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Site Visits Entry Number: 01 Date: 13/10/11 Site (Location): Cipero River, San Fernando, Trinidad Objectives: 1.

To observe activities that may influence the river to conduct water sampling to determine the presence of pollutants. 2. Collect and test a water sample from the river for various pollutants at the lower, middle and upper region of the river. 3. Record the different types flora and fauna present along the river bank. 4. Make a direct link between man-made and natural activities that can influence the quality of the river water which will make the use of the river easily determined. Introduction/Background: Water Resources Agency has indicated that the water levels in the Cipero River are extremely high; therefore there is the strong possibility that this river will overflow its banks. Evidently, this river has a terrible drainage system and highly leached soils. However there are a lot of big trees along the river bank providing shade and a habitat for animals and also smaller plants. Additionally, due to this large amount of shade provided, there is a myriad of various species of animals. Nevertheless the Cipero River is known as one of the dirtiest river in Trinidad.

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Activities: 1. Water sampling for various pollutants 2. Water being used for the disposal of waste 3. The water is also being used for recreation 4. The class walked along the bank to keep a record of all the flora and fauna present.

Observations: Weather; It was a fact that during the visit to the Cipero River, San Fernando, Trinidad, there was a very quick change with regard to the weather. The change in weather was as follows; rainy to sunny, then back to heavier rainfall. River/Vegetation; Evidently, the water is brown and relatively stagnant. The grass surrounding the river was tall and there were also a large number of trees. Additionally, at some intervals the bank of the river was paved. Subsequently, there were also a few businesses and garages in close proximity to the river, therefore these were at least two reasons as to why the river is so polluted because all solid and liquid waste from these locations eventually ends up in the river. One example is the Gulf view industrial park. There were also pipelines and a few drains. Surprisingly upon the visit to the Cipero River, the class was graced by the presence of a Possum (Manicou). Possible Pollutants; 1. Garbage disposal
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2. Pollutants from fertilizers and pesticides that is present in the nearby drains. Test Lower Average Middle course Average pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm) 9 210 23.4 608 1510 4.05 3.09 8.9 241.8 26.7 590 1364.8 4.20 4.90 12.6 600 23.6 665.02 1390 6.03 2.9 10.17 350.6 24.6 621 1421.6 4.76 3.63 6.5 9.0
Below 1500 - 1800

Upper Average

course Total Average

International Standard

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 25C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

THE TABLE ABOVE SHOWS THE AVERAGE READINGS OBTAINED FROM THE TEST TAKEN FROM THREE POINTS AND ITS AVERAGE AND THE ACCEPTABLE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

NOTE: See lab 1 for results.

Interpretive Comments: Indeed, the Cipero River is very much polluted and is affected by the various pollutants that were tested for. This was seen when the scientific results which were obtained at the river compared to the acceptable international standards showed that the river is not up to standard and its unlikely to support the majority of average species.
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Meanwhile, as seen in the table before, almost all the scientific values (except conductivity and temperature), of pH, salinity, total dissolved substances, dissolved oxygen and nitrates are most definitely not within or below the acceptable range. Therefore it is a fact to conclude that the river is polluted or rather highly polluted as these scientific values show. Altogether, these distasteful results were obtained mainly because of the various activities that occur in close proximity of the river. The pipelines that run directly into the river (point source) from the nearby businesses are one major cause of the river being so polluted. It is a known fact that as the temperature of the water increases, the dissolved oxygen content is decreased. Therefore when hot water is realized from these pipelines, the dissolve oxygen content is being decreased. Secondly, there are also nitrates being released into the river from the various garages that are near the river. The environmental pathway is as follows; Garages Drains River. Evidently, the area is developed with regard to Caribbean standards and has an acceptable infrastructure. Therefore, the activities at the river are on a large scale and are polluting the river significantly. Nevertheless, this is the main reason why the water from this river isnt used domestically.

Follow up Activities - Visit to Guaracara River, Pointe a Pierre, Trinidad.

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Entry Number: 02 Date: 20/10/11 Site (Location): Guaracara River, Pointe a Pierre, Trinidad Objectives: 1. To observe activities that may influence the river to conduct water sampling to determine the presence of pollutants. 2. Collect and test a water sample from the river for various pollutants at the lower, middle and upper region of the river. 3. Record the different types flora and fauna present along the river bank. 4. Make a direct link between man-made and natural activities that can influence the quality of the river water which will make the use of the river easily determined.

Introduction/Background:

The Guaracara River, located in south Trinidad, runs westward out of the Central Range and drains into the Gulf of Paria. It forms the boundary between the city of San Fernando (to the south) and the Couva-Tabaquite-Talparo Regional Corporation. In local terms it separates Marabella (the northernmost portion of the city) from Pointe--Pierre. Its geographical coordinates are 10 22' 0" North, 61 19' 0" West. The river is heavily polluted, both by nonpoint agricultural and residential run-off from Marabella and the town of Gasparillo and from

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industrial waste (primarily oily run-off) from the oil refinery at Pointe-a-Pierre owned by Petrotrin (the State-owned oil company).

Activities: Site used for: 1. The river borders a refinery 2. Social events due to the fact that there is a sports club and the Guaracara park nearby. 3. Water being used for the disposal of waste 4. The water is also being used for recreation Carried out by class: 1. The class walked along the bank to keep a record of all the flora and fauna present. 2. Water sampling for various pollutants Observations: Weather; It was a fact that during the visit to the Guaracara River, Pointe a Pierre, Trinidad, there was a very quick change with regard to the weather. The change in weather was as follows; rainy to sunny, then back to heavier rainfall. River/Vegetation; Upon observation, there was a horrific sight of black sludge deposited on the river bank. Additionally, there were also a myriad of trees located some distance away from the water and also the blooming of algae. Alas, the class became uncomfortable when the stench of hydrocarbons begun to emanate into the environment. Meanwhile, whilst conducting the
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observation process, an oily film was seen on the water. However there were also a large number of pipelines. Possible Pollutants; 1. Sewages from outhouses 2. Pollutants from fertilizers and pesticides 3. Garbage disposal Test Lower Average Middle course Average pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm) 8 200 23.9 600 1110 6.05 1.1 8.3 221.8 25 540 1324.8 5.20 1.3 10.9 180 24.6 495.09 1300 7.03 2.5 9.07 200.6 24.5 545.03 1244.8 6.09 1.63 6.5 9.0
Below 1500 - 1800

Upper Average

course Total Average

International Standard

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 25C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

THE TABLE ABOVE SHOWS THE AVERAGE READINGS OBTAINED FROM THE TEST TAKEN FROM THREE POINTS AND ITS AVERAGE AND THE ACCEPTABLE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

NOTE: See lab 2 for results. Interpretive Comments:


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Indeed, the Guaracara River is very much polluted and is affected by the various pollutants that were tested for. This was seen when the scientific results which were obtained at the river compared to the acceptable international standards showed that the river is not up to standard and its unlikely to support the majority of average species. Meanwhile, as seen in the table before, almost all the scientific values (except conductivity and temperature), of pH, salinity, total dissolved substances, dissolved oxygen and nitrates are most definitely not within or below the acceptable range. Therefore it is a fact to conclude that the river is polluted or rather highly polluted as these scientific values show. Altogether, these distasteful results were obtained mainly because of the various activities that occur in close proximity of the river. Moreover, there is non-point pollution by the agricultural sector. The fact that there is a high level of nitrates present in the river hints to us that a lot of fertilizers are used to cultivate the crops in this vicinity. A reading of 1.63ml/l was obtained. Therefore this reading explained why evidence of eutrophication was seen at certain parts of the River. Meanwhile this process is known to reduce the dissolve oxygen content of water hence an average reading of 6.09(ppm) was recorded. Additionally, it then dawned on the class that this could be a reason as to why there isnt a high level of aquatic life present at the river as expected due to its size. Similarly, the layer of oil on some parts of the river reduces the level of sunlight that enters the river. Therefore the aquatic plant population is also on a decrease since the absence of sunlight or rather the right amount of sunlight will retard the process of photosynthesis. In comparison with the Cipero River, the Guaracara River is larger and its natural vegetation is much denser. Meanwhile, both rivers are greatly polluted, however as seen by the scientific
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results, the Cipero river is by far more polluted than the Guaracara River mainly because of the surrounding activities. One major instance is the fact that the volume of the total dissolved substances in the Cipero River is 1421.6ppt, while its 1244.8ppt in the Guaracara River. Follow up Activities - Visit to the Godineau River, Trinidad.

