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# Analysis and Design of 3D Steel Truss

Using SAP2000
ACECOMS, AIT

ACECOMS, AIT

## Analysis and Design of 3D Steel Truss

Using SAP2000
Table of Content
Objective ........................................................................................................................3 Problem ..........................................................................................................................3 Material ......................................................................................................................3 Geometry ....................................................................................................................3 Step-by-Step Solution.....................................................................................................4 Start Modeling and Define Grid Line.........................................................................4 Assign Frame Elements..............................................................................................6 Define and Assign Groups .........................................................................................8 Define and Assign Frame Section ............................................................................11 Assign Restraints......................................................................................................15 Define Load Cases....................................................................................................16 Assign Loads ............................................................................................................17 Analysis the Model...................................................................................................18 Design Steel Members..............................................................................................19

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Objective
To demonstrate and practice step-by-step on the modeling, static analysis, design and optimization of 3D Triangular Steel Truss using AISC-ASD89

Problem
Find the lightest steel pipe sections for primary and secondary members of 3D triangular truss as following details.

Material
Steel Es = 29000 ksi fy = 36 ksi Poissons Ratio = 0.3

Geometry

15 @ 1.00m = 15.00

4 x LL= 1,000 kg

100 cm

10

cm

75 cm

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Step-by-Step Solution
Start Modeling and Define Grid Line

Step 1-1 Start Model: Start up screen of SAP2000, select the working unit Kgf-cm from drop-down menu on the bottom-right of screen then click on New model. or go to File >

Step 1-2 Define Grid Line: Define grid line only one bay of truss by entering grid line parameters as shown in above figure and click OK.

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Step 1-3: Back to main screen, showing gird line that has been defined from previous step. Close X-Y Plane window by clicking at top-right of screen.

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## to make cursor snap to grid

or go to Draw > Draw Frame Elements then cursor will line or joint and click on be changed from selection mode to draw mode. Draw frame elements as shown in above figure by single click at first end and double click on the other end one by one.

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Step 2-2 Select All Frame Elements: Change to selection mode by clicking on . Click on to select all elements in model then selection status will report 6 Joints, 12 Frames selected.

Step 2-3 Copy Elements in Bay 1 to Bay 2-15: Go to Edit > Replicate. Enter X = 100 and Number = 14. Click OK.

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Back to main screen showing all frame elements in bay 1 are copied to all the rest of bays.

## Define and Assign Groups

Step 3-1 Select Primary Members: Click on to change from 3D View to XY Plane @ Z=0 View. Draw selection rectangular cover all members in this plan (selection status = 16 Joints, 15 Frames selected)

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Step 3-2 Select Primary Members: Click on to move XY Plane elevation from Z = 0 to Z = 0.75. Draw 2 selection rectangular to cover all members along X-axis as shown in above figure. (Selection status = 48 Joints, 45 Frames selected.

Step 3-3 Define and Assign PRIMARY Group: Go to Assign > Group Name. Enter PRIMARY in text box, click on Add New Group Name and click OK.

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Step 3-4 Select Secondary Members: Click on tion status = 48 Joints, 138 Frames selected.

## to select all members. (Selec-

Step 3-5 Select Secondary Members: To deselect primary members, go to Select > Deselect > Groups, select PRIMARY and click OK. (Selection status = 98 Frames selected)

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## Define and Assign Frame Section

Step 4-1 Import Pipe Sections: Go to Define > Frame Sections. Select Import Pipe from first drop-down menu.

Step 4-2 Import Pipe Sections: Select steel section database file (extension with .pro). For this example select Aisc.pro and click Open.

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Step 4-3 Import Pipe Sections: Select all pipe sections by clicking on first section (P.5) and clicking on last section (PXX8) with holding Shift button in keyboard. Click on OK.

Step 4-4 Import Pipe Sections: Click on OK again in Pipe Section window. Back to Define Frame Sections dialogue showing all pipe sections are in Frame Sections list.

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Step 4-5 Define Auto Selection Section: Select Add Auto Select from second drop-down menu.

Step 4-6 Define Auto Selection Section: Select all pipe sections in List of Sections by clicking on first section (P.5) and clicking on last section (PXX8) with holding Shift button in keyboard. Click on Add -> to move all selected pipe sections from List of Sections list to Auto Selections list and click on OK.

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## to select all members.

or go to Assign > Frame Sections, select AUTO1 and click OK. Click on AUTO1 sections are assigned into all members in model as shown in above figure. Click on to change back to normal mode.

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Assign Restraints

Step 5-1 Assign Roller Support: Select 2 Joints at the first end as shown in above figure by clicking on them one by one. Click on straints, select and click OK. or go to Assign > Joint > Re-

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Step 5-2 Assign Hinge Support: Select 2 Joints at the other end as shown in above figure by clicking on them one by one. Click on Restraints, select and click OK. or go to Assign > Joint >

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Step 7-1 Select Joints: Click on 4 Joints at the middle of truss one by one.

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Step 7-2 Add LL Load: Click on or go to Assign > Joint Static Loads > Forces. Select Load Case Name = LL, enter Force Global Z = -1000 (minus for downward) and click OK.

## Analysis the Model

Step 8-1: Click on to start analysis. SAP2000 will ask to save this model. Select folder and specify File name to save this model. Click on Save.

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Step 8-2 Start Analysis: Click on or go to Analyze > Run. Check error messages from "Analysis" window after analysis is complete.

## Design Steel Members

Step 9-1 Select Design Code: Go to Options > Preferences, select Steel tab, select Steel Design Code = AISC-ASD89 and click "OK"

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Step 9-2 Select Design Groups: Go to Design > Select Design Group, double click on PRIMARY and SECONDARY one by one to move these groups from List of Groups to Design Groups.

Step 9-3 Select Design Combo: Go to Design > Select Design Combo, SAP2000 will create load combinations according selected code from previous step and add them into Design Combos automatically. Select one of them and click Show to view defined load case and load factors. Load combination can be defined manually from Define > Load Combinations. Click OK to accept this default.

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## SAP2000 Tutorial Example

ACECOMS, AIT

Step 9-4 Start Design: Go to Design > Start Design/Check of Structure. SAP2000 will optimize by selecting the lightest section (W8x18 for this example) from the section group (AUTO1) which satisfies the AISC-ASD89 that can be shown by clicking and selecting Section in Frames.

Click on and draw rectangular line cover the first end area to enlarge 3-D view. In 3D View shows SAP2000 will assign P3 section to all primary members and P1.25 to all secondary members.

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