TCH 3 TCH 1 TCH 2 TCH 3 TCH 1 • No co-channel collisions between sectors of a site • Synchronisation between the sectors and MAIO management avoid adjacent channel collisions • Homogeneous network: no co-channel collisions between serving cell and all nearest neighbour cells TCH 3 TCH uses each frequency only part of the time (e. 50%)  50% fractional load Network Design and Consulting .

MAIO Sector 1 Sector 2 Sector 3 Min # RF Network Design and Consulting ... .. ..... .s Frequency Planning Examples for frequency groups (III)  Cluster 1/1 • • • All sectors same frequency group Identical HSN to sectors of one site MAIO assignment to avoid co..and adjacent channel interference TRX1 0 2 4 6 TRX2 TRX3 TRX4 6 8 10 12 12 14 16 18 18 20 22 24 .

s Frequency Planning Examples for frequency groups (IV) TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH • Each sector within a site uses the same frequency group • Synchronisation between the sectors and MAIO management required to avoid co-channel collisions • Homogeneous network: Co-channel collisions between serving cell and nearest neighbor Network Design and Consulting .

4.19.. burst FN = 0: 2.. burst FN = 1: MAI = (0 + 0) mod 15 = 0 MAI = (1 + 0) mod 15 = 1  ARFCN = 1  ARFCN = 4  ARFCN = 41  ARFCN = 1  ARFCN = 4 N=15 14.27. burst FN = 16: MAI = (16 + 0) mod 15 = 1 etc.10. burst FN = 14: MAI = (14 + 0) mod 15 = 14 15.39. MAI = (FN + MAIO) modulo N MAI ...13.. Number of allocated frequencies For example: (MAIO=0) if HSN = 0 (cyclic hopping) (integer 1.s Frequency Planning Hopping Sequence Generation (I) GSM 05.16... Mobile Allocation Index FN . TDMA Frame Number MAIO .36.02.24. Mobile Allocation Index Offset N .7.N-1) (0. 26*51*2048-1 = 2 715 647) (0 ...30... N -1) set of ARFCN numbers to be used in the hopping sequence MA = 1.21. Network Design and Consulting . burst FN = 15: MAI = (15 + 0) mod 15 = 0 16.....33.41 1..

... Table of 114 Integer numbers Network Design and Consulting . T2. T3 ..s Frequency Planning Hopping Sequence Generation (II) MAI = (S + MAIO) modulo N with: if HSN ≠ 0 (random hopping) S = M’ S = (M’ + T’) modulo N M’ = M modulo [2^Integer(log2(N)+1)] T’ = T3 modulo [2^Integer(log2(N)+1)] if M’ < N else M = T2 + RNTABLE((HSN xor T1R)+T3) T1R. Different Time Parameter RNTABLE .

.. .frame) ... ... .Management (I) Frequency group 1x1 reuse / Random Hopping (1.s Frequency Planning Example for MAIO .. .. .. Time (TDMA . . ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 BCCH MAIO = 0 MAIO = 6 MAIO = 12 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Time (TDMA . 10....frame) BCCH TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 BCCH MAIO = 2 MAIO = 8 MAIO = 14 Time (TDMA . 7.frame) TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 1 7 13 2 8 14 10 16 4 7 .. 2. ...... 14 2 8 6 12 18 5 11 17 MAIO = 4 MAIO = 10 MAIO = 16 3 9 15 4 10 16 12 18 6 9 .. . Network Design and Consulting .

s Frequency Planning Example for MAIO .Management (II) Frequency group 1x1 reuse / Random Hopping (1.channel collision: only odd or even RF numbers on air at same time MAIO = 16 TRX3 min # RF = number of hopping TRX (example 9 frequencies) Minimum total number of frequencies for hopping system with MAIO . 7. 10. .Management = 2* number of hopping TRX of site (18 frequencies in example) Network Design and Consulting . ) BCCH TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 BCCH MAIO = 0 MAIO = 6 MAIO = 12 TRX0 TRX1 TRX0 BCCH TRX1 MAIO = 2 TRX2 MAIO = 8 TRX3 MAIO = 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 MAIO = 4 MAIO = 10 TRX2 Avoid Co .channel collision: Avoid Adjacent . . . 2.

