Title no. 107-S01


Experimental Study of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns Subjected to Near-Fault Ground Motions
by Hoon Choi, M. Saiid Saiidi, Paul Somerville, and Saad El-Azazy
Recorded fault normal, near-fault earthquakes typically exhibit a high-velocity pulse due to the superposition of S-waves. Shake table tests were conducted to investigate the effects of near-fault ground motions on the seismic performance of bridge columns that are designed for near-fault earthquakes. Four large-scale reinforced concrete circular columns with different initial periods were tested. The design spectra included the current California Department of Transportation spectrum and a new spectrum developed in this study. The most distinct measured column response was the relatively large residual displacements even under moderate levels of motion. The shake table test results revealed that it is necessary to control residual displacement at the design stage. The data also showed that the plastic hinge length in sufficiently confined columns subjected to near-fault earthquakes is comparable to that of columns experiencing far-field motions.
Keywords: bridge column; dynamic response; near-fault ground motion; reinforced concrete; residual displacement.

INTRODUCTION Ground motion records obtained in recent major earthquakes have shown that near-fault ground motions are different from far-field motions, which form the basis of most seismic design guidelines. Near-fault ground motions often contain a strong and long period velocity pulse that could cause severe structural damage. Because many near-fault ground motions have been recorded mostly in recent years, the importance of high-velocity earthquake pulse on structures has only recently been realized. The typical approach in current seismic design provisions to address the near-fault earthquake effects is to amplify the base line design earthquake forces by either increasing the ground acceleration or directly applying a modification factor on the design base shear. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) Seismic Design Criteria (SDC) (2004) document requires site-specific analysis of potential earthquakes when the bridge is located near a known active fault for critical bridges. This process is costly and long. “Near-fault” is defined as a region within 10 miles (16.1 km, but rounded to 15 km) of the fault. For noncritical bridges, the Caltrans SDC specifies a correction factor of up to 1.2 that is applied to spectral acceleration for far-field ground motions. This amplification factor only affects the demand part of the design procedure. More than 73% of bridges in California are close to known active faults (personal communication 2005). Data for other earthquake-prone states are not available. Nonetheless, the data for California indicate that near-fault earthquake effects could be potentially critical. The effects of near-fault ground motions on structures have been studied by a number of researchers. According to studies by Abrahamson (1998), directivity (dependence on the rupture direction) is one of the primary factors affecting ACI Structural Journal/January-February 2010

motion in the near-fault region. Near-fault ground motions may include a strong pulse only if the rupture direction runs toward the site. Somerville (2002) reported that near-fault forward rupture directivity velocity pulse is a narrow band pulse whose period increases with magnitude. This magnitude dependence of the pulse causes the response spectrum to have a peak whose period increases with magnitude, such that the near-fault ground motions from smaller earthquakes may exceed those of larger earthquakes at intermediate periods (approximately 1 second). Chopra and Chintanapakdee (2001) concluded that the velocity-sensitive region for near-fault motion spectra is much narrower, and the acceleration-sensitive and displacement-sensitive regions are much wider, compared to far-field motions. A study by Hamilton et al. (2001) found reduction in plastic hinge length under pulse-type ground motions based on quasi-static and pseudo-dynamic column test results. High strain rates were measured in columns subjected to a loading protocol that included effects of impulsive near-fault ground motions in a study by Gibson et al. (2002). The study states that the effects of impulsive loading can be included by modifying the steel and concrete properties for the high strain rate induced during impulsive loading. The studies by both Hamilton et al. (2001) and Gibson et al. (2002) also concluded that impulsive loading has little effect on the displacement ductility capacity for well-detailed flexural columns. Kawashima et al. (1998) reported that residual displacement magnitude is dominated by column stiffness ratio, which is the plastic stiffness divided by the elastic stiffness. Other parameters, such as structural period, soil type, ductility, earthquake magnitude, or epicenter distance, are not significantly correlated with residual displacement. Based on this finding, a residual displacement prediction method was developed. They stated that impulsive loads could potentially cause higher residual displacements than those estimated using an analytical model that they developed. Phan et al. (2007) found that the most unique measured response characteristic from two large-scale shake table results was the large residual displacements. They found that existing hysteresis models were unable to estimate residual displacements accurately and developed a new hysteresis model. A framework for the evaluation of reinforced concrete bridge columns with respect to the control of residual displacement was proposed.

ACI Structural Journal, V. 107, No. 1, January-February 2010 MS No. S-2007-400.R2 received April 22, 2009, and reviewed under Institute publication policies. Copyright © 2010, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved, including the making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copyright proprietors. Pertinent discussion including author’s closure, if any, will be published in the November-December 2010 ACI Structural Journal if the discussion is received by July 1, 2010.


