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Assyrian the Assyrians being distinguished among the nations of antiquity by their historical sense. In Assyria the royal palace took the place of the Bah or Egyptian temple; and where the Babylonian or the Egyptian would have left behind him a religious record, the Assyrian adorned his walls with accounts of campaigns and the victories of their royal builders. The dates which are attached to each portion of the narrative, and the care with which the names of petty princes and states are transcribed, give a high idea of the historical precision at which the Assyrians aimed. The Assyrian monuments are alone sufficient to show that the historical sense was by no means unknown to the ancient peoples of the East, and when we remember how closely related the Assyrians were to the Hebrews in both race and language, the fact becomes important to the Biblical student. Besides historical texts the library contained also chronological tables and long lists of kings and dynasties with the number of years they reigned. In Babylonia time was marked by officially naming each year after some event that had occurred in the course of it; the more historically-minded Assyrian named the year after a particular official, called limmu, who was appointed on each New Year’s Day. In Babylonia the chronological system went back to a very remote date. The Babylonians were a commercial people, and for commercial purposes it was necessary to have an exact register of the time. Isaiah 23 8Who hath taken this counsel against Tyre, the crowning city, whose merchants are princes, whose traffickers are the honourable of the earth? 10Pass through thy land as a river, O daughter of Tarshish: there is no more strength. 12And he said, Thou shalt no more rejoice, O thou oppressed virgin, daughter of Zidon: arise, pass over to Chittim; there also shalt thou have no rest. 14Howl, ye ships of Tarshish: for your strength is laid waste. 15And it shall come to pass in that day, that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king: after the end of seventy years shall Tyre sing as an harlot. 17And it shall come to pass after the end of seventy years, that the LORD will visit Tyre, and she shall turn to her hire, and shall commit fornication with all the kingdoms of the world upon the face of the earth. 18And her merchandise and her hire shall be holiness to the LORD: it shall not be treasured nor laid up; for her merchandise shall be for them that dwell before the LORD, to eat sufficiently, and for durable clothing.
Babylon 1st Babylon was the Greek name of the city written in the cuneiform script of the Babylonians, bab-ili, which means in Semitic, "the gate of god." The Hebrews called the country, as well as the city, Babhel. This name they considered came from the’ root, balal, "to confound" (Ge 11:9). The name in Sumerian ideographs was written Din-tir, which means "life of the forest," and yet ancient etymologists explained it as meaning "place of the seat of life" (shubat balaTe). Ka-ding’irra, which also means "gate of god," was another form of the name in Sumerian. It was also called Su-anna (which is of uncertain meaning) and Uru-azagga, "the holy city." The name of the great capital of ancient Babylonia, the Shinar of Ge 10:10; 14:1, other names of the city being Tin- dir, "seat of life," E (ki), probably an abbreviation of Eridu (ki) "the good city" (= Paradise), Babylonia having seemingly been regarded as the Garden of Eden (PSBA, June 1911, p. 161); and Su-anna, "the high-handed" (meaning, apparently, "high- walled," "hand" and "defense" being interchangeable terms). It is possible that these various names are due to the incorporation of outlying districts as Babylon grew in size. 1. Names by Which the City Was Known 2. Probable Date of Its Foundation 3. Its Walls and Gates from Herodotus 4. Its Position, Divisions, Streets and Temple 5. The Works of Semiramis and Nitocris 6. Ctesias’ Description—the Palaces and Their Decorated