Assignment Frequency group: A: 1 4 7 10 13 16 B: 2 5 8 11 14 17 C: 3 6 9 12 15 18 TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 BCCH fA fA fA MAIO = 0 MAIO = 2 MAIO = 4 TRX0 BCCH fC fC fC MAIO = 0 MAIO = 2 MAIO = 4 TRX0 TRX1 HSN = 3 TRX2 TRX3 TRX2 TRX3 TRX0 TRX1 BCCH fB fB fB MAIO = 1 MAIO = 3 MAIO = 5 fC fC BCCH MAIO = 0 MAIO = 2 TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 HSN = 2 TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 BCCH f B MAIO = 1 f B MAIO = 3 TRX1 TRX2 BCCH f A MAIO = 0 f A MAIO = 2 fC fC BCCH MAIO = 0 MAIO = 2 TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 HSN = 1 TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 BCCH f A MAIO = 0 f A MAIO = 2 TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 BCCH f B MAIO = 1 f B MAIO = 3 Network Design and Consulting .s Frequency Planning Examples for frequency groups and MAIO .

DTX Network Design and Consulting . PC.s Frequency Planning Tools The Automatic Frequency Planning Process •Automatized Planning Routines •Variety of Planning Algorithms •Global / Local Parameter Settings Input data from radio network planning tool Minimisation of interference Frequency Assignment Evaluation of the assignments •C/I and FER plots •C/I and FER analysis on per carrier basis N Live D ork etw ata •Setting of planning constraints •Common / Dedicated Band Planning •Consideration of FH.

.  Minimizing worst interfering cell relations  Features for advanced network planning strategies  Frequency hopping  Power Control  Discontinuous transmission  Graphical evaluation of frequency assignments based on  C/I  FER  Very good results in European research program COST 259 benchmarks in quality of result at short execution times (typically seconds to minutes)  High performance proved in live networks with different customers Network Design and Consulting .s Frequency Planning Tools The SIEMENS Advanced Automatic Frequency Planning Tool  Efficient algorithms for different optimization targets:  Minimizing global interference  ..

s Frequency Planning Tools Consideration of Radio Link Control Options  Automatic consideration of hopping gains and interference reduction due to PC and DTX on cell basis during • • interference matrix calculation optimum assignment of frequencies by using highly efficient optimisation algorithms  Graphical evaluation of the assignment results based on FER Network Design and Consulting .

Path loss Ai Ai Ai Σ Σ Σ 50% Network Design and Consulting .s Frequency Planning Tools Generation of the interference matrix Potentially serving signal SC EIRP .Path loss Potentially interfering signal SI EIRP .

s Frequency Planning Tools Required C/I in FH-GSM (TU3).5 dB  13.5 dB Gain: up to 7 dB 50% NH 2 Ch 3 Ch 4 Ch 5 Ch 8 Ch Network Design and Consulting . Cyclic Hopping FH Gains as determined via Real Network Simulations Shift: 6.

66 19.82 20.s Frequency Assignment Frequency Reuse & C/I values (Non Hopping) • Required no.87 4.90 5.45 3.87 27.24 4.35 7. of frequencies • Cluster size / Reuse distance: q = SQRT(3*N) • C/I rule of thump: C/I abs ≈ 1.71 7.00 3.80 15.20 5.76 23.78 11.85 21.48 6.5 * N2 N 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 18 20 Anzahl f 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 36 45 54 60 q 2.75 C/I [dB] 7.34 25.46 3.58 4.28 26.78 Network Design and Consulting .74 17.00 6.30 13.32 18.

0 6.6 6.7 6.5 6.0 8.8 6.6 6.0 6.6 Source: SIEMENS TED-BSS Network Design and Consulting .5 6.0 6.2% residual BER for class 1b bits): Frequency hopping None 2 frequency 4 frequency 8 frequency 16 frequency TU3 11.25 7.75 TU50 HT100 7.5 6.s Frequency Planning Tools Required C/I in FH-GSM for different environments Typical frequency hopping gain The following table shows the typical gain from frequency hopping in a GSM 900 network (example of the signal-to-noise ratio required to obtain 0.5 10.