in 2008. Korea. The effectiveness of these provisions. These static ground displacements occur at approximately the same time as the large dynamic motions. Earthquake-Resistant Concrete Bridges. Flexure and Axial Loads (Structural Concrete Building Code). In the study presented in this paper. Near-fault ground motions also often contain permanent ground displacements.Hoon Choi is a Bridge Engineer at URS Corporation in Roseville. were designed based on a new spectrum that was developed in this study to evaluate the effect of this spectrum on the response. He received his BS and an MS from Kyung Hee University. and his PhD in civil and environmental engineering from the University of Nevada-Reno. that will be discussed subsequently. repair and retrofit of structures.5 seconds) because of the superposition of S-waves emanating from different parts of the fault as it ruptures. hence. and his MS and PhD from the Ohio State University. Data are also listed for two other previously tested columns. Only a limited number of experimental studies have focused on near-fault motion effects on concrete structures and. SETN and SVTN. The difference between MN and ETN was the initial cracked stiffness period of the prototypes represented by these columns. BC. Paul Somerville is a Principal Seismologist and Manager of the Pasadena Office of URS Corporation. The second group. The specimens in the first group were labeled MN and ETN. To accomplish this goal. The prototype period associated with MN and ETN was 0. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE Near-fault motions in recent earthquakes have been particularly destructive due to their high-velocity pulse. His research interests include the development of physics-based strong motion prediction models. none have simulated representative near-fault earthquakes using shake tables. 4 . Table 1 presents detailed information for the test models. and tested in the Large Scale Structures Laboratory in the University of Nevada-Reno (UNR). 9F1 and NF-1. The goal was to determine the effect of using different design spectra on similar columns. which were designed according to the current Caltrans seismic design criteria (SDC) (2004) and new proposed design spectra. Saiid Saiidi. Saad El-Azazy is the Seismic Research Program Manager at the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). the arrival times for the waves from different parts of the ruptured fault are different and. Vancouver. typically contain a strong velocity pulse in the fault normal direction.1 (personal communication 2005). SETN was designed to match the initial prototype period of ETN. Egypt. The design of the fullscale prototypes was completed first. The design of 9F1 and NF-1 was based on the Caltrans SDC (2004) provisions for far-field earthquakes. CHARACTERISTICS OF NEAR-FAULT GROUND MOTIONS Near-fault ground motions. followed by scaling of the specimens for shake table testing. Canada. and material properties used in the design of the first group were used in the design of the second group. Measured records and analytical studies have shown that forward directivity leads to high-velocity impulsive shaking on structures with a relatively long period (T > 0. These ground displacements are caused by the relative movement of the two sides of the fault in which the earthquake occurs. OH. and his MSc and PhD from the University of British Columbia.5 seconds (SETN) and the other with a prototype period of close to 2 seconds (SVTN). Forward rupture directivity occurs because the rupture front propagates at the same velocity as the site shear wave velocity (Abrahamson 1998). were tested on a shake table under near-fault ground motions. his MS from Oregon State University. He has served on several other ACI committees in various forms including subcommittee Chair. however. has not been studied. The design of the first two was based on the Caltrans SDC version 1. CA. however. 2007). NV. The Caltrans SDC3 provisions were used to design both columns. The soil type. His research interests include structural testing. OR. The purpose of testing SVTN was to determine the response ACI Structural Journal/January-February 2010 The purpose of the study presented in this paper was to investigate near-fault ground motion effects on reinforced concrete bridge columns that are designed for near-fault earthquakes using shake table testing and analysis. In the rear of the rupture direction. a more distributed velocity history with smaller amplitudes and longer duration is measured (Somerville 2000).3 (Caltrans 2004) to satisfy the current Caltrans near-fault provisions with a target displacement ductility capacity of 5. respectively. Testing of MN demonstrated the effect of using the provision of Caltrans near-fault motion amplification on the response. except for the study by Phan et al. FACI. indicating that the static and dynamic displacements need to be treated as coincident loads (Somerville 2002). The models were divided into two groups. He is the founding (and a former) Chair and a current member of ACI Committee 341. These displacements are discontinuous across a fault having surface rupture and can subject a bridge crossing a fault to significant differential displacements. Specific design provisions have been developed by Caltrans. which have caused much of the damage in recent major earthquakes. He received his BSc from the University of New England. is the Director of the University Office of Undergraduate Research and a Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering at the University of Nevada-Reno. however. Columbus.05 to 0. dynamic shake table testing with realistic near-fault ground motion records was used to evaluate the performance of bridge columns and determine if the current Caltrans near-fault provisions and proposed design response spectra are satisfactory. Corvallis. Seoul. four large-scale reinforced concrete bridge columns. Australia. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES Test specimen details Four large-scale reinforced concrete bridge columns were designed. He received his BS from Cairo University. MN was comparable to Columns 9F1 and NF-1 that were tested previously at UNR (Choi et al. Joints and Connections in Monolithic Concrete Structures. Giza. He is also a member of ACI Committee 318-D. whereas spectral acceleration for SETN was determined from the proposed spectrum. The purpose of testing these models was to determine the adequacy of the current Caltrans provisions for near-fault ground motions. (2007). seismicity of the site. M. The other two columns (Group 2) were designed based on new spectra that were developed in the course of this study.5 seconds. The axial load index (defined as the ratio of the axial load to the product of the gross column section area and the specified concrete compressive strength) was 0. the spectral acceleration for ETN was based on the current Caltrans near-fault spectrum. The models were all flexure-dominated circular spiral columns tested as cantilever members. constructed. His research interests include bridge seismic retrofit and performance of new bridges. and Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 352.66 and 1.08 and was representative of the axial index in typical modern bridge columns. Reno. which ranges from 0. and earthquake engineering of reinforced concrete bridges. one with a prototype period of approximately 1.