Walls 7. The Temple of Belus and the Hanging Gardens 8. Other Descriptions 9. Nebuchadrezzar’s Account 10. Nebuchadrezzar’s Architectural Work at Babylon 11. The Royal Palaces 12. Quick Building 13. The Temples Restored by Nebuchadrezzar 14. The Extent of Nebuchadrezzar’s Architectural Work 15. Details Concerning the City from Contract-Tablets 16. Details Concerning Babylon from Other Sources 17. Modern Exploration 18. Description of the Ruins—the Eastern Walls 19. The Western Walls 20. The Palaces 21. The Site of Babylon’s Great Tower 22. The Central and Southern Ruins 23. A Walk through Babylon 24. The Ishtar-Gate and the Middle Palace
25. The Festival-Street 26. The Chamber of the Fates 27. The Northern Palace and the Gardens 28. Historical References to Babylonian Buildings 3rd Babylon in Re are evidently symbolic. Some of the most important passages are Rev 14:8; 16:19; 17:5; 18:2,10,21. In Rev 17:5 Babylon is designated as musterion. This undoubtedly in dicates that the name is to be under stood figuratively. A few interpreters have believed that Jerusalem was the city that was designated as Babylon, but most scholars hold that Rome was the city that was meant. That interpretation goes back at least to the time of Tertullian (Adv. Marc., iii. 13). This interpretation was adopted by Jerome and Augustine and has been commonly accepted by the church. There are some striking facts which point to Rome as the city that is designated as Babylon. (1) The characteristics ascribed to this Babylon apply to Rome rather than to any other city of that age: (a) as ruling over the kings of the earth (Re 17:18); (b) as sitting on seven mountains (Re 17:9); (c) as the center of the world’s merchandise (Re 18:3,11-13); (d) as the corrupter of the nations (Re 17:2; 18:3; 19:2); (e) as the persecutor of the saints (Re 17:6). Rivers of Babylon (Psa 137:1), i.e., of the whole country of Babylonia, e.g., the Tigris, Euphrates, Chalonas, the Ulai, and the numerous canals. Chaldea "the land of the Chaldeans" (Jer 24:5; 12:13), was an extensive province in Central Asia along the valley of the Tigris from the Persian Gulf northward for some 300 miles. It was famed for its fertility and its riches. Its capital was the city of Babylon, a great commercial centre (Eze 17:4; Isa 43:14). Babylonia was divided into the two districts of Accad in the north, and Summer (probably the Shinar of the Old Testament) in the south. Among its chief cities may be mentioned Ur (now Mugheir or Mugayyar), on the western bank of the Euphrates; Uruk, or Erech (Gen 10:10) (now Warka), between Ur and Babylon; Larsa (now Senkereh), the Ellasar of Gen 14:1, a little to the east of Erech; Nipur (now Niffer), south-east of Babylon; Sepharvaim (2Ki 17:24), "the two Sipparas" (now Abu-Habba), considerably to the north of Babylon; and Eridu, "the good city" (now Abu-Shahrein), which lay originally on the shore of the Persian Gulf, but is now, owing to the silting up of the sand, about 100 miles distant from it. Another city was Kulunu, or Calneh (Gen 10:10). The salt-marshes at the mouths of the Euphrates and Tigris were called Marratu, "the bitter" or "salt", the Merathaim of Jer 50:21. They were the original home of the Kalda, or Chaldeans. The most famous of the early kings of Babylonia were Sargon of Accad (B.C.3800) and his son, Naram-Sin, who conquered a large part of Western Asia, establishing their power in Palestine, and even carrying their arms to the Sinaitic peninsula. A great Babylonian library was founded in the reign of Sargon. Babylonia was subsequently again broken up into more than one state, and at one time fell under the domination of Elam. This was put an end to by Khammu-rabi (Amraphel), who drove the Elamites out of the country, and overcame Arioch, the son of an Elamite prince. From this time forward Babylonia was a united monarchy. About B.C. 1750 it was conquered by the Kassi, or Kosseans, from the mountains of Elam, and a Kassite dynasty ruled over it for 576 years and 9 months.
