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Monitor_Vol.2 No.42

Monitor_Vol.2 No.42

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Published by Myat Khine

ေမာ္နီတာသတင္းဂ်ာနယ္ အတြဲ (၂)၊ အမွတ္ (၄၂)

ေမာ္နီတာသတင္းဂ်ာနယ္ အတြဲ (၂)၊ အမွတ္ (၄၂)

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Published by: Myat Khine on Feb 12, 2013
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09/17/2013

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V o l : ( 2 ) , N o .

( 42 )

Vol : (2 ) No . ( 42)

10 . 2 . 2013 (Sunday)

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6

10, 2 , 2013, Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)

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10, 2 , 2013, Sunday

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V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)

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'DtvkyuyJ ESpoufwmyg/ 'DtvkyuyJ aZmufcsvkyrmyg/ bmjzpfvvJ f kd f f kd f S Ydk qdkawmh uRefawmfwkdYu tajccHvlwef;pm;awGyJav/ vufvIyfrS yg;pyf vIyf&wJhb0awGqdkawmh tvkyfudkyJqufvufvkyfoGm;rSmyg/ 'Dtvkyf vkyfvkdYvnf; uRefawmfhom;orD; riwfap&bl;/ tvkyfudkyJ vkyfzkdY ta&; BuD;ygw,f}} [k cspfp&m? pGJrufp&m t½kyfaomhcsdwf uav;rsm; vSnfhvnfa&mif;csaewJh udkrif;olu olU&JU tajccHvlwef;pm; wpfOD;&JU 'oeudk zGifhqdk&Sif;jycJhjcif; jzpfygw,f/ vif ; i,f

8

10, 2 , 2013, Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)
(tcef ; -1) puFmylrm 0efBuD;csKyfrjzpfcif [d;wpfcsdeu vDur,;[m jrefrmjynf S k f G f l &efukefNrdKUrSm ]]rmaMumuf}} upm;zl;cJhw,f.../ olcsnf;yJ Ekdifw,f qdkyJ.../ rmaMumufqkdwmu qifpG,f odkYr[kwf yvwfpwpfwkH;awGeJY vkyf xm;wJh w½kwf½dk;&mzJ wpfrsKd;yJ.../ 4-5 a,muf upm;&wJh zJupm; enf;wpfrsKd;aygh.../ (1959) puFmylrm 0efBuD;csKyfjzpf tajcusawmhvnf; olwi;jynfukd S dk f rmaMumufvkdupm;cJhwmyJ.../ olyJEkdifw,fqkdwm odNyD;a&maygh.../ olu AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;&JU &J&ifhjywfom; ½kd;om;rIudkwefzdk;xm;? OD;Ek OD;oefYwdkY&JU jynfawmfompDrHudef;ukdoabmus twk,l? vufawGU taumiftxnfazmf atmifatmifjrifjrif upm;jycJw,f.../ 'gayrJ...? h h olrSm ]]0SufzJ}} awG&Sdw,fvdkY trsm;uajymMuw,f.../ tck ol0efBuD;csKyftjzpfu tem;,l tqifhjrihftBuHay;0efBuD; (Minister Mentor) tjzpfeJYvnf; olrmaMumufupm;wkef;yJ rmaMumuf upm;zkYd pdwf0ifpm;wkef;yJ...wJh/ oludk,fwdkif0ifrupm;awmifab;u xkdifMunhfNyD; tBuHaumif;ÓmPfaumif;awGay;wwfw,f ...wJh/ tcef ; (2) AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;uawmh Sporting Spirit tm;upm;pdwf"mwf taMumif; rdece;a>c&Si;jycJb;w,f...? Ekiia&;tygt0if b,fupm;yGJ Yf G f f h l d f H rSm rqdNk ydKifzuf? 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PINGTIANXIA

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10, 2 , 2013, Sunday

9

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)

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10

10, 2 , 2013, Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)

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10, 2 , 2013, Sunday

13

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14

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V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)

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10, 2 , 2013, Sunday

15

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)

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jynf h p H k j cif ; iS m rwwf o m y#doaE¨? wnfaqmufay[k tarodp? csdefcgrSvQif vmb&wem? zdk;xdkufpGmudk 0rf;MumNrHKodkuf? ]ol}odrf;ydkufES,f ESpfNcKdufyDwd *Grf;qDxd/ rjrif&ao;? arh&ifaoG;udk awG;awmylyef? NcdK;NcHpm;a&; udk,fav;vuf0ef arwåmrGefaMumifh vGefuRHEGrf;vs? qif;&JpG[k vkH;0pdwfwGif rNidKjiif/ zGm;jrifcsdefwef? emusif'Pfudk tmcHrsKdodyf? BudwfrSdwfonf;cH BudrfzefaZmacR;? &if;EDS;ay;vsuf aoa&;zufNydKif? ol&ifqkdifonf ydkifqkdifaoG;om; ESpfvdktm;/ edwsmEke,f?&ifaoG;i,fudk tHhbG,fawGU&?wpfcPrSm 'ku©jzpftif? vGihfysufpifí tm;tifjznfhpGrf;? a&xdyef;ES,f &Tifvef;wuf<ucspfr0/ nifomodrfarGU? xdtawGUjzifh axG;ayGUcsKdom? aw;uAsmtm; wdwfygvlav;? arha&TaoG;[k at;at;NidrfhNidrfhaw;qkdodyfonf tdyfpufcGeftm;jynfhapom;/ &ifESpfonf;jcm? &wemvdk Muifemoem;? jyKpktm;jzihf om;orD;i,f? avmui,fü usifvnfvkHUv? pGrf;tpwdkY wuf<utm;rmef? ½kef;uefvIyf&Sm; pGefYpm;yg;eyfBuD;jyif;vwfvnf; rGef;Muyfylyif? aomu0ifvsuf xifjrifao;auG; i,fygao;[k uav;yJjrifpGJrSwfxif/ tarhpdwfxm;? arwåmtm;wdkY crf;em;xnf0g aMumif;csif;&mudk uAsmtEk? pmqkdrIjzihf *kPfjyKa&;om;? aus;Zl;rsm;udk wwftm;orQ? zGihfqdkMuonf b0ocif arG;rdcif/ arG;rdrmwm? ]olU}arwåmjzihf wG,fwmaESmifwif;? jrwfEkd;jcif;udk xifvif;ay:vGif? odjriforQ csdefqjyKpk? tm;xkwfrIjzihf &wkuAsm? zGJUpDygvnf; pmay*Dw? azmfusL;jyvnf; ompG aw;csif;? pyfqdkoGif;vnf; xkHoif;BudKifa0? jc,frIef;apvsuf aocsmvTrf;NcHK? tarh*kPfrSm jynfhpkHjcif;iSm rwwfomwum;/ / ausmh0if;(rkd;n§if;)

aMomf ...taraeY w J h v m; ]tarh zdeyfyg; tarhudk,fpm; udk,fyGm;tae ½dkaoatmufarh taraeYrSm vGrf;aqGUpGmeYJ&Sdckd;onf...} oufEkdifxGef; tar om;NyHK;awmh yDwdjzm wDwmawmh MunfEl; om;idkvQif r&TifNyHK;Ekdifbl; ESvHk;ajimifhpl; .../ awmom;BuD ; armif 0 d k i f ;

