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Postharvest Biology and Technology
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Effects of seasonal variability on FT-NIR prediction of dry matter content for whole Hass avocado fruit
B.B. Wedding a,c,d,∗ , C. Wright b , S. Grauf a , R.D. White c , B. Tilse d , P. Gadek d
a Rapid Assessment Unit, Centre for Tropical Agri-tech Research, and Crop and Food Science, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Cairns, 4870, Queensland, Australia b Rapid Assessment Unit, Centre for Tropical Agri-tech Research and Horticulture and Forestry Science, Department of Employment Economic Development and Innovation, Townsville, 4811, Queensland, Australia c Rapid Assessment Unit, Centre for Tropical Agri-tech Research, and School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811, Queensland, Australia d Rapid Assessment Unit, Centre for Tropical Agri-tech Research, and School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Cairns, 4870, Queensland, Australia
a r t i c l e
i n f o
a b s t r a c t
Fourier Transform (FT)-near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) was investigated as a non-invasive technique for estimating percentage (%) dry matter of whole intact ‘Hass’ avocado fruit. Partial least squares (PLS) calibration models were developed from the diffuse reﬂectance spectra to predict % dry matter, taking into account effects of seasonal variation. It is found that seasonal variability has a signiﬁcant effect on model predictive performance for dry matter in avocados. The robustness of the calibration model, which in general limits the application for the technique, was found to increase across years (seasons) when more 2 seasonal variability was included in the calibration set. The Rv and RMSEP for the single season prediction models predicting on an independent season ranged from 0.09 to 0.61 and 2.63 to 5.00, respectively, while for the two season models predicting on the third independent season, they ranged from 0.34 to 0.79 and 2.18 to 2.50, respectively. The bias for single season models predicting an independent season was as high as 4.429 but ≤1.417 for the two season combined models. The calibration model encompassing 2 fruit from three consecutive years yielded predictive statistics of Rv = 0.89, RMSEP = 1.43% dry matter with a bias of −0.021 in the range 16.1–39.7% dry matter for the validation population encompassing independent fruit from the three consecutive years. Relevant spectral information for all calibration models was obtained primarily from oil, carbohydrate and water absorbance bands clustered in the 890–980, 1005–1050, 1330–1380 and 1700–1790 nm regions. These results indicate the potential of FTNIRS, in diffuse reﬂectance mode, to non-invasively predict the % dry matter of whole ‘Hass’ avocado fruit and the importance of the development of a calibration model that incorporates seasonal variation. Crown Copyright © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article history: Received 30 May 2011 Accepted 17 April 2012 Keywords: Fruit Avocado Dry matter Maturity Near infrared spectroscopy Eating quality
1. Introduction Most manual and automatic commercial quality grading systems for fruit and vegetables are based on external features of the product, for example: shape, colour, size, weight and blemishes (Blasco et al., 2003; Cubero et al., 2010; Kondo, 2010). For avocado fruit, external colour is not a maturity characteristic, neither is smell as it is too weak and appears later in its maturity stage (Gaete-Garreton et al., 2005). There are only minor visible changes in the external appearance of the fruit that can be used in determining maturity. For example, some loss of skin glossiness, surface russeting increases, and the appearance of some cultivars change
∗ Corresponding author at: Crop and Food Science, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, PO Box 652, Cairns, 4870, Queensland, Australia. Tel.: +61 07 4057 3600; fax: +61 07 4057 3690. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (B.B. Wedding).