In the time of Khammu-rabi, Syria and Palestine were subject to Babylonia and its Elamite suzerain; and after the overthrow of the Elamite supremacy, the Babylonian kings continued to exercise their influence and power in what was called "the land of the Amorites." In the epoch of the Kassite dynasty, however, Canaan passed into the hands of Egypt. In B.C. 729, Babylonia was conquered by the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III.; but on the death of Shalmaneser IV. it was seized by the Kalda or "Chaldean" prince Merodach-baladan (2Ki 20:12-19), who held it till B.C. 709, when he was driven out by Sargon. Under Sennacherib, Babylonia revolted from Assyria several times, with the help of the Elamites, and after one of these revolts Babylon was destroyed by Sennacherib, B.C. 689. It was rebuilt by Esarhaddon, who made it his residence during part of the year, and it was to Babylon that Manasseh was brought a prisoner (2Ch 33:11). After the death of Esarhaddon, Saul-sumyukin, the viceroy of Babylonia, revolted against his brother the Assyrian king, and the revolt was suppressed with difficulty. When Nineveh was destroyed, B.C. 606, Nabopolassar, the viceroy of Babylonia, who seems to have been of Chaldean descent, made himself independent. His son Nebuchadrezzar (Nabu-kudur-uzur), after defeating the Egyptians at Carchemish, succeeded him as king, B.C. 604, and founded the Babylonian empire. He strongly fortified Babylon, and adorned it with palaces and other buildings. His son, Evil-merodach, who succeeded him in B.C. 561, was murdered after a reign of two years. The last monarch of the Babylonian empire was Nabonidus (Nabu-nahid), B.C. 555-538, whose eldest son, Belshazzar (Bilu-sar-uzur), is mentioned in several inscriptions. Babylon was captured by Cyrus, B.C. 538, and though it revolted more than once in later years, it never succeeded in maintaining its independence. The Daughter of Babylon (Harlot) King of South Egypt -The common name of Egypt in the Bible is "Mizraim." It is in the dual number, which indicates the two natural divisions of the country into an upper and a lower region. The Arabic name of Egypt Mizr-signifies "red mud." Egypt is also called in the Bible "the land of Ham," (Psalm 105:23; 105:27 compare Psalm 78:51)-a name most probably referring to Ham the son of Noah-and "Rahab," the proud or insolent: these appear to be poetical appellations. The common ancient Egyptian name of the country is written in hieroglyphics Kem, which was perhaps pronounced Chem. This name signifies, in the ancient language and in Coptic, "black," on account of the blackness of its alluvial soil. We may reasonably conjecture that Kem is the Egyptian equivalent of Ham. Chittim a family or race descended from Javan (Genesis 10:4; 1 Chronicles 1:7). Authorized Version KITTIM. Chittim is frequently noticed in Scripture (Numbers 24:24; Isaiah 23:1; 23:12; Jeremiah 2:10; Ezekiel 27:6; Daniel 11:30). In the above passages, the "isles of Chittim," the "ships of Chittim, the "coasts of Chittim," are supposed to refer to the island of Cyprus. Josephus considered Cyprus the original seat of the Chittim. The name Chittim, which in the first instance had implied to Phoenicians only, passed over to the islands which they had occupied, and thence to the people who succeeded the Phoenicians in the occupation of them. Kittim, a plural form (Gen 10:4), the name of a branch of the descendants of Javan, the "son" of Japheth. Balaam foretold (Num 24:24) "that ships shall come from the coast of Chittim, and afflict Eber." Daniel prophesied (Dan 11:30) that the ships of Chittim would come against the king of the north. It probably denotes Cyprus, whose ancient capital was called Kition by the Greeks.
The references elsewhere made to Chittim (Isa 23:1,12; Jer 2:10; Eze 27:6) are to be explained on the ground that while the name originally designated the Phoenicians only, it came latterly to be used of all the islands and various settlements on the sea-coasts which they had occupied, and then of the people who succeeded them when the Phoenician power decayed. Hence it designates generally the islands and coasts of the Mediterranean and the races that inhabit them. Edom The name Edom was given to Esau, the first‐ born son of Isaac and twin brother of Jacob, when he sold his birthright to the latter for a meal of lentil pottage. The country which the Lord subsequently gave to Esau was hence called "the country of Edom," (Genesis 32:3) and his descendants were called Edomites. Edom was called Mount Seir and Idumea also. Edom was wholly a mountainous country. It embraced the narrow mountainous tract (about 100 miles long by 20 broad) extending along the eastern side of the Arabah from the northern end of the Gulf of Elath to near the southern end of the Dead Sea. The ancient capital of Edom was Bozrah (Buseireh). Sela (Petra) appears to have been the principal stronghold in the days of Amaziah. (B.C. 838) (2 Kings 14:7). Elath and Ezion‐ geber were the seaports (2 Samuel 8:14; 1 Kings 9:26). Esau's bitter hatred to his brother Jacob for fraudulently obtaining his blessing appears to have been inherited by his latest posterity. The Edomites peremptorily refused to permit the Israelites to pass through their land (Numbers 20:18-21). For a period of 400 years we hear no more of the Edomites. They were then attacked and defeated by Saul (1 Samuel 14:47) and some forty years later by David (2 Samuel 8:13-14). In the reign of Jehoshaphat (B.C. 914) the Edomites attempted to invade Israel, but failed (2 Chronicles 20:22). They joined Nebuchadnezzar when that king besieged Jerusalem. For their cruelty at this time they were fearfully denounced by the later prophets (Isaiah 34:5-8; 63:1-4; Jeremiah 49:17). After this they settled in southern Palestine, and