and then adjusted for forward directivity effects. Furthermore.825 20 Fig. Compared to the Caltrans near-fault spectrum.9 1. pretest analytical studies ACI Structural Journal/January-February 2010 Table 1—Specimen details Group 1 NF-1/9F1 Height.3 in.50 0.25 seconds or higher. The dimensions and reinforcement are listed in Table 1. and 200 kN (45 kips) for SVTN. The distance from the station to the fault was 7. thus maintaining the maximum velocity ratio between near-fault and far-field motions.8 (108. The average measured yield strength of the steel bar samples was 490 MPa (71 ksi) for MN and ETN. 2005).9 1.5) 0.41 (16) 0.4 mi)./s].1 MPa (6. s Spectral acceleration. curvatures.0 1. Details of the instrumentation are presented in Choi et al.25 seconds.5 2.6 2. The time axis of the input record was compressed by the square root of the scale factor to account for the scale effect. One of the 10 records was synthetic and the other nine were measured records collected in different countries during different earthquakes of different magnitudes. Most of the instrumentations were located in the plastic hinge regions.52 mm (3/8 in. At a period of 2 seconds. The original Rinaldi velocity history without time compression is presented in Fig.) maximum aggregate size.79 0. The new spectrum is based on the median of the Abrahamson and Silva (1997) relationship.of a long-period column designed according to the new design spectrum.) Longitudinal steel ratio. 1—Reinforcement details for Column MN.75 Caltrans Caltrans Caltrans Somerville Somerville far-field near-fault near-fault 0.05 7. 1. Input motions The fault normal component of the acceleration record at the Rinaldi receiving station recorded during the 1994 Northridge earthquake was simulated using a shake table. The specimens were fixed to the shake table. The specified yield strength for all the reinforcement was 420 MPa (60 ksi).750 30 1. Test setup and instrumentation The shake table test setup for all the test columns was identical.30 (12) 3.54 7.36 0. and a mass rig system that was rigidly connected to the top of the columns provided the mechanism for inertial loading.75 0.1 km (4.8 (108. Various instrumentations were used to measure the internal strains.0 0. % 1. (2007).5 2. ETN. and forces. using 10 near-fault ground motion records (including Rinaldi) showed that the Rinaldi record led to large ductility demands without exceeding the shake table capacity (Saiidi et al. a peak ground velocity of 1. The axial load was applied using a hydraulic jack and prestressing bars anchored to the shake table. however. and 476 MPa (69 ksi) for SVTN. Other models were similar. displacements. The average measured concrete strength at testing was 44. Note that the velocity amplitudes are also reduced by the square root of the scale factor. Details of MN are shown in Fig. The scale of the specimens was 30% except for SVTN in which the relatively long target period necessitated a change of scale to 20% to accommodate the maximum height limit of the test setup.5 (98. m (in. the modified spectrum shows considerably higher spectral accelerations (SA) at periods of 1. The specified concrete compressive strength was 34.8 (72) MN ETN Group 2 SETN SVTN 1.37 4.5) 2. The total equivalent weight of the inertial mass was 276 kN (62 kips) for MN.953 30 1.397 30 1.5 MPa (5 ksi) with a 9. A modified spectrum with site parameters similar to the current Caltrans design spectrum that had been used to design Specimen MN and ETN was developed.9 MPa (6.4 ksi) for MN and ETN. and a peak ground displacement of 289 mm (11. Figure 2 shows the modified spectrum for moment magnitude 7. The fault normal component of this motion has a peak ground acceleration of 0.92 4. % Transverse steel ratio. 441 MPa (64 ksi) for SETN.66 m/s [65.4 in.72 1. accelerations.8 ksi) for SETN and SVTN.36 (14) 3. the Caltrans spectrum has higher spectral accelerations. % Aspect ratio ARS curve Prototype period.5 and 0. The hydraulic line for the axial load system was connected to an accumulator to minimize fluctuation of the axial load during testing. m (in.6g peak ground acceleration (PGA). The same reduction factor applies to the velocity of far-field motion. They all included relatively high-velocity pulses. 5 .66 1.838 g.5) 2. At periods of 1ess than 1. 3. and 46. New acceleration response spectrum The seismological part of the study included refinement of existing broadband near-fault spectra to provide a realistic level of demand incorporating forward rupture directivity effects.36 (14) 2.) (Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center 2007).275 33 0.2 0.36 (14) 0.82 8.) Diameter. This record was selected because it contains forward directivity effects. the increase is approximately 35%. and SETN.6 (63) 2. g Scale.