3 fractional load Network Design and Consulting 1x3 reuse. 0.s Frequency Planning Tools Analyses of FER Graphical FER analysis of an SFH network FER in % 3% <3% <2% < 1% FER in % 3% <3% <2% < 1% 1x3 reuse.6 fractional load . 0.

of TRX Network Example: 2 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 4 3 3 4 2 2 3 • 11 Sites • 33 Cells • 6 cells 2 TRX • 12 cells 3 TRX • 15 cells 4 TRX • 33 TRX BCCH • 75 TRX TCH 3 3 2 4 3 3 .s Frequency Assignment Example for Tool-supported Planned Reuse (I) 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 2 Network Design and Consulting No.

s Frequency Assignment Example for Tool-supported Planned Reuse (II) Network Example: • 11 Sites • 33 Cells • 6 cells 2 TRX • 12 cells 3 TRX • 15 cells 4 TRX Given Spectrum: 42 channels  12 frequencies for BCCH .TRX  30 frequencies for TCH .2 frequencies per cell in average Network Design and Consulting .5 frequencies per cell in average  30/5 = 6  30/6 = 5 frequencies per cell in average frequencies per cell in average  30/7 = 4.TRX (hopping) Reuse of: 4 5 6 7  30/4 = 7.

7 frequ.7 frequ. of assigned frequencies for FH 2/3 6/4 4/6 4/6 No. / 4.3 . of TRX Planning Rule: (example) 3/4 4/3 3/4 1 Hopping TRX  3 frequencies 2 Hopping TRX  4 frequencies 3 Hopping TRX  6 frequencies Frequency Reuse Factor: 6/4 4/6 156 / 33 = 4. / cell in average  30 frequ. per cell = Network Design and Consulting 6.s Frequency Assignment Example for Tool-supported Planned Reuse (III) Network Example: • 11 Sites • 33 Cells • 6 cells 2 TRX • 12 cells 3 TRX • 15 cells 4 TRX No.

Network Design and Consulting .s Frequency Assignment Example for Tool-supported Planned Reuse (IV) Separations for hopping TCH: • Intra cell separation: 3 • Intra site separation: 1 • Neighbour separation: 1 Interference Matrix for hopping TCH: • co-channel: C/I curve 7 dB (50% probability) • adjacent channel: C/I curve -6 dB (50% probability) MAIO and HSN: • HSN = 0 for all cells (cyclic hopping) • MAIO = 0 for TRX1 (TRX0 = BCCH) • MAIO = 1 for TRX2 • MAIO = 2 for TRX3 etc.

s Frequency Assignment Example for Tool-supported Planned Reuse (IV) Example for a site list: Site Id 0001 Sector 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 TRX BCCH 0 2 1 0 4 1 2 3 0 9 1 2 0 12 1 2 0 8 1 f1 19 13 13 13 15 15 22 22 16 f2 36 18 18 18 23 23 26 26 19 f3 41 21 21 21 27 27 34 34 28 25 25 25 32 32 40 40 30 30 30 42 42 42 f4 f5 f6 MAIO 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 1 0 HSN 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0002 etc... Network Design and Consulting ..

}... f4. f3. MAIO 0 Cyclic hopping sequence {. f2. f4. f4... f4. f3. f4. f5 . f2. . f1. f2. f3. f4.. MAIO 2 TDMA frame F r e q u e n c y f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 • Optimum frequency Diversity • Sufficient Interference diversity by avoiding frequency groups • No Interference diversity using frequency groups  Principle of Random Hopping TDMA frame F r e q u e n c y f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 Random hopping sequence {..Random Hopping  Principle of Cyclic Hopping Cyclic hopping sequence {.}. f1... f1.}.. f0.}. f0. f1... f1. f3. f3... . f1. f2. f2. f2. f1.. f0.. f0. f2. MAIO 2 • Optimum interference diversity • Less frequency diversity Network Design and Consulting . f2. f3. f0. f1. f2.. f1. f0. MAIO 0 Random hopping sequence {. f3 .s Frequency Planning Strategies Cyclic Hopping . f4. f4.