for more than four centuries continued to prosper. But during the warlike rule of the Maccabees they were again completely subdued, and even forced to conform to Jewish laws and rites, and submit to the government of Jewish prefects. The Edomites were now incorporated with the Jewish nation. They were idolaters (2 Chronicles 25:14-15; 25:20). Their habits were singular. The Horites, their predecessors in Mount Seir, were, as their name implies, troglodytes, or dwellers in caves; and the Edomites seem to have adopted their dwellings as well as their country. Everywhere we meet with caves and grottos hewn in the soft sandstone strata. The boundaries of Edom may be traced with some approach to accuracy. On the East of the ‘Arabah the northern border ran from the Dead Sea, and was marked by Wady el-Kurachi, or Wady el-Chasa. On the East it marched with the desert. The southern border ran by Elath and Ezion-geber (De 2:8). On the West of the ‘Arabah the north boundary of Edom is determined by the south border of Israel, as indicated in Nu 34:3 f: a line running from the Salt Sea southward of the Ascent of Akrabbim to Zin and Kadesh-barnea. This last, we are told, lay in the "uttermost" of the border of Edom (Nu 20:16). The line may be generally indicated by the course of Wady el-Fiqrah. How much of the uplands West of the ‘Arabah southward to the Gulf of ‘Aqaba was included in Edom it is impossible to say. Ammon a people; the son of my people another form of the name Ben-ammi, the son of Lot (Gen 19:38) by his younger daughter (Genesis 19:38 compare Psalm 83:7-8). The Ammonites are frequently mentioned with the Moabites (descendants of Ben ammi's half brother) and sometimes under the same name (compare Judges 10:6; 2 Chronicles 20:1 ; Zephaniah 2:8 etc.). The precise position of the territory of the Ammonites is not ascertainable. In the earliest mention of them (2:20) they are said to have dwelt in their place, Jabbok being their border (Numbers 21:24; 2:37; 3:16). (i.e. Land or country is, however, but rarely ascribed to them.
Their capital city was Rabbath, called also Rabbath Ammon on the Jabbok. We find everywhere traces of the fierce habits of marauders in their incursions.) (1 Samuel 11:2; Amos 1:13) and a very high degree of crafty cruelty to their toes (Jeremiah 41:6-7; Judges 17:11-12). Moab was the settled and civilized half of the nation of Lot, and Ammon formed its predatory and Bedouin section. On the west of Jordan they never obtained a footing. The hatred in which the Ammonites were held by Israel is stated to have arisen partly from their denial of assistance (23:4) to the Israelites on their approach to Canaan. But whatever its origin the animosity continued in force to the latest date. The tribe was governed by a king (Judges 11:12 etc.; 1 Samuel 12:12; 2 Samuel 10:1; Jeremiah 40:14) and by "princes." (2 Samuel 10:3; 1 Chronicles 19:3). The divinity of the tribe was MOLECH, and they were gross idolaters. SEE [MOLECH]. This name is also used for his posterity (Psa 83:7). The Hebrew tradition makes this tribe descendants of Lot and hence related to the Israelites (Ge 19:38). This is reflected in the name usually employed in Old Testament to designate them, Ben ‘Ammi, Bene ‘Ammon, "son of my people," "children of my people," i.e. relatives. Hence we find that the Israelites are commanded to avoid conflict with them on their march to the Promised Land (De 2:19). Their dwelling-place was on the east of the Dead Sea and the Jordan, between the Arnon and the Jabbok, but, before the advance of the Hebrews, they had been dispossessed of a portion of their land by the Amorites, who founded, along the east side of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, the kingdom of Sihon (Nu 21:21-31). They seem to have been completely subdued by David and their capital was taken, and we find a better spirit manifested afterward, for Nahash of Rabbah showed kindness to him when a fugitive (2Sa 17:27-29). Their country came into the possession of Jeroboam, on the division of the kingdom, and when the Syrians of Damascus deprived the kingdom of Israel of their possessions east of the Jordan, the Ammonites became subjects of Benhadad, and we find a contingent of 1,000 of them serving as allies of that king in the great battle of the Syrians with the Assyrians at Qarqar (854 BC) in the reign of Shalmaneser II. They may have regained their old territory when Tiglath-pileser carried off the Israelites East of the Jordan into captivity (2Ki 15:29; 1Ch 5:26). Their hostility to both kingdoms, Judah and Israel, was often manifested. In the days of Jehoshaphat they joined with the Moabites in an attack upon him, but met with disaster (2Ch 20). They paid tribute to Jotham (2Ch 27:5). After submitting to Tiglath-pileser they were generally tributary to Assyria, but we have mention of their joining In the general uprising that took place under Sennacherib; but they submitted and we find them tributary in the reign of Esarhaddon. Their hostility to Judah is shown in their joining the Chaldeans to destroy it (2Ki 24:2). Their cruelty is denounced by the prophet Am 1:13, and their destruction by Jer 49:1-6, Eze 21:28-32, Ze 2:8,9. Their murder of Gedaliah (2Ki 25:22-26; Jer 40:14) was a dastardly act. Tobiah the Ammonites united with Sanballat to oppose Ne (Ne 4), and their opposition to the Jews did not cease with the establishment of the latter in Judea. They joined the Syrians in their wars with the Maccabees and were defeated by Judas (1 Mac 5:6). Their religion was a degrading and cruel superstition. Their chief god was Molech, or Moloch, to whom they offered human sacrifices (1Ki 11:7) against which Israel was especially warned (Le 20:25). This worship was common to other tribes for we find it mentioned among the Phoenicians.