60R * * * 0.85S† 0.75 0.60R * * * 0.01 1. Even though ETN did not fail.75R* 0.20R* 1.20R* 0.25 0. 4—Acceleration histories of Rinaldi and RRS motions.50 0. Specimen ETN Thirteen simulated earthquake runs were applied on ETN. one longitudinal bar ruptured.45R 0.10R* 0.50 0.75S † † † R is Rinaldi.83 0. it was tested to 0. After Run 8.04 0.50 0. Testing of ETN ended after Run 13 without any bar rupture because. g 0.13 NA NA NA NA 0.25 0. 2). The cover concrete started to spall at the column base on the south face during Run 6.85S† 0.15 of drift ratio (the horizontal ACI Structural Journal/January-February 2010 Fig.05S† 1. the residual displacement was visible and spirals were exposed on both the north and south faces of the column.04 0.75 0. Damage during the first four runs was limited to flexural cracks.10R* 0. Multiple intensities of input motion were applied to the test models in the north-south direction with gradually increasing amplitudes to failure or when the shake table reached its limit.88 1.17 0.05R* 0.25 0.38 0.01 1. the RRS velocity record shows a large pulse first.25Sv 1. Figures 3 and 4 show the velocity and acceleration histories of the original Rinaldi and RRS records. and damage penetrated the core by approximately 51 mm (2 in. the column exhibited permanent displacement.95S † 0.60R * * * 0.98 1. 3—Velocity record of Rinaldi and RRS motions. The testing program is presented in Table 2.63 0.05S† 1. g Factor PGA. the mass rig system reached its displacement limit of 406 mm (16 in. and Fig.65 0.38 0.15S† 1.35R* NA NA NA NA 1.17 0. This allowed the evaluation of the column performance under different earthquake levels.05R* 0.25 0. S is Rinaldi Receiving Station (RRS).45S 1.08 0.59 0. flexural cracks extended on the north face of the column during subsequent runs.05R* 0.20R* 0.65 0. the direction of residual displacement was changed to the north after Run 9.71 NA NA NA NA NA 0.75R* 0. extensive damage was localized in the lower third of the column. This was because as the specimen softened and its period was elongated and became close to the period of the return pulse in the input record. Similar to MN.53 0. Because the primary direction of displacements was toward the south.35S† 1. Several flexural cracks were formed near the base on the north side during Run 4.59 0. Fig. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 * † 1.30R 0.65R NA NA * 1.26 1.35R* 1. g Factor PGA.90R * 0.77 0. g Factor PGA. 2—Design spectra. Damage to the core concrete was evident after Run 10.13 1. 6(a) shows the permanent displacement after the last test.Table 2—Loading program MN Run 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ETN SETN SVTN Target Target Target Target Factor PGA.08 0.).20R* 0.38 NA NA 0.10R* 0.71 0.08 0.90R * 0.30R 0.45R 0. Note: NA is not available. followed by several medium-amplitude pulses. During Run 7. After Run 11.30R 0.45R 0. During Run 11.63 0. several other longitudinal bars buckled. during Run 13. the north extreme longitudinal bar yielded.38 0. Figure 5(a) shows MN after failure.30R 0.88 1.05R* 1. the spiral bar yielded and four spirals were exposed.53 0.04 0. thus causing reversal of residual displacement.08 0.60R * * * 0. Unlike MN. The specimen began to exhibit visible cracks after Run 2.04 0.05R* 1.05R* 0.20R* 1.17 0. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Specimen MN Eleven simulated earthquake runs were applied on MN.50 0.08 0. During Run 3. Spalling began during Run 5.95S † Fig.).15S† NA NA NA NA NA 1.89 0.38 0. but there was no visible core damage.50R* 1. the Rinaldi Receiving Station (RRS) motion was applied for high-amplitude tests to place high ductility demand on the columns. 6 .60S 1. The existing cracks on the north side had widened and the spalled area increased through tests.45R 0.20R* 0.17 0. The RRS record was a synthetic motion generated by matching the Rinaldi motion to the new acceleration response spectrum (Fig.10R* 0. Considerable concrete spalling at the column base was observed after Run 6. Like the actual Rinaldi motion. In SETN and SVTN.