.4 .16 .7 .4 -7. Network Design and Consulting . . . . .16 MOBALLOC = 1 .10 . .7 . .13 .11 .6 .15 .13 MOBALLOC = 1 .9 .17 8 .4 .14 .13 . 2 .5 . .16 BCCH TRX0 TRX1 3 .. TRXFREQ = 18 .18 TRX0 TRX1 BCCH TRXFREQ = 2 .12 . .10 .s Frequency Planning Planning of Anchor Frequencies  Each TRX must be assigned with a fixed frequency which belongs to the hopping frequency group of this TRX  In case of disabling FH the TRX transmit the anchor frequency Example Frequency group 1x3 reuse: A: 1 4 7 10 13 16 B: 2 5 8 11 14 17 C: 3 6 9 12 15 18  Tool Supported Planning of anchor frequencies TRX0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 BCCH TRXFREQ = 7 TRXFREQ = 13 TRXFREQ = 4 MOBALLOC = 1.10 .

s Planning & Optimisation of Frequency Hopping in GSM Networks BSS .Database Parameters for Radio Control Features Network Design and Consulting .

1023&..... i.. Flag to enable/disable FH within the BTS BTS_ISHOPPING BTS/ PKGBTSO HOPP TRUE FALSE Source: M...10 0.e.63 Meaning Cell Allocation: list of all frequencies used in this cell except the BCCH-frequency Flag indicates whether baseband or synthesizer hopping is used Number to identify a frequency hopping system Hopping sequence number 0: cyclic hopping 1..& 0.. ...1023& .& 0..1023 BBHOP SYNHOP 1....1023 0.... (0: no hopping) Mobile allocation index offset: defining the starting frequency (number in the MA frequency list) for a hopping sequence at a certain frame number FN..63 0. Specifies the frequency hopping system (given by FHSYN) to which a channel shall belong. different channels using the same FH system shall have different MAIO..63: random hopping Mobile allocation: list of frequencies within the FH system (maximum number of frequencies = 16). Doss.s Database Parameters Administration of Database Parameters for FH (I) Specification Name CA HOPP_MODE FH_SYS_NUMBE R HSN MA FH_SYSTEM_ID MAIO Object/ Package BTS/ PKGBTSB BTS/ PKGBTSO FHSY FHSY FHSY CHAN CHAN DB Name CALL HOPMODE FHSY HSN MOBALLOC FHSYID MAIO Range 0. ICN CA CV D 22 Network Design and Consulting .10 0..

s Database Parameters Administration of Database Parameters for FH(I)  Maximum No. Of Hopping Frequencies Theoretical Limit: 16 Frequencies (BFH) Practical Limit: 15 Frequencies (SFH)  In case of SFH all Time Slots on BCCH TRX (BCCH TS. SDCCH TS as well as TCH TS) must not hop  In case of BFH the BCCH TS must not hop (FHSYID = 0) Network Design and Consulting .

s Database Parameters Administration of Database Parameters for Power Control (I) RXQUAL 7 Power Increase (bad quality) L_RXQUAL_XX_P Power Increase (bad level) U_RXQUAL_XX_ P Power Decrease (good quality) 0 L_RXLEV_XX_P POW_RED_STEP_SIZE U_RXLEV_XX_P 63 RXLEV Power Decrease (good level) Network Design and Consulting .

.s Database Parameters Administration of Database Parameters for Power Control (II) Specification Name DB Name/Object MS_TXPWR_MAX BS_TXPWR_RED POW_INCR_ STEP_SIZE POW_RED_ STEP_SIZE P_CONFIRM L_RXLEV_DL_P L_RXLEV_UL_P U_RXLEV_DL_P U_RXLEV_UL_P L_RXQUAL_DL_P L_RXQUAL_UL_P U_RXQUAL_DL_P U_RXQUAL_UL_P P_CON_INTERVAL MSTXPMAX / BTSB PWRRED / TRX PWRINCSS / PWRC PWREDSS / PWRC PWRCONF /PWRC LOWTLEVD LOWTLEVU UPTLEVD UPTLEVU LOWTQUAD LOWTQUAU UPTQUAD UPTQUAU PCONINT / PWRC Range 2..2 * PWRRED Step size for power increase in dB Step size for power reduction in dB Maximum interval for waiting for a confirmation of the new transmit power level..15 0.DB4 1.15 0.63 0.6 DB2.......63 0.31 Meaning maximum TXPWR an MS may use in the serving cell Static reduction of the TRX output power: BS_TXPWR_MAX = PBTS .7 0..D B6 DB2..7 0.DB4....31 0.... unit: 2 TSACCH RXLEV threshold on downlink/uplink for power increase RXLEV threshold on downlink/uplink for power decrease RXQUAL threshold on downlink/uplink for power increase RXQUAL threshold on downlink/uplink for power decrease Minimum interval between changes of the RF transmit power level Network Design and Consulting ..

s Database Parameters Administration of Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Specification NameObject/ DB Name Meaning Package DTX indicator uplink BTS/BTSO DTXUL 0: MS may use DTX (if possible) 1: MS shall use DTX 2: MS shall not use DTX DTX indicator BTS/BTSO DTXDL FALSE: downlink DTX disabled at BTS TRUE: downlink DTX enabled at BTS dow link n Network Design and Consulting .

