FILOSOFI PBL DAN STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN

Rahmatina B. Herman Medical Education Unit FK-UNAND
MEU FK-UNAND

BLOK 1

Bahan Bacaan:
1. Ellington, H. Selecting Appropriate Teaching/Learning Methods. Robert Gordon University 2. Boud, D. Developing Student Autonomy in Learning. 3. Burton, WH. The Guidance of Learning Activities 4. Biggs, JB and Moore, PJ. The Process of Learning 5. Savin-Baden, M and Major, CH. Foundations of problem-based learning
MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1

Tujuan Pembelajaran
Input

Process  Learning
Output Outcomes (Areas of competence)
Competencies
Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes
BLOK 1

MEU FK-UNAND

Sangat pasif .Menerangkan secara tradisional .Metode Pembelajaran 1. video. dll BLOK 1 MEU FK-UNAND . demonstrator.Mengontrol semua aspek proses instruksi (cara. Mass Instruction:  Metode: Kuliah konvensional Presentasi film & video Siaran radio pendidikan Kerja studio & praktikum masal  Peran dosen:  Peran mahasiswa: . isi) .Tergantung pada apa yang diperoleh dari dosen.

Belajar individu/sendiri:  Metode: .Mengontrol diri sendiri dalam hal: lama / frekwensi belajar.Sangat bertanggung jawab terhadap pembelajarannya .Belajar sendiri dari buku teks / materi belajar dll .Metode Pembelajaran 2.Produser / manajer pembelajaran .Memberikan support bila diperlukan . kedalaman belajar MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 . dll  Peran dosen:  Peran mahasiswa: .Tugas.

Belajar grup:  Metode: .Metode Pembelajaran 3.Seminar .Game & simulasi .Kelas diskusi / grup tutorial .Sangat bertanggung jawab terhadap pembelajarannya .Sangat dependen pada preparasi dan interaksi sesama BLOK 1  Peran dosen:  Peran mahasiswa: MEU FK-UNAND .Supportive .Fasilitator .Organiser aktivitas grup .

Kurikulum 2.Strategi Pembelajaran Adalah cara pembelajaran yang digunakan termasuk: 1. Konsep pembelajaran Contoh: Problem-based learning Integrated curricula Community-oriented curricula Core and options / electives BLOK 1 MEU FK-UNAND .

1995: Everything that happens in relation to the educational program . 2000: A planned educational approach to reaching identified professional outcomes MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .Kurikulum • What is a curriculum? .Stewart.Genn.

as opposed to intentional .Hidden: Incidental.Informal: Essentially extra-curricular activities .Kurikulum • Types of curriculum? .Null: Things intended not to be there MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .Formal: Everything the developers intend .

Student-centered fokus: active learning MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .Konsep Pembelajaran Dua kategori utama: 1. Teacher-centered fokus: transfer of knowledge 2.

TEACHER CENTERED TEACHING MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .

Pembelajaran sistem teacher-centered • • • • • • Teacher-centered instructional strategies Highly lecture-based Discipline-based One-way communication Overload dengan informasi Rote-learning (memorize. recall) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .

Teacher Centered mhs mhs dosen mhs mhs mhs MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .

2001) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .Teacher Centered Dosen mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs Metoda didaktik satu arah (Sefton.

The emphasis is on the passive acquisition of knowledge.“The scarcely tolerable burden of information that is imposed taxes the memory but not the intellect. FK-UNAND  „Tomorrow‟s Doctors‟ 1993) MEU BLOK 1 . rather than on its discovery through curiosity and experiment.” (Education Committee. General Medical Council. much of it to become outdated or forgotten. UK.

STUDENT CENTERED LEARNING Problem-Based Learning MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .

Apa itu PBL? Suatu strategi pembelajaran: menggunakan masalah sebagai stimulus untuk menemukan atau mendapatkan informasi yang diperlukan untuk memahami dan mencari solusinya MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .

solving the problem • The knowledge arises from work on the problem MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .Pembelajaran sistem PBL • Student-centered instructional strategies • Students have to identify. and search for.learning related to the problem . the knowledge that they need to deal with the problem • Two objectives for the student: .

self-study. .” (Barrows.applying newly gained knowledge to the problem.problem-solving with clinical skills and identifying learning needs in an interactive process.Pembelajaran sistem PBL “ The basic outline of the PBL process is: .summarizing what has been learned. .encountering the problem first. 1985) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 . . .

sehingga dapat memacu mahasiswa untuk meningkatkan usaha pembelajarannya. karena informasi yang dikumpulkan melalui belajar mandiri sesuai dengan apa yang dibutuhkannya (need to know basis). Latihan keterampilan diberikan secara paralel. Feedback dapat diberikan sewaktu tutorial. Diskusi secara aktif merangsang mahasiswa untuk menggunakan prior knowledge • • • • Mahasiswa terlatih untuk belajar mandiri dan diharapkan dapat menjadi dasar bagi pembelajaran seumur hidup. MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 . Pembelajaran dilaksanakan melalui diskusi kelompok kecil Diskusi dipicu oleh masalah yang bersifat integrasi interdisiplin yang didasarkan pada pengalaman/kehidupan nyata.Karakteristik PBL • • • • Pembelajaran bersifat student-centered yang aktif. Pembelajaran berjalan secara efisien.

. .directed learning.Di bidang kognitif (knowledges): berupa ilmu dasar dan ilmu terapan secara terintegrasi. yang berkaitan masalah psikososial (psychosocial issues)  Teori Konstruktivis MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .Tujuan PBL Membangun dan mengembangkan pembelajaran mahasiswa yang memenuhi kriteria ketiga ranah pembelajaran (taxonomy of learning domains). information literacy.Di bidang affektif (attitudes): berupa value of framework. . life-long learning.Di bidang psikomotor (skills): berupa scientific reasoning. self. critical appraisal. hubungan antar-manusia.

1997) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 . but a way of shaping the learning programme of professional practice. Problems act as stimulus and focus for student activity. Problem-based learning is not simply the addition of problem solving activities to otherwise discipline-centered curricula.” (Boud and Feletti.“Problem-based learning (PBL) is grounded in the belief that learning is most effective when students are actively involved and learn in the context in which the knowledge is to be used.

2000) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .” (Albanese. the enhanced work environment for students and faculty that has been consistently found with PBL is a worthwhile goal.“Even if knowledge acquisition and clinical skills are not improved by PBL.

Student Centered student tutor student module student student student MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .

2001) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 . interaksi kompleks yang harus difasilitasi seorang tutor dengan manajemen yang baik (Sefton.mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs tutor Komunikasi antarpersonal.

4. Group defines the problem Group identifies the learning goals Students work independently to achieve the learning outcomes Group reconvenes and students build new learning on to prior knowledge 6. Group receives written problem scenario 2. Students generalize from specific scenario to other situations BLOK 1 MEU FK-UNAND . Group synthesizes and summarizes work.Proses PBL (Harvard) 1. 3. 5.

3. 6. 2. Students receive problem scenario and define the problem Brainstorming used to identify explanation for phenomena observed Group reaches interim conclusions about the problem Group formulates the learning objectives Students work independently to achieve the learning process Group synthesizes and summarizes work. 5. 4.Proses PBL (Maastricht) 1. Students generalize from specific scenario to other situations BLOK 1 MEU FK-UNAND .

PBL • Student centered • Problem-based • Integrated • Community-oriented • Electives with core Konvensional • Teacher centered • Information gathering • Discipline-based • Hospital-based • Standard / uniform • Systematic MEU FK-UNAND • Apprenticeship BLOK 1 .

Bethel. USA MEU FK-UNAND . Maine.The Learning Pyramid Average Retention Rate Lecture Reading Audiovisual Demonstration 5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 75% 80% BLOK 1 Discussion group Practice by doing Teach others National Training Laboratories.

MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1 .