Similar to other tall columns. During the large-amplitude RRS Runs 13 to 15.5 in.Fig. Fourteen spirals were exposed due to 343 mm (13. 5—(a) MN. 6(b) shows the column with residual displacement after the last run. A displacement transducer failed during the last run due to large displacement of the column. Figure 5(b) shows the damage state and Fig.) was developed. there was no visible concrete core damage or reinforcing bar damage. (c) SETN. Four spirals were exposed. Nine spirals on the south side and two spirals on the north side of the column were exposed. the RRS motion was applied at high amplitude tests (Run 7 and higher) to evaluate the column performance under a consistent motion. and (d) SVTN with residual drift. Ten runs were applied. but the column was left with large residual displacement. In the first six runs. The residual displacement was 91 mm (3. Most of the cracks were in the plastic hinge region. Even with approximately 14% of residual drift. hence. the lateral column ACI Structural Journal/January-February 2010 displacement history was not recorded during this run. (b) ETN. After Run 8. During Run 5. 6—(a) MN. After the initial four runs. with extensive spalling appearing on south side in the lower portion of the column. Similar to ETN. 6(d) shows SVTN with the large residual drift after the tests. This trend continued through Run 9. 5(c). Spalling increased on the south side to a height of 203 mm (8 in. 7 . and (d) SVTN after the last test. the Rinaldi motion was used to compare performance of SETN with ETN. SVTN did not fail.) and five spirals were exposed during Run 7. Therefore. but there was no significant degradation in the concrete core.6 in. Extensive spalling occurred on both sides of the specimen during Run 12. 5(b).) of concrete spalling on the south face. Fig. Run 8 caused more flexural cracks. Extensive spalling of concrete on both sides of the column can be seen in Fig. displacement divided by column height) and a large residual displacement of 330 mm (13 in. long flexural cracks were formed and concrete spalling at the south side of the column base was observed. Severe concrete spalling on the south side of the column can be seen in Fig. Specimen SVTN Fifteen simulated earthquake runs were applied on SVTN. Specimen SETN Because SETN was designed based on the newly developed ARS curve. (c) SETN. SVTN reached the displacement limit of the mass rig system during Run 15. Minor flexural cracks appeared starting in Run 3 on the north side of the column base. SETN met the mass rig displacement limit during Run 10. (b) ETN. the longitudinal bars were exposed and flexural cracks widened.) after Run 12. Figure 6(c) shows SETN after the test. only minor cracks were visible on the north side. Figure 5(d) shows the damage after taking off external gauges from the west side of SVTN and Fig. SETN was visibly tilted and three more spiral hoops were exposed. and spalling began on the south side of the column at the column-footing interface.