Ethiopians "Cushite," (Jeremiah 13:23) used of Zerah (2 Chronicles 14:9) and Ebed‐ melech (Jeremiah 38:7; 38:10; 38:12; 39:16). The term "Cushite" permits this, for although it ordinarily corresponds to ETHIOPIA (which see), yet sometimes it designates the tract of Arabia which must be passed over in order to reach Ethiopia (Jeremias, The Old Testament in the Light of Ancient East, I, 280) or perhaps a much larger district (a) after the defeat it fled toward Egypt, not eastward toward Arabia; (b) the cities around Gerar (probably Egyptian towns on the frontier of Palestine), toward which they naturally fled when defeated, were plundered; (c) the invaders were Cushim and Lubim (Libyans), and this could only be the case in an Egyptian army; (d) Mareshah is a well-known town close to the Egyptian frontier (History of Egypt, III, 242-43; compare Konig, Funf neue arab. Landschaftsnamen im Altes Testament, 53-57). Libyans Lu’-bim (lubhim): A people mentioned in the Old Testament (2Ch 12:3; 16:8; Da 11:43; Na 3:9). In all these cases the word is translated in the King James Version "Libyans"; in the Revised Version (British and American) only in Da 11:43. The people so named had their seat in North Africa, West of Egypt (compare Ac 2:10, "the parts of Libya about Cyrene"). See LIBYA. On three different occasions the Libyans invaded Egypt, and at length, in the 10th century BC, succeeded in founding an Egyptian dynasty under SHISHAK (which see).
SHISHAK (dwellers in a thirsty land) a nation mentioned as contributing, together with Cushites and Sukkiim, to Shishak's army (2 Chronicles 12:3) and apparently as forming with Cushites the bulk of Zerah's army (2 Chronicles 16:8) spoken of by Nahum (Nahum 3:9) with Put or Phut, as helping No amon (Thebes) of which Cush and Egypt were the strength. Upon the Egyptian monuments we find representations of a people called Rebu or Lebu, who correspond to the Lubim, and who may be placed on the African coast to the westward of Egypt, perhaps extending far beyond the Cyrenaica. Jer 46:9; Dan 11:43 2Ch 12:3; 16:8; Na 3:9 for "Lubim" (thus the Revised Version (British and American)). the Revised Version (British and American), however, retains "Libyans" in Da 11:43. In Jer 46:9; Eze 30:5; 38:5, the words are replaced in the Revised Version (British and American) by PUT (which see). In the New Testament the word "Libya" (Libue) occurs, in close connection with CYRENE (which see) (Ac 2:10). Greek and Roman writers apply the term to the African continent, generally excluding Egypt.
