UNIT 1 Introduction to Port and Shipping

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Unit 8 Climate Regime from Indian Perspective
Objectives
After completion of this unit, the students will be aware of the following topics:
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Assessment of Current Climate Regime Major Climate Policies and Contributions to International Discussion Major Concerns on Current and Future Climate Regime Priorities for Restructuring Climate Regime

Introduction
India, being the world’s 2nd most thickly settled nation with a pullulating middle- and high-income population with progressively energy-intensive life-styles, has substantial influence on global energy consumption and thereby green house gases emissions. For instance, the relatively rapid economic and energy growth rates subsequently the 1990s (6-7 percent per year) led to a surge in electric power demand (8percent per year). India is also the home to more than 250 million individual living on less than US$ one per day and about 550 million individual without access to electricity. India occupies 2.4 percent of the world’s geographical area, supports nearly 17 percent of its population, and emits less than 5 percent (4.4 percent in 1998) of green house gases emissions (Table 8.1). Green house gases emissions per capita in India are, thus, very low (a fifth of the world average), around 1.3 tons carbon dioxide equivalent as against 20-30 tons in developed nations. Despite such low per capita emissions, India ranks fifth in total emissions after the Russia, United States of America, China, and Japan. Of all green house gases, carbon dioxide emissions were the largest and the energy sector contributed most (Figure 8.1). After enhancing steadily for at least two decades, India’s

IT Applications in Port and Shipping

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energy, power, and carbon intensities started to decline quickly after 1995, due to factors like enhanced share of service sector in the gross domestic product, and energy efficiency enhancements.
Table 8.1: Key Statistics for India

UNIT 1 Introduction to Port and Shipping 3 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Sources: UNFCCC (2005g). . IEA (2005) This shift proposes the start of an uncoupling of the energy and economic development. World Bank (2005). as has historically happened in industrialised nations at higher per capita income levels.

9 percent from 2001 yearly to reach 500 million metric tones of carbon (1.and forestry-related carbon emissions totalling to at least 688 and twenty-nine million tons respectively in 2030.1: Distribution of Green House Gases Emissions from India In 1994 Source: UNPCCC. Another study projected that carbon emissions would enhance by 2.834 MMt carbon dioxide) in 2025 (even with such enhances. Figure 8. particularly with regard to progress in green house gases emission diminutions by Annex I nations. projections by ten models suggest that India’s green house gases emissions would largely be within the range of six-eight percent of worldwide emissions still in 2100.IT Applications in Port and Shipping 4 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Assuming sustained economic development and extended dependence on domestic coal reserves. 2005g. Progress to date Players mentioned that advancement was essential in developing road map and institutionalized setting. with the energy.1 Assessment of Current Climate Regime In this section. Business-as usual (BAU) projections propose a rapid rise in green house gases emissions. we will study the progress to date in this regime the global challenges and the national challenges. and in the shift of technologies and financial help to . but dismal in actual execution. 8.

UNIT 1 Introduction to Port and Shipping 5 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ developing nations. The Kyoto Protocol is viewed a small but important step in the right direction to mitigate global climate change. IEA projections indicate that the aggregate carbon dioxide emissions of developed nations will continue to enhance over the next 3 decades. It is important. It was noted that in democratic societies as if India. For example. despite their responsibilities under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. 3. it is often unmanageable to carry the public to bear short-term monetary value or inconveniences in pursuit of achieving long-term benefits like green house gases mitigation. therefore. 2. Institutionalisation of market-established mechanisms like the CDM was also considered positively. Global challenges The global challenges are as follows: 1. Compliance challenge: Few players aroused the problem of abidance as a dispute. Communication challenge: Conveying the correct selective information to civil society so that all divisions can take part proactively is looked at a major dispute. Some participants noted that it is nearly impossible to persuade India to control the growth of emissions if Annex I nations fail to achieve their emissions diminution commitments. Trust building challenge: In order to restore faith between formulated and developing nations and ascertain stabilisation of the climate. Several participants expressed frustration that some industrialized nations have not initiated any essential action to fulfil the promises of returning to their 1990 levels of emissions by 2012. it was noted that Annex I nations should fulfil their green house gases emissions diminution commitments under the Kyoto Protocol and that Annex I nations which have not ratified the Kyoto Protocol should make meaningful domestic approaches. to raise public know-how and ices 22 . the enhancement in green house gases emissions of developed nations during the 1990s was nearly as much as India’s total emissions. as they found that current authorities does not define distinctly if and how punishments for non-conformity will be imposed by the end of the 1st commitment period.