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16

10-2-2013,Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42 )

tara':pk rmwmrdcif aus;Zl;&SifESihf tarrsm;tm;vkH; pk½kH;um *kPfjyKvkdufMupdkY.../ tjrwfwumhxdyfacgif wkEIdif;bufuif; b0wpfckvkH;&if;cJhol... aysmf&TifzG,ftcsdefrsm;pGmeJY rdom;pkurÇmav;udk ausmckdif;cJhol toufudk&if; avSmiftdrfwGif;rSm aecJh&ol... jynfolUb0? ighb0[k cH,lrSwfxm; BudK;pm;wJhtar pkefa&arwåmay;a0vmvkYd jynf&Gmwpf0Srf; Nidrf;csrf;apwJhtar... urÇmay:rSmwefzdk;t&SdqkH;eJY tarT;jrqkH;yef; yGifhvef;pGm*kPfwifhvdkY jynfjrefrmukd *kPfjyefYcJhwJhtar... tarhaoG; tarhom;? tarhESvkH;om; tm;vHk;udk pkaygif;paw; jrefrmjynfta&;om olUb0 rGefjrwfvSwJh tarhaus;Zl; aeYxl;aeYjrwf *kPfjyKtyfonf tarrsm;&JUaus;Zl;&Siftar... armfvl;udk0if;pdk; (jrrmvm)

ud k ; pm;xd k u f o l oHk;vlUxGwfwif? bk&m;&Sifyif rdcifaus;Zl;? atmufarhzl;um tbd"r®m? jrwfr[mudk oHk;vrQMum? a[mjyumjzifh wdyd#uwf? jynfhaptyf\ wpfEkdifaus;Zl;? qyfcJhzl;onf igolwpfyg;? vltrsm;wdkY teEÅ*kPftif? aus;Zl;&Sifudk aeYpOfvkyfauR;jyKpkay;vQif oHk;q,fhckepfrif;? qnf;uyfjcif;xuf *dkPf;*Pa,mif? bdk;awmfaMumifwdkY udk;uG,fjcif;xuf? wefcdk;xufonf pOfqufvkyfauR;Muygawmh/ pH ( ebm;) wd k ; at;ay:rS td k r d c if rarQmfrvifh? rkd;BudK;oifhodkY &ifeifhzG,f&m? onf;qwfcgrQ Mur®muHqkd;? vGrf;ZmwfrsKd;onf wkd;at;epfaom xkdwpfaeY/ xdkaeYrSonf? nnaeYaeY jrifawGUraumif;? onfjzpfaMumif;rSm tavmif;xyfrQ? jrifaecJh&/ aeY&ufvsm;í? q,fhig;&ufajrmuf cgcsdefa&mufrS? a&atmufuazmf ]wdk;at;}ay:0,f? nd§K;avsmfaMuuGJ rdcifZGJudk? toJeifhzG,fjrif&onf/ t½dk;pkrQ? <uif;aomfrSyif cspfvS&ifaoG;? olUuav;tm; axG;qJydkufqJ,k,qJ[k oJoJrJrJjyaeol/ a&pD;wvIyf? vdIif;uykwfí pkwfonfa&rTm;? pm;onhfa&ydk; taMumif;qdk;vnf;wdk;umxyfum arhonf;csmtm;?ruGmruGJydkufayGUqJ/ tdk...rdcif oifab;uif;&m? ul;cyfygí vGwf&mta0;? ajy;Edkifygvsuf rajy;&uf[k toufpaw;vkdufa&mhvm; tkd...rdcif ]udk,fvQifrcsd trdaomfvJ? om;awmfcJ}[k pGJvmqkdxkH;? pum;vkH;udk acsrIef;awmfvSefvdkufa&mhvm;/ tdk...rdcif oifESifhtwl oifhonf;tlES,f &nfwljynfhodyf? ]rdcifpdwf}jzihf ,kdzdwfarwåm? apwemudk cgcgOD;nGwfvkdufyg\/ (1973-ck ? &ef u k e f - 'vrS wk d ; at;oabF m epf p Of j rif u G i f ; ) uAsmq&mBuD ; ord e f a omif ;