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Entry Number: 03 Date: 27/10/11 Site (Location): Godineau River, Trinidad Objectives: 1. To observe activities that may influence the river to conduct water sampling to determine the presence of pollutants. 2. Collect and test a water sample from the river for various pollutants at the lower, middle and upper region of the river. 3. Record the different types flora and fauna present along the river bank. 4. Make a direct link between man-made and natural activities that can influence the quality of the river water which will make the use of the river easily determined.

Introduction/Background:

Ultimately, the Godineau River is well known for its kayaking experiences. Kayaking in the Godineau area takes one through a variety of habitats, from saltwater mangrove swamp to fresh water marshland to partially cultivated areas. A variety of birdlife can be seen on these kayak trips including Scarlet Ibis, Southern Lapwing, Osprey, Savannah Hawk, Wattled Jacana, Cattle Egret, Yellow-hooded Blackbird, Lesser Yellowlegs, Black-bellied Whistling Duck and a variety of migrating ducks (during the northern winter).

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The Godineau River is one of the rivers in Trinidad that provides a year round kayaking opportunity as the water level is always sufficient. This kayak trip can be started either from the Gulf of Paria along the area known as the Mosquito Creek or inland from the Woodland area. Lastly, the Godineau River is also known as the South Oropouche River.

Activities: Site used for: 1. Religious activities (cremation etc) 2. Recreation (fishing, kayaking, jet skiing, crab catching) 3. Nature watching Carried out by class: 1. Walked along the bank 2. Observations were made 3. Testing of the water was done

Observations: Weather; It was a fact that during the visit to the Godineau River, Trinidad, there was a very quick change with regard to the weather. The change in weather was as follows; rainy to sunny, then back to heavier rainfall. River/Vegetation; Upon visiting the river it was obvious that the area in which the river is situated is heavily forested. Additionally during the observation process the following things was
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seen; Mangroves, Crabs, Birds, People. Also a few people were fishing and there was also a funeral at the nearby cremation site hence some religious flags were seen at the mouth of the river. Nevertheless, the colour of the water was indeed brown and the river itself was wide. Possible Pollutants; 1. Pollutants from fishing boats 2. Sewages from outhouses 3. Pollutants from fertilizers and pesticides 4. Garbage disposal 5. Pollutants from cremation site Test Lower Average Middle course Average pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm) 7.1 600 25.4 470 1000.34 9 0.1 7.09 640 23.7 442 900.5 8.7 0.3 8.0 699.4 23.9 498.4 1100 8.03 0 7.4 646.47 24.3 470.13 1000.28 8.58 0.13 6.5 9.0
Below 1500 - 1800

Upper Average

course Total Average

International Standard

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 24C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

THE TABLE ABOVE SHOWS THE AVERAGE READINGS OBTAINED FROM THE TEST TAKEN FROM THREE POINTS AND ITS AVERAGE AND THE ACCEPTABLE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

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NOTE: See lab 3 for results. Interpretive Comments: Ultimately, the Godineau River is not polluted and is not affected by the various pollutants that were tested for. This was seen when the scientific results which were obtained at the river compared to the acceptable international standards showed that the river is up to standard and can support aquatic and human life. Meanwhile, as seen in the table before, all the scientific values, of pH, temperature, salinity, total dissolved substances, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and nitrates are most definitely within or below the acceptable range. Therefore it is a fact to conclude that the river is not polluted as these scientific values show. Altogether, these excellent results were obtained mainly because the activities that are done in close proximity to the river are not very harmful. Upon further research into the pollutants in this River it became obvious that the subsistence farmers in this area took into consideration advantages of GAP Good Agricultural Practices, hence an average reading of 0.13ml/l was obtained while testing for nitrates. Similarly these practices also facilitated for a low pH reading in the river. The Godineau area is somewhat underdeveloped with regard to Caribbean standards and indeed some homes have outhouses. Obviously, this sewage runs directly into certain parts of the river (point source pollutant) and this may then become a major pollutant hence the reason why an average pH of 7.4 was obtained.

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On the other hand, in comparison to the Guaracara and Cipero River, the Godineau River is far more up to standard and this may be the reason why the Godineau River is well known for its marvelous kayaking and fishing experiences. Follow up Activities - Visit to the Caroni River, Caroni,Trinidad.

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Entry Number: 04 Date: 04/11/11 Site (Location): Caroni River, Caroni, Trinidad. Located in Northern Trinidad. Objectives: 1. To observe activities that may influence the river to conduct water sampling to determine the presence of pollutants. 2. Collect and test a water sample from the river for various pollutants at the lower, middle and upper region of the river. 3. Record the different types flora and fauna present along the river bank. 4. Make a direct link between man-made and natural activities that can influence the quality of the river water which will make the use of the river easily determined.

Introduction/Background:

The Caroni River is the largest river in Trinidad and Tobago, running for 40 km (25 mi) from its origins in the Northern Range on the island of Trinidad, through the northern lowlands of the Caroni Plains and enters the Gulf of Paria at the Caroni Swamp.

The Caroni and its tributaries drain one of the most densely populated part of Trinidad, the "East-West Corridor", and also provides most of its drinking water through the Caroni-Arena
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Dam. Point and non-point pollution is thus a major concern, as is the deforestation of its watershed on the southern slopes of the Northern Range. The banks of the Caroni River are one of the two main sites for Hindu cremations.

Activities: Site used for: 1. Religious activities (cremation etc) 2. Recreation (Site seeing) - Tourism 3. Water for Farms 4. Water Treatment 5. Vegetable farming 6. Rice Farm Carried out by class: 7. Walked along the bank 8. Observations were made 9. Testing of the water was done

Observations: Weather; It was a fact that during the visit to the Godineau River, Trinidad, there was a very quick change with regard to the weather. The change in weather was as follows; rainy to sunny, then back to heavier rainfall.
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River/Vegetation; Upon observation it was clear that rice was grown in close proximity to the river. The land was indeed flat (plains) and there was also a mangrove. Additionally, near the water was forested and animals such as Birds and Caimans were seen. With regard to vegetation, crops such as patchoi, peas, cucumber, bhagi and citrus was present between the upper and middle course of the river. Moreover, the colour of the water was dark green. Possible Pollutants; 1. Pollutants from Religious Activity 2. Dumping of Garbage 3. Pollutants from other rivers run-off 4. Pollutants from fertilizers and pesticides. Test Lower Average Middle course Average pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm) 7.17 260 28 130 179 7.80 0.09 6.30 290 25.4 140 195 7.19 0.07 7.6 292 25.4 144 196 8.24 0.2 7.02 280.67 26.27 138 190 7.74 0.12 6.5 9.0
Below 1500 - 1800

Upper Average

course Total Average

International Standard

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 26C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

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THE TABLE ABOVE SHOWS THE AVERAGE READINGS OBTAINED FROM THE TEST TAKEN FROM THREE POINTS AND ITS AVERAGE AND THE ACCEPTABLE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

NOTE: See lab 4 for results. Interpretive Comments: Ultimately, the Caroni River is not polluted and is not affected by the various pollutants that were tested for. This was seen when the scientific results which were obtained at the river compared to the acceptable international standards showed that the river is up to standard and can support aquatic and human life. Meanwhile, as seen in the table before, all the scientific values, of pH, temperature, salinity, total dissolved substances, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and nitrates are most definitely within or below the acceptable range. Therefore it is a fact to conclude that the river is not polluted as these scientific values show. Altogether, these excellent results were obtained mainly because the activities that are done in close proximity to the river are not very harmful. With regard to the upper course of the river and its vegetation, there is a myriad of small scale agricultural crops such as: cucumber, patchoi etc that was already stated in the observations. However according to the reading obtained at the upper course of the river it was clear that the characteristics of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) was adhered to since an average suitable pH of 7.02 was obtained. Therefore this means that little or no fertilizers and pesticides are used since upon observation it was clear those antagonistic plants such as chive was used to ward off some of the pests that may attack these leaf crops that were planted.