large amounts of traditional biomass resources consumed for the energy needs of the vast rural population are exerting pressures on forests and village woodlots. India’s dependency on coal. and building a road map by defining deliverables at each step of implementation of the climate regime are two other challenges. While corresponding with the significance of raising know-how. 2. National Challenges The national challenges are as follows: 1. Preserving the spirit of Kyoto in the future regime discussions by turning the issues of global climate change into opportunities. India has an energy system of rules that is extremely carbon intensive. As . High dependence on coal and fuel wood: Empowered with big coal reserves (judged to be 234 billion tones in 2002). Hither once more. Capturing the attention of political leaders and creating conditions that prompt the growth of leadership are considered paramount. How to utilize these natural resources in a sustainable way without raising emissions substantially remains a major challenge. In add-on. India’s coal production grew to more than 328 million tones in 2001/02 making the nation the third-largest producer after China and the United States of America. some players noted that we should be cautious not to sensationalize climate information which may mislead the public. which meets fifty-two percent of its commercial energy needs. Technology challenge: Growth and preparation of climate-favourable techs are considered a major dispute as very few instances of productive transfer of technologies to developing nations were described in the Annex I Domestic Communications. 4.IT Applications in Port and Shipping 6 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ realising of the co-benefits of climate approaches. Adaptation challenge: India is powerfully referred about the adaptation to global climate change because its economy is heavily reliant on climate-sensitive sectors. how to encounter energy needs without important rises in green house gases emissions remains a major challenge. is probably to continue in the near future.

Capacity challenge: Bettering human being and institutionalized capacity to measure benefits and costs of. 3.000 hectares of land (UNFCCC. and to formulate adaptation approaches to.2 Major Climate Policies and Contributions to International Discussion Being a growing nation. In the absence of protection. India ratified the UNFCCC on tenth June 1992 plus signed it on 1st November 1993. 2005g). Swaminathan and Sinha (estimated that a 2oC enhance in mean air temperature could decrease rice yield by about 0. It submitted the 1st Domestic Communication in 2004. Parikh and Kumar) stated that a 2oC rise temperature and an accompanying precipitation change of +7 percent could reduce farm level net revenue by 9 percent. 8. as Indian industry is still highly energy-intensifier equated to formulate nations. a one-meter low lying rise could displace 7 million individual and submerge 500. Although. energy approaches concentrated carbon emissions growth by 18 MMt—about 6 percent of India’s gross energyrelated carbon emissions. How to enhance the adaptive capacity of both the individual and the ecosystems is thus a big challenge. Global climate change can exacerbate the drought effects in 150 of the nation’s poorest districts. In 2000 alone. global climate change is taken as exception. India has no responsibilities to reduce green house gases emissions under the UNFCCC. India initiated a number of approaches and measures for the adaptation and mitigation to global climate change. there is considerable room for enhancement.UNIT 1 Introduction to Port and Shipping 7 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ sixty-five percent of Indian agriculture is depending on rainfall. decreased rainfall and enhanced flooding in certain pockets would threaten food security.75 ton/hectare. . where it is a perennial feature. when the “Delhi Declaration on Global climate change and Sustainable Development” were adopted to give an impetus to global discussions on adaptation later on. whatsoever negative effects on H2O availableness because of glacier retreat. It assented to the Kyoto Protocol on twenty-sixth August 2002 and entertained Conference of Parties 8 in Oct 2002.