9F1 was subjected to the 1940 El Centro ground motion. This trend was expected because all the models were flexure dominated with sufficient confinement steel. SETN. (b) ETN. The pulse pushed the columns to swing in a whiplike fashion and generated large displacements in one direction. The curves were all relatively wide. Because this single pulse contains most of the earthquake energy. All the columns exhibited ductile behavior. which is comparable to ETN with respect to the period. The same effect was not observed in SETN. For each column. The velocity pulse in the Rinaldi motion has a peak value of 1660 mm/s (65. Note that because ETN. in part. Thus. The higher longitudinal and transverse steel in SETN did not seem to reduce the level of damage for the same drift ratio. the residual drifts in MN and NF-1 also increased. The column continued to deform more in subsequent runs. This half-cycle pushed the column in the opposite direction. and (d) SVTN. Unlike MN and NF-1. the maximum longitudinal bar strain in SETN was 64% higher than that of ETN. For example. the columns did not undergo full displacement reversals. and the additional ductility capacity due to the Caltrans near-fault provisions is not necessarily consequential. and 9F1. It should be noted that the ACI Structural Journal/January-February 2010 . Note that the ductility capacity of NF-1 exceeded 10. and SVTN did not fail. (c) SETN. at 10% drift.5. 2007). The residual displacement was cumulative in all the columns except for ETN. the period elongation of SETN from previous runs could not affect the direction of residual displacement. Even though NF-1 and 9F1 were nearly identical. because the number of cycles in the new spectrummatched RRS motion used in SETN was higher than that of the Rinaldi motion used in ETN. a backbone envelope curve was developed based on peak forces with the corresponding displacements for different runs. The envelopes for the predominant direction were idealized by elasto-plastic curves to estimate the maximum achieved displacement ductilities. It can be seen that the hysteresis curves are highly asymmetric. reflecting asymmetric input motions. Residual displacements All of the specimens experienced high magnitudes of residual displacement due to the large velocity pulse of the ground motion./s) in one direction and 721 mm/s (28. MN and NF-1 had considerably higher residual displacements due to the characteristics of the Rinaldi ground motion. 8.6. indicating reasonable energy dissipation capacity in all the columns. NF-1. Force-displacement relationships The cumulative measured hysteresis curves are shown in Fig. Displacement histories The measured column lateral displacement histories are shown in Fig. the actual ductility capacities of those columns would be higher than these values. 2007).7 for MN.Fig. Among these columns. The long effective period of ETN matched the period for the return velocity half-cycle that followed the main pulse. 7. the internal strains were higher and the damage was more extensive in SETN. Figure 9 shows the measured residual drift ratio versus PGA for MN. These columns had the same height. NF-1 experienced up to 50 times higher residual displacement than 9F1 did (Phan et al.2. 7—Displacement histories for: (a) MN. This shows that the current Caltrans near-fault provision could improve column performance compared to the column designed without consideration of near-fault motions. and the pulse period of RRS was approximately two times the period of the Rinaldi motion. SETN. As the PGA increased. and 6. the ductility capacity in Specimen MN was 13% larger. Comparing MN with NF-1 (the counter-part column designed for far-field earthquakes). 2007). For comparable levels of drift ratio. The change of residual drift direction in ETN is attributed to the softening of the column due to inelastic deformations. which is sufficiently high for strong earthquakes. 8 ETN. The resulting displacement ductilities were 12. respectively. 8. Specimens NF-1 and 9F1 were identical columns tested on shake tables in previous studies (Laplace 2004. The reason is that the RRS motions were applied at high amplitude tests of SETN. and SVTN. which did not include forward directivity effects.4 in. and the maximum height of spalled concrete was 25% higher in SETN than that of ETN./s) in the other direction (Phan et al. It can be seen that all columns experienced high-amplitude deformations early during each run due to asymmetric velocity pulse in the initial part of the input motion.4 in. The effect of using the new design spectrum was evaluated by comparing the response of ETN and SETN. 7. Phan et al.

measured residual displacements are higher than they would be if a single motion. Strain rate effect The strain rate was calculated using two methods for both the tensile strains in the longitudinal steel and the compressive strains of the concrete. This trend was true only for smaller runs and changed during higher runs. Instantaneous strain rate was computed by using a seven-point central difference numerical 9 . This confirms that simply placing a higher demand design force would not lead to a reduction of the residual displacement.12. Figure 10 presents the relationship between the residual and the maximum drift ratios. and that a more direct design step is required to control residual displacement. however. The additional reinforcement was required due to the higher design spectral acceleration. the fact that 9F1. 1998). experienced a higher residual drift ratio until the maximum drift ratio of 0. This indicates that for certain initial periods and earthquake records. rather than multiple motions. Under a PGA of 0.1 g.Fig. which was also subjected to multiple motions. the shift in the effective period after 0. 9—Residual drift ratio comparison.06 of maximum drift ratio and higher. The shortest specimen. Fig. after columns experienced a large displacement that the high velocity pulse generated. SETN.05 maximum drift ratio. Even though all of the specimens were well confined and designed for near-fault ground motion. MN. contained 24% more longitudinal and 33% more transverse reinforcements than its sister column.75% were replaced after the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake (Kawashima et al. the residual displacement was relatively high. a large residual displacement might constitute “failure” because it could lead to bridge closure even though the column might be only moderately damaged. as shown in Fig. The additional reinforcement in MN led to an average of a 36% reduction in residual displacement for runs with a PGA of 0. 9 shows that the residual drift ratio was 0. except for ETN. respectively. Specimen SETN ACI Structural Journal/January-February 2010 Fig. demonstrates the effect of the impulsive near-fault motion. they could not recover the drifts. showed a less residual drift ratio from 0.04 maximum drift ratio reversed the primary direction of the column displacement. had been applied. 10(b). reinforced concrete bridge columns with residual drift ratios of more than 1. ETN. considered to be a moderate earthquake motion. It can be seen that the residual drift increased as the maximum drift increased.085 to 0.01. The data show that residual displacements from shake table tests were high. In Japan.6g. with the PGA ranging from 0. Nonetheless. In ETN. The residual drift ratios significantly increased at 0. 2005). even in MN. The figure also shows that the residual drift in SVTN was considerably lower than other test specimens. The amounts of longitudinal and transverse steel in MN were 45% and 49% more than those of NF-1. All the test models in the present study reached this threshold during the runs. 8—Measured force-displacement hysteresis curves. but the basic trend was comparable among all columns. did not exhibit any significant permanent displacements.14 maximum drift ratio. additional reinforcement could reduce the residual displacement. Figure 10(a) shows the residual drift ratio for up to a 0. compared to the longer period columns. due to higher demands from the new ARS curve. Nonetheless. thus reducing the residual drift. Although column failure is generally defined as the rupture of reinforcement and the loss of lateral strength. in reality.59 to 1.60g and higher (Choi et al.