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Additionally, at the lower course of the river, there is a cremation site. Therefore this site shows that some human interactions might as well play a role in the quality of water at the Caroni River. Meanwhile this activity could be a point source pollutant however upon testing the water it was clear that the cremation site didnt really affect the water quality. As stated in the activities, a water treatment plant is located at the upper course of the river. According to a tour guide at the River, the water treatment plant operates as follows; firstly, there is band shield that prevents rubbish from entering then to an area where coagulation occur then fluctuation then sedimentation, then filtration. Subsequently, the water is passed through Androxyte Carbon and also sand to remove the solids. Lastly the water is then pumped into tanks where it is lime injected. Ultimately, in comparison to the Cipero, Guaracara and Godineau River, the Caroni River is the largest and the cleanest. For example with regard to the average Salinity of all the Rivers the Caroni River had the lowest reading that was also very well up to international standards, that is, 138ppm. On the other hand, the Caroni river also had the lowest average nitrate level of 0.12 ml/l. Follow up Activities - Visit to the Ortoire River Mayaro, Trinidad.

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Entry Number: 05 Date: 11/11/11 Site (Location): Ortoire River located in the South East of Trinidad, Mayaro. Objectives: 1. To observe activities that may influence the river to conduct water sampling to determine the presence of pollutants. 2. Collect and test a water sample from the river for various pollutants at the lower, middle and upper region of the river. 3. Record the different types flora and fauna present along the river bank. 4. Make a direct link between man-made and natural activities that can influence the quality of the river water which will make the use of the river easily determined.

Introduction/Background:

The Ortoire River is a large river in Trinidad and Tobago. It forms the boundary between Nariva County and Mayaro County in east Trinidad. It is brown in color and at one time had an iron bridge with wooden planks but it has been replaced with an all paved concrete bridge; also it
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was made higher to reduce flooding. Its latitude is

96

, ongitude 6

and is 5

Kilometers long. Additionally, the Ortoire River flows from the Central range into the Atlantic Ocean.

The Water and Sewage Authority of Trinidad and Tobago (WASA) protect the use of water in this river since it has a good supply of water to support the South of Trinidad. Meanwhile the Ortoire River is well known for its Kayaking and Fishing experiences.

Activities: Site used for: 1. Fishing 2. Recreation (Site seeing and Kayaking) - Tourism 3. Bathing 4. Vegetable farming Carried out by class: 5. Walked along the bank 6. Observations were made 7. Testing of the water was done

Observations:

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Weather; It was a fact that during the visit to the Godineau River, Trinidad, there was a very quick change with regard to the weather. The change in weather was as follows; rainy to sunny, then back to heavier rainfall. River/Vegetation; The vegetation in this area consists of Bamboos and also a mangrove. Also subsistence agriculture is widely practiced since products such as peppers, coconuts, watermelon, cassava and mangoes were seen. However there was very little development along the River but mostly grasses and bamboos. Moreover the colour of the water was brown and erosion and sedimentation was seen along the banks of the River. Possible Pollutants; 1. Pollutants from Sedimentation 2. Dumping of Garbage 3. Pollutants from other rivers run-off 4. Pollutants from fertilizers and pesticides Test Lower Average Middle course Average pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) 7.80 6503.54 29 4000 5500 7.7 240.3 29.3 110 170 ---------------7.75 3371.92 29.15 2055 2835 6.5 9.0
Below 1500 - 1800

Upper Average

course Total Average

International Standard

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

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Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

16.13 0

9.9 0.2

-------

13.01 0.1

At 29C 7.7 Under 1ml/l

THE TABLE ABOVE SHOWS THE AVERAGE READINGS OBTAINED FROM THE TEST TAKEN FROM TWO POINTS AND ITS AVERAGE AND THE ACCEPTABLE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

NOTE: See lab 5 for results

Interpretive Comments: Ultimately, the Ortoire River is not polluted and is not affected by the various pollutants that were tested for. This was seen when the scientific results which were obtained at the river compared to the acceptable international standards showed that the river is up to standard and can support aquatic and human life. Meanwhile, as seen in the table before, all the scientific values, of pH, temperature, salinity, total dissolved substances, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and nitrates are most definitely within or below the acceptable range. This is obviously with the exception of the high levels of Conductivity, Salinity and Total dissolved substances due to the fact that sea water mixes with the river water and the testing was done at the mouth of the river. Therefore it is a fact to conclude that the river is not polluted as these scientific values show. Altogether, these excellent results were obtained mainly because the activities that are done in close proximity to the river are not very harmful. In terms of vegetation, subsistence farming is practiced with the area of the middle and lower course. As already stated in the observation, crops such as coconuts, mangoes and cassavas are
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among some of the crops planted. Indeed these subsistence farmers in close proximity to the River that is the lower and middle course practice the characteristics of GAP (Good Agricultural Practices) since the amount of nitrates that was recorded in both the middle and lower course was rather lower. Therefore this suggests that little or no fertilizers and pesticides are used by the farmers. Subsequently, as seen by the values obtained for the dissolved oxygen, it was clear that it was much higher than the international standards. However this reading is exceptionally great since the higher the dissolved oxygen content of water, the more aquatic life the water would be able to successfully sustain. Meanwhile as seen in the table with the results, there are no results for the upper course of the River. This occurred due to the fact that the upper course of the river was inaccessible since there are no roadways and the only medium of transportation is by boat therefore as school students we were not allowed to use a boat to further conduct our investigations. In comparison to the Cipero, Guaracara, Godineau and Caroni River, the Ortoire River is the cleanest of them all. This River had the lowest amount of nitrates, that is, a mere 0.1lm/l in comparison to the 3.63lm/l that was recorded in the Cipero River which according to the results is the dirtiest river of the five (5) that were tested. However one thing that both the Caroni and

Ortoire River have in common is that they are somewhat protected by the Water and Sewage Authority of Trinidad and Tobago (WASA) since both are already being used as a source of water by WASA. Follow up Activities: The class subsequently visited the five (5) Rivers that was part of the research and had cleanup activities.
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Laboratory exercises Date: 13/10/11 Lab no: 1 Title: Agricultural and Water Pollution in the Southern region of Trinidad Aim: To test for the presence of pollutants in the Cipero River using digital meters and scientific kits. Materials: 1. YSI 55 dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, Nitrates, TDS and conductivity meter. 2. LaMotte Colorimeter 3. Meter 4. YSI 63 pH and Temperature 5. Glass Canister Procedure:
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1. The probe was removed from the YSI casing and then lowered into the water. 2. Readings of dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature was taken from the three samples from the lower course. 3. Steps one and two were repeated when testing for the dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature of the middle and upper course of the river. 4. The probe was then pulled up, washed with distilled water and replaced. 5. The YSI 63 probe was removed from the casing, and then lowered into the water. 6. Readings of pH, Salinity, Conductivity and TDS was taken from the three samples from the lower course. 7. Steps five and six were repeated when testing for the pH, Salinity, Conductivity and TDS of the middle and upper course of the river. 8. The probe was then raised, washed with distilled water and replaced. 9. Three samples of water were taken from the lower course of the river and were later placed in glass canisters where it was tested for nitrates using the colorimeter. 10. Step nine was repeated for the middle and upper course of the river. Data Collection/Results: Test Sample 1 pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) 9 209 23.3 607 Sample 2 9 211 23.5 609 Sample 3 9 210 23.6 608 Total Average 9 210 23.4 608 International Standard 6.5 9.0
Below 1500 - 1800

23 30 500

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TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

1509 4.04 3.08

1511 4.06 3.10

1510 4.07 3.11

1510 4.05 3.09

Below 1000 - 1200

At 23C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 1 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE LOWER COURSE OF THE RIVER