the demand from power sector will enhance from 120. Attaining these priorities will need an essential enhancement in energy economic consumption. poverty alleviation to accomplish ten percent diminusion by 2012 and provision of basic human needs to its population. India’s extensive experience with Activities Implemented Jointly and Global Environmental Facility projects helped the nation to take a proactive role in initiating CDM projects. Insofar as scientific research is concerned. and it has just 0. like the Global Observing System. are economic growth (with a target gross domestic product growth rate of 8 percent and the doubling of the per capita income by 2012). World Climate Programme. many participants maintained that India is entrusted to the global regime constituted by the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. At that time.000 MW to about 400. The World Energy Outlook designs that India’s dependence on oil imports will grow to 91. thus.IT Applications in Port and Shipping 8 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ While there has been some apprehension on India’s participation in the recently announced Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Growth and Climate. Indian scientists played a key role in global efforts.000 MW in 2030. and the International GeosphereBiosphere Programme. Assuming an energy growth rate of 5 percent per year. as it confronts serious energy shortfalls.” ranking 127 on the listing of 183 nations (UNDP. and incidental boost in green house gases emissions. India is powerfully referred about energy protection.3 Major Concerns on Current and Future Climate Regime Developmental and economic concerns The United Nations Development Programme places India at advanced level of “medium human development. the power . both at the micro and the levels. The overruling priorities of India. India is highly dependent on coal.8 percent of the world’s experienced oil and natural gas resources. Addressing global problems like global climate change while continuing to develop is a major concern in India.6 percent by the year 2020 A few players remarked that the current high fuel prices in terms of PPP are serving as an automatic check for keeping down expelling in India. 8. 2005a).

reported that a 30 percent carbon dioxide diminusion over a period of thirty years can lead to a come in the gross domestic product by 4 percent and an enhancement in the number of poor by 17.5 percent in the thirtieth year. few players contended against the relevancy of such footing as “large developing nations” and “key emitters” in reckoning the future green house gases emission diminusion commitments. and that . India made appreciable attempts in pushing renewable energy the effect on date is however low as these technologies are still high-priced. Others insisted that developed nations should first fulfil their own commitments before requiring developing nations to take such commitments. Westskog and Kallbekken described that the efficiency gains obtained by participating in emissions trading cannot offset the economic risks incurred by taking on binding commitments. They mentioned that “cap and trade” emission trading is not necessarily appropriate for nations like India in the future regime. Concern on ways to make these renewable energy technologies low-priced to Indian society was conveyed. For instance. Equity-related concerns Few players noticed that climate change was predominately because of the technological revolution and the use of fossil fuels by modernized nations for the accomplishment of their current stages of successfulness. How to give rise to energy from the coal sector with minimal green house gases emissions is.UNIT 1 Introduction to Port and Shipping 9 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ generated from coal-based power plants would enhance from the existing 67.000 MW to 200. The concerns on India’s energy protection led to a discussion on its stance on mitigation commitments. and noted that indirect “pressure” from Annex I nations was totally unjustified and would not positively contribute to the discussions on the next regimen. hence. which in turn would require important build-up of thermal power plants and large scale expansion of coal areas with important significances for green house gases emissions.0000 MW. Murthy et al. a major issue. The most recent national energy outlook predicted that it would be unmanageable for renewable energy to exceed 3 percent of the total energy issue.