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10-2-2013,Sunday

17

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)
om;aemif w Ä &Gufa[mif;awGa<u &Gufopfa0\/ Ä oaE¨wnfNyD; vljzpfcJh& tedpö 'ku©w&m;twdkif; aemufqHk;us&if Z&meJYyJ tdkrif;Mu&rnf/ Ä tarhEIwfzsm; w&m;"r®? Mo0g'pum; om;&JUESvHk;xJ pGJNrJ&pfwnf/ Ä csdefcgrjywf? qHk;rwwfwJh tarhqHk;rpum; rvdkufemEkdifcJhwJh uRefawmfom;rkdufb0 w&m;tod? &ifrSmNidcJh&ayr,fh rdkufaemifwawGeJY rcsdrqefY avQmufvSrf;&if; tqdk;trdkuf A&ayGeJY rsuf&nfawGa0hwuf&wm ntdyf&m0ifwdkif;ygav tar&,f 'Dvdkaumif;jrwfwJhtarhay;qyfrIawG om; ...bmeJYausatmifqyf&rvJ/ om;bjrif h ( ebm;) tarh a jc&m vlwdkif;vlwkdif;tar&Sd tarwdkif; tarwdkif; om;orD;tay:xm;wJh tarharwåmu½kPm apwemtwlwl&Sd om;wdkif;orD;wkdif; rdbaus;Zl;qyfenf;wlatmif jymodkvjynhf taraeYrSm tarhajc&m? cH,lxm;aomf tarr&Sdvnf; tarhajc&m jrwfae&mü odrf;xm;ylaZmf aus;Zl;awmfudk om;orD;wdkYb0 tpOfxm0& ay;qyfEkdif&efom/ oef ; xG e f ; (yef ; owif ; -Aef ; armuf ) a*:uD e J Y a bmf b D w d k Y t ar (1) a[mh'DpBuFm0Vm wdkufwpfaomif;rSm Adkufazmif;NyD; wdkufaumif;BuD;eJYaewJhtar Adkufao;av;wdkuftdrfuav;eJYaewJhtar a&TwGJavmif;aiGwGJavmif;eJYtar aevnf;raumif; aovnf;raumif;eJY a&cJacsmif;a&mif;wJhtar acgif;&Gufyswfxdk;aeYjyefwdk;eJY wpfaeYwefzdk;udk BudK;wef;avQmufae&wJhtar taMumfonf tar? wa&mfonftar yef;onftar? txrf;onftar yef;&Hortar? NcHortar tarawG ...tarawGav... NyD;awmh a&SUwef;a&mufom;eJY vufqHktwlpm;cGifhudk &wufyHktylrsm;&if; em;pGifhae&wJhtar tvkyfortar rEkótar/ (2) tajcav;acsmif;ayr,fh taraoG;rajymif;wJhtar EdkYcsKdawmif;wJh om;i,fudk wpfyg;wpfe,f ...EGm;tv,frSm csef&pfvdkY rjyefrjzpfawmhwJhvrf; BudK;wef;vef;wif;wif;qGJ&m toJem rvTJom½kef;&if; ed*Hk;rmefoGif;oGm;wJhtar (3) acG;tarjzpfayr,fh uav;awGudk rjypf&uf uJ ...a*:uD&JUtareJY abmfbD&JUtar[m bmrsm;uGmjcm;vdkYvJ/ vS p d k ; av;(Aef ; armuf ) xd k Y a Mumif h tar[k a c:onf ]tBuD;us,fqkH;aomt&m tjrifhjrwfqkH;aomt&m tcrf;em;qkH;aomt&m trGefjrwfqkH;aomt&m wefzdk;t&SdqkH;aomt&m *kPf&SdeftBuD;qkH;aomt&m thJ'g...tarhae&m wpfavmuvkH;rSmtarqdkwm b,ft&meJY tpm;xkd;vdkY&EkdifrSmvJ teEÅpBuFm0Vmxufus,fajyme,f½dIif;wJh tar&JUarwåmawmfatmufrSm om;wdkYorD;wdkY'l;axmufcpm;&if; tarharwåmaw;csKdcsKdukd vjymodkrSm usa&mufwJh taraeYtcrf;tem;eJY terf;rsm;pGmeJYyJ tarhajczrkd;atmuf 'l;axmufuefawmhvdkufMur,f rkdufonfrSm;onf? tjypf&SdorQ rmefcs0yfwGm;? ajymrSm;qkdrSm; jyKrIrSm;awG? aMuygap...} ,Of , Of o d e f ; (ebm;) tarrsm;&J U arwå m Ä tarhaus;Zl;*kPf? pmzGJUvdkYrukef pD;qif;wnfNrJ? tarharwåmzGJU El;nHhaEG;axG;? tm;tifay;NyD; tarharwåm? Oyrm&Sm; jrifhrm;cspfMuif? jzLpifat;jr om"ujyp&m? b,frSm&Smr& arwåmrGefaEG;? ,Ofaus;om,m aw;csKdomeJY nifomqHk;r ,k,Muifem? axG;ydkufumjzifh aw;qdkarS;rSdwf? aracsmhodyfcJh t&dyfay;wJh orD;wdkYarar .../ Ä om;orD;twGuf? a&SUa&;quf&ef tm;rmefawGay;? aumif;wmauR;csif jrwfrdcifrSm? avmu"Hvrf; Murf;wrf;cg;oD;? om;orD;qdkvQif toufyifao? owådawGESifh cspfae&Jwm tarh*kPf/ jzLjzL0if ; (Aef ; armuf ) td r f r uf u k a #u#m ]aumif;zdkY&nfpl; olUaus;Zl;udk txl;qyf&ef tcsdefwefNyD yHkrSefqHk;r oGefoifjywJh cspfpGmhtar usef;rmapzdkY om;av ... aeYwdkif;qkawmif;onf ...} pd k ; ouf y d k i f ( e0rwef ; )t.x.u(cG J ) ebm; tar Ä bk&m;ESifh EdIif; wpfudkif;wnf;xm; rmwmrdcifaus;Zl;&Siftar .../ Ä qefjzLoGm;a<u rsnf&nfvnf0dkif; t½dkif;pdwfr&Sdyu"d at;csrf;aewm tar .../ Ä om;orD;u tar 'gpm; b,fudkroGm;eJY w&m;eJYae bmqdkbmrS ajymp&mr&SdwJhtar .../ Ä tarhpum;onf yu"d at;csrf; om;\vrf;udkajzmifhwef;rSefuef avQmufvSrf;apwm taryg/ Ä tar½kyf&nf ElEl0J0J rGJrGJawaw t&nfwGJí tvSysufaeygap tar[m tar .../ aiG v d I i f ( Aef ; armuf ) ½d k ; jywf a wm tarh w uf a cguf o H ighom;orD;awGcHpm;ae&wJh {&m0wDjrpfqHkta&; a&Tobm0"mwfaiGUydkufaMumifh v,f,majrysufpD;&wJhta&; tmPm&SifBuD;rsm; axmufcHxm;wJh c½dkeDpD;yGm;a&;ukrÜPDawGu O,smOfNcHajreJY v,f,majrawG rw&m;odrf;wJhta&; (OD;ae0if;utp OD;oef;a&Ttv,f) vufyHawmif;awmifta&; oHCmawGudk tMurf;zufwJhta&; xm;0,fa&eufqdyfurf;aMumifh obm0ywf0ef;usif ysufpD;wJhta&; 'Dta&; 'Dta&;awGudk rajz&Sif;Muawmhbl;vm;&,fvdkY ,lusKH;r& rsuf&nfusNyD; ½dk;jywfawmu tarhwufacgufoH yJhwifnHaeaya&mhr,f/ ppf u d k i f ; 0if ; a&T ( acwå - tar&d u ef )

&yf a 0;qD u arar wpfae&mpDrSm cGJcGm a0;wpfae&mutar tqifajyapaMumif; qkawmif;ae& ylyefaMumifhMu apwemtarm om;aZm orD;aZmeJY ajr;aZmoHa,mZOf trQifrjywfpGm cspfpdwfydkuJ tarh&ifxJu arwåmvdIif; twdkif;tqrJhcHpm; tazr&SdawmhwJhom;wdkYb0 tarua&SUu &yfwnfvsuf b0tm;rmefawG&&Sdapwm b,ft&meJYrS rvJvS,fEkdifygbl;tar&,f/ om;jzLav;(c)ol & jzLav;

