H A N D B O O K

is glass
H A N D B O O K

F I R S T

E D I T I O N

Forward
The G.James Group is the most comprehensive and technologically advanced processor of glass in the Asia Pacific region. Significant investment in training, technology, equipment, business resources, infrastructure, and quality control systems ensure that all processes - including cutting, edging, laminating, toughening, double glazing, curving, coating, profiling and painting are to world best standards. Today, G.James operates the only vacuum-coating glass plant in Australia. The Group’s impressive in-house capability has led to it being the preferred supplier on many national and international landmark projects. With its worldwide reputation as an innovator of glass and associated products used in residential, commercial and high rise monumental buildings, G.James is at the forefront of developments within the glass industry. Glass today is used to perform many functions other than its primary role of allowing light to enter a building. Its applications can be visual, mechanical, structural, decorative, thermal, architectural, artistic or a combination of any or all of these aspects. G.James provides a range of services including design assistance, specification guidelines, product development, testing and assessment to cover all of these elements. This book has been compiled as a training and reference document for G.James employees, tutors, students, architects, engineers, builders, those within and those entering our industry. Whatever your interest, we trust we can pass on a greater understanding of this amazing and versatile material - GLASS. If you require further assistance or information on any of the material contained within this handbook, please contact the G.James Technical Advisory Service on 1800 452 637.