Test

Sample 1

Sample 2 8.9 241.9 26.8 591 1364.8 4.21 4.91

Sample 3 8.9 241.6 26.5 590 1364.7 4.20 4.90

Total Average 8.9 241.8 26.7 590 1364.8 4.20 4.90

International Standard 6.5 9.0


Below 1500 - 1800

pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

8.9 241.8 26.8 589 1364.9 4.19 4.89

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 27C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 2 ABOVE SHOWING RESULTS FOR THE MIDDLE COURSE OF THE RIVER

Test

Sample 1

Sample 2 12.7

Sample 3 12.8

Total Average 12.6

International Standard 6.5 9.0

pH

12.4

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Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

599 23.4 665 1389 6 2.9

601 23.7 665.03 1391 6.04 2.9

600 23.8 665.04 1390 6.06 2.9

600 23.6 665.02 1390 6.03 2.9

Below 1500 - 1800

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 24C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 3 ABOVE SHOWING RESULTS FOR THE UPPER COURSE OF THE RIVER

Test

Lower Average

Middle course Average

Upper Average

course Total Average

International Standard

pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

9 210 23.4 608 1510 4.05 3.09

8.9 241.8 26.7 590 1364.8 4.20 4.90

12.6 600 23.6 665.02 1390 6.03 2.9

10.17 350.6 24.6 621 1421.6 4.76 3.63

6.5 9.0
Below 1500 - 1800

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 25C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 4 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE ENTIRE RIVER

Discussion:

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Water pollution is the presence in water of harmful or objectionable material in sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality, thus affecting other living organisms that inhabit the specified body of water. Meanwhile, as seen in the table before, almost all the scientific values (except conductivity and temperature), of pH, salinity, total dissolved substances, dissolved oxygen and nitrates are most definitely not within or below the acceptable range. Therefore it is a fact to conclude that the river is polluted or rather highly polluted as these scientific values show. Altogether, these distasteful results were obtained mainly because of the various activities that occur in close proximity of the river. With regard to the pH of the river water, the acceptable international standard is 6.5 8.5. However as seen by the results, the pH of the river was always above the acceptable range. It varied closely in the middle and lower courses of the River; however it went even further above the acceptable range in the upper course. This high pH may have been as a result of the running of pollutants into the river from nearby business places. Subsequently, the conductivity in the Cipero River was one of the two factors that adhered to the acceptable international standards. It varied closely in the lower and middle courses of the river, however it had a drastic increase in the upper course of the river, and nevertheless the conductivity was still satisfactory. Furthermore, the Salinity and TDS results were both above the acceptable range. The Salinity of the River varied closely in the lower and middle course, however increased significantly in the upper course. This may be due to the fact that the village is settled just before the upper course of the river and also some off their minor or rather subsistence farming that they practice may be
- 29 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

the cause of this change in salinity. However the TDS of the river was highest at the lower course of the river and lowest in the middle. With regard to temperature, it was alarming that the temperature was within the acceptable range of 23 C 3 C since hot water was seen running into the river via a pipeline from a

nearby business place. However the river is large hence this point source pollutant didnt really affect the temperature of the water. The dissolved oxygen content of the water varied closely in the lower and middle stream, but was higher in the upper course. Altogether the Do content was low and this means that the water would not be able to sustain a large amount of aquatic life. However the reason for the lower dissolved oxygen content in the lower course of the river may be because of the pipeline releasing hot water into that area of the river. Therefore it is obvious that hot water reduces the dissolved oxygen content of water. The nitrate content in the river was relatively high and way above the acceptable range. Meanwhile nitrates play an integral role in the development of a plant, however when leached into nearby water sources it can cause devastation since a buildup of nitrates in a river leads to algae blooming thus igniting the process of eutrophication. This then reduces the populations of all aquatic organisms in the water since it greatly consumes the oxygen content of the water. Conclusion: The Cipero River has a myriad of pollutants since our tests proved that there were harmful and objectionable materials in sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality at the Cipero River.

- 30 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

Date: 20/10/11 Lab no: 2 Title: Agricultural and Water Pollution in the Southern region of Trinidad Aim: To test for the presence of pollutants in the Guaracara River using digital meters and scientific kits. Materials: 1. YSI 55 dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, Nitrates, TDS and conductivity meter. 2. LaMotte Colorimeter 3. Meter 4. YSI 63 pH and Temperature
- 31 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

5. Glass Canister Procedure: 1. The probe was removed from the YSI casing and then lowered into the water. 2. Readings of dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature was taken from the three samples from the lower course. 3. Steps one and two were repeated when testing for the dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature of the middle and upper course of the river. 4. The probe was then pulled up, washed with distilled water and replaced. 5. The YSI 63 probe was removed from the casing, and then lowered into the water. 6. Readings of pH, Salinity, Conductivity and TDS was taken from the three samples from the lower course. 7. Steps five and six were repeated when testing for the pH, Salinity, Conductivity and TDS of the middle and upper course of the river. 8. The probe was then raised, washed with distilled water and replaced. 9. Three samples of water were taken from the lower course of the river and were later placed in glass canisters where it was tested for nitrates using the colorimeter. 10. Step nine was repeated for the middle and upper course of the river. Data Collection/ Results: Test Sample 1 Ph 7 Sample 2 9 Sample 3 8 Total Average 8 International Standard 6.5 9.0

- 32 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

199 23.9 600 1109 6.04 1.2

201 23.9 599 1110 6.06 1.2

200 23.9 601 1111 6.05 0.9

200 23.9 600 1110 6.05 1.1

Below 1500 - 1800

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 24C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 1 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE LOWER COURSE OF THE RIVER

Test

Sample 1

Sample 2 8.3 221.9 24 541 1324.9 5.19 1.4

Sample 3 8.2 221.8 26 540 1324.8 5.20 1.3

Total Average 8.3 221.8 25 540 1324.8 5.20 1.3

International Standard 6.5 9.0


Below 1500 - 1800

pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

8.4 221.7 25 539 1324.7 5.21 1.2

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 25C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 2 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE MIDDLE COURSE OF THE RIVER

Test

Sample

Sample

Sample

Total

International

- 33 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

1 pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm) 10.9 179 24.6 495.09 1299 7.04 2.4

2 10.9 181 24.7 495.10 1301 7.03 2.6

3 10.9 180 24.5 495.08 1300 7.02 2.5

Average 10.9 180 24.6 495.09 1300 7.03 2.5

Standard 6.5 9.0


Below 1500 - 1800

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 25C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 3 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE UPPER COURSE OF THE RIVER

Test

Lower Average

Middle course Average

Upper Average

course Total Average

International Standard

pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

8 200 23.9 600 1110 6.05 1.1

8.3 221.8 25 540 1324.8 5.20 1.3

10.9 180 24.6 495.09 1300 7.03 2.5

9.07 200.6 24.5 545.03 1244.8 6.09 1.63

6.5 9.0
Below 1500 - 1800

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 25C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 4 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE ENTIRE RIVER