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18

10-2-2013,Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)
NyHK;pmayrS xkwfa0jcif;jzpfonf/ yxrtBudrfudk (1967)ckESpfwGif xkwfa0xm;jcif;jzpf&m ESpfaygif; (46)ESpMf umygrS 'kw,tBudrxwa0vmjcif;jzpfonf/ ocifjroef;onf d f k f Ekiia&;orm;? pma&;q&mjzpfay&m b0wGif pHxm;&aomyk*Kd¾ vf[vnf; d f H k qdEionf/ ocifjroef;onf ol\ pmtkyEihf ywfoufí ed'gef;[kqum k dk f f S kd 0di;zGUJ um pyfrpyf&majymqdMk uaomtcgrsm;wGif pum;0di;ü yg0ifMu k f d k f olwdkYonf rdrdwdkYawGUBuHKcJhzl;aom a&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpfrsm;taMumif;udk olwpfrsKd;igwpfzHkajymvmavh&Sdayonf/

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10, 2 , 2013, Sunday

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V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)

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&efukefwuúokdvftaqmuftOD opfrsm;ukd(1925)ckESpfywf0ef;usif wGif pwifaqmufvyconf/ t"du k f hJ taqmuftODpDrHudef;(scheme) ukd ajcmufESpfMum aqmufvkyftaumiftxnfazmfcJh&onf/ wuúokdvf e,fajr{&d,m {u(400)0,f,lp&dwfESifht"dutaqmuftODrsm; rwnf aqmufcifu wnf&SdcJhaom taqmuftODtenf;i,ftygt0if ukefus p&dwfpkpkaygif;rSm ½lyD(16ç500ç000)(aygifpwmvif 1ç237ç500)jzpf onf/ ,cif u umvuwÅ m ;wuú o k d v f E S i f h q uf o G , f z G i f h v S p f c J h o nf h tjrKawaumvdyfESpfckyg0ifaomwuúokdvfukd(1920)ckESpfwGifzGifhvSpf cJhonf/ (1932)ckywf0ef;usifwGif tzGJU0ifaumvdyf(4)ck&SdcJhNyD; (3)ckrSm wuúokdvfe,fajrwGifwnf&Sdvsuf pwkw¬jzpfaomaq;aumvdyfrSm NrdKUxJwGifwnf&Sdonf/ ,leDAmpwDaumvdyfukd (1878)ckESpfrS(1920)ckESpftxd umv uwÅm;wuúokdvfvufatmufcHtjzpf pwifzGifhvSpfcJhonf/ 0dZÆmESifh odyÜH bmom&yfrsm;wGif r[mbGJUtxday;Ekdifonf/ tif*sifeD,mESifhopfawm ynm&yfrsm;twGuf B.Sc bGJUESifh Oya'ynm&yfwGif B.L bGJUay;Ekdif aomoif w ef ; rsm;uk d zG i f h v S p f y k d Y c scJ h o nf / tif * sif e D , mynm&yf E S i f h ywfoufaom pmoifwef;rsm;ESifhvufawGUoifwef;rsm;ukd wuúokdvf tkyfcsKyfrIatmufokdY vTJajymif;&,lcJhaom Burma Oil Company Mining f Yd and Engineering College (B.O.C aumvdy)wGif ykcsonf/ þaumvdyf aqmufvkyfa&;twGuf B.O.C ukrÜPDu (aygifpwmvif 100ç000) vSL'gef;cJhonf/ tar&d u ef b uf y wpf E k d i f i H j cm;omoemjyKtzG J U utk y f c sKyf o nf h *s'f q if a umvd y f u k d (1894)ck E S p f r S ( 1920)ck E S p f t xd umvuwÅ m ; wuúokdvfvufatmufcHtjzpfzGifhvSpfcJhonf/ 0dZÆmESifhodyÜHbmom&yfrsm; wGif r[mbGJUtxday;Ekdifonf/ q&mjzpf o if a umvd y f o nf ,l e D A mpwD a umvd y f y nma&;Xme (Education Department) rS aygufzGm;cJhjcif;jzpfonf/ (1930)ckESpfwGif pwifzGifhvSpfcJhonf/þaumvdyfukdzGifhvdkufNyD;aemuf jrefrmjynfwpfjynf rsm;&Sdonf/ aq;½Hkwpf½Hk? pmwkduf wpfck?w,fvDzkef;vkdif;cGJ½Hkwpf½Hk? pmtkyqiwpfqi?f pmoifausmif; f dk f dk ES i f h tm;upm;uG i f ; yg&S d o nf h atmufajc0efxrf;rsm;aexkdif&ef &Gm?ausmif;ESifhtm;upm;uGif;yg&Sd onfh pma&;?pmcsDrsm;twGuf &Gm ponfwkdYyg0ifonf/þwuúokdvf NrdKUuav;onfApfwkd;&D;,m;uef (tif ; vsm;uef ) ab;wG i f w nf & S d onf/ uefabmifwGif a&ul;ESifh avS a vS m f & G u f w d k u f t oif ; rsm;&S d onf/ tm;upm;vkyfief;ESifh ywf u uGyfuJonf? xdef;csKyfonf/ aumvdyfrsm;pkaygif;vkyf aqmifrIonf wuú o k d v f y if j zpf o nf / The Colleges acting together are the University. wpfzufwGif wuúokdvfonf aumvdyfrsm;ukd xdef;csKyf ouJhokdY wjcm;wpfzufwGif tzGJU0ifaumvdyfwkdif;onf wuúokdvf Oya'jyKESifh tkyfcsKyfrItzGJUtpnf;rsm;wGif tzGJU0iftjzpf yg0ifMuonf/ acwfrDwuúokdvfjzpfa&;twGif umvuwÅm;wuúokdvfaumfr&Sifu csrSwfxm;onfhrlabmifrsm;twkdif; wuúokdvfuvdkufemaqmif&Guf onf / (1)oif M um;rI E S i f h a vh v mrI r sm;twG u f E S i f h A [k d r S c sKyf u k d i f x m; aomtaqmif a eausmif ; om;?ausmif ; ol r sm;\vl r I a &;b0twG u f rl0g'rsm;jy|mef;a&;? (2)ynma&;oufoufudpö&yfrsm;ukd ynma&; ouf o uf t wG u f z G J U pnf ; xm;aomtzG J U rsm;uom qH k ; jzwf a qmif &Gufa&;twGufESifh ynma&;ESifhroufqkdifaom tusKd;pD;yGm;rsm;twGuf vkHavmufaom ukd,fpm;jyKrI&Sda&;twGuf rl0g'rsm;jy|mef;a&;? (3) tkyfcsKyfa&;tmPmrsm;ESifhvkyfief;wm0efrsm;ukd wuúokdvftkyfcsKyfa&; oufvQif abmvH;ESia[mfuui; k hf D G f rsm;? c&pfuwfupm;uGif;?ajy;ckef ypftm;upm;uGif;? wif;epfuGif; (50)? Squash tm;upm;½Hk? bwf puwf a bmtm;upm;½H k r sm;ES i f h uyGJ½Hktjzpfvnf; ajymif;vJtoHk; jyKEk d i f a omypö n f ; pH k v if v S o nf h Gymnasium tm;upm;½H k w k d Y u k d wnfaqmufay;cJhonf/ ausmif; om;or*¾ taqmuf t OD E S i f h wuú o k d v f t &ef w yf & if ; twG u f enf ; jyrsm;?t&m&S d r sm;ae&ef taqmifrsm;? vufeufwdkuf? okd avS m if ½ H k r sm;ES i f h a oewf y pf u G i f ; tao;pm;wkdYvnf;yg0ifonf/ wuú o k d v f w G i f ausmif ; aqmifaepepfESifh A[kdrScsKyfukdif aompepf w k d Y u k d t ajccH o nf / a,bk,stm;jzifh wuúokdvfESifh aumvdyfrsm;ukd oD;jcm;owfrSwf cGJjcm;xm;rIr&Sdyg/ oifMum;a&; vkyfief;rsm;tm;vHk;ukd wuúokdvf ESifh ynma&;at*sifpDrsm;twGif; cGJa0ay;a&;ESifh ñSdEIdif;ay; a&;? (4)wuúokdvfa&;&mudpö&yfrsm;ukd tpkd;&\umuG,f rIatmufwGif ukd,fwkdiftkyfcsKyfrIukdtajccHvsuf pnf;urf; jzifh xdef;csKyfa&;wkdYjzpfonf/ wuúokdvf\tjrifhqHk;tkyfcsKyfrItzGJUrSm tzGJU0if(70) xuf r rsm;aomus,f u s,f j yef Y j yef Y u k d , f p m;jyKxm;onf h aumif p D j zpf o nf / aumif p D r S t zG J U 0if ( 12)OD ; yg0if a om tkyfcsKyfa&;aumfrwDu wuúokdvf\aeYpOfvkyfief;rsm;ukd aqmif & G u f o nf / wuú o k d v f \ ynma&;tzG J U jzpf a om qD ; ed w f u (1920)ck E S p f & ef u k e f w uú o k d v f t uf O ya'yg jy|mef ; csuf r sm;xuf ausmf v G e f v k y f a qmif a omvk y f & yf (okdYr[kwf) qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;ukd y,fzsufcGifh&Sdonf/ xkdYtjyif wuú o k d v f ( ok d Y r [k w f ) aumvd y f w pf c k \ 0if a iG E S i f h toH k ; p&dwfrsm;tm; xdcdkufapEkdifaom rnfonfhqHk;jzwfcsuf ukdrqkd twnfjyKEkdifonf? y,fcsEkdifonf/ qD;edwfwGif 'kwd,t"dywd? jrefrmjynfvlxkynma&;ñTefMum;a&;0ef? aumvdyfrsm;rSausmif;tkyfBuD;rsm;?ygarmu©rsm;? aumifpD