1 1 10 100 7 FER@90% [%] Cyclic FH 8 Frequencies 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.1 1 10 100 2% FER RXQUAL@90% 2% FER RXQUAL@90% FER@90% [%] Cyclic FH 4 Frequencies 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.s Database Parameters Administration of Database Parameters for FH .1 1 10 100 Cyclic FH 2 Frequencies 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.1 1 10 100 2% FER RXQUAL@90% 2% FER RXQUAL@90% FER@90% [%] FER@90% [%] Network Design and Consulting .RxQual No Frequency Hopping 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.

. 5 4 . 6 5 .. 4 3 .s Database Parameters Parameter Settings for Control Loops using RxQual Measurements Handover: Default (No Hopping) HOLTHQUDL: 4 (5*) HOLTHQUUL: 4 (5*) HOAVQUAL: 8-2 3 (4*) 3 (4*) 1 1 4-1 Default SFH (> 8 HF) 5 .... 4 1 1 4-1 Power Control: LOWTQUAD: LOWTQUAU: UPTQUAD: UPTQUAU: PAVRQUAL *) as recommended by database planning Network Design and Consulting ....... 5 4 . 6 8-2 4 . 5 1 1 4-1 Default BFH 4 .... 5 8-2 3 ...

s Database Parameters Flexible Configuration of different Hopping Modes  Flexible configuration of the Hopping Mode for each cell of a BSC via BSS parameter: • • • No Hopping Baseband Hopping Synthesizer Hopping  Configuration of the first SDCCH on the BCCH TRX mandatory Network Design and Consulting .

s Planning & Optimisation of Frequency Hopping in GSM Networks Optimisation Aspects Network Design and Consulting .

SFH  Comparison SFH Tight Reuse Implementation Cases  Optimizing Radio Parameters (Thresholds for Handover and Power Control) Network Design and Consulting .s Optimisation Aspects Field Trials Points of Examination  Impact of RLC on Network Quality  Impact of RLC on Network Capacity  Comparison BFH .

TCH Drop Rate (Loss of Connection.s Optimisation Aspects Network Measurements  Performance Measurements: • Performance and Quality Indicators . Intra. Causes. SQI (Speech Quality)  Tracer Measurements: • Abis Protocol Analyses Network Design and Consulting .Dropped Call Rate • Handover Statistics (Inter. Loss during Handover) . FER. RxQual. Failures) • Uplink Interference Measurements on Idle TCH • SDCCH Performance  Test Mobile Measurements: • RxLev.

04% Call Drop Rate BS 1.59% 1.SFH 1x3 .90% 1.23% 1.0% No Hopping SFH 1x1 SFH 1x3 Dropped Call Rate 4.0% ~ 4 % Improvement 4.0% ~ 18 % Improvement 2.40% TCH Drop Rate 1.0% ~ 14 % Improvement 1.08% 1.0% 0.55% 4.0% 3.s Optimisation Aspects Performance Measurements: Quality Indicators Comparison of Drop Rates: Non Hopping .SHF 1x1 5.52% Network Design and Consulting .39% 4.

0% No Hopping Uplink Quality (Per) Distance (Per) S1 / SFH 1x3 Downlink Quality (Per) Better Cell (Per) Uplink Strengh (Per) Direct Retry (Per) SFH 1x3 Downlink Strength (Per) Network Design and Consulting .0% 20.0% Percentage of Quality HO increases Parameter Optimisation 40.0% 0.0% S1/SFH 1x3 → SFH 1x3 HAND: HOAVQUAL 5-2 → 8-2 PWRC: LOWTQUAU 3 → 4 80.0% 60.s Optimisation Aspects Handover Performance (I) Handover Performance: Inter cell HO .Causes 100.