from green to black or purple with increasing maturity (Bergh et al., 1989; Lewis, 1978). Selection of picking dates based on fruit size and weight within a variety has been extensively used in Florida (Lewis, 1978). Studies have shown that, in general, larger fruit have higher ﬂavour ratings than small fruit when tested early in the season at the time of minimum market acceptability (Bower and Cutting, 1988; Lewis, 1978). However, as the season progresses, differences between large and small fruit become less pronounced (Bower and Cutting, 1988; Lee, 1981). Unfortunately, many of these characteristics that show a trend with maturation are not applicable for determining maturity on a commercial basis. As maturity is a major component of avocado quality and palatability it is important to harvest mature fruit, so as to ensure that fruit will ripen properly and have acceptable eating quality. Mature avocado fruit do not ripen on the tree, but soften several days after being picked (Schmilovitch et al., 2001). Currently, commercial avocado maturity estimation is based on destructive assessment of the percentage dry matter (% dry matter),
0925-5214/$ – see front matter. Crown Copyright © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2012.04.016
reﬂectance and interactance modes have been studied. Schmilovitch et al. When more variability was included in the calibration set. 2001.26% SS. (2003) measured % dry matter of ‘Hass’ avocados harvested at discrete intervals in a single growing season. ‘Xizilu’ and ‘Cuiguan’) reports that the largest source of spectral variation between different pear fruit measurements was caused by the seasonal effect. 2003. McCarthy.5% SS..55–0. (2011) used Fourier-Transform (FT) NIRS to assess dry matter content in ‘Hass’ avocados of a single farm over a full growing season. 1997. Golic and Walsh. 2003). Materials and methods 2. As expected. nutrition. NMR has been demonstrated to have the potential to measure the % dry matter in avocados (Chen et al. Mizrach and Flitsanov. Miyanoto and Yoshinobu (1995) reported the use of a calibration model developed over three consecutive years to predict total % SS content of ‘Satsuma’ mandarins. (2003) studied the robustness of calibration models for % SS content with respect to the effect of orchard. 2005). and bias 0. that is. However. Sample selection ‘Hass’ avocado fruit were obtained over the 2006..68. Avocado fruit were harvested . geographical variation and light effects). although consumer studies indicate a preference for at least 25% dry matter (Harker et al. Prediction statistics for the model combining data from all three production years predicted well against every season (SEP of 0.09 to 2. respectively. 1999).e. and intra-orchard variability (i. The validity of the calibration models for future predictions depends on how well the calibration set represents the composition of future samples (Liu and Ying.. reﬂectance is the preferred technique. Robustness of calibration is a critical issue and an active area of research (Nicolaï et al.9% SS. that the calibration model holds across growing seasons and potentially across growing districts. (2005) and Guthrie et al. no reported studies have investigated model robustness for avocado fruit over several seasons. Avocados Australia Limited (2008) recommends a minimum maturity standard for its growers of 23% dry matter (greater than 10% oil content) for ‘Hass’ avocados.17–2. 2007). Some of the published work on fruit that considers the effect of different seasons includes Peiris et al.. (2005). in the majority of publications. producing equivalent accuracies (Clark et al.40). position within the tree and light effects). but in the few applications where validation sets from different orchards or seasons were externally used to calculate the RMSEP it is considerably higher (1–1. While full transmittance mode is not possible for this fruit.90–1. 2007)..01) with a reduced performance against a different harvest season prediction set (SEP of 0.5–0. (2005) looking at the effect of the biological variability on the robustness of models for sugar content of three pear cultivars (‘Xueqing’.51–0. Prediction bias for new populations can be corrected by model updating or direct bias adjustment (Fearn.. 2006). Longitude: 152◦ 16 E). bias of ≤0. Using ‘Golden Delicious’ apples. A rapid and non-destructive system that can accurately and rapidly monitor internal quality attributes (in this case % dry matter) would allow the avocado industry to provide better. tree age. For commercial inline applications requiring commercial speeds. bias of 0. 