4 (14. are described herein to demonstrate the trends. (2001) for shorter plastic hinges was not observed. 10—Residual drift ratio versus maximum drift ratio. causing peak drift ratios of approximately ACI Structural Journal/January-February 2010 . the average strain rate was calculated as a change in strain over the first yielding time period.7) Equation by Paulay 261. Plastic hinge length The “measured” plastic hinge length Lp was determined using the elasto-plastic idealization of the measured forcedisplacement and moment-curvature data. Table 3 lists the measured and calculated plastic hinge lengths. The results show that the percent increase in the yield stress due to near-fault motions is comparable to that of other earthquakes. Figures 11 to 13 present displacement responses for three of the earthquake runs applied on MN. 2007). Because the seismic response of structures depends on the dynamic characteristics of the structure and the earthquake in addition to the nonlinear properties of the structure. Using the moment area method. and φy is the yield curvature of the column. The values of percent increases from both methods ranged from 7 to 10% in tension and from 11 to 14% in compression.8 mm (12 in.⎞ ⋅ L p ⎝ 2⎠ (1) (2) Fig. The theoretical Lp was also calculated using the method by Paulay and Priestley (1992). The percent increases in the tensile and compressive yield stresses due to the strain rate effect were determined using Kulkarni and Shah’s (1998) method. The percent increases in the 9F1 test.) for the others—was used. The directivity pulse in the Rinaldi motion was strong enough to push the models into the inelastic range. (1992).2 mm (8 in. Note that ETN.8 (13. Results show that the measured lengths were generally longer than the calculated values.) 398. The average of the measured curvature over the lowermost two gauge lengths—203.8 (18. ranged from 9 to 10% in tension and was 11% in compression from both methods.8 (15.Table 3—Plastic hinge length comparison MN ETN SETN SVTN Measured. and the tensile yield strains were obtained from pseudo-static testing (with no strain rate effect) of the bar samples. method for the run. and SVTN did not fail and. φu is the ultimate curvature of the column. This issue was not studied in shake table tests but was investigated using analytical models.0) et al. The highly asymmetrical velocity of these motions is responsible for the large residual displacements.2 (13.6 (10.) for MN and three lengths.3) 424. The discussion presented in this article is based on the data presented herein and in a previous study by Phan et al. The analysis was conducted using a single-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamic analysis model with a single lumped nonlinear rotational spring placed at the base. Plastic hinge length Lp was calculated using the following equations 10 where Δu is the ultimate displacement of the column. This is because the plastic hinge length is a function of the maximum curvature in the critical section. Some examples of the analytical results. (2007). In addition to using the central difference method. Note that the strain rate in the test models is higher due to the compression of the time axis. A valid question might arise on whether the observed residual displacements would occur had only a single motion been applied. The compressive yield strain under pseudo-static loading (with no strain rate effect) was assumed to be 0. Overall assessment The most distinct response seen in shake table testing of the models under the Rinaldi motion was the high magnitude of the residual displacements even under moderate motions due to the unique characteristics of fault normal near-fault ground motions. This model was described in by Phan et al. mm (in.6 (14. and the tendency reported in Hamilton et al.7) 330.3) 337. Eq. hence. at which yielding in tension and compression first occurred in the most critical longitudinal bars. however. the magnitude of residual displacement could vary. the column that was subjected to series of the El Centro earthquake. mm (in. a trend that is observed in columns subjected to farfield earthquakes as well. SETN. Δy is the yield displacement of the column. and the columns oscillated about a new base line after each subsequent test.002.7) 464.2 (16.3) 355. A detailed description of analytical model is beyond the scope of the present paper and is presented elsewhere (Choi et al. The data in the table show that the velocity pulse in the near-fault motions did not lead to a short plastic hinge. (2007).) Δplastic = Δu – Δy Lp Δ plastic = ( φ u – φ y ) ⋅ ⎛ L – ---. (2) was used to determine the plastic displacement.0) 373. the “measured” values are lower than plastic hinge lengths corresponding to the ultimate condition. It was found that residual displacements are not necessarily increased because the column has been damaged in previous earthquake runs. and 304. because most of the plastic deformation was concentrated over that region.