s
Optimisation Aspects Handover Performance (II)
40,0%

UL-PC enabled from the beginning (incl. No hopping) S1/SFH 1x3 → SFH 1x3 HAND: HOAVQUAL 5-2 → 8-2 PWRC: LOWTQUAU 3 → 4

30,0%

20,0%

Optimisation of Database Parameters

10,0%

 Percentage of Intra cell HO decreased again

0,0%
No Hopping S1 / SFH 1x3 SFH 1x3

InterCellHO/TCHAssignm 34,0% 32,9% 30,4%

IntraCellHO/TCHAssignm 1,1% 3,1% 0,7%

Network Design and Consulting

s
Optimisation Aspects Handover Performance (III)
120%

S1/SFH 1x3 → SFH 1x3 HAND: HOAVQUAL 5-2 → 8-2 PWRC: LOWTQUAU 3 → 4

RXQUAL_DL > 5 RXLEV_DL > 35 100% RXQUAL_UL > 5 80% RXLEV_UL > 31
60%

40%

20%

0%

No Hopping 54% 46%

S1 / SFH 1x3 62% 38%

SFH 1x3 74% 26%

Intra Downlink Quality Intra Uplink Quality

Network Design and Consulting

s
Optimisations Aspects Influence of RLC Features on Idle Traffic Channel Measurements
Less percentage of measurements in higher bands  Reduction of

Rate of idle traffic channels per interference band

SFH + PC + DTX

99.3%

0.7%

0.0% 0.0%

Interference
SFH + PC 98.9% 1.1% 0.0% 0.0%

SFH

98.9%

1.1%

0.0% 0.0%

BFH

98.7%

1.2%

0.0% 0.0%

Non Hopping

96.3%

1.9%

0.9%

0.9%

94.0%

95.0% Interference Band 1

96.0%

97.0%

98.0%

99.0% Interference Band 4

100.0% Interference Band 5

101.0%

Interference Band 2

Interference Band 3

Network Design and Consulting

Influence of PC & DTX Implementation of PC & DTX in SFH 1x1 Increase of no. of downlink quality handovers Power Control was enabled in Downlink additionally SFH 1x1 14% 20% 8% 7% 0% 49% 2% PC. DTX SFH 1x1 23% 16% 7% 6% 0% 47% 1%  Reduction of Downlink Quality HO Network Design and Consulting . of uplink quality 50% handovers 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Uplink Quality (Per) Downlink Quality (Per) Uplink Strengh (Per) Downlink Strength (Per) Distance (Per) Better Cell (Per) Direct Retry (Per) 60% Decrease of no.s Optimisation Aspects Handover Performance .

20% No Synchr.00% No Synchr.20% 0.s Optimisation Aspects Influence of Cell Synchronisation Results of Changing HSN . HSN = a 0.1x3 and 1x1 in Reference Cells HSN = b 1. 1.80% HSN = a Synchronization 0.08 % 1.09 % 0.40% Different HSN within one site TCH Drop Rate SFH Reuse 1x3 1.07 % TCH Drop Rate SFH Reuse 1x1 1.00 % 1.00% Synchronized cells Change of HSN  No Synchronisation between the cells Network Design and Consulting .60% 0.

21% Network Design and Consulting .0% Reduction of 3 Frequencies Reduction of 6 Frequencies 4.16% 1.0% PC.6% TCH Drop Rate 1.0% 0.s Optimisation Aspects Reduction of Frequencies SFH 1x1: Reduction of frequencies 5.7% 4.0% 1.0% 3.22% 1.0% 2. DTX SFH 1x1 Carr_Red 3Fr SFH 1x1 Carr_Red 6Fr SFH 1x1 Dropped Call Rate 4.6% 4.

08% 97. Sampl Total FER Rate Samples Cumul.19% 0.32% 100% Measurement Mobile reports FER values each SACCH frame FER can only evaluated in steps of 4 % Network Design and Consulting .92% 0.95% 0.37% 99.03% 100.11% 0.14% 99.97% 0.28% 0.81% 0.63% 0. 97.03% 99.00% 1.07% 0.14% 0.08% 99.82% 0.90% 0. Perc.18% 0.73% 98.03% 99.07% 99.69% 0.23% 0.FER Evaluation (I) TTTTTTTTTTTTSTTTTTTTTTTTT26 frames = 120 ms T Traffic Channel (TCH) S Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) FER (full) 0% 4% 8% 12% 16% 20% 24% 28% 32% 36% 40% 44% 48% 60% 88% Samples 22883 407 87 26 34 46 16 13 10 6 19 6 6 6 6 23571 Percent.00% 0.27% 0.75% 0.21% 0.08% 0.20% 99.26% 0.10% 0.30% 0.03% 99.43% 0.32% 0.s Optimisation Aspects Drive Test Data .06% 99.17% 0.79% 0.04% 99.11% 99.22% 0.29% 0.03% 99.