2001.. oil. the robustness of calibration models with respect to biological variability from different seasons has been neglected and therefore these calibration models may be ambitious with respect to predicting on future samples in practical applications. / Postharvest Biology and Technology 75 (2013) 9–16 and sometimes percent oil. 2005. The application of NIRS to determine dry matter content in avocados has been demonstrated in the studies of Schmilovitch et al. crop load.. Similarly.e. Schmilovitch et al. 2006. Sánchez et al. Miyanoto and Yoshinobu (1995).. The authors reported that the largest source of spectral variation between different fruit measurements was caused by seasonal effect. Also using mandarins. The validation errors for the calibration models based on the data of three individual seasons for % SS content varied from 1.. With horticultural products. sugar. 2011). (2005) reports that model predictions for total SS of intact ‘Imperial’ mandarin fruit were more variable and less robust across seasons than across harvest days or location. 2007. bias of <0. The aim of the current study was to assess the potential of FTNIR diffuse reﬂectance spectroscopy as an objective non-invasive method to assess ‘Hass’ avocado maturity and thereby eating quality based on % dry matter and its ability to predict over several growing seasons for possible implementation in a commercial inline application.08% SS). weather conditions. the study by Liu et al. (1998). Liu et al.. Wedding et al. Peirs et al..09). soil characteristics.1. such as grading lines (Nicolaï et al. (2001) assessed % dry matter of both ‘Fuerte’ and ‘Ettinger’ cultivars during a single season. 2005). 2. (1998) on model robustness for the determination of % SS content of peaches reported that a calibration developed on a population from three consecutive growing seasons had an improvement in prediction performance on a combined season validation set (standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0. (2003). Similarly.. 1993. (2007) reports that a typical RMSEP for % soluble solids (% SS) on fruit seems to be around 0.. cell number. Peirs et al. 2003). These studies generally found that incorporating data from multiple growing seasons in the calibration model improved the predictive performance in comparison to calibration models developed using an individual season. Queensland (Latitude: 25◦ 14 S. However.94–1. For example. (2001) and Clark et al. fruit age and season variability) (Liu and Ying.. for example the model based on the data of all three seasons. This present study represents the ﬁrst study to investigate the effect of seasonal variation on model robustness to be applied to avocado fruit. Marques et al.59. This lack of robustness often translates into bias (Golic and Walsh. (2003). The authors report that model error in general may easily double when a calibration model is applied to a spectral data set of a different season or orchard.e. season and cultivar.. 2007 and 2008 growing seasons (harvest months: May to August) from a single farm in the major production district of Childers. Although several non-invasive techniques exist for this. both of which are highly correlated with maturity (Clark et al. Guthrie et al. Fruit composition (i. and amount of intercellular spaces) is subject to within tree variability (i. 2007). the predictive error reduced to 0. The development of automated technologies has enabled commercially feasible non-invasive methods for estimating internal quality attributes of agricultural products and emphasis is put on the development of these methods for real-time in-line applications. size and structure.58. while Clark et al.38% SS) than that developed from an individual season population (SEP of 0. The potential of NIRS to assess internal quality attributes of intact horticultural produce is well established in literature. Kim et al. nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and NIRS are leading candidates for the application to fruit and vegetables.15% SS). utilising a dispersive NIR spectrophotometer in reﬂectance mode and a ﬁxed polychromatic diode array (PDA) spectrophotometer. Nicolaï et al.e. Nicolaï et al. acid. but the cost and challenges for in-line use in the sorting line means it is not currently a commercially viable application for high volume.. Wedding et al. more consistent eating quality fruit to the consumer.36% SS and bias 0. low value items such as fruit and vegetables (Clark et al. 1999). and thus improve industry competitiveness and proﬁtability. Wedding et al.92% SS. 2003. within orchard variability (i.10 B. the major challenge is to ensure that the calibration model is robust. the models performed well against the prediction set of the same harvest season (SEP of 0. The published study of Peiris et al.17–0.B. 2006.