vH;k &Sd q&mjzpfoifausmif; (Normal Training Schools) rsm;ukywconf/ d d f hJ wuúokdvfwpfckwnf;uom ausmif;q&m?q&mrrsm;\ynma&;ESifh avhusifha&;twGuf wm0ef,lcJhonf/ ,leDAmpwDaumvdyf\ aq;ynmXme(Medical Department) ukd wuú o k d v f \ tzG J U 0if a umvd y f w pf c k t jzpf (1930)ck E S p f w G i f w k d ; jr§ i f h wnfaxmifconf/ þaumvdyrS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor hJ f of Surgery bGJUukd ay;tyfonf/ aumvdyfteD;ywf0ef;usif&Sd (ckwif540) aq;½HkBuD;ESifh(ckwif-200)om;zGm;rD;,yfaq;½HkwkdYu <u,f0aom aq;vufawGUoifwef;rsm;twGuf taxmuftuljyKvsuf&Sdonf/ wuúokdvfe,fajr&Sd aumvdyfrsm;twGuf ausmif;om;(1400) cefYESifh ausmif;ol(350)cefY aeEkdifaom taqmifrsm;&Sdonf/ taqmif wpfckukd taqmifteD;&SdtdrfwGifaexkdifonfh uxduwpfOD;ESifhtaqmif ae enf;jyq&mrsm;u tkyfcsKyfMuonf/ &efukefNrdKUwGif rdbtkyfxdef;ol &Sdaom ausmif;ol?ausmif;om;rsm;rSty taqmifwGif rjzpfraeae& onf/(þtcsufukd (1920)ckESpfaumvdyfoydwfu qefYusifcJhonf) jrefrmjynfvlOD;a&(13)oef;wGifyg0ifonfh wkdif;&if;om;rsm;\om;orD; rsm; ausmif;wufMuNyD; trsm;pkrSmjrefrmAk'¨bmomjzpfMuonf/ {u(400)us,fjyefYaome,fajrwGif wuúokdvfukd NrdKUwpfNrdKUuJhokdY NyD;jynfhpHkatmif wnfaqmufxm;onf/ oifMum;a&;ESifhaexkdifa&; taqmuftODrsm;yg0ifonf/ wuúokdvfwGif a&ay;a0a&;pepf? rdv’m pepf? vQyfppfjzefYjzL;a&;pepf? vrf;rsm;ESifh pnfyifom,ma&;0efaqmifrI