Mr Joseph Saragossi, AO Chairman of Directors

retail. fabrication. Glass Toughening Plant commissioned at Smithfield. G.James is today Australia’s leading integrated glass and aluminium manufacturer and contractor. Market conditions were changing. As the product range gradually expanded. with the addition of some cutting and processing. Brisbane 1987: Glass Toughening Plant commissioned at Narangba. Brisbane. commercial. Brisbane 1999: Insulated Glass Unit Line installed at Campbellfield.James Group of Companies began when the late George James migrated from England in 1912. together with Joseph’s wife Pearle and sister-in-law Gertie Baratin. Fortitude Valley. aluminium framed joinery was being introduced threatening the existence of the timber joiners. Melbourne 1994: Glass Laminating Factory commenced in Senai. G. G. So began what would become a perpetual program of capital acquisitions and the establishment of strategically located glass processing and service facilities. founded a private company and purchased the G. Brisbane 1998: Insulated Glass Unit Line opens at Eagle Farm.James premises at 31 Bridge Street. the most traditional and largest group of customers.S. However with the limited availability of safety glass from within Australia and the constant reliance on local extruders for aluminium profiles. Malaysia 1977: G. until the death of George James in 1958. . During the 1960’s aluminium largely replaced timber for framed joinery and the company relied heavily on imported extrusions and glass to fulfil its requirements. In addition. His sonin-law Mr Joseph Saragossi. Malaysia 1996: Gas Convection Furnace (for Heat Processing) installed at Narangba. Joseph Saragossi had served as a Radio Officer in the American Armed Forces. Brisbane and then from the early 1920’s at 31 Bridge Street. a small network of regional branches were established and fabrication facilities were increased. industrial and monumental). He established a glass merchandising business initially at West End.James recognised the need to become more autonomous. The business was based on buying cases of glass from Australian and overseas sources and then selling to timber joiners. He commanded a large market covering Queensland. the company’s home for nearly fifty years.James business. Economic growth during the late 60’s and 70’s led to the procurement of custom made extrusions from Australian producers thereby replacing previously imported windows and extrusions from the U. He saw active duty in the South West Pacific and after the war established a successful electrical contracting business. Vacuum Coating Glass Plant opens at Eagle Farm. the northern part of New South Wales and as far south as Taree.A. Sydney 1986: Glass Laminating Facility opens at Narangba. Brisbane 1989: Glass Toughening Plant opens at Campbellfield.James Story The origin of the G. processing and installation of a diverse range of glass and aluminium products. Sydney 1999: Glass Toughening Furnace commissioned at Senai.The G. The business remained as such. Melbourne 1999: Curved Toughened Glass Furnace commissioned at Smithfield. Brisbane 1998: Off-line. post war glass quotas were lifted and major customers became major competitors.James now employs more than 2000 people involved in the manufacture. He became the guiding force in building the business from five employees to its present size and diversification. Fortitude Valley in 1940. These circumstances became the motivation in changing the direction from a glass merchant to a diversified wholesale. contracting glass business as well as a manufacturer and installer of aluminium/glass window and door products for use in the building industry (residential.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4. . . . .15 Spandrel Design . . . . . 32 3. . . . . . . . 11 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 TABLE OF CONTENTS 6. . .8 Characteristics . . . 26 2. . . 3 1. . . . . . . . . 52 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Maximum Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Clear Float . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Curved Toughened Glass 44 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Supertints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Tinted Float . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Getting to Know Glass 6 4. . . . 48 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Daylight and Colour Perception . . . 13 1. . .5 Identifying the Coated Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Measuring . . . . . . . .12 Fade Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Properties and Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . .3 Manufacturing Guidelines . . . . . . . .11 Thermal Breakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Glass Processing . . . . . . . . . . 35 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Characteristics . . 41 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Thickness Tolerances for Glass . . . . . . . . . . 48 6. . . .0 Insulated Glass Units 52 3. . . . . . . . . .3 Properties . . . . . . . .2 Glass Properties . 8 1. . . 44 5. . . . . . .9 Breakage Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2. . . . . . . . 47 5. . 43 5. . . . . . . 17 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3. . . . . . . . . . . .7 Care and Storage .0 Reflective & Coated Glass 48 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Anti-Bandit Glass . . . . 44 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Available Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Table TABLEOFCONTENTS of contents Forward . . . . . 48 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 A Brief History . . . . . . . . . . 46 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Solarplus (Off-line Coatings) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . .5 Condensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 5. . . . . . . . . . 42 4.0 Heat Treated Glass 34 4.7 Glazing .5 Low E (Low Emissivity) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Applications. . 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Float Glass 28 4. 46 5. . . . . . . . . . . .2 On-Line Coatings . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Handling Criteria . . 19 1.9 Heat Soak Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .James Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 3. . . . . . . 36 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Acceptance Criteria . . . . .5 Manufacturing Guidelines . . . . . . . . . .0 Laminated Safety Glass 30 6. .6 Glass Staining and Cleaning . . . 30 3. . . . . . . . . . 2 The G. 32 3. 31 3. . . . . .14 Sound Insulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 5. .4 Low Iron . . . . . . . . . . 28 2. .7 Colourlite (Ceramic Painted Glass) . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4. . . . . . . . 53 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Standards. . . . . .10 Solar Spectrum . . . 33 7. . 54 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Process. . 35 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Cyclone Resistant Laminate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Optilight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4. . . . . . 16 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 4 3. . . . . . . . . . . 12 1. . 11 1. . . . . . . . . . .4 Glass Surface Numbers . . 33 3. . . . .6 Applications. .4 Available Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Applications. . . . . . . 52 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1. . . . . . . . 6 1. . . . . 47 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 ArmaClear – Prison Shield (PS) Glass. . . .2 Figured Rolled Patterned Glass . . . . . . . 59 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Electronic Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Decorative Glass 72 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Special Purpose Glass 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 9. . . . . . . . . 59 9. 79 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 8. . . . . . . . 62 9. . . . . . . . 70 10. . . . 76 11. . . . . . . . . 76 11. .G JAMES IS GLASS 8.9 Welding Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 TABLE OF CONTENTS 5 . . . .3 Wet Glazing . . . . . . .0 Stocklines 84 14. . . . . . . .13 Glass Floors and Stair Treads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Patternlite (Ceramic Painted Patterned Glass) . . . . .1 Introduction . . . 72 10. . . . . . . . 68 9. . . . . . . 56 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Fire Rated Glass . . . 118 Appendix Two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ArmaClear – Bullet Resistant (BR) Glass . . . . 79 11. . 63 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 General Glazing Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Glass Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Standards and Testing 82 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 9. . . 61 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 12. . . .0 Units/Conversion Factors 86 15. . 66 9. . . . . . . . . . .0 Performance Charts 9. . . . . .6 Non-Reflecting Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Dry Glazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 One-Way Mirror . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Lead Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Train and Special Purpose Windows . .5 Diffused Reflection Glass (Picture Glass) . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 11. . . . . . 68 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 8. . . . . . . . . 63 9. . . . . . . .0 Safety and Security Glass 56 11. . . . . . 72 10. . . . . . . . . . . 120 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 9. . . . . . . .3 Convex Mirrors. . . . . 66 9. . . . . . . . .6 Considerations for Glazing 11. . . . . . . . .0 Glazing Techniques 76 11. . . . . . . .0 Glossary 88 108 Appendix One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 ArmaClear – Physical Attack (PA) Glass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 8. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Mirrors (Silver Glass) . . . . . .7 Heat Resistant Glass .4 Glass Setting Blocks . . . . . . . . .11 Aquatic Glazing . . . . . . .7 Mirror Installation . . . . . . . .