8 0.. 2.5%. Table 2 displays the summary statistics of the PLS calibration and prediction models for these combinations.4.49% dry matter. The RMSEP for each harvest season varied between 1.5) ﬁtted with a standard external ﬁbre-coupled emission head. since the spectral deviations due to biological variability of future samples cannot in general be predicted (Peirs et al.. Data analysis Data analysis was carried out using “The Unscrambler” Version 9. Ettlingen. Each fruit spectrum was taken over an average of 32 scans at a resolution of 8 cm−1 . Norway). 1. The number of latent variables (LV) are within an acceptable range for the number of samples for all models (Hruschka. Scatter plots of the NIR predicted values against the reference dry matter values for each individual season are shown in Fig. 2. two seasons combination and for a combined data set encompassing all three seasons. As expected the application of a single-season calibration to a population from another growing season was not as successful as . Woolf et al. Three calibration models were developed by combining two individual years. mid.2 0. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to build the prediction models of the diffuse reﬂectance spectral data using segmented cross validation (20 segments in this case). Wedding et al. 1985. All remaining fruit were used in the validation sets. The external emission head with 4 × 20 W tungsten light source was placed directly above the avocado fruit (0◦ conﬁguration).. All full spectrum models presented in this 1. 2004) and ratio of prediction to (standard) deviation (RPD) (Williams. two spectra per fruit). FT-NIR spectrophotometer (Bruker Optics. Matrix-F. Fruit were assigned to the calibration sets from the PCA to provide global representation of the attributes of the entire fruit populations while eliminating repetition. Germany. Before the development of the calibration model. A minimum of 100 fruit was collected at each harvest giving a total of 925 individual fruit across the nine harvests. so that the fruit skin was directly exposed to the focal point of the emission head. Among all spectra collected. Fruit spectra were acquired after sample temperature equilibration in an airconditioned laboratory at approximately 22–24 ◦ C. root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV). This laboratory reference method for % dry matter estimation was determined to have a repeatability error of approximately 0. 3) displays the population distribution of the three seasons combined PLS model and shows no clear separation among the three harvest seasons. The inﬂuence of seasonal variability was subsequently investigated over the individual years and by combining all three years. operating software: OPUSTM version 5. Each individual year calibration model in Table 1 was used to predict the other two individual years. root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in relation to the bias (average difference between predicted and actual values). 2007 and 2008 seasons (n = 624) was used to predict a validation set of samples drawn from all 3 years (n = 1224). and excising both skin and underlying ﬂesh to a depth of approximately 10 mm. A light-reducing box with a 60 mm diameter window was used to hold the fruit. A typical absorbance spectrum for ‘Hass’ avocado fruit is shown in Fig.3. Results and discussion The calibration and prediction model statistics for each individual year (Table 1) indicate that FT-NIRS in diffuse reﬂectance has potential as a screening tool to predict % dry matter on whole ‘Hass’ avocado fruit. signiﬁcant noise was found at the extremities of the spectral range (830–843 and 2414–2500 nm). Model performance was based on the coefﬁcient of determination (R2 ) of the calibra2 2 tion (Rc ) and validation/prediction (Rv ). The 2008 harvest season calibration and prediction statistics were the best in terms of regression (R2 ) and SDR/RPD due in part to the larger SD for this population.29 and 1. which were then used to predict the remaining year. The three harvests obtained throughout each individual season were to ensure an extensive range of dry matter was collected to cover within seasonal variability. 