Although. some participants argued for India making realistic progress in reducing its emissions growth trends so that it could be a positive signal to global community. India is at present a contributing nation in the CDM.2: CO2 Emissions per GDP Using Purchasing Power Parities in Selected Countries A concern was its involvement regarding the criticism from Annex I nations that India is not doing sufficiently in the green house gases mitigation efforts.IT Applications in Port and Shipping 10 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ underdeveloped nations. as more than hundred projects worth more than US$ two billion were approved and more are in the pipeline to be approved by the domestic CDM authority.2). Some participants noted that such criticism is both unwarranted and unfair.World and currently 57 percent of its population do not have OECD access to electricity. Market mechanisms-related concerns Players mentioned a speedy change in thinking of the Indian policy-manufacturers and industry leaders considering the CDM from comprising excessively negative to excessively affirmative. participants conveyed concern that only seven . have not importantly contributed to the issue. several participants felt that it is premature for India to take any legally. like India.binding green house gases emissions diminution commitments. as the carbon dioxide intensity of gross domestic product at Purchasing Power Parity in India is much lower than that of OECD and world averages and some developed nations (Figure 8. As India passes off less than 5 percent of the world’s green house gases emissions but has 17 percent of its population. even though the latter would be the most affected due to its low adaptive capacity. Although. Figure 8.

long lead times. low price of CERs. 3 are one-sided. Some participants raised concern that there is a very limited Clean Development market. Others were pertained about the high transaction costs because of the extremely complex policies of the Clean Development approval and execution process. A couple of players admonished against impossible anticipations on the CDM in concern with technological and financial transfers and prompted that the CDM would at best meet only four-fifteen percent of the gap in the world’s demand for CER. Several issues were raised on the slow and composite Clean Development approval processes which were similar to those noted in the domestic approach study on the Clean Development execution.” Fear was also raised on the relatively low share of Clean Development projects with sustainable growth benefits as against a large share of projects.UNIT 1 Introduction to Port and Shipping 11 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ out of 107 projects were recorded by the CDM Executive Board as of one Nov 2005 and that most projects developed to date are unilateral. and decomposition of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and nitrous oxide. like landfill methane recovery. They noted that the real concern was to examine how far developed nations would indeed be forthcoming in relation to the apportionment of the cost of emission moderation standards taken in developing nations. Hence. Of the seven projects approved by the Clean Development EB. and cut down demand for CER. which understands to 275 to 885 mt carbon dioxide eq. Many participants strongly argued against utilising current ODA for Clean Development. Few players conveyed concerns that the Clean Development did not importantly enhance the conveyance of technologies or finance as primitively envisioned at the time of developing the Clean Development. A few participants noted the need for an organised inquiry on why the Clean Development did not fulfil expectations on sustainable growth and technology transfer. some considered that the spirit of the Kyoto Protocol was not maintained. . especially due to the withdrawal of the United States of America from the Kyoto Protocol and the existence of Russian and East European “hot air. per year. especially for small-scale projects.

120 million tons of carbon mitigation could be approached at a cost of $0-15 per ton avoided (Chandler et al. It was noticed that critical technologies which can have important impact on de-carbonization have been out of reach of developing nations as of both prohibitive costs and the existing IPR regime. like the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Energy and Development which targets to cover a broad range of technologies (clean coal. A concern viewing limited pattern on nuclear energy between developed and underdeveloped nations was also aroused. Major opportunities include demandand supply-side efficiency measures. Technology concerns development and transfer-related Players mentioned that very elite instances of productive transfer of technologies were described in Annex I Domestic communications. fuel switching from coal to gas. hence clean coal technologies and the production of energy through integrated gasification and combined cycle route are very significant. These observations led to an argument that technology growth and transfer relating to clean coal technologies and renewable energy technologies were critical for India’s mitigation efforts. energy efficiency . Even though the promotion of renewable energy is one pillar of Indian mitigation approaches. that India is in the process of discovering market-based mechanisms and that it should acquire as much benefit from the Clean Development as possible while following the standards of the game precisely. India has a coal-based energy construction and is expected to predominately use coal in its energy mix over the next 100 years. and that information networks and capacity-building were often included under technology transfer. some participants opined that pacts. Over the next decade. afforestation.. renewable energy has limitations in terms of technology and cost. As the present regime does not adequately address growth and transfer of climate-friendly technologies. and power transmission enhancements.IT Applications in Port and Shipping 12 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Some experts indicated. 2002). although. IGCC.