0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS Getting GETTINGTOKNOWGLASS 1. From Egypt the technique was taken to Rome. from where it spread throughout Europe and continued to develop.while being romantic. from which small pieces were cut from the outside. The old cylinder process The old cylinder process Pliny’s well known story of the shipwrecked Phoenicians lighting a fire on the beach. which is produced naturally through volcanic action. The bulls-eye or bullion ironically is now the most sought after piece.1.C. is not supported by historical facts. It is also believed that Alexander the Great was buried in a glass coffin. Between the 7th and 13th centuries. It would of been very similar to obsidian. the ‘crown’ method of spinning a gob of molten glass on a hollow rod or punty was used. The dross (or waste) produced by the ores could be described as vitreous pastes with colouring from various metallic oxides. leaving the worst quality in the centre.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS Through conquest the art was taken to Egypt where the oldest relics are dated at 2000 B.0 to know glass 1. This resulted in a bubble of glass being flattened into a disc approximately one metre in diameter. 1.1 A Brief History Where did it all start? Glass was probably first discovered by Syrian copper founders between 5000 – 7000 years ago. using blocks of soda to support their pots and subsequently discovering glass the following morning . The substance was opaque and did not resemble glass as we know it today in its many forms. The crown table spinning at the end of the punty 6 .

Owens process (USA). In principle a long balloon of glass was blown or drawn. the Fourcault process (Belgium). the basic ingredients used in glass making are still very much the same. Where true optical quality was required in mirrors or large shopfront windows. All involved drawing the glass up vertically out of a tank of molten glass. a plate glass was needed. the process line was longer than the ocean liner The Queen Mary.1a: Fourcault Process The Fourcault process in action Crowns were subsequently replaced by the cylinder blown and later the cylinder drawn process in 1903. however sizes were again limited. while being heated on the top surface.Libbey .P process. the P .G. Apart from being extremely messy. The sheet glass produced by these methods gave a good strong fire finish.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS 7 . split and flattened and then allowed to cool slowly to avoid stress in the glass. A typical float glass line 1. The quantum leap came in late 1958 when Pilkington launched their Float Glass process. and was correspondingly. It was in 1913 that continuous processes such as. first with sand then iron oxide. While manufacturing methods have changed dramatically over the last century. This innovative process involved molten glass being floated on a shallow bath of molten tin. The plate process involved sheet glass being ground and polished to achieve the desired quality. The resulting product is optically true and requires no further grinding or polishing. By 1938 the process had been developed to the stage where a continuous ribbon of cast glass was ground and polished on both surfaces simultaneously. but the very action of pulling upwards meant the product contained inherent bands of distortion which resulted in poor optical quality and terrible reflections. the Colburn . which has since been licensed to glassmakers throughout the world.G JAMES IS GLASS Figure 1. Pittsburgh . and the most successful of all. very costly. the edges being held by knurled rollers to retain the ribbon width.