20

10-2-2013,Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42 )
(14) vrf;rsm;? a&Ekwfajrmif; rsm;?vuf&rf;rsm;?0if;x&Hrsm;? yif wef;pnf;½dk;rsm;ESifh vrf;ab;0J,m opfyifrsm; 2/ wuú o k d v f a umvd y f twGuf - t"dutaqmuftODrsm; wGif (1) tkyfcsKyfa&;½Hk;rsm; (2) 0d Z Æ m bmom&yf p moif cef;rsm; (3) od y Ü H v uf a wG U prf ; oyf cef;rsm;ESipmoifcef;rsm;yg0ifonf/ hf - ½lyaA'tvkyf½Hk - vQyfppf"mwftm;ay;puf½Hk - okdavSmif½Hk - *wfpfxkwfvkyfa&;puf½HkESifh
gasometer

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Fives Courts

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(6) t&efwyf&if;½H;? okavSmif k d ½H?k vufeufwu?f t&m&Srsm;twGuf kd d taqmif(5)ck (7) pmtkyfqkdif (8) pmwdkufESifhw,fvDZkef; vkdif;cGJ½Hk (9)q&mrsm;twGutaqmuf f tOD(15)ck (10) atmufajc0efxrf;rsm; twGutcef;(30)yg taqmuftOD f rsm; (11) t0dpdwGif;(7)ck? a&wif puf? jr§ifhwifxm;aoma&uef? a& ay;a0a&;pepf? ta&;ay:rD;owf a&;tpDtpOfrsm; - ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf xrif;pm;cef;rsm;ESifh rD;zkdaqmifrsm;yg0if onfh taqmif(5)ck - ausmif;olrsm;twGuf xrif;pm;cef;rsm;ESifh rD;zkdaqmifrsm;yg0if onfhtaqmif(1)ck - q&mrsm;twGufaetdrf(39)vHk; - atmufajc0efxrf;rsm;twGuf (173)cef;yg taqmuftODrsm; 3/ *s'fpifaumvdyftwGuf - t"dutaqmuftODrsm;wGif (1) tkyfcsKyfa&;½Hk;rsm; (2) 0dZÆmbmom&yfpmoifcef;rsm; (3) odyÜHvufawGUprf;oyfcef;rsm;ESifhpmoifcef;rsm; yg0ifonf/ - ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf xrif;pm;cef;rsm;ESifh rD;zkdaqmifrsm; yg0ifonfh taqmif(2)ck - ausmif;olrsm;twGuf xrif;pm;cef;rsm;ESifh rD;zkdaqmifrsm;yg0if onfh taqmif(1)ck - q&mrsm;twGuf aetdrf(12)vHk;

- oli,fwef;taqmuftODrsm; - q&mrsm;twGuf aetdrf(6)vHk; - atmufajc0efxrf;rsm;twGuf (30)cef;yg taqmuftODrsm; azmfjyygtaqmuftODrsm;ukd 1/ Burma Oil Company Ltd. rS tvSLaiG(aygifpwmvif 100ç000) jzifh B.O.C Mining and Engineering College ukd wnfaqmufcJhonf/

(12) rdv’mpepf (13) vQyfppfjzefYa0a&;ESifhvrf;rD;xGef;a&;

2/ wuúokdvfpmMunfhwdkufukd Raja Dr.S.R.Reddiar \ tvSLaiG ½lyD(200ç000)jzifh wnfaqmufcJhonf/ 3/ a'gufwmOD;ndK\tvSLaiG ½lyD(170ç000)jzifh ausmif;om; or*¾taqmuftODukd wnfaqmufcJhonf/ 4/ a'gufwmOD;ndK\tvSLaiG ½lyD(30ç000)jzifh wuúodkvfavSavSmf toif;uvyftaqmuftODukd wnfaqmufcJhonf/ 5/ Mr.Chan Chor Khine \tvS L aiG ½l y D ( 100ç000)jzif h Gymnasium ESifh Squash Courts rsm;ukd wnfaqmufcJhonf/ 6/ *s'fqifaumvdyfrS ¤if;twGufaqmufvkyfaom taqmuftOD rsm;ES i f h p nf y if o m,m0ef a qmif r I w ef z k d ; \xuf 0 uf j zpf a om½l y D (1ç233ç666)ukd xnfh0ifcJhonf/ 7/ jrefrmEkdifiHtpkd;&u e,fajr0,f,lonfhp&dwfESifhwnfaqmuf a&;vkyfief;rsm;twGuf ½lyD(14ç300ç000)(aygifpwmvif 1ç072ç500) tukeftuscHcJhonf/ armifvlrGef usrf ; uk d ; pm&if ;
The University of Rangoon. University of Rangoon New Buildings . London: Unwin Brothers Limited, 1932.

10-2-2013,Sunday

21

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)
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22

10-2-2013,Sunday

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10-2-2013,Sunday

23

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)

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10-2-2013,Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42 )
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25