- 34 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

Discussion: Water pollution is the presence in water of harmful or objectionable material in sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality, thus affecting other living organisms that inhabit the specified body of water. Meanwhile, as seen in the table before, almost all the scientific values (except conductivity and temperature), of pH, salinity, total dissolved substances, dissolved oxygen and nitrates are most definitely not within or below the acceptable range. Therefore it is a fact to conclude that the river is polluted or rather highly polluted as these scientific values show. Altogether, these distasteful results were obtained mainly because of the various activities that occur in close proximity of the river. With regard to the pH of the river water, the acceptable international standard is 6.5 8.5. However as seen by the results, the pH of the river was not always above the acceptable range. It varied closely in the middle and lower courses of the River and stayed within the acceptable range; however it drastically increased above the acceptable range in the upper course thus the average reading of pH in the river was above the acceptable international standards. This high pH may have been as a result of the running of pollutants into the river from nearby business places and the fact that there is a refinery bordering the river close to the upper course. Subsequently, the conductivity in the Guaracara River was one of the two factors that adhered to the acceptable international standards. Its levels fluctuated throughout the three courses of the river but nevertheless the conductivity was still satisfactory. Furthermore, the Salinity and TDS results were both above the acceptable range. The Salinity of the River decreased up the river since the lower course was the highest followed by the middle
- 35 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

course and then finally the upper course. This may be due to the fact that the village is settled just before the lower course of the river and also some off their minor or rather subsistence farming that they practice may be the cause of this change in salinity. However the TDS of the river was highest at the middle course of the river and lowest in the lower course. With regard to temperature, it was alarming that the temperature was within the acceptable range of 23 C 3 C since hot water was seen running into the river via a pipeline from the

nearby refinery. However the river is large hence this point source pollutant didnt really affect the temperature of the water. The dissolved oxygen content of the water fluctuated throughout the three courses of the river. Altogether the Do content was low and this means that the water would not be able to sustain a large amount of aquatic life. However although the refinery was releasing hot water near the upper course of the river, the dissolved oxygen content was still highest there. The nitrate content in the river was relatively high and above the acceptable range. Meanwhile nitrates play an integral role in the development of a plant, however when leached into nearby water sources it can cause devastation since a buildup of nitrates in a river leads to algae blooming thus igniting the process of eutrophication. This then reduces the populations of all aquatic organisms in the water since it greatly consumes the oxygen content of the water. Conclusion: The Guaracara River has a myriad of pollutants since our tests proved that there were harmful and objectionable materials in sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality at the Guaracara River.

- 36 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

Date: 27/10/11 Lab no: 3 Title: Agricultural and Water Pollution in the Southern region of Trinidad Aim: To test for the presence of pollutants in the Godineau River using digital meters and scientific kits. Materials: 1. YSI 55 dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, Nitrates, TDS and conductivity meter. 2. LaMotte Colorimeter 3. Meter
- 37 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

4. YSI 63 pH and Temperature 5. Glass Canister Procedure: 1. The probe was removed from the YSI casing and then lowered into the water. 2. Readings of dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature was taken from the three samples from the lower course. 3. Steps one and two were repeated when testing for the dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature of the middle and upper course of the river. 4. The probe was then pulled up, washed with distilled water and replaced. 5. The YSI 63 probe was removed from the casing, and then lowered into the water. 6. Readings of pH, Salinity, Conductivity and TDS was taken from the three samples from the lower course. 7. Steps five and six were repeated when testing for the pH, Salinity, Conductivity and TDS of the middle and upper course of the river. 8. The probe was then raised, washed with distilled water and replaced. 9. Three samples of water were taken from the lower course of the river and were later placed in glass canisters where it was tested for nitrates using the colorimeter. 10. Step nine was repeated for the middle and upper course of the river. Data Collection/Results: Test Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Total Average International Standard

- 38 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

Ph Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

7.1 601 25.4 469 1000.33 9 0.1

7.2 600 25.3 470 1000.35 9 0.1

7.0 599 25.5 471 1000.34 9 0.1

7.1 600 25.4 470 1000.34 9 0.1

6.5 9.0
Below 1500 - 1800

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 25C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 1 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE LOWER COURSE OF THE RIVER

Test

Sample 1

Sample 2 7.09 639 23.8 443 900.5 8.8 0.4

Sample 3 7.08 641 23.7 441 900.4 8.7 0.2

Total Average 7.09 640 23.7 442 900.5 8.7 0.3

International Standard 6.5 9.0


Below 1500 - 1800

pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

7.10 640 23.6 442 900.6 8.6 0.3

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 24C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 2 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE MIDDLE COURSE OF THE RIVER

- 39 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

Test

Sample 1

Sample 2 8.1 699.3 23.9 498.3 1101 8.02 0

Sample 3 8.0 699.4 23.9 498.4 1100 8.04 0

Total Average 8.0 699.4 23.9 498.4 1100 8.03 0

International Standard 6.5 9.0


Below 1500 - 1800

pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

7.9 699.5 23.9 498.5 1099 8.03 0

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 24C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 3 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE UPPER COURSE OF THE RIVER

Test

Lower Average

Middle course Average

Upper Average

course Total Average

International Standard

pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

7.1 600 25.4 470 1000.34 9 0.1

7.09 640 23.7 442 900.5 8.7 0.3

8.0 699.4 23.9 498.4 1100 8.03 0

7.4 646.47 24.3 470.13 1000.28 8.58 0.13

6.5 9.0
Below 1500 - 1800

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 24C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

- 40 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

TABLE 4 ABOVE THE SHOWING RESULTS FOR THE ENTIRE RIVER

Discussion: Water pollution is the presence in water of harmful or objectionable material in sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality, thus affecting other living organisms that inhabit the specified body of water. Meanwhile, as seen in the table before, all the scientific values, of pH, temperature, salinity, total dissolved substances, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and nitrates are most definitely within or below the acceptable range. Therefore it is a fact to conclude that the river is not polluted as these scientific values show. Altogether, these excellent results were obtained mainly because the activities that are done in close proximity to the river are not very harmful. In terms of the pH of the Godineau River, the readings were below the acceptable international standards of 6.5 8.5. The pH of the river varied closely but increased up the course of the river since the upper course of the river had the highest pH. However the pollutants from the fishing boats may have caused this slight increase in pH since the majority of fishing activities occurs in the upper course of the Godineau River. Subsequently, the conductivity of the river was below the acceptable international standards. However the conductivity increased up the course of the river mainly because the upper course of the river suffered more impurities than the other courses of the river. For example the conductivity of the lower course was 600US whilst the upper course had a reading of 699.4US. Similarly, the temperature, salinity and TDS of the river were all within the international standards. The temperature of the river varied slightly with the lower course of the river having
- 41 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

the highest recorded temperature. With regard to the salinity of the river an average reading of 470.13ppt was obtained confirming that the water quality of this river was up to the international standard. Evidently, the TDS value was seemingly high with an average reading of 1000.28ppt; however it still remained below the acceptable range. Meanwhile, the dissolved oxygen concentration was high compared to the international for the average temperature. However this was a desirable result since the more dissolve oxygen a body of water contains, the more aquatic life it will be able to successfully sustain. Therefore these results maybe have been obtained due to the fact that the conductivity level proved that the river didnt have many impurities. This is so since less impurities means that less oxygen will be needed to breakdown chemicals. The nitrate content in the river was relatively low and below the acceptable range. Meanwhile nitrates play an integral role in the development of a plant, however when leached into nearby water sources it can cause devastation since a buildup of nitrates in a river leads to algae blooming thus igniting the process of eutrophication. This then reduces the populations of all aquatic organisms in the water since it greatly consumes the oxygen content of the water. Nevertheless, this was not the case in the Godineau River. Conclusion: The Godineau River has little or no pollutants since our tests proved that there were no harmful and objectionable materials in sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality at the Godineau River.

- 42 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

Date: 04/11/11 Lab no: 4 Title: Agricultural and Water Pollution in the Northern region of Trinidad Aim: To test for the presence of pollutants in the Caroni River using digital meters and scientific kits. Materials: 1. YSI 55 dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, Nitrates, TDS and conductivity meter. 2. LaMotte Colorimeter 3. Meter 4. YSI 63 pH and Temperature
- 43 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

5. Glass Canister Procedure: 1. The probe was removed from the YSI casing and then lowered into the water. 2. Readings of dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature was taken from the three samples from the lower course. 3. Steps one and two were repeated when testing for the dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature of the middle and upper course of the river. 4. The probe was then pulled up, washed with distilled water and replaced. 5. The YSI 63 probe was removed from the casing, and then lowered into the water. 6. Readings of pH, Salinity, Conductivity and TDS was taken from the three samples from the lower course. 7. Steps five and six were repeated when testing for the pH, Salinity, Conductivity and TDS of the middle and upper course of the river. 8. The probe was then raised, washed with distilled water and replaced. 9. Three samples of water were taken from the lower course of the river and were later placed in glass canisters where it was tested for nitrates using the colorimeter. 10. Step nine was repeated for the middle and upper course of the river. Data Collection/Results: Test Sample 1 pH 7.16 Sample 2 7.17 Sample 3 7.18 Total Average 7.17 International Standard 6.5 9.0