2.2. Due to the large variability in % dry matter within a fruit (Schroeder. Large seasonal effects have a major consequence for calibration models for horticultural produce. 2003). intact ‘Hass’ avocado fruit were acquired in diffuse reﬂectance mode using a commercially available benchtop. 3. and within two days of harvest. Calibration models were developed for each individual season.B. A combined calibration set of 2006. 2003). The spectral characteristics of the fruit were measured midway between the peduncle and base for each opposing half (i. A core perpendicular to the surface of the fruit with a radius equal to the NIRS sampling area was taken on opposing sides of the fruit using a 50 mm diameter steel corer. / Postharvest Biology and Technology 75 (2013) 9–16 11 from the same trees in the orchard within an individual year at three maturity stages corresponding to early. A path-length of approximately 170 mm was used to obtain a scan area on the avocado with a diameter of approximately 50 mm over the 830–2500 nm range. The light reﬂected back by the sample was collected and transported back onto the detector via a ﬁbre optic cable within the emission head. 2008). The sample spectra for each data set were separated into a calibration (CAL) set and prediction (PRE) set (Table 1). data from both sides of the 925 fruit were used in the development of the model giving a total of 1850 fruit spectra. Typical absorbance spectrum for whole ‘Hass’ avocado fruit from the Childers region. study were based on a combination of a 25-point Savitsky–Golay (SG) spectral smoothing (2nd order polynomial) and a multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) transformation. Spectral acquisition NIR spectra of whole. Oslo.. 2.6 Absorbance 1. Therefore all the raw spectra used for analysis were truncated to a range of 843–2414 nm..1–6. 2011. Chemical analysis The same area of the fruit scanned via NIRS was used in the % dry matter reference measurement.4 0 800 1200 1600 2000 Wavelength (nm) 2400 Fig. Lammertyn et al. 2000). the variation of the spectral data was investigated by principal component analysis (PCA) and obvious atypical spectra eliminated. 1987. A white “spectralon” reference was used to provide a background reference spectrum prior to the collection of each set of sample spectra.8 (Camo. The ﬂesh core with the skin removed was cut into pieces to facilitate drying and dried in a fan-forced oven at 60–65 ◦ C to constant weight (approximately 72 h) for determination of % dry matter by percentage weight difference. 1. The 2006 (n = 632) and 2007 (n = 609) harvest seasons had lower standard deviations (SD) than the 2008 season (n = 608). standard deviation ratio (SDR) (Walsh et al.B..e. Wedding et al. All fruit were harvested at the hard green stage of ripeness. The score plots for the ﬁrst three PCs (Fig. and late season harvests over the three growing seasons.
In some instances.006 0.0 5.1 4.50 1.296 0.8 0.003 −0. two seasons combined.830 0.2) 2. incorporation of more biological variability (at the risk of including atypical data) in the calibration set can signiﬁcantly reduce the models prediction accuracy (Bobelyn et al.2 29. alcohols. the exocarp or skin.3 5.1 (1.6538 0.1 (1.8) 1.42 0.57 1.9 (2.6 (1.4 4.1) 2.7 21.09 to 0.B.0 (1. The 700–1100 nm short-wavelength NIR region allows better penetration into biological material.3 3.29 1.003 −1.1 (1. Harvest Calibration 2006 2007 2008 2007 2006 2008 2008 2006 2007 2006 and 2007 2008 2006 and 2008 2007 2007 and 2008 2006 Combined 2006–08 Combined 2006–08 Note: OR: outliers removed.201 2.9) 3. 2007 and 2008 seasons.722 0.2 3. This indicated an ability to sort the fruit into three categories with approximately 80% accuracy (Guthrie et al.82 0.006 1. the prediction accuracy becomes less sensitive to unknown changes of external factors (Bobelyn et al. 2010).835 0. 2007 and 2008 calibration models were sufﬁciently more robust to predict % dry matter of whole ‘Hass’ avocado for the selected val2 idation population (Fig. These results suggest that the issue of model robustness for predicting new seasons requires major consideration.417 0.9–36.9 21.1) 2.482 0. Spectral co-linearity can mean that information in a model may not necessarily be carried by just a few independent wavelengths.863 0.61 and 2.021 0. The combined 2006.3) 1.88 0.92 RM SECV 1. 