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26

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42 )
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ppfpprf;Ny;D aemuf? tcif;jzpfym;&mae&m Hk G rsm;odvnf; uGi;qif;avhvmcJMh uaMumif; Yk f od&&onf/ tqdygpkprf;a&;aumfr&Siwif dS k H f G {&m0wDwdkif;a'oBuD; ZvGefrJqE´e,f jynfoUl vTwawmfu,pm;vS,f OD;wifx#f f kd f G Ouú|tjzpfyg0ifum? 'kwd,Ouú|tjzpf a'gufwmjrifhMunf(trsdK;om;vTwfawmf ud,pm;vS,?f rJqE´e,ftrSw(1) &efuef k f f k wd k i f ; a'oBuD ; )? tzG J U 0if r sm;tjzpf OD;a*sa,m0l (trsdK;om;vTwawmfu,pm; f kd f vS,?f rJqE´e,f trSw(f 12) ucsijf ynfe,f)? OD;pdk;&,f (jynfolUvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f 'DarmqdrqE´e,f? u,m;jynfe,f)? OD;pdi;f k J k oef;Edif (jynfoUl vTwawmf ud,pm;vS,?f k f k f zmyGerqE´e,f? u&ifjynfe,f)? a':eef;apm f J tGm (jynfoUl vTwawmfu,pm;vS,?f bm;tH f kd f rJqE´e,f?u&ifjynfe,f)?OD;xefve;(jynf d f ol U vT w f a wmf u d k , f p m;vS , f ? rif ; wyf r J qE´e,f?csif;jynfe,f)? OD;wif0if; (jynfoUl vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f?aumvif;rJqE´ e,f?ppfui;wdi;a'oBuD;)? OD;0if;OD; (jynf kd f fk f olUvTwawmfu,pm;vS,?f a&jzLrJqE´e,f? f kd f weoFm&Dwi;f a'oBu;D )? OD;pdexe;f (jynfoUl kd f G vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f? xef;wyifrJqE´ e,f? yJc;l wdi;f a'oBu;D )? OD;rif;aqG (jynfoUl k vTwawmf ud,pm;vS,?f 'duO;D rJqE´e,f? f k f k f yJcl;wkdif;a'oBuD;)? OD;0if;jrifh (jynfolU vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f? jynfrJqE´e,f? yJcl;wdkif;a'oBuD;)? OD;jrifhxGef; (trsKd ;om;vTwawmfu,pm;vS,?f rJqE´e,ftrSwf (10)? yJc;l wki;f a' oBuD;)? OD;pd;k atmif (jynfoUl vTwawmfu,pm; f kd f d f kd f vS,?f oJue;f rJqE´e,f? yJc;l wdi;f a'oBu;D )? OD;atmifjrif(jynfoUl vTwawmfu,pm;vS,?f *efa*g rJqE´e,f? rauG;wdi;f k k h f kd f Y k a'oBuD;)? OD;cifarmifnKd (jynfoUl vTwawmfu,f pm;vS,?f aygufrqE´e,f?rauG;wdi;f a'oBuD;)?OD;jrifoe;f (jynfoUl f kd J fk h d vTwawmfu,pm;vS,?f rauG;rJqE´e,f? rauG;wki;a'oBuD;)? OD;atmifNidr; (trsdK;om;vTwawmfu,pm;vS,?f f kd f d f f f kd f rJqE´e,ftrSw(2)? rauG;wdi;f a' oBu;D )? OD;vSaqG(trsKd ;om;vTwawmfu,pm;vS,?f rJqE´e,ftrSw(12)? rauG;wdi;f f k f fkd f f k a'oBuD;)?OD;atmifoefY (jynfovwawmfu,pm;vS,f ykorBf uD;r,fqE´e,f? rEÅav;wdi;f a'oBuD;)? OD;Munfarmif Yl T f kd f d k (jynfovwawmfu,pm;vS,f ? jrpfom;rJqE´e,f rEÅav;wki;f a'oBuD;)? OD;bkeD (jynfovwawmfu,pm;vS,?f Yl T f kd f d d Yl T f kd f &rnf;oif;rJqE´e,f?rEÅav;wkdif;a'oBuD;)?OD;cifarmifñGefY(jynfolYvTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f?oydwfusif; rJqE´ e,f?rEÅav;wki;f a'oBu;D )? OD;ode;f xGe;f OD; (jynfovwawmfu,pm;vS,?f tr&yl& rJqE´e,f? rEÅav;wki;f a'oBu;D )? d Yl T f kd f d OD;rif;ol (jynfovwawmfu,pm;vS,?f OwÅ&oD&rqE´e,f?rEÅav;wki;f a'oBuD;)?OD;rSwBf uD; (trsKd ;om;vTwawmf Yl T f kd f d J d f ud,pm;vS,?f rJqE´e,ftrSw(9)? rEÅ av; wki;a'oBuD;)? a':rdjrifoef; (jynfovwawmfu,pm;vS,?f a&; k f f d f h Yl T f kd f rJqE´e,f? rGejf ynfe,f)? OD;b&Sef (jynfovwawmfu,pm;vS,?f ausmufjzLrJqE´e,f? &cdijf ynfe,f)? OD;a&Tarmif d Yl T f kd f k

ppfoHk;oyfa&;aumfr&SiftzGJU0if)? OD;cif armifO;D (Oya'a&;&mESitxl;udp&yfrsm;? hf ö avhvmqef;ppfoHk;oyfa&; aumfr&Sif tzG0if)?OD;jrifvif (Oya'a&;&mESitxl; YJ h G hf udpö&yfrsm;? avhvmqef;ppfoHk;oyfa&; aumfr&SitzG0if)? a'gufwmwkupH (Oya' f YJ d f a&;&mESitxl;udp&yfrsm;? avhvmqef;ppf hf ö oH;k oyfa&; aumfr&SitzG0if)? OD;ausmpef; f YJ f (Oya'a&;&mESitxl;udp&yfrsm;? avhvm hf ö qef;ppfoHk;oyfa&; aumfr&SiftzGJY0if)? OD;ausmfpdef(b@ma&;ESifh Oya'a&;&m aumfr&SitzG0if)jzpfMuNy;D ? twGi;f a&;rSL; f YJ tjzpf OD;odef;xGef;(jynfolYvTwfawmf udk,fpm;vS,f?ausmif;ukef;rJqE´e,f? {&m0wDwdkif;a'oBuD;)jzpfNyD;? wGJzuf twGi;a&;rSL;tjzpf OD;wifjr (trsdK;om; f vTwawmfu,pm;vS,f rJqE´e,f trSwf f kd f (7)?ppfui;f wki;f a'oBuD;) wkyg0ifaMumif; kd d Yd od & S d & onf / aZurÇ m uk r Ü P D O uú | a'gufwmcifa&TrS rdrwaZurÇmtaeESihf d Ykd rnfonfv,fajrudrS odr;f cGir&SaMumif; h k hf d tpdk;&uomodrf;cGifh&SdaMumif;? rdrdwdkY taeESihf tpd;&odr;xm;onfrsm;udom k f k aiGoi;f cGi&aMumif; tpd;k &uom *&Hxwf G hf dS k ay;cGi&aMumif;? rdrwaZurÇmtaeESihf dS d Ykd hf - --w&m;pGqxm;aMumif; vuf&tajc J dk dS taewGif aqmufvkyfa&;0efBuD;XmeESifh td k ; td r f O D ; pD ; Xmewd k Y a&S U xG u f & yf & ef vdtyfaMumif;? oH;k ESpumvtxd Mumjrifh k f vmonfrSm w&m;Oya'pkd;rdk;rIr&Sdí[k qdk&rnfjzpfaMumif;? oHk;oyfajymMum;cJh onf/ r*Fvm'HNk rdKUe,f? a&Teom aus;&Gm YH tkyfpk? aus;&Gm tkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;rS 2012 arv 27 &ufpjJG zifh a&Teomaus;&Gmtkyp?k YH f uGi;f trSwf 517 ESihf 533 &Sv,fajr 815 d {u tm; aZurÇmukrPD udom oD;pm; Ü k pdkufysdK;vkyfudkifcGifh qufvufcGifhjyKxm; aMumif;od&&onf/ dS