- 44 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

260 29 130 178 7.81 0.10

259 28 129 180 7.80 0.09

261 27 131 179 7.79 0.08

260 28 130 179 7.80 0.09

Below 1500 1800

23 30 500
Below 1000 1200

At 28C 8.0 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 1 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE LOWER COURSE OF THE RIVER

Test

Sample 1

Sample 2 6.29 290 25.5 141 196 7.19 0.07

Sample 3 6.31 291 25.4 140 194 7.20 0.06

Total Average 6.30 290 25.4 140 195 7.19 0.07

International Standard 6.5 9.0


Below 1500 1800

pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

6.30 289 25.3 139 195 7.18 0.08

23 30 500
Below 1000 1200

At 25C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 2 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE MIDDLE COURSE OF THE RIVER

- 45 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

Test

Sample 1

Sample 2 7.5 291 25.5 145 195 8.23 0.2

Sample 3 7.7 293 25.4 144 197 8.25 0.1

Total Average 7.6 292 25.4 144 196 8.24 0.2

International Standard 6.5 9.0


Below 1500 1800

pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

7.6 292 25.3 143 196 8.24 0.3

23 30 500
Below 1000 1200

At 25C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 3 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE UPPER COURSE OF THE RIVER

Test

Lower Average

Middle course Average

Upper Average

course Total Average

International Standard

pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

7.17 260 28 130 179 7.80 0.09

6.30 290 25.4 140 195 7.19 0.07

7.6 292 25.4 144 196 8.24 0.2

7.02 280.67 26.27 138 190 7.74 0.12

6.5 9.0
Below 1500 1800

23 30 500
Below 1000 1200

At 26C 8.3 Under 1ml/l

- 46 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

TABLE 4 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE ENITRE RIVER

Discussion: Water pollution is the presence in water of harmful or objectionable material in sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality, thus affecting other living organisms that inhabit the specified body of water. Meanwhile, as seen in the table before, all the scientific values, of pH, temperature, salinity, total dissolved substances, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and nitrates are most definitely within or below the acceptable range. Therefore it is a fact to conclude that the river is not polluted as these scientific values show. Altogether, these excellent results were obtained mainly because the activities that are done in close proximity to the river are not very harmful. In terms of the pH of the Caroni River, the readings were below the acceptable international standards of 6.5 8.5. The pH of the river fluctuated since there was a decrease in pH from the lower to middle stream and then an increase from the middle stream to the upper stream. However it was noted that the average pH of the Caroni River was 7.02 and the pH of pure water is 7.0. Therefore the average pH of the river is very close to the pH of pure water meaning that this river will successfully sustain some aquatic life since its a fact that some organisms require a specific pH for reproduction to take place. Subsequently, the conductivity of the river was below the acceptable international standards. However the conductivity increased up the course of the river mainly because the upper course of the river suffered more impurities than the other courses of the river. For example the conductivity of the lower course was 260US whilst the upper course had a reading of 292US.

- 47 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

Similarly, the temperature, salinity and TDS of the river were all within the international standards. The temperature of the river varied slightly with the lower course of the river having the highest recorded temperature and both the middle and upper course having the same temperature. With regard to the salinity of the river an average reading of 138ppm was obtained confirming that the water quality of this river was up to the international standard. Evidently, the TDS value was relatively low with an average reading of 190ppt. Meanwhile, the dissolved oxygen concentration was below the acceptable international range and varied slightly since the upper course was somewhat higher than both the lower and middle course of the river. However low dissolved oxygen content in this case means that the dissolved oxygen was used to breakdown the chemicals in the water since this is one function of dissolved oxygen in water. The nitrate content in the river was relatively low and below the acceptable range. Meanwhile nitrates play an integral role in the development of a plant, however when leached into nearby water sources it can cause devastation since a buildup of nitrates in a river leads to algae blooming thus igniting the process of eutrophication. This then reduces the populations of all aquatic organisms in the water since it greatly consumes the oxygen content of the water. Nevertheless, this was not the case in the Caroni River. Conclusion: The Caroni River has little or no pollutants since our tests proved that there were no harmful and objectionable materials in sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality at the Caroni River.

- 48 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

Date: 11/11/11 Lab no: 5 Title: Agricultural and Water Pollution in the Southern region of Trinidad Aim: To test for the presence of pollutants in the Ortoire River using digital meters and scientific kits. Materials: 1. YSI 55 dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, Nitrates, TDS and conductivity meter. 2. LaMotte Colorimeter 3. Meter 4. YSI 63 pH and Temperature
- 49 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

5. Glass Canister Procedure: 1. The probe was removed from the YSI casing and then lowered into the water. 2. Readings of dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature was taken from the three samples from the lower course. 3. Steps one and two were repeated when testing for the dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature of the middle and upper course of the river. 4. The probe was then pulled up, washed with distilled water and replaced. 5. The YSI 63 probe was removed from the casing, and then lowered into the water. 6. Readings of pH, Salinity, Conductivity and TDS was taken from the three samples from the lower course. 7. Steps five and six were repeated when testing for the pH, Salinity, Conductivity and TDS of the middle and upper course of the river. 8. The probe was then raised, washed with distilled water and replaced. 9. Three samples of water were taken from the lower course of the river and were later placed in glass canisters where it was tested for nitrates using the colorimeter. 10. Step nine was repeated for the middle and upper course of the river. Data Collection/ Results: Test Sample 1 pH 7.80 Sample 2 7.79 Sample 3 7.81 Total Average 7.80 International Standard 6.5 9.0

- 50 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

6503.53 29 4000 5500 16.12 0

6503.54 29 4001 5501 16.13 0

6503.55 29 3999 5499 16.14 0

6503.54 29 4000 5500 16.13 0

Below 1500 - 1800

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 29C 7.7 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 1 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE LOWER COURSE OF THE RIVER

Test

Sample 1

Sample 2 7.8 240.4 29.3 109 170 9.9 0.3

Sample 3 7.7 240.2 29.2 110 169 9.9 0.1

Total Average 7.7 240.3 29.3 110 170 9.9 0.2

International Standard 6.5 9.0


Below 1500 1800

pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

7.6 240.3 29.4 111 171 9.9 0.2

23 30 500
Below 1000 1200

At 29C 7.7 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 2 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE MIDDLE COURSE OF THE RIVER

Test

Lower

Middle

Upper

course Total

International

- 51 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

Average

course Average

Average

Average

Standard

pH Conductivity(U.S) Temperature (C) Salinity (ppm) TDS (ppt) Dissolve Oxygen (ppm) Nitrates (ppm)

7.80 6503.54 29 4000 5500 16.13 0

7.7 240.3 29.3 110 170 9.9 0.2

----------------------

7.75 3371.92 29.15 2055 2835 13.01 0.1

6.5 9.0
Below 1500 - 1800

23 30 500
Below 1000 - 1200

At 29C 7.7 Under 1ml/l

TABLE 3 ABOVE SHOWING THE RESULTS FOR THE ENTIRE RIVER

N:B The reason why there isnt any results for the upper course of the river is because the upper course of the river was inaccessible via road and the only way we could have gotten there was by boat and as school students we werent allowed to do so. Discussion: Water pollution is the presence in water of harmful or objectionable material in sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality, thus affecting other living organisms that inhabit the specified body of water. Meanwhile, as seen in the table before, all the scientific values, of pH, temperature, salinity, total dissolved substances, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and nitrates are most definitely within or below the acceptable range. Therefore it is a fact to conclude that the river is not polluted as
- 52 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

these scientific values show. Altogether, these excellent results were obtained mainly because the activities that are done in close proximity to the river are not very harmful. In terms of the pH of the Ortoire River, the readings were below the acceptable international standards of 6.5 8.5. The pH of the river varied very closely in the lower and middle courses. However it was noted that the average pH of the Ortoire River was 7.75 and the pH of pure water is 7.0. Therefore the average pH of the river is close to the pH of pure water meaning that this river will successfully sustain some aquatic life since its a fact that some organisms require a specific pH for reproduction to take place. Subsequently, the conductivity of the river was above the acceptable international standards. However the conductivity decreased dramatically from the lower course to middle the course of the river mainly because the lower course of the river suffered more impurities than the other courses of the river. For example the conductivity of the lower course was 6503.54US whilst the upper course had a reading of 240.3US. Moreover the reason for this drastic difference is solely because the river water merges with the sea water at the lower course of the river resulting in more impurities being present in this part of the river. Therefore since the middle course of the rivers conductivity was so low under the acceptable level then it was safe to say that the river could support fresh water aquatic life but only up to a certain point in the river. Similarly, the temperature, salinity and TDS of the river were all within the international standards. The temperature of the river varied slightly with the middle course of the river having the highest recorded temperature. With regard to the salinity the lower course was much higher than the acceptable standards however again this was due to the fact that the tests were taken in