Kedar dark-skinned, the second son of Ishmael (Gen 25:13). It is the name for the nomadic tribes of Arabs, the Bedouins generally (Isa 21:16; 42:11; 60:7; Jer 2:10; Eze 27:21), who dwelt in the north-west of Arabia. They lived in black hair-tents (Sgs 1:5). To "dwell in the tents of Kedar" was to be cut off from the worship of the true God (Psa 120:5). The Kedarites suffered at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar (Jer 49:28,29). The author of Second Isa introduces this tribe in company with Nebaioth, and both are represented as owners of flocks (Isa 60:7). Evidence of their nomadic habits appears in Jer 49:28,29, where they are classed among the Bene-Qedhem, and mention is made of their flocks, camels, tents, curtains and furniture. They are spoken of (Isa 42:11) as dwelling in chatserim ("villages"), from which it would appear that they were a somewhat settled tribe, corresponding to the Arabic chadariya or "town-dwellers," as distinct from wabariya or "nomads." Ezekiel (27:21) gives another hint of their pastoral nature where, in his detailed picture of the wealth of Tyre, Kedar and Arabia provide the Tyrians with lambs, rams and goats.
Obed-Edom: servant of Edom. (1.) "The Gittite" (probably so called because he was a native of Gath-rimmon), a Levite of the family of the Korhites (1Ch 26:1,4-8), to whom was specially intrusted the custody of the ark (1Ch 15:18). When David was bringing up the ark "from the house of Abinadab, that was in Gibeah" (probably some hill or eminence near Kirjath-jearim), and had reached Nachon's threshingfloor, he became afraid because of the "breach upon Uzzah," and carried it aside into the house of Obededom (2Sa 6:1-12). There it remained for six months, and was to him and his house the occasion of great blessing. David then removed it with great rejoicing to Jerusalem, and set it in the midst of the tabernacle he had pitched for it. (2.) A Merarite Levite, a temple porter, who with his eight sons guarded the southern gate (1Ch 15:18,21; 26:4,8,15). (3.) One who had charge of the temple treasures (2Ch 25:24). Doorkeeper of the ark of the covenant, 1Ch 15:18, 24; 26:4-8. David leaves the ark of the covenant with, 2Sa 6:10; 1Ch 13:13, 14. The ark of the covenant removed from, 2Sa 6:12; 1Ch 15:25. Appointed to sound with harps, 1Ch 15:21. Appointed to minister before the ark of the covenant, 1Ch 16:4, 5, 37, 38. 2Ch 25:24 Bozrah: Means in tribulation or distress enclosure, fortress. boz’-ra (botsrah, "sheepfold"; Bosorrha, Bosor): (1) The capital of Edom, a city of great antiquity (Ge 36:33; 1Ch 1:44; Isa 34:6; 63:1; Jer 49:13; Am 1:12). It may be identical with Buceirah, which lies about 7 miles Southwest of Tufileh, on the main road to Petra. (2) A city in Moab mentioned in Jer 48:24. It is probably identical with Bezer, the city of refuge. It may be represented today by Qusur Bashair, which towers lie some 15 miles Southeast of Dibon. In this case Beth-gamul would be identical with Jemail, 8 miles East of Dibon, and Beth-meon with Ma‘in, Southwest of Medebah. (1.) The city of Jobab, one of the early Edomite kings (Gen 36:33). This place is mentioned by the prophets in later times (Isa 34:6; Jer 49:13; Amo 1:12; Mic 2:12). Its modern representative is elBusseireh. It lies in the mountain district of Petra, 20 miles to the south-east of the Dead Sea. (1.) In Edom, the city of Jobab the son of Zerah, one of the early king of that nation (Genesis 36:33; 1 Chronicles 1:44). Mentioned by Isaiah (Isaiah 34:6; 63:1) in connection with Edom, and by Jeremiah (Jeremiah 49:13; 49:22; Amos 1:12 and Micah 2:12). Its modern representative is el‐ Busaireh, which lies on the mountain district to the southeast of the Dead Sea. (2.)
In his catalogue of the cities of the land of Moab, Jeremiah (Jeremiah 48:24) mentions a Bozrah as in "the plain country" (verse 21) i.e. the high level downs on the east of the Dead Sea. A Moabite city in the "plain country" (Jer 48:24), i.e., on the high level down on the east of the Dead Sea. It is probably the modern Buzrah. Ludim - a Mizraite people or tribe descended from Ludim the son of Mizraim; also called Lydians. It is probable that the Ludim were settled to the west of Egypt, perhaps farther than any other Mizraite tribe. Lud and the Ludim are mentioned in four passages of the prophets-(Isaiah 66:19; Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 27:10; 38:5). There call be no doubt that but one nation is intended in these passages, and it seems that the preponderance of evidence is in favor of the Mizaraite Ludim. They are associated (Jer 46:9) with African nations as mercenaries of the king of Egypt. Isa 66:19; Jer 46:9; Eze 27:10; 30:5.
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