3 to 28. 1.05 W/m˚C. Poisson’s ratio: .22 to . automatic cutting and storage A typical batch mix would consist of: 1000 parts silica (sand) + 310 parts soda ash + 295 parts limestone/dolomite + 60 parts feldspar and 400 parts cullet. Refractive index varies for light of different wavelengths.0 6. Glass may also be formed by mixing soda ash and silica.4 MPa.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS Figure 1. W/m2˚C 6mm glass heated to a higher temperature and plunged into water at 21˚C will rupture at approximately 55˚C differential.5.5 – 5.000.4 30. Glass conforms to the elastic theory to the point of fracture.6.5 7. This is the reason why horticultural glass houses accumulate heat from the sun’s rays . This U-value is for a single panel of 6mm glass and is based on standard ASHRAE conditions.85% dependent on pattern. sapphire 9.000. The difference between various types of flat glass is small enough to be negligible. Glass used for building purposes has a specific gravity comparable with that of aluminium which is approximately 2.52. Determined as modulus of rupture. Glass has a much lower coefficient of linear thermal expansion than most metals. Compressive strength: 25mm cube: 248MPa (248 x 106 Pa). This product is referred to as ‘water glass’ because it is soluble in water.0 1.8 W/m2˚C for summer . It is the limestone/dolomite that is required to stabilise the glass into a durable product.1.radiation of short wavelength from the sun is passed through Young’s modulus 70 GPa 9 Pa). The modulus of elasticity for (70 x 10 glass is similar to that of aluminium. but opaque to the longer wavelengths. Light is always reflected when it passes from a medium of one refractive index to a medium of another refractive index. gypsum 2.000 cycles per sec 10 cycles per sec 1. 5.70.000.1b: Float Glass Process Furnace loading Weighing raw materials Melting of raw materials Formation of the glass sheet through floating on a tin bath Annealing lehr Quality control.000 cycles per sec 10. Hence window glass is known as a soda/lime/silica.6 Refractive index: 1.000 cycles per sec 1.23. glass 6. These are approximate values for 6mm glass based on diffused (non-direct) light. Dielectric constant: • • 6mm glass at 21˚C. 6. However. The loss is a function of both the refractive indices of the medium and the angle of incidence of the light. for most purposes a U-value of 6 is used. Reflection loss: Thermal transmittance (U-value): 88 x 10-7/˚C. Thermal endurance: Softening point: Approximately 730˚C. Rough Cast 80%. Hardness scale: Moh’s scale: diamond 10.2 for winter. Translucent 70 . Modulus of elasticity: 8 Float glass .60. Visible light transmittance: Sheet 85%. Tensile strength: For sustained loading 19.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS Thermal conductivity: (K value) 1. Plate/Float 87%. 2600 kg/m3 Specific gravity: Approximately 2. Wired Cast 75%.2 Glass Properties The general physical characteristics of soda/lime/silica glass for building purposes are: Mass (kg): Density: • • Area x Thickness(mm) x 2. Infra-red transmittance: Ordinary glass has the property of being relatively transparent to short wave infra-red rays. Coefficient of linear thermal expansion: Approximately 8 to 10% per panel (no absorption) normal incidence.