The column designed based on the current Caltrans near-fault provisions showed a 36% reduction of the residual displacement compared to a column designed for far-field earthquakes. Generally. The comments from M. In this case. The ductility capacity and measured plastic hinge lengths for columns subjected to near-fault earthquakes were comparable to those of columns of the same scale tested under far-field earthquakes. In Fig. Hillis of the UNR structures laboratory for their dedicated assistance in the course of shake table testing. including more than 73% of bridges in California. The following conclusions are drawn: 1. requires reliable residual displacement spectra that have yet to be developed. is that the impulsive motion of the near-fault earthquake record led to significant residual displacement. Lucas. 2. The difference in the trend between Fig. and many bridges. The new ARS curve led to significantly higher spectral acceleration compared to the current Caltrans ARS curve at periods of 1. This trend was reversed in Fig. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This project was sponsored by California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) Grant 59A0439. thus leading to a significant residual displacement. Laplace. What is evident. But the single motion caused a larger permanent displacement. both motions led to significant residual displacements of approximately 1%. Asymmetrical. whether the motion was applied as a single motion or if it was a part of multiple motions. Under larger motions. 12 and 13 is attributed to the dynamic characteristics of the column in relationship with those of the input motion. In this figure. P. CONCLUSIONS Response of conventionally reinforced concrete bridge columns under near-fault earthquakes was investigated through shake table tests of four bridge column models. single earthquake record instead of multiple motions is applied to the model. larger residual drifts were seen even in ETN and the trend was similar to that of the other columns. 13. These drift ratios correspond to low. however. are in the vicinity of active faults. This trend is valid only for relatively stiff (short-period) columns. and D. 12. Mahan of Caltrans and H. it is clear that both motions led to significant residual displacements. Softening of the column in multiple runs could place the column in the lower energy part of the response spectrum and lead to lower maximum and residual displacements. respectively. 4. 11 (with a peak drift ratio of approximately 2%) that the individual and multiple run responses were nearly the same. The responses are shown for a single earthquake run superimposed on the displacement history for the same run when that motion is part of a series of earthquake motions with increasing amplitudes. (2007) presents a preliminary framework for the consideration of residual displacements in design. The residual displacement data for ETN and SETN show that an increase in the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement is not necessarily sufficient to reduce residual displacements. Ghasemi of FHWA are greatly appreciated. the control of residual displacement needs to take place at the design stage. 11—Calculated response for single versus multiple motions at 2% drift ratio. and high levels of nonlinearity. Yashinsky and M. high-amplitude velocity pulse due to the forward directivity of the fault normal component of nearfault motions could generate large displacements in one side. The higher demand. This framework. however.2%. this displacement is only partially recovered due to a lack of a reversed pulse. where nonlinearity is moderate. 3. however. in which the residual displacements were relatively small initially and were later reversed. 11 .25 seconds and longer. The authors are also thankful to P. 5%. both leading to small residual displacements at the end of the runs. Sample analytical results showed that significant residual displacements could occur even when a ACI Structural Journal/January-February 2010 Fig. The data presented in previous sections showed that the directivity pulse in the Rinaldi motion pushed the column to one direction and that there was not a sufficient reversed pulse to push the column back. respectively. multiple motions caused a larger permanent drift. Fig. 12—Calculated response for single versus multiple motions at 5% drift ratio. and 7%. The residual displacement needs to be checked at the design stage if the bridge is in the vicinity of an active fault. Fig. It is evident in Fig. The only exception to this trend occurred in ETN. This is attributed to the fact that residual displacements are small when the level of nonlinearity is relatively low. moderate. Because there are no written guidelines for the design of reinforced concrete bridge columns with respect to control of residual displacement in the current Caltrans SDC. in which the level of nonlinearity was relatively high (drift ratio of over 7%). Phan et al. 6. 5. Simply adding more longitudinal and transverse steel due to increased spectral acceleration with the same target ductility level was not sufficient to reduce residual displacements. 13—Calculated response for single versus multiple motions at 7% drift ratio. however. The steel and concrete strength increases due to strain rate effects induced by the impulsive near-fault record were comparable to the strength increase by far-field ground motions. did not lead to a lower residual displacement for long-period columns.

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