- 53 BRANDON ATWELL PRESENTATION COLLEGE SAN FERNANDO

the lower course of the river where the river water merges with the sea water. Additionally, this was also the case with the TDS. Meanwhile, the dissolved oxygen concentration was high compared to the international for the average temperature. However this was a desirable result since the more dissolve oxygen a body of water contains, the more aquatic life it will be able to successfully sustain The nitrate content in the river was relatively low and below the acceptable range. Meanwhile nitrates play an integral role in the development of a plant, however when leached into nearby water sources it can cause devastation since a buildup of nitrates in a river leads to algae blooming thus igniting the process of eutrophication. This then reduces the populations of all aquatic organisms in the water since it greatly consumes the oxygen content of the water. Nevertheless, this was not the case in the Ortoire River.

Conclusion: The Ortoire River has little or no pollutants since our tests proved that there were no harmful and objectionable materials in sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality at the Ortoire River.

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Journal report

The topic chosen for this journal report is the factors that affect the water quality of Rivers in Trinidad. Water pollution is the presence in water of harmful or objectionable material in
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sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality, thus affecting other living organisms that inhabit the specified body of water. The purpose of this project is to allow one to become conscious of the factors that affect the quality of the river water that surrounds them and also the harms in which a polluted river can cause to its aquatic life and even us the humans that may use it domestically or recreationally. This project also intends to spark the enthusiasm of us, the students, to become knowledgeable about what we can do as citizens of Trinidad to assist in the diminution of water pollution. The variables present in this project are the Rivers that will be focused on is the Cipero River, Guaracara River, Godineau River, Caroni River and the Ortoire River. Additionally, the factors that affect water quality that will be focused on in this projects are as followed; pH, Conductivity, Temperature, Salinity, Total Dissolved Substances, Dissolved Oxygen and Nitrates.

The methods of data collection that were used are as follows; site visits were used to conduct various observations in and around the area of the Rivers and the use of digital meters and scientific kits were used to test for the factors that affect the water quality of the Rivers.

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A probe was lowered into the various Rivers to acquire the readings for both the Dissolved oxygen content and the Temperature. Secondly, a YSI 63 probe was later used to obtain the levels of pH, Salinity, conductivity and total dissolved solids in the water. Lastly, a LaMotte colorimeter was used to acquire the amount of nitrates present in the water. Of the fiver rivers that were tested, the upper, middle and lower courses of the rivers were tested accept for the Ortoire river. Both the lower and middle courses were tested, but the upper course was in accessible. The internet was used to obtain the acceptable international standards for the various water pollutants and also information for the literature review.

1.

The quality of the surface water resources of Trinidad in many places is deteriorating due to high levels of suspended solids, organic matter, high bacteria counts and the presence of chemical pollutants. The main causes are uncontrolled point source discharges, in particular industrial (including mining) and domestic. The high erosion
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rates in upstream area and the indiscriminate removal of vegetative cover contribute to the high turbidity and suspended solids loads in certain watersheds. The increasing pressure on the water resources due to population and socio-economic activities will result in an even higher rate of pollution, if no corrective measures are instituted. (Phillip H.W. 1998 River water quality in Trinidad and Tobago)

2.

Domestic wastewater discharges continues to be a serious and chronic problem. Discharged wastewater finds its way into the marine environment where it can have negative public health effects, largely through its bacterial content. Solid wastes are managed by sanitary land filling with minimal recycling. There is a serious potential problem at the Beetham dump (Trinidad), situated close to the sea where seepage may be transported to the coast via the adjoining wetlands. Agricultural and industrial pollution are constant features of the economic development of the country. (Alexia C.R. 2009 Water Pollution in the northern range of Trinidad)

3.

There have been a number of reported fish kills in rivers of Trinidad and Tobago attributed to the indiscriminate use of pesticides, fertilizers and domestic chemicals. In Trinidad the rivers Maraval, St. Anns, Santa Cruz/San Juan, Caroni and Arima. (Bryon E.R. 2010. What are some factors that affect the water quality of Rivers in Trinidad and Tobago?)

4.

Trinidad and Tobago has historically enjoyed good potable water quality. Increasing

pollution from sewage and industrial effluents combined with soil erosion and unmitigated
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development are threatening the quality of potable water while increasing treatment cost. At the same time, pollution can have significant implications for public health and natural ecosystems. (Michelle S.I. 2007. Importance of maintaining water quality)

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Figure 1: A colomn graph Showing the average pH of each River in comparison to the international standard.

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Cipero Guaracara Godineau Caroni Ortoire International Standard

The data showed the Cipero River had an average pH of 10.17, Guaracara = 9.07, Godineau = 7.4, Caroni = 7.02, Ortoire = 7.75 and the maximum international standard of pH = 9.0.

Figure 2: A bar graph showing the average conductivity of each River in comparison to the international standard

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International Sandard Ortoire Caroni Godineau Guaracara Cipero 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

The data showed the Cipero River had an average conductivity of 350.6US, Guaracara = 200.6US, Godineau = 646.41US, Caroni = 280.67US, Ortoire = 3371.92US and the maximum international standard of conductivity = 1800US.

Figure 3: A 3-D cone showing the average temperature of the entire Rivers in comparison to the international standard.

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30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Cipero Guaracara Godineau

Caroni

Ortoire

International Standard

The data showed the Cipero River had an average temperature of 24.6, uaracara C, Godineau 24.3 C, Caroni 26.27 C, Ortoire 3 C.

24.5

29. 5 C and the maximum

international standard of Temperature

Figure 4: A table Showing the average salinity of each River in comparison to the international standard.

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Name of River/ International Standard

Average Salinity 621

Cipero 545.03 Guaracara 470.13 Godineau 138 Caroni 2055 Ortoire 500 International Standard

The data showed the Cipero River had an average salinity of 621ppm, Guaracara = 545.03ppm, Godineau = 470.13ppm, Caroni = 138ppm, Ortoire = 2055ppm and the maximum international standard of salinity = 500ppm.

Figure 5: A table Showing the average TDS of each River in comparison to the international standard.

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Name of River/ International Standard Cipero Guaracara Godineau Caroni Ortoire International Standard

Average Total Dissolved Substances 1421.6 1224.8 1000.28 190 2835 1200

The data showed the Cipero River had an average TDS of 1421.6ppt, Guaracara = 1244.8ppt, Godineau = 100.28ppt, Caroni = 190ppt, Ortoire = 2835ppt and the maximum international standard of TDS = 1200ppt

Figure 6: A table Showing the average Dissolved oxygen of each River in comparison to the international standard.

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Name of River/ International Standard Cipero

Average Dissolved Oxygen

4.76 Guaracara 6.09 Godineau 8.58 Caroni 7.74 Ortoire 13.01 International Standard 7.7

The data showed the Cipero River had an average Dissolved oxygen of 4.76ppm, Guaracara = 6.09ppm, Godineau = 8.58ppm, Caroni = 7.74, Ortoire = 13.01ppm and the maximum international standard of Dissolved oxygen = 7.7ppm

Figure 7: A clustered horizontal cylinder Showing the average amount of nitrates of each River in comparison to the international standard.

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International Standard

Ortoire

Caroni

Godineau

Guaracara

Cipero 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

The data showed the Cipero River had an average reading of nitrates of 3.63ml/l, Guaracara = 1.63ml/l, Godineau = 0.13ml/l, Caroni = 0.12ml/l, Ortoire = 0.1ml/l and the maximum international standard of Dissolved oxygen = 1ml/l.

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After the testing of the five Rivers was done, the results were collated and graphically presented in order to facilitate further analysis. With regard to figure 1, a column graph was used to compare the different pH levels of the five rivers that were tested. Indeed, the Cipero River had the highest pH reading, that is, 10.17, whilst the Caroni River recorded the lowest pH reading of 7.02. Subsequently, for figure 2 a bar graph was developed to evaluate the average conductivity of the five Rivers. Undeniably, the maximum acceptable international standard is 1800US; however all the Rivers were below this figure, except the Ortoire River with a conductivity level of 3371.92US. Meanwhile, figure 3, a 3-D cone, focused on the Temperature of the water. n ascending order, the temperature of the five rivers are as followed C, Cipero 24.6 C, Caroni odineau iver 24.3 C, uaracara 24.5

26.27 C and the Ortoire

29. 5 C.

owever the

international standard for temperature as seen is 3

C therefore all the ivers were below.

In terms of Salinity and TDS, figure 4 and 5 represented these two factors by the use of tables. It must be noted that the Caroni River recorded the lowest readings for both these factors; 138ppt and 190ppt respectively whilst the Ortoire River recorded the highest readings for both these factors 2055ppt and 2835ppt respectively.

Figure 6 was also represented in a tabular format and depicted the average Dissolved oxygen content of the five Rivers that were tested. In fact, the international standard is 7.7ppm and only two rivers had an acceptable, rather superior Dissolved oxygen content and is as follows; Godineau = 8.58ppm and the Ortoire with the highest at 13.01ppm.

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Lastly, figure 7, a clustered horizontal cylinder illustrated the average amount of nitrates in all the Rivers in comparison to the international standard. Alas, All the rivers were not below the international standard of 1ml/l since both the Cipero and Guaracara were above this level with figures of 3.63ml/l and 1.63ml/l in that order. The results obtained indicated of the five Rivers that were tested, three of them could be considered to be not polluted.

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Water pollution is the presence in water of harmful or objectionable material in sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality, thus affecting other living organisms that inhabit the specified body of water. The pH of water manipulates most of its chemical processes. Pure water with no impurities has a pH of seven; however the international standard is 9.0. Consequently both the Cipero and the Caroni River are above this level and this may be because of the fact that a large variety of pesticides and fertilizers enters these two Rivers as seen during observations for the site visits. This notion may be solidified by the statement made by Bryon E.R. when he stated that a number of reported fish kills in rivers of Trinidad and Tobago attributed to the indiscriminate use of pesticides, fertilizers and domestic chemicals. Nonetheless, fish eggs strive best within the range of 7.0 9.0. Undeniably, conductivity refers to how well water passes electrical current. The more impurities in water, the greater its electrical current. All the Rivers were below the international standard except the Ortoire River because. This river had a high conductivity because of where the test was done which was where the ocean and river met.

Meanwhile, temperature is important for aquatic life since high temperatures reduce available oxygen in water but at low temperature more dissolved oxygen is available for aquatic life. owever all the ivers were within the international standard of 23 C 3 C.

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Salinity is simply a measure of saltiness. The weathering or dissolving of continental rocks is one of the main ways in which a river may start carrying salt. In reality, Rivers are populated with a myriad of fresh water aquatic life and if the water becomes high in salinity then the dislocation of populations may occur since they will have to migrate to cleaner waters and also some may even die. However, only the Godineau and the Caroni River had a salinity reading below the international standard of 500ppm. A high 2055ppm was recorded for the Ortoire River but this occurred due to the fact of where the test was taken, that is where the ocean and river water met. Correspondingly, in terms of the TDS of the Rivers, only the Godineau and Caroni were below the international standard of 1200ppt. Again this was due to the fact that during observations at the Cipero and Guaracara River a point source pollutant was seen since a pipeline discharging effluence was seen flowing directly into the River. This premise could be reinforced by what Phillip .W. said in his essay on iver water quality in Trinidad and Tobago. Phillip

claimed that the main causes are uncontrolled point source discharges, in particular industrial (including mining) and domestic. Dissolved oxygen is the amount of oxygen dissolved in water and is essential for the survival of aquatic life. Only the Cipero and the Guaracara River had an awful dissolved oxygen reading. The reading may have been dreadful since dissolved oxygen is used up when it has to breakdown a large amount of chemicals in water. This can be supported by what Phillip H.W said, in his essay on river water quality in Trinidad and Tobago. He stated that the quality of the surface water resources of Trinidad in many places is deteriorating due to the presence of chemical pollutants.
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Nitrates play an integral role in the development of a plant, however when leached into nearby water sources it can cause desolation since a buildup of nitrates in a river leads to algae blooming thus igniting the process of eutrophication. Therefore this statement was supported by Bryon E.R. who said that the indiscriminate use pesticides and fertilizers are some of the factors that lead to fish kills. Undeniably, both the Cipero and Guaracara River were above the international standard of 1ml/l. The high levels of nitrates at the Guaracara River can be accounted for since during observations upon visiting this site, it was clear that subsistence farming was being practice by a myriad of residents.

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Ultimately, it is a necessity to conclude that based on the findings of this research, that not all of the five Rivers that were tested are polluted. Evidently, both the Godineau and the Caroni River are not polluted since they both had little or no pollutants since our tests proved that there were no harmful and objectionable materials in sufficient quantity to measurably degrade the water quality at the Rivers. Unfortunately, the area of the Ortoire River that was tested may have skewed our results since where the brackish water was formed in the river is where was tested. Secondly the upper course of the River was inaccessible hence that reading was absent. During research for the literature review, the issues that led to certain factors that affected water quality were found and some were; agriculture, industry and commercial factors and also what affects these factors have on the various Rivers. Therefore this went hand in hand with the purpose of the project which was to spark the enthusiasm of us the students to become aware of every aspect of these factors. Nevertheless, the entire research project was somewhat successful.

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1. Implement various environmental legislations and penalties Therefore the owner of the business near the Cipero River that has a pipeline running directly into the river discharging effluence should be penalized accordingly. Also those people that dump garbage into this River would face the same consequences.

2. Greater emphasis on CEC's If this is done then a reduction of some water pollutants would be attained since only when a proposal is environmentally friendly then it would be granted access by the EMA to further its construction. Then these businesses near the Cipero River that pollute the River would maybe not even be in existence.

3. Development of water treatment plants in all major rivers As seen in the Caroni River, the water treatment plant there greatly reduces the amount of water pollutants there so if these plants were to be constructed in other rivers, e.g. the Guaracara River, then it would be sanitary.

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4. Protect drinking water by using less pesticides and fertilizers This will be very effective since according to Bryon E.R. in the literature review of this project, the indiscriminate use of fertilizers and pesticides have been a major cause of a large number of reported fish kills. 5. Education The general public can be educated about how their actions may affect the various water courses nearby and also steps that they can take in an attempt to curb this issue. 6. Better Farming practices The principles of GAP (Good Agricultural Practices) should be adhered to by farmers hence their well be a drastic decrease in chemical drifting and fertilizer run-off. Additionally even Phillip H.W. in his essay on water quality believed that even higher rates of pollution would occur, if no corrective measures are instituted.

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1. H.W., P. (1998, January 12). EMA water pollution. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from EMA Web site: http://www.ema.co.tt/docs/techServ/water/rewpmp.pdf

2. C.R., A. (2009, february 18). new facts: Trininetworks. Retrieved March 3, 2012, from Trininetworks: http://trininetwork.com/news/facts.htm

3. C.R., B. (2010, September 11). Water pollution: WRMU. Retrieved March 01, 2012, from WRMU: http://wrmu.org.tt/uploads/policy-wrmu.pdf

4. S.I, M. (2007, July 11). Importance of water quality: Blur. Retrieved March 04, 2012, from Blur: http://blurtit.com/q517178.html

5. Thornes, N. (2001). Bath Advanced Science. Environmental Science.

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