1998). 2000). (1998).71 1.0 SD 3.2 16.32 1.4–39.81 0. but could well be due to the combined effect of many wavelengths with each contributing only relatively little information (McGlone and Kawano. These models required fewer latent variables and in general resulted in an increased RMSEP and decreased R2 and SDR.533 0.47 1.850 0.6 (3.49 RM SEP Bias 0.84 5. 2010). For example.5) Note: OR: outliers removed.1–36.3 3.7 3.14 0. Year 2006 CAL PRE 2007 CAL PRE 2008 CAL PRE Spectra n (OR) 207 (2) 425 (0) 209 (0) 400 (1) 209 (2) 399 (0) %drymatterrange 21.79 and 2.1 5.2867 0.09 0. 1978).601 4.36 1.3 3.66 2.547 0.6) 3.2) 2.0098 −0.63 to 5.1 3. respectively.4) 2. Liu et al. while wavelengths above 1100 nm (long-wavelength region) have limited penetration providing information only relatively close to the surface (Guthrie et al.93 0. Light penetration depth is wavelength dependent (Lammertyn et al.50.882 0.18 1.9) 1.429 −0.3 (2. However.8 (2.8 22.858 SDR (RPD) 2.49 2.82 0.89 1. This study is in agreement with the ﬁndings of Peiris et al.63 3.0) 1.0761 −0.4) 2.1) 1. 4) to within 1.6) 2.36 2.417 for the two-season combined models. 2004. As more biological variability is taken into account.34 0.8 30.3 5. respectively.2 16. Wedding et al.89 0.8 21.7–37.879 0. in avocado.2 (1.43 0.4 3. The bias for single-season models predicting an independent season was as high as 4.1 Mean 29.4 3.83 0.34 to 0.39 3.3 9 9 9 8 8 8 7 7 7 12 12 8 8 8 8 10 10 0. The inclusion of further seasonal biological variability needs to be addressed to assist in the development of a robust model in order to adequately predict on future populations.734 −1.7 3.83 0.328 0.88 0.829 0.2–36. A relatively thin cuticle forms a waxlike ﬁlm over the surface of the fruit (Cummings and Schroeder. Saranwong and Kawano..00. Prediction 207 (2) 609 (0) 608 (0) 209 (0) 632 (0) 608 (1) 209 (2) 632 (2) 609 (0) 415 (1) 609 (0) 380 (3) 608 (0) 368 (2) 632 (0) 624 (1) 1224 (0) 3. In this instance the long-wavelength region appears to provide some relevant information relating to avocado maturity.429 but ≤1. Models based on the short-wavelength NIR region only were also developed for the individual and combined seasons and are presented in Appendices A and B.89 and SDR and RPD of 3.0) 1. / Postharvest Biology and Technology 75 (2013) 9–16 Table 1 PLS calibration and prediction statistics for % dry matter for whole ‘Hass’ avocado fruit harvested over the 2006.4) 1.934 0.12 B.5–36.3) 3. n: sample size.4–39. in some cases. The Rv 2 and RMSEP for the single season prediction models in Table 2 ranged from 0. 2007).7 21.891 −0.829 0.57 2.45 1.8) 3.43% with an Rv = 0. (2005) and Guthrie et al. 1998).857 2.79 0.1594 Slope 0..0 (3.0.1–36.552 −0.93 0.2) 2.4 (2.18 to 2..879 0.4 5.3 3.60 0.003 0.9–36..001 −0.1 3.4 LV 9 9 8 8 7 7 R2 0.4 (2.0098 −0.2 16.4) 2. 1942). they ranged from 0.28 2. and Table 2 PLS calibration and prediction statistics for % dry matter for whole Hass avocado fruit for individual seasons.1 29.22 0. while for the two-season models. Miyanoto and Yoshinobu (1995).8 (3..608 0.5 5.599 0.39 1. (2005) that incorporating data from multiple growing seasons in the calibration model will improve the predictive performance.6 (1.4 (2.672 0.62 1. It can be very difﬁcult to interpret NIR models in terms of how various fruit components contribute to a model.010 −1.2 29.934 0.8 (3.00 1.0) Spectra n (OR) SD LV R2 RM SECV RM SEP Bias Slope SDR (RPD) .842 0. in comparison to calibration models developed using an individual season.4) 1.77 2.2 (2.2 5.9 3.5 29. and all seasons combined (2006–2008) models.12 0. n: sample size.010 −1.8 25. and the seed contain lipids (Lewis.4 (2.6 26.9 (3.82 0.3 (1.842 0. multi-season calibrations.2 25. endocarp.3 5. there may be secondary correlations between skin properties and those of the bulk ﬂesh and in these circumstances the long-wavelength region can provide relevant information.61 0. the 2006 calibration model could not be used to predict either the 2007 or 2008 season populations (Table 2).6 4.4 (2. This cuticular wax contains fatty acids.2 (2. (2003).1 3. For example. Peirs et al.