0% 40. • Better FER samples on the hopping carriers.and FER Distribution • RxQual values of Hopping samples are worse but FER values are better.0% 70.FER Evaluation (II) Detailed Evaluation of Non Hopping BCCH vs.0% 60.0% 10.0% 10.0% 30. Hopping TCH : FER Distribution (RxLev > 10 & RxQual >4) Non Hopping BCCH vs.0% 0.0% 20.s Optimisation Aspects Drive Test Data .0% 50.0% 40. Network Design and Consulting .0% 30. Hopping TCH 60.0% 0.0% 20. Hopping TCH 0 4 8 12 FER [% ] 16 20 > 20 5 6 RxQual 7 No Hopping BCCH Hopping TCH 1x3 Hopping TCH 1x1 No Hopping BCCH Hopping TCH 1x3 Hopping TCH1x1 Hopping Gain can be seen in RxQual.0% RxQual Distribution (RxLev >10 & RxQaul >4) Non Hopping BCCH vs.0% 50.

s Optimisation Aspects Influence of Power Control on RxLev . RxQual Distribution Network Design and Consulting .

BS vendor specific implementations are feasible TEMS drive/walk test can show FH improvement on downlink speech quality BR6.s Optimisation Aspects Measuring FH improvements in the Field    Call drop rates cannot show full FH gains.for downlink. no MS reporting is standardised .0 will have measured FER statistics for the uplink and estimated FER statistics for the downlink Network Design and Consulting   . since SACCH performance is not strongly related to FH RXQUAL statistics for both uplink and downlink get worse with FH and need to be interpreted -> required RXQUAL Currently no vendor supports speech quality related FER measurements in the BSS .for uplink.

s Planning & Optimisation of Frequency Hopping in GSM Networks Summary Network Design and Consulting .

s Summary SFH Planning & Implementation for the Expansion (I)  The benefits of Frequency Hopping have been successfully verified in Field Trials by using different implementation alternatives (BFH. SFH. ⇒ Quality Feature ⇒ Capacity Feature  Using FH in real networks provides measures to enhance the reuse (overall reuse including BCCH frequencies of better than 9 maintaining speech quality at the same time) Network Design and Consulting . loose reuse. tight reuse)  Measurements showed improvements of Quality and Capacity (reduction of frequencies).

g.g. hybrid combiners)  recommended for interference limited scenarios  Implementation of Features does not replace quality and capacity improvements to be achieved via maintenance and network optimisation activities ! Network Design and Consulting . filter combiners) with low insertion loss  useful in noise limited scenarios  It is recommended to use SFH in mature high capacity networks • SFH requires wide band combining (e. • BFH allows for narrow band combining (e.s Summary SFH Planning & Implementation for the Expansion (II)  It is recommended to implement BFH as a basic feature.

s Summary Siemens Reference Networks: Synthesiser Frequency Hopping Siemens SFH Networks in           China Croatia Czech Rep. Germany Kuwait RSA Syria Taiwan Thailand USA High capacity configurations: • Network with site configurations up to 4/6/4: 4/4/4. 4/6/4 • Cells are significantly loaded with traffic • Call Drop Rate less than 2 % TCH Drop Rate better than 2% (in selected cases better than 1%) Achievable quality in the networks depends on • coverage situation • available spectrum • Traffic load and traffic distribution • homogeneity of the network and topography of the landscape Network Design and Consulting . 4/5/4.

08 Network Design and Consulting .05. 05.xx)  PLMN SBS Radio Network Parameters (SIEMENS ICN Training Institute)  PLMN SBS Performance Measurements (SIEMENS ICN Training Institute)  ETSI GSM Recommendation GSM 05.08 and 04.s Summary Additional Information  SIEMENS Technical Descriptions Base Station System (TED-BSS BR.

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