The property of pure elasticity with brittleness means that glass can not be permanently deformed by load as is the case for most solids such as metals and plastics. a design safety factor of 2. In commercially available float products. and that it fails without warning. Glass Strength Design Refer to AS 1288 for specific design provisions. Glass Strength Glass in its pure form is an extremely strong. Other phenomena affecting the surface flaws and thus the strength of the glass relate to the manufacturing process (with different strengths produced on the tin side and the air side). heat treating and/or using two pieces in a single hermetically sealed insulated glass unit. its flexural or bending strength is limited by the surface tensile strength of the inevitable microscopic defects. This process does not significantly affect the strength of the glass but it does improve the safety of the glass as laminated glass typically remains intact and retains some strength even after fracture. At 315nm less than 1%. however will attack the surface of glass. many times more than their thickness. the duration of the load and presence of water which leads to static fatigue. When glazed into concrete framing. These defects reduce the glass strength by a factor in excess of 100 compared to the strength of pure glass. This large deflection behaviour introduces nonlinearity i. Alkalis. The magnitude of the surface compression is of the order of 3 to 6 times the typical stress values used in annealed glass design. benches. Chemical resistance: Heat treated glass: Both heat strengthened and fully toughened have a surface compression induced by a temperature increase and sudden quenching. any deposits should be removed as soon as possible. phosphoric. at 340nm 41%. Apart from the simple statically determinate i Technical Advisory Service Phone: 1 8 0 0 G J A M E S (452637) National Toll Free Number 9 1. flaws or cracks.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS . etc. Therefore for two pieces of equal thickness glass. There has been significant improvement in the understanding of. Glass (supported on all sides) under wind loading typically deflects more than its thickness and sometimes for the heat treated glass. and is absorbed by the plants. inside the house. As annealed glass is quite variable in strength. Ultra-violet transmittance: The structural characteristics of these glass types are nominated in AS 1288 but they are summarised as follows:Laminated glass: Ordinary glass transmits a very small proportion of the sun’s ultra-violet rays. perfectly elastic non-crystalline brittle solid. This still leads to an approximate expected failure rate of 8 in 1000 or nearly 1% which is much less than for other materials used in the engineering design processes in buildings. Should this occur.e. The deflections are not directly proportional to the applied load.5 is used for assessing the glass strength for structural performance. The existence of the surface compression means that it must be overcome by load before any surface tensile stress is achieved. Glass will resist most acids except hydrofluoric and at high temperature. Weathering steels can deposit soluble sulphates. Because of the membrane stresses in the glass. These become hot and in turn re-radiate heat but of longer wavelength which cannot pass through the glass and is reflected back to the interior.G JAMES IS GLASS the glass. which may be difficult to remove from glass. it is possible that future practice may allow higher stresses for such glass. the load is shared about 50:50. or etching of the glass surface. This leads to a similar strength increase without any affect on the glass stiffness and deflections. walls. Insulated glass units: The hermetically sealed air or gas in the space between the glass units by virtue of Boyle’s law ensures that the individual pieces of glass share the applied load approximately in proportion to their stiffnesses. alkalis released from the concrete by rain may be leached onto the glass causing staining. it appears to stiffen with increased load and thus deflects less for each additional increase in load. and design methods for glass design since the 1980’s. Glass strength (not stiffness) can be altered by other processes including laminating. the physical environment and cleaning processes used. For this reason.