weak institutionalized mechanisms. and groundwater recharge. For instance. even though it is well-known that global climate change is already negatively influencing monsoons. Firm concerns were carried about inadequate financial resources.UNIT 1 Introduction to Port and Shipping 13 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Carbon Capture and Storage. The majority of the Indian population (agricultural. and the failure to integrate adaptation concerns in growth planning in India. coastal fishing and forest-dwelling communities) is susceptible to shifts in weather systems and ecosystems resulting from global climate change. and the few subsisting studies focus almost exclusively on coastal zones and agriculture. therefore. adaptation is a essential problem. Combined Heat and Power. for instance. that water resource growth plans for the next 50 years do not discuss the impacts of global climate change at all.2 percent of bilateral ODA was targeted for global climate change-related activities.75 billion. explore on the exposure of India is very determined. it was mentioned that against the pledge of US$ 2. A concern was aroused with respect to the lack of focus on impacts and doubt in forecastings of local and subdomestic impacts. Diminishing water resources due to changing climate was another point of concern. GEF allocation during the second replenishment period was only about US$ 648 million. Balancing publicly-funded Research and Development with . the lack of research on adaptation problems. etc. Only 7. Contempt such extreme point exposure. Participants noted. civil and nuclear energies. Adaptation-related concerns India is extremely compromising to the affects of global climate change. water flow in rivers.) would be practicable. Financing-related concerns A concern was elicited that climate-related support under current regime is both unequal and irregular. and India in particular. Some participants emphasised that adaptation approaches should be established on the sound science of vulnerability judgment and raised a concern that very few instances of impacts of global climate change from Asia in general. are available in IPCC reports to date.

which is complex with high transaction costs. Market-based mechanisms Most participants argued that: (a) the Kyoto process and its flexibility mechanisms should gain further momentum in the future regime.4 Priorities for Restructuring Climate Regime Indian participants identified a few options for strengthening the future climate regime (Table 8. Accordingly.2). the number of global climate change investigators and psychoanalysts in India is much smaller than in the developed nations.IT Applications in Port and Shipping 14 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ private sector investment funds is looked at a major dispute to deal climate problems in the future regime. Even though 452 researchers were involved in the preparation of the initial domestic communication. Some participants noted that there are very few studies on the potential impacts on the economy of controlling green house gases emissions growth by 3 or 5 percent. (b) the nations which ratified the Kyoto Protocol should make use of the CDM more proactively. compared to the BAU scenario. Expanding the scope of the CDM to encompass sector-based or policy-based CDM was considered especially desirable. and (c) the nations which have not ratified it should initiate CDMlike mechanisms. . very few of them are working on global climate change continuously. Policy research on global climate change is very limited. Many participants noted that current CDM approval process. as India has many opportunities for energy efficiency enhancement. 8. should be streamlined through suitable reforms of the CDM Executive Board. Structural reforms to the current CDM process attracted major attention in consultations. Participants underscored the importance of assurances on: (a) continuity of CDM beyond 2012. and (b) delaying the registration deadline beyond December 2005 for projects hoping to count CERs from activities initiated since 2000. Capacity Concerns The support for climate-related actions in India is small – exclusively a fraction equated with many nations of the industrialised domain.

