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Adverb Adverb Adverb Adverb Adverb Adverb Adverb Adverb Adverb Clause Clause Claued Clause Clause Clause Clause Clause Clause of of of of of of of of of Time （例：當……就……） Place （例：……那裡……） Reason （例：因為……所以……） Result（例：因為……以致……） Purpose（例：為了……就……） Manner（例：……好像……）（並非真實情況） Concession（例：雖然……但是……） Comparison（例：……好像……一樣……） Condition（例：如果……就……）
1. Adverb Clause of Time 連接時間副詞從句與主句的詞常見的有： when, while, whenever, as, as soon as, once, as long as, until(till), since, after, before 例如： When money speaks, truth keeps silence. ﹝當金錢一開口，真理就保持靜默。﹞
* "when"意指「當﹝一剎那﹞ 。 」 * 副詞從句可放在主句前或後，放在主句前，通常用逗號與主句隔開。 * 這例句運用擬人法。
Come when you please. Strike while the iron is hot.﹝打鐵趁熱。﹞
* "while"意指「當﹝一段時間﹞ 。 」
When (he was) young, he was not happy.
* 副詞從句的動詞用 be，而又與主要子句的主語相同，則副詞從句的主語 及 be 動詞可一起省略。
I learned English while (I was) in London. Who took your place while you were ill?
* 病了一段時間，不能用 "when"。
Whenever you go, I will follow you.
* "whenever" 意指「無論何時 。 」
You may come whenever you like. I read the letter as I walked along the river.
* "as" 意指「一邊……一邊……」
His voice trembled as he spoke the last sentence.
* "as" 意指 "when"。 1
* "as long as" 意指「只要」或「有……之久 。 」 I shall never forget your kindness as long as I live. ( 或 He arrived after I had left. He has not been well since he returned from Malaya. I love you as long as I live. I left before he arrived. It is five years since I saw her last.) ﹝我離開後，他才到達。﹞ 2. whither 例如： 2 . Wait here until I come back. * "since" 意指「自從 。 」 * 通常，主句用 "present perfect tense" ，從句用 "simple past tense"。 We have both changed since we parted. he will attack you.) ﹝他到達之前，我己離開了。﹞ He arrived after I left. you will like him. How long is it since he went to London? * 有些文法書認為主句所表達的，與其說是時間的經過，不如說是 時間的長短，因此應用 Simple Present Tense 。例如： It is ten years since I last saw him. 或 How long has it been since you had a raise in salary? 不過，也有例外的情況，若表示從過去到現在並沒有改變的性格， 則可以用 Simple Present Tense。例如： She is nervous about riding in a car since she was involved in the car accident. Adverb Clause of Place 連接地點副詞從句與主句的詞主要有： where. I caught him. whence. * "until" 意指「直到 。 」 * "till" 與 "until" 的意思一樣， "until" 較鄭重其事。 They never know the worth of liberty till they lose it. * "as soon as" 意指「一……就……」﹝兩種動作或變化的時間極短。﹞ I shall tell him as soon as he comes. wherever. Once you know him. ( 或 I had left before he arrived. 或 How long is it since you had a raise in salary ? 但英美人士卻覺得非常奇怪，他們通常會說： It has been ten years since I last saw him. * "once" 意指「一旦﹝兩種動作或變化的時差極短。﹞ Once you show any fear.As soon as the burglar came into my room.
for he was ill. Adverb Clause of Result 連接副詞從句與主句的詞主要有： so that.Where there is a will. we cannot buy it. * "since" 意指「因為」；它所帶出的原由是說話者認為聽者已經知道的。 Since we have no money. seeing it was none of his business. He could not ask questions. The beautiful sight greets us wherever we look. I will not stay now. there is a way. since. for. As I shall be here again tomorrow.﹝歸去由來處。﹞ A rudder guides the ship whither it wills. such…that 3 . 4. we may begin our discussion. * "because" 意指「因為」；它所帶出的原由是說話者認為聽者不知道的。 I love you because you understand me. for it is raining. so…that. Don't ask me whence I came. He did not come. seeing(that) 例如： He did it because he thought it right. Since everybody is present. as. * "as" 意指「因為」；它所帶出的原由是說話者認為聽者已經知道的。 She stayed at home as she had no car. Adverb Clause of Reason 連接理由副詞從句與主句的詞主要有： because. * "for" 意指「因為」；不可放在句首；前面常置逗號。 We cannot go.﹝不要問我從哪裡來。﹞ * "whence" 意指「從哪裡來 。 」 Go back whence you came.﹝有志者，事竟成。﹞ Put the book where it was. ※ 依表示理由或原因的強度比較：because → since → as → for Seeing (that) he says so. * "wherever" 意指「無論何處 。 」 * 本句運用擬人法。 Sit wherever you like. it may be true. ﹝指導員引導船往它要到的地方去。﹞ * "whither" 意指「到哪裡去 。 」 3.