40 0.12 -0. / Postharvest Biology and Technology 75 (2013) 9–16 13 (a) 39 39 Predicted %Dry Matter 29 24 19 14 9 14 19 24 29 34 Predicted %Dry Matter 34 34 29 24 19 14 9 14 19 24 29 34 Reference %Dry Matter (b) 39 Reference %Dry Matter Fig.00 0.06 0.12 0.18 0.20 2006 2007 2008 PC3 -0. Score plots of the principal components for the combined 2006–2008 seasons PLS calibration model: (a) PC1 versus PC2 and (b) PC3 versus PC2.B.06 0. Individual season model predictions plotted against reference values for % dry matter as presented in Table 1 for (a) the 2006 season. and water absorbance bands (a) -0. ˇ coefﬁcients for the 2006–2008 combined model.10 PC2 0.10 PC2 0. Lewis. 3. (b) the 2007 season and (c) the 2008 season. the regression (ˇ) coefﬁcients for the individual season dry matter calibration models in Table 1 had many similar peak positions over the 850–2250 nm range. 1966.00 0. 1978).B. parafﬁns and has been studied as a measure of maturity (Erickson and Porter.40 Fig. there were slight differences in the wavelength selection from one year to another that can be attributed to seasonal variability.40 (b) -0. However.80 0.80 -0.10 -0.10 -0.40 0.00 -0. 2.30 -0. In this study. Relevant spectral information for all calibration models was obtained primarily from oil.20 2006 2007 2008 PC1 -0. as expected.00 -0. 5. carbohydrate. Model prediction for the combined 2006–2008 calibration model predicting on the combined 2006–2008 prediction set plotted against reference values for % dry matter. Wedding et al. Reference %Dry Matter Fig. Erickson and Porter (1966) report that the cuticle wax on Hass avocados increased in amount per unit surface area during the entire period of fruit development and that cuticular wax concentrations determined by infrared spectroscopy related with ﬂesh oil levels. 4.30 -0. Predicted %Dry Matter 34 29 24 225 150 Coefficient 19 14 9 14 19 24 29 34 75 0 -75 -150 -225 850 1100 1350 1600 1850 Reference %Dry Matter (c) 39 Predicted %Dry Matter 34 29 24 19 14 9 14 19 24 29 34 Wavelength (nm) Fig. .
Incorporating fruit physiological variability over future seasons will be essential to further increase model robustness and ensure the predictive performance. Terry Campbell. 1005–1050.0 (2.B.4–39. (2004).6% dry matter over a 20–45% dry matter range and an Rv 0. RMSECV = 1. thin-skin cultivars would not suffer to the same extent from the physiological limitations experienced in the thick rough skin of ‘Hass’.9% and 1.0 SD 3. (2004) (Rc matter of an unspeciﬁed cultivar) using a ﬁxed PDA spectrometer in reﬂectance mode. and Dr.63 RM SEP Bias 0.8 22.003 −0.62 1. it is difﬁcult to make a meaningful comparison of the various techniques as there is insufﬁcient detail presented in these papers to establish if the differences are associated with the spectroscopic techniques or with the geometry of the conﬁgurations used.024 0.8% dry matter) using a PDA spectrometer in interactance mode.9) 3. for oil. 4. was included in the calibration set. The authors also wish to thank Lachlan Donovan for the supply of fruit. / Postharvest Biology and Technology 75 (2013) 9–16 clustered in the 890–980.9–36. (2003) (Rv 2 of 0.1–36. The authors used a dispersive NIR spectrophotometer in reﬂectance mode in the 1200–2400 nm range.787 0. Osborne et al.14 B. Guthrie et al.54 1.7 21.7 21. (1993) and Williams and Norris (1987).9 5. This is consistent with the ﬁndings of Guthrie et al.4–39. ‘Ettinger’ and ‘Fuerte’.79.. although optimisation of the technology is required to address speed of throughput and environmental issues.7–37. The ˇ coefﬁcients for the combined 2006–2008 calibration model are displayed in Fig. The results of this study are very encouraging and comparatively favorable to the results obtained by Clark et al. Conclusion The present study showed that the calibration model robustness increased when data from more than one season. for fruit having a 14–24% dry matter range. as it is removed from the troublesome interferences from the water absorbance peaks that typically dominate spectra of fruit (Clark et al.3) 2.0) 2.5–36.6 26.1 3.53 1.3 2. The results indicate the potential of FT-NIRS in diffuse reﬂectance mode to be used as a non-invasive method to predict the % dry matter of whole ‘Hass’ avocado fruit and the importance of incorporating seasonal variation in the calibration model. PLS calibration and prediction statistics for % dry matter for whole ‘Hass’ avocado fruit harvested over the 2006. Williams and Norris (1987) report that the 1300–1750 nm range is very fruitful for absorbers for use in the determination of protein and oil.3 (2.1 (2.008 Slope 0. (2003).91 0. Barbara Stubbings.9 (1. 1200 and 900–920 nm ranges.1–36. This indicates that reﬂectance FT-NIRS may be a suitable alternative for in-line and at-line environments.9–36. For example.2 16. 2003. Roberto Marques and Andreas Toldi for the organising and collecting of fruit.4 Note: OR: outliers removed.807 0.877 SDR (RPD) 2. The ability to develop calibration models valid across various growing districts remains an issue to be addressed.809 0.3) Year 2006 CAL PRE 2007 CAL PRE 2008 CAL PRE Spectra n (OR) 207 (4) 425 (2) 400 (1) 400 (1) 209 (0) 399 (0) % dry matter range 21. LV 4 4 4 4 4 4 R2 0.80 0.. .2–36.75) and 2 = 0. Acknowledgements We acknowledge the ﬁnancial support of the Australian Research Council and the industry partner Bret-Tech Pty Ltd for this project. (2001) in which two relatively thin skin cultivars.8 30. John Cavallaro.3 3.. Peter Hofman. reporting errors of prediction for ‘Ettinger’ and ‘Fuerte’ of 0. Appendix A. incorporating a greater range of seasonal variation. with weaker absorption around 1750.2 5. 5.7 3.168 −0.912 0..3) 3.2 25. 2007 and 2008 seasons in the short-NIR region (<1100 nm) using a combination of a 25 point SG spectral smoothing (2nd order polynomial) and a ﬁrst derivative transformation (SG 25 point spectral smoothing).2 16.66 1. n: sample size.9 21. strong electromagnetic absorption is reported around 2200–2400 nm (CH2 stretch bend and combinations). PRE: prediction.3 (3. 1330–1380 and 1700–1790 nm regions. We must emphasise however.74 0.2.1) 1.75 0.8 25. The current FT-NIRS reﬂectance combined model compares well with the model accuracy obtained by Clark et al.58 1.1 Mean 29.14. SDR = 2. for % dry Walsh et al.4 3.2 29. in-line setting for the non-destructive % dry matter evaluation of avocado fruit.3 5.88 and an RMSEP of 1.2 29.2 16.5 29. Other comparative data are those of Schmilovitch et al. Wedding et al. FT-NIR reﬂectance spectroscopy therefore shows promise for the application in a commercial.004 0. and 930 nm (overtones of CH2 stretching) (Clark et al.79 0. 1993). (2003) (RMSEP of 2 2.785 0. The 900–920 nm absorbance band is often cited as the most important band for % dry matter and/or sugar determination. 2004. Clark et al.91 RM SECV 1.3% respectively. 2003).8 21. and prediction errors would certainly be expected to be lower. It is likely that the relatively smooth to medium textured. were investigated during a single season.2 29. CAL: calibration.3 (3.007 −0. Osborne et al.
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