” and that the CDM should be limited to a projectbased strategy due to enormous technical difficulties in setting sectoral baselines. There was also an opinion.2 Options for Strengthening the Climate Regime beyond 2012 from India As sector-based CDM would allow the growth of projects without pre-set limitations in terms of the territorial coverage or enabling instruments.UNIT 1 Introduction to Port and Shipping 15 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Table 8. it is considered as an evolutionary step through which developing nations like India can enhance their participation in the regime. although. that sectoral baseline setting might lead to “capping. Moreover promotion of one-sided CDM in the future regime was also considered useful. as such projects may entail relatively lower transaction costs due to project developers not requiring protracted negotiations for emissions diminution purchase agreements. .

and bilateral negotiation along the lines of Merck Agreement and Costa Rica on biodiversity may also be relevant for future regime discussions. Other strategies for technology transfer (e. For .. especially for energy efficient technologies. dissemination and Many players mentioned the necessitate for dealing critical climate-favourable technologies as global public goods and proposed that reconstituting the IPR regime by the lines of strategies taken to combat HIV/AIDS could be a way forward. Established on the notice that the major global mechanisms. compulsory licensing which modifies the government to grant a license to a domestic manufacturer of a technology who in turn agrees to pay royalties to the patent holder. participants noted the need for adaptive research and growth at domestic level and enhanced funding at global level. allowing for the efficient use and energy conservation.g. and Climate Technology Initiative (CTI) have not even succeeded in promoting dissemination of decarbonisation technologies to developing nations. through the set up of a clean technology acquisition fund or a global technology venture capital fund. participants noted that current energy efficiency in major Indian industries was only around 32-33 percent and that increasing it to 40 percent could reduce green house gases emissions growth considerably. the patent holder could continue to receive license fees for their use in industrialised nations. One of the alternatives advised was to place clean technologies under limited public domain and specify the extent of patent security for such technologies especially in developing nations.IT Applications in Port and Shipping 16 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Technology diffusion development. GEF. like CDM. shared international IPR along the lines of agricultural technologies by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. Another option could be to set up a mechanism for the purchase of patent rights of certain technologies through a global technology acquisition fund. While developing nations would not be needed to pay any license fees for such technologies. Although the Indian parliament enacted the Energy Conservation Act 2000.

UNIT 1 Introduction to Port and Shipping 17 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ instance. Adaptation Players overwhelmingly supported the debate for making more robust future climate authorities to address adaptation. with welldefined commitments. some participants advised caution in utilising the market-based mechanisms (vouchers. Believing the information that the research capacity on vulnerability and adaptation in India was limited and that no practical instances of adaptation measures in Asia were reported yet in IPCC reports. Chandler reported that demand. Disgruntled with current global mechanisms for funding adaptation. players distinguished that the flexibility of GEF guidelines should be bettered in the future regime. as there were other windows of opportunities. Similarly. credits. some participants queried the suitability of adaptation for designing a separate protocol and stressed that it is not necessary to create it from scratch. Schumacher and Sathaye established that energy savings of up to 38percent could be approached in India’s cement industry through investments in energy efficiency technologies for existing and new plants. This is especially relevant as doubt about the local impacts of global climate change is a major bottleneck for planning reserve adaptation approaches. Likewise. The need for utilising .and Supply-side measurements alone could avoid forty five million tons of carbon discharges. Participants felt that regional agreements like the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate could be complementary to engineering preparation attempts under the future climate authorities. Many players underscored the importance of mainstreaming adaptation in natural resource management and commended that future regime model should give boulevard for treatments on such options. Although. so that GEF funds could be used for enhancing coping capacities at the local level. participants noted that the future regime discussions should facilitate measures for toughening research capacity on adaptation. Some players recognized the need for tackling adaptation outside voluntary agreements.) for facilitating adaptation in the future regime. possibly through the design of an adaptation protocol if essential. etc. as they recognised that adaptation and mitigation are not alike.