5 .8 .0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS case of simple span glass plates supported on 2 opposite sides.0mm 23.2mm ±0.5mm +1.10.2mm ±0.95 .5mm 18.2mm ±0. .0 .10.3. any analysis of glass under load must be carried out using a non-linear analysis method such as finite difference or finite element to determine the glass stresses and deflections.5.5 . The advances in computer technology with dramatic reductions in computer costs now allows for the analyses of more complex shapes.4.0mm – – – – – Range 2.609 at Node 49 1. –0.12.8 . The correct application of a suitable failure prediction model is currently under debate.0 . 1 Results = 1 Bottom stress contours of S1 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Max 46.5 .81mm 7.7 .2mm 4.3mm 11.2mm 7.95 .3mm ±0.81mm 5.1049 at Node 7 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 Curved glass.5mm ±1.5. thickness 5.6.38mm 8.3.7.3mm ±0.6.5mm 5.0mm 4.5. Two examples of typical analyses are illustrated in Figure 1.81mm 11. 1000mm radius x 90 degrees Load Case = 1 Loadcase 1 Inc.5 .2a: Finite Element Analysis Glass thickness 9.5mm 2.7 .81mm 1.8 .9mm.26.0mm.5mm ±0.81mm 9.2mm ±0.3a: Thickness Tolerances Nominal Thickness Float 3mm 4mm 5mm 6mm 8mm 10mm Tolerance ±0.8.3 Thickness Tolerances for Glass Table 1.0mm ±1.20.5 .71 at Node 49 Min -. 1 Results = 1 Bottom stress contours of S1 -3 -1 1 3 5 7 9 11 12 Max 13.7mm 2kPa UDL 2900mm high x 1000mm wide.38mm 12.7.3mm ±0.5mm ±0. The extremely common case of a rectangular piece of glass with all four sides simply supported under uniform load has been well analysed and is the basis of the present glass design thickness recommendations of the ASTM and other bodies.12.38mm 10.15.5mm +0.5mm ±1.3mm 14.8. Figure 1.0mm 5.2mm 3.7 .38mm 6.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS 12mm 15mm 19mm 25mm Obscure/Figured Roll 3mm 4mm 5mm 6mm Wired PVB Laminate 6mm 5.2kPa 3000mm high.95 .8mm 1.5mm 4.2mm 5.10 at Node 123 Min -. Tolerance of non-standard thicknesses may fall outside the 10 ranges stated above.3mm 9.8 .5 .4.9mm 3. support conditions and load patterns to be economically achieved.95 . –0.95 .2a.38mm NB: These figures are accepted Australian Industry Tolerances.1. supported 3 sides Load Case = 1 Loadcase 1 Inc.

5b: Reflective Laminated Glass 1. high in calcium concentrates. Subject to certain exceptions.38mm TS21 clear laminated). plaster and gravel onto glass can cause staining and etching Hard water.38mm SS22 green laminated) has the reflective coating on surface position (3). However. tinted PVB interlayered laminated glass (i.6 Glass Staining and Cleaning Staining Glass is generally resistant to chemical attack and other degradation. improper sandblasting on site or wind blown debris • • • 11 1. This makes identification of ‘outside’ and ‘inside’ surfaces easier. The coated surface can usually be identified by the darker of the two glass edges (identification may be difficult after edge work e.5 Identifying the Coated Surface Figure 1.G JAMES IS GLASS 1. mainly due to weld splatter (in the form of black specs on the glass). 6. which are allowed to continually run on the glass Deterioration of labels and protective films when left on the glass for prolonged periods Pitting of the glass. Alkalis leaching from concrete.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS .e. Typical glass problems on buildings would be: • Coated glass – darker edge Interlayer Uncoated glass How to tell the difference between glazing surfaces on reflective laminated glass.4a: Glass Surface Identification Single glass Double glass Laminated glass Double glazing with laminated glass PVB PVB 1 2 Surfaces 1 2 3 4 1 23 4 Surfaces 1 2 3 4 Surfaces Surfaces NB: Surface 1 = Exterior Surface 1. except hydrofluoric and phosphoric. The effect of the tinted PVB interlayer is to dampen the reflectivity and allow a building to exhibit a specific colour.g. with clear PVB interlayered laminated glass it may be difficult to determine the coated surface (i. flat grinding).e.5a: Monolithic Reflective Glass Pencil point image meets on the coated surface How to tell the difference between coated and uncoated surfaces on monolithic reflective glass Reflection of pencil point image does not meet on the uncoated surface Figure 1. 6. mortar.4 Glass Surface Numbers Figure 1. It is inert to most acids.

Always use clean dry suction cups and do not use glass with severely vented or damaged edges. tinted glass. Figure 1. For stubborn stains contact the G. Metal scrapers should not be used.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS 2 12 . clean grit-free cloth and water with a mild detergent. powder based cleaning products Scratches or spalling caused by the improper removal of plaster. Special care should be taken when cleaning coated reflective surfaces. particularly after periods of high