4 . "so that" 及 "in order that"： 若主句動詞時態是現在時態、現在進行時態及現在完成時態， 從句的動詞形態是： will. I will not make a noise lest I should wake the child. can. * "that". "for fear that"： 主句的動詞不管什麼時態，從句動詞的形態都是： should. in order that. shall + root form； 若主句動詞時態是過去時態，從句的動詞形態是： would. * "lest" 意指「以免 。 」 * 使用"lest". * "so that" 意指「因此」或「以致」﹝with the result that﹞。 Turn it from time to time. so that. He always takes careful notes so that he may go over them after class. so that it may be cooked alike on both sides. may. I went out for a walk so that I might think the matter over in the fresh morning air. He raised his hard in order that the bus might stop. so that I could not keep my word. Finish this in order that you can start another. might + root form The farmer tied his horse to the tree lest it should run away. could. He was so excited that he could not sleep. for fear(that) 例如： He studies hard that he may pass the examination. "so that" 及 "in order that" 皆意指「以便」或「為了 。 」 * 使用"that". 5. * "so" 後接形容詞或副詞。 Oxygen is so important to life that we cannot live without it. might. * "such" 後接名詞。 He is such a liar that no one believes him. Adverb Clause of Purpose 連接目的副詞從句與主句的詞主要有： that. He is such a good teacher that every student likes him. should + root form They hurried that they might not miss the train.例如： The train was late. lest.
I must smile. 2. * "even though" 意指「即使 。 」 However difficult it may be. but I must smile. Adverb Clause of Concession 連接讓步副詞從句與主句的詞主要有： though. * "however" 意指「不管怎樣 。 」 7. Although he is young. 4. * "for fear (that)" 意指「唯恐 。 」 I took an umbrella with me for fear that it should rain. but I must smile. yet (still) I must smile. he is wise. you will have gained experience. I do not buy it.I put the milk on the shelf for fear (that) the cat might get at it. he was not successful. 3. 5. yet (still) I must smile. he went out without an overcoat. ﹝錯誤﹞ * "yet" "still" 副詞。 Even if you fail. although. Although (Though) my heart is breaking. however 例如： Though it is cheap. My heart is breaking. even though. My heart is breaking. 6. we will do it. Although (Though) my heart is breaking. * "although" 與 "though" 的意思一樣，而 "although"的語氣較為堅定。 * "although" 多用於句首。 Although it was so cold. Though he tried hard. as though 5 . I will go. Although (Though) my heart is breaking. even if. ※ 在中文裡，使用了「雖然」，隨即使用「但是 。 」 在英文裡，用了 "although"或 "though"，不能再使用 "but"； 用了 "but"，就不能再使用 "although"或 "though"。 例如：雖然我的心破碎，但是我必須微笑。 1. as if. Adverb Clause of Manner 連接方式副詞從句與主句的詞主要有： as. * "even if" 意指「即使 。 」 Even though it rains.
I have done it as it should be done. * "as if"意指「恰如﹝並非完全一樣﹞ 。 」 * "as if" 從句的動詞用假設語氣，因此用 "were"。 不過，在現代口語，有時亦用直說方式﹝現在時態、過去時態、 未來時態等﹞代替假設方式﹝過去時態、過去完成時態﹞。 假設方式強調「非現實性」，直說方式則著重「可能性 。 」 以前，英文文法規定，在 as if 從句中要用假設方式，例如： It looks as if it would rain. * 「教堂老鼠」意指沒有東西吃的老鼠。 I am as busy as a bee. 現代英文文法漸改用簡潔的直說方式，例如： It looks as if it will rain. so…as.例如： You should pronounce this word as your teacher pronounces it. Do in Rome as the Romans do. She is not so tall as he (is). He speaks English as though he were an Englishman. 8. than 例如： He is as poor as a church mouse. 6 . She is not as tall as he (is).﹝他過去一如你過去那麼窮。﹞ She is as tall as he (is). ※ 若從句與主句的動詞時態相同，則 "are" 可隱藏； 若從句與主句的動詞時態不不同，則 "are" 不可隱藏。 例如： He is as poor as you were. The baby laughed as if he had understood your expression. * "as though" 意指「恰如 。 」 They talked as though they had been friends for years.﹝他過去一如你現在那麼窮。﹞ He was as poor as you (were). * "as" 意指「一如﹝完全一樣﹞」 * 上句可改為： You should pronounce this word as your teacher does it. He is as poor as you (are). Adverb Clause of Comparison 連接比較副詞從句與主句的詞主要有： as…as.﹝入鄉隨俗。﹞ He acts as if he were crazy.﹝他現在一如你過去那麼窮。﹞ He was as poor as you are.
最高級 Superlative Degree ※ 形容詞的比較級和最高級的形成規則如下： 1. 比較級 Comparative Degree 3. 雙音節詞： a) 通常在原級後加 er 成比較級，加 est 成最高級。例如： clever → cleverer → cleverest narrow → narrower → narrowest b) 若以 e 收尾，則加 r 成比較級，加 st 成最高級。例如： able → abler → ablest c) 若以 y 收尾，而 y 前是輔音字母，則改 y 為 i ，加 er 成 比較級，加 est 成最高級。例如： happy → happier → happiest lucky → luckier → luckiest 3. 原級 Positive Degree 2. 單音節詞： a) 通常在原級後加 er 成比較級，加 est 成最高級。例如： great → greater → greatest tall → taller → tallest b) 若以 e 收尾，則加 r 成比較級，加 st 成最高級。例如： large → larger → largest c) 若以輔音字母收尾，而輔音字母前是元音字母，則先重複輔音 字母，加 er 成比較級，加 est 成最高級。例如： big → bigger → biggest fat → fatter → fattest 2. Lee is not so old as he looks. 多音節詞： 在前面加 more 成比較級，加 most 成最高級。例如： beautiful → more beautiful → most beautiful important → more important → most important 4.* "as…as" 在肯定句或否定句中皆可用，而 "so…as" 只在否定句中使用。 I cannot do it so quickly as you. ※ 在未介紹 "than" 這個從屬連詞的用法前，先介紹形容詞的比較級 和最高級。為了表達形容詞的不同程度，形容詞可分三級： 1. Mr. 還有一些單詞的比較級和最高級是不規則的： 原級 比較級 最高級 good / well better best bad / ill worse woest 7 .
* "so long as" 意指「只要 。 」 I will sell you this camera on condition that you pay in cash. Mary is two years younger than I. 表示假設情況有可能或很可能實現 句式：從句﹝if + 動詞現在式﹞ / 主句﹝will / may /… + 原型﹞ 8 . suppose. Two heads are better than one. what shall we do? * "suppose" 意指「假使 。 」 Supposing he cannot come. on condition (that). * "providing" 意指「假使 。 」 Suppose she refuses. who will do the work? * "supposing" 意指「假使 。 」 You will fail unless you work harder. provided that. * "provided (that)" 意指「假使 。 」 I will do so providing you agree. you may borrow it. in case. I will not cry. providing. * "unless" 意指「除非 。 」 ※ 根據條件副詞從句所表示的假設情況是否可能實現，可分以下 幾種類型： A. supposing. * "if" 意指「如果 。 」 * 從句的動詞用現在時態表示將來發生的事情。 In case he gives me a phone call.many / much little far old more less farther / further older / elder most least farthest / furthest oldest / eldest 例如： He is older than I. * "on condition (that)" 意指「在……條件下 。 」 I will go provided that you go. Adverb Clause of Condition 連接條件副詞從句與主句的詞主要有： if. unless 例如： If you go away. * "in case" 意指「萬一 。 」 So long as you keep the book clean. tell him that I will call him back. 9. so long as.
假設情況不可能實現並且跟過去的事實相反 句式：從句﹝if + had + 過去分詞﹞ / 主句﹝would / should + have + 過去分詞﹞ 例如： If you had reached the station earlier. ﹝如果我有錢【現在沒有】，我會借一些給你。﹞ If I were a bird. you should have caught the train. I would talk with the American businessman. B. ﹝如果你早些到達火車站【剛才沒有早到】，你應趕上那班火車。﹞ If I had seen him yesterday. I will visit you. ﹝如果我是皇帝【現在不是】，你就是皇后。﹞ If I knew English. ﹝如果我是一隻鳥【現在不是】，我立刻飛到你那裡去。﹞ If I were a king. ﹝如果我懂英語【現在不懂】，我會跟那個美國商人商談。﹞ C. 表示假設情況不可能實現並且跟現在的事實相反 句式：從句﹝if + 動詞過去式﹞ / 主句﹝would / should + 原型﹞ 例如： If I had money. I should lend you some.例如： If I have time. bring me my umbrella. I would fly to you at once. If it rains. ﹝如果我昨天見到他【昨天沒有見到】，我會告訴他這個消息。﹞ 9 . you would be a queen. I would have told him the news.
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