relevance gap (relevance of various policy instruments to suit national circumstances) and resource gap (gap between needs and available resources).IT Applications in Port and Shipping 18 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ global insurance funds to accompaniment adaptation in future regime was also recognised. the idea of a “pledge and brush up with help” strategy was presented. Capacity building in scientific assessment of the impacts of global climate change and potential adaptation approaches. The provision of help can create inducements for accomplishing commitments. Future climate regimen should target to bridge a number of existing gaps in the current regime in India. need for poverty. priorities and capacity. collecting data for formal and informal sectors of the economic system. in India). coal-based energy mix. If a nation is able to fulfil its commitments. Capacity-building Capacity-building towards planning coherent data reporting initialises for green house gases inventory. were also considered vital. The idea is that reflecting national interests. alleviation.. The participation of the United States of America in a global framework was also pointed out as an incentive for India to take on commitments in future. and guiding detailed and fresh measurements of Indian emission coefficients was considered crucial. a developing nation would announce its pledge for containing green house gases emissions development. although such commitments are purely pledges and not binding. Other issues Players mentioned that the succeeding government must be compromising sufficiency to punctually suit domestic considerations (for example. especially in water resources sector. perceptual experience gap (gaps in understanding of problems including differential . energy shortage. They include participation gap (gaps in the ability of negotiators and civil society between developed and developing nations). more funds for adaptation and climate-friendly technologies are furnished. The need for creating a better incentive structure in the future regime was also emphasised as a way towards global participation and for more effective involvement of developing nations. As an instance. high fuel prices in terms of Purchasing Power Parity.

As India is also the home to several millions of vulnerable communities and about 550 million individual without access to reliable modern energy services.UNIT 1 Introduction to Port and Shipping 19 Notes ___________________ ___________________ obligation. .5 Student Activity Search the technology development and transfer-related concerns in the recent decade in India. India is yet to develop a coherent position on global climate change and appropriate approaches for global negotiations perhaps because the global climate change debate in India is still hedged by several uncertainties on local effects. Indian policy-makers are urged to pursue approaches that take advantage of synergies between climate protection and the overriding growth priorities to simultaneously advance both. from a national perspective. 8. ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 8. In this connection. India should be an active and decisive partner in climate negotiations through focussing on approaches. and. Although. like the CDM and other innovative mechanisms that will limit Green House Gases emissions and at the same time help achieve sustainable growth. and costs of adaptation and mitigation initiatives. policy culture gap (gaps in approaches targeted at green house gases adaptation and mitigation). Indian negotiators must ascertain that the future regime would empower and enable them to respond to global climate change and its effects appropriately. capacity and commitment). ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 8.7 Keywords Business-as usual: It proposes a rapid rise in green house gases emissions. but also through intellectual contributions to the global debate.6 Summary India plays a important role in the problem of global climate change not only as a rapidly developing country with growing Green House Gases emissions. and as a nation most probably to experience the negative effects of global climate change.

jp/public/2006gl/index. 8.or. Describe the priorities for restructuring climate regime. 4. Policy culture gap: Gaps in approaches targeted at green house gases adaptation and mitigation.htm> accessed 02/07/07. 8. capacity and commitment. Cambridge University Press. Discuss the major concerns on current and future climate regime.9 Further Readings Books Alan E.jp/modules/envirolib/upload/169/att ach/03_india.8 Review Questions 1. 2006: IPCC Guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. 3. Harvard International Law Journal. Resource gap: Gap between needs and available resources. 1973. Marine Policy. 2. Perceptual experience gap: Gaps in understanding of problems including differential obligation. IPCC. 14. ‘The Stockholm Declaration on Human Environment’.16.IT Applications in Port and Shipping 20 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Participation gap: Gaps in the ability of negotiators and civil society between developed and developing nations.iges. <http://www.pdf . Relevance gap: Relevance of various policy instruments to suit national circumstances. Vol. ‘Land-based Sources of Marine Pollution: Current Legal Regime’.ipccnggip. Louis Sohn. Highlight the features of the major climate policies and contributions to international discussion. Web Readings http://enviroscope. Cambridge.iges. Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Global climate change. Evaluate the current climate regime. 1992. Boyle.or. Vol.

com/fasid/kp/beyond.UNIT 1 Introduction to Port and Shipping 21 Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ www.esd-asiapacific.html .