27

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)

bmwD;vifhwemaxmufjyovdk tpdk;&tmPmykdifrsm;rSm olwdkY½Ijrifonfhtwdkif; ajzmifhajzmifhjzL;jzL; jzpfrvm/ jrefrmhqdk½S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwD txl;ta&;ay:ygwDnvmcHonf aemufEp&uftMumwGif Ny;D qH;k cJNh y;D OD;ae0if;uk,wiwifoi;f cJonfh ygwDppepfjzifh vlxqE´c,yJG usi;f y&efqonfh D S f d f kd f G h kH k H l kd tpDtpOfukd tqdkygnDvmcHu y,fcsvkdufonf/ tbdk;tdkonf ,if;udpötwGuf tjynfht0wm0ef½SdoljzpfNyD; uefYvefumaemufuG,frS olyJBudK;ukdif vdkufjcif;[kvnf; qdkoluqdkMuonf/ olwifjycJhonfh EkwfxGufrI (6)csufteuf (4)csufukd y,fcsjcif;jzpfonf/ OD;ae0if;onf olUukd,fol tNidrf;pm; ay;vdkufaomfvnf; or®wESifhygwDOuú|tjzpf OD;pdefvGifukd ae&mcsay;vdkufonf/ OD;pdefvGifonf rwfvta&;tcif;wGif ukdifwG,fcJholjzpfNyD; qE´jyolrsm;u olUukd om;owform;[kqdkMuonf/ ]OD;ae0if;ukd tumuG,fay;zdkY OD;pdefvGif[m 'Dwm0ef,lvdkufwmvm;vdkYawmif qdkEdkifrvm;rodbl;} [k rdkufu,fu olUtpfukdxHay;pmwGif xnfhoGif;a&;om;cJhonf/ ]OD;ae0if;twGufqdk&if vufr½GHUwwfwJh OD;pdefvGifu yg;uGuftmPmom;awG? aA'ifq&mawG? arSmfq&mawGeJY t*¾d&wfq&mawGukd vdkufpkwwfNyD;awmh ppfwyfaemufcHtpdk;&wnfwHhzdkY usm;uefay;w,fqdkNyD; tjyifrSmawmhajymaeMuwmyJ} [ka&;om;cJhonf/ rnf o d k Y a omtaMumif ; jycsuf t wG u f j zpf a p? Z&maxmif ; onf j zpf a p? vuf a wG U rqef a omajz½S i f ; enf ; rsd K ;jzif h tbd k ; td k o nf rsdK;aphwpfckukdpdkufysdK;cJhaomfvnf; ,if;rsdK;aphyHkpHukdrl aemufxyfwpfBudrf xyfpdkufzdkY rjzpfEkdifawmh/ jrefrmEdkifiHwGif oHwrefvkyfukdifcJhzl;onfh rmwifrdkvif;u þodkYowdw&ajymjy\/ ]]ausmif;om;vIyf½Sm;rIrSeforQ tjyif;txefjiif;qefcJhw,fAsm/ tpdk;&&JUt"dyÜm,fr½SdwJhvrf;pOfawGukd qefYusifolawG tMuOfcH&w,f/ 'Dawmh ausmif;om;awGa&m jynfolawGa&m olwkdYtem*wftwGuf aqmufwnf&mr&jzpfukefwmaygh/ 'DtwGuf pkpnf;p&m (foucs) zdk;uyfpfvnf;r½Sd/ OD;ae0if;u wrifoufoufukd ygwDpHkpepfjyefoGm;zdkY zdk;uyfpfcscJhwm/ ausmif;om;awGu 'Drdkua&pDqdkNyD; xatmfMuvdkY 'Dzdk;uyfpfukdcscJhwmjzpfr,fxifw,f}} [k rmwifrdkvif;uqdk\/ xdkYodkYaomtajctaewGif tbdk;tdku om;owform;ukd olUae&mtwGuf tpm;xdk;cJhjcif;jzifh AHk;wpfvHk;ukd peufwH½dIUvdkufovdkjzpfoGm;\/ wdi;f jynfp;D yGm;a&;udxcuaponfh ae0ifr;D Nir;f umjzL;trdeudk ZGevtukewif jyef½way;vkuonf/ wuúovaumvdyrsm; ydwxm;qJjzpfaomfvnf; k k d kd f d Yf f f G k f d f kd f f f qE´jyaeaomvlpkvla0;uawmh wdkif;jynf\txGwftjrwfxm;&m a½Twd*Hkbk&m;0ef;usifwGif 0ef;&HMujyefonf/ OD;pdefvGifukd wdkif;jynftBuD;tuJ tjzpfcefY tyfvkdufaMumif; aMunmvdkufonfhaemuf qE´jyqlylrIrsm; xyfrHjzpfyGm;vmjcif;jzpfonf/ ppftkyfcsKyfa&;rm½S,favmukd ygwDnDvmcHtNyD; aemuf&ufwGif xkwfjyefcJhjcif;jzpfaomfvnf; vrf;rsm;ay:wGif qIyltHk<urIrsm;u &yfwefYoGm;jcif;r½Sd/ ]jynfolawGMum;u rauseyfcsufawGu trkef; awGbufa&mufvmw,f/ ]'Dvdkvludk jrefrmjynf&JUtpdk;&rjzpfap&bl;}vdkY wpfwdkif;jynfvHk;u xyfwvJvJajymaeMuw,f} [kbmwD;vifhwemu a&;om;cJhonf/ pifppf tbdk;tdkukd,fwdkifuvnf; olUwdkif;jynfukd jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;vkyfzdkYtcsdefwefNyDqdkodygonf/ ajymif;vJa&;qdkonfhpum;ukd olajym&ef [efjyifwdkif; olUvlrsm;u olUEIwfzsm;ukd wHkYqdkif;apatmif pGrf;aqmifEdkifcJhMuygayonf/ tem*wfukd ]ol} rykdifbl;[k olukd,fwdkifu axmufjycJhzl;onf/ wpfcsdefwnf;rSmyif atmifqef;pkMunfonf vGefpGmtvkyfrsm;olwpfOD;jzpfcJhavonf/

(yDwmykdzefa&;om;onfh The Lady And The Peacock :The Life of Aung San Suu Kyi of Burma pmtkyfukdqDavsmfatmifjyefqdkygonf) qufvufazmfjyygrnf/

28

10, 2 , 2013, Sunday

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)
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armifazi,f

10, 2 , 2013, Sunday

29

V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)

Political Interview

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V o l : ( 2 ) , N o . ( 42)
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Photo : Aung Myo (RAYS)

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( 2 ) ]auG;N o . aoaeNyDaowJhvlu cyfydefydefyJ? b,ftcsdefuaoae vnf;udkrodbl;/ vufrSwf(2) , auG;av;? ( 42)
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