# CIVE 5699: SPECIAL TOPICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING (SPRING 2013

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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND INFRASTRUCTURE

ASSIGNMENT 2- LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY
Due before class Friday, February 1 as email or hard copy

1. Download the ‘Spreadsheet LCA matrix model’ from the Course Material folder of Blackboard, where you will find a record of the matrix calculations we used in class to calculate the LCI of 10 aluminum packages. Use it to solve the following life cycle inventory problem, based on the tea example we used in class (now in SI units), by filling in the missing entries in the table.
Economic / Environmtl. Flows Electricity (MJ) Filtered Water (kg) Tea (kg) Brewed Tea (kg) Drinking (kg) Coal (kg) Raw Water (kg) CO2 (kg) Nitrogen (kg) Solid Waste (kg) Electricity from Coal 1 -0.05 0 0 0 -0.1 -0.16 0.18 0.01 0.05 Filtered Water -0.05 1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 Unit Processes Tea Brewing Use / EoL 0 0 1 0 0 0 -10 -0.1 0.2 1 -0.1 -1 -0.05 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 1 0 0 0 0 0.07 Ref. Flow/ LCI 0 0 0 0 0.2

a. Describe in words the ‘Electricity from Coal’ and ‘Tea’ unit processes. Do the values and units make sense to you? What other input or output flows could you add to the table? b. What is the carbon footprint of your cup of tea (that is, the life cycle CO2 emissions associated with the reference flow)? c. Which would be a more effective water saving measure from a life cycle point of view: moving to air-cooled power plants (no raw water intake for cooling) or introducing drip irrigation in tea plantations (reduce water consumption per unit tea by 90%)? Solution 1: A)Unit process electricity from Coal needs 10 kilogram of Coal ,with an intake of 1.6 kilogram of Raw water for cooling of the plant and 0.5 kilogram of filtered water for the production of 10 mj of electricity. Emissions from the process of combustion includes: 1.CO2-1.8 kilograms 2.nitrogen-1kilogram 3.solid waste-0.5 kilogram

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414 grams of CO2 is emitted in processing of making a cup of tea.In this process . Flows Electricity (MJ) cotton (kg) Color Dye (kg) Denim Fiber (kg) jeans (kg) Coal (kg) Raw Water (kg) CO2 (kg) Nitrogen (kg) Solid Waste (kg) Electricity from Coal 1 0 0 0 0 -0.6 4. Denim production for jeans also requires over 16 ounces of oil to run the machinery to transport the water needed to produce one pair of jeans (http://www.CIVE 5699: SPECIAL TOPICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING (SPRING 2013) LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF MATERIALS.18 0. similar to that in problem 1.6 0 -4 1 -0.01 0.75 0 0.05 cotton -12 1 0 0 0 0 -0.07 Ref. PRODUCTS.500 gallons of water to produce 1. Please limit the table to between 3 and 5 unit processes. B)4. takes 1 kilogram of Co2 and emits nitrogen(nitrogen did oxide) of 2 kilo grams and a solid waste of wood stems of 10 kilograms.pdf) For the estimation of emissions I found this link: -2- . but these do not have to be exact – reasonable guesses are fine.45 -0. Flow/ LCI 0 0 0 0 1 -4 -8.13 The manufacturing process for a pair of denim jeans begins with the agricultural production of cotton.3 0.4 Unit Processes Color Denim Dye fiber -1 -0.standard. 2.5 lbs of cotton which is the amount required to make a single pair of jeans.5 0.3 Use / EoL 0 0 0 -1 1 0 0 0 0 0. that describes the product system of producing a pair of jeans in a garment factory with an electric sewing machine.45359237 kilograms Since area of cotton is not mentioned for simplicity I am considering 0. AND INFRASTRUCTURE Unit process of tea requires 100 kilograms of raw water for cultivating 10 kilograms of tea.1 0 0. Do some research to figure out what reasonable inputs and outputs from each unit process might be.Create a table.05 0 1 0 0 0 0 -4 0 0. These cotton crops guzzle 1.3 12.net/topics/opinion/2011/04/26/producing-denim-jeans-takes-tollenvironment) Assumptions: Instead of oil I took coal as a substitute 16 ounce = 0.cotton.5 kg of water gives 1 kilo gram of cotton The by products of dying process are mentioned here (http://www. Economic / Environmtl.16 0.05 0 0 0. C) please see the excel sheet attached.org/journal/2007-11/3/upload/jcs11-141. Feel free to keep the same list of environmental flows (you will have to revise the economic flows).

and package weight (this includes packaging materials).blogs.CIVE 5699: SPECIAL TOPICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING (SPRING 2013) LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF MATERIALS. AND INFRASTRUCTURE http://oecotextiles. press the Network button and take a screen shot of the unit process network. -3- . including packaging.Now using SimaPro.com/2011/01/19/estimating-the-carbon-footprint-of-a-fabric/ and the steps taken for reduction is als mentioned here . For simplicity. the Circustält kids tent from IKEA (incidentallly.) Use for the reference flow one product at the IKEA store. processing.S.wordpress. namely. Next.nytimes. materials.com/2012/08/20/sustainable-innovation-reducing-fashionscarbon-footprint/) 3. Use only ecoinvent unit processes to complete your inventory. you can also go down to the Stoughton store and get one for yourself. Take a screenshot of the assembly. create a cradle-to-gate life cycle inventory of a consumer product. Explore the network and write a few sentences about what you see .ikea. (If you really like the looks of it or want to rip it apart for your assignment. Include materials. and feel free to make any reasonable assumptions.( http://rendezvous.com/us/en/catalog/products/10206883/ On the website you can find information on dimensions. assume it is manufactured in its entirety in Europe of European materials and shipped to the U. and transportation unit processes. PRODUCTS. a favorite at our house): http://www.

CIVE 5699: SPECIAL TOPICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING (SPRING 2013) LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF MATERIALS. PRODUCTS. AND INFRASTRUCTURE Here -4- .

Now choose a waste scenario. Now go back to the LCA Explorer (SimaPro’s main page) and View any recycling process from the Process > Waste treatment > Recycling menu in the LCA Explorer. Do you see any linkages between waste management unit processes and those involved in the production phase? (If not. Once the network is visible. What percentage of the total life cycle carbon footprint is contributed by waste management? b. Again press the Network button but this time use an impact assessment method of Single Issue>IPCC 2007 100a that will give you the carbon footprint of the product.) Write a couple sentences interpreting these links. Enter in your Circustält assembly in the appropriate place. Why aren’t we seeing any credits being given for recycling? Give an explanation for this from an allocation methodoly point of view. preferably one of the country scenarios. you can lower your cut-off threshold to see if such links appear.CIVE 5699: SPECIAL TOPICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING (SPRING 2013) LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF MATERIALS. Go to ‘Product stages > Life cycle and create a new life cycle. c. set the cut-off set enough that waste management impacts are visible. PRODUCTS.Now you will attach the waste scenario to your inventory. Look carefully at the ‘Input/output’ tab. a. -5- . AND INFRASTRUCTURE 4.

AND INFRASTRUCTURE A) About 7% of the total carbon foot print(0.where has recycled is a sub process of the main process.CIVE 5699: SPECIAL TOPICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING (SPRING 2013) LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF MATERIALS. PRODUCTS.805kg) B) The linkages between nylon-6 disposal of plastics mixture which is in turn related to disposal of municipal waste and disposal of plastic mixtures to sanitary C) Credits are not been shown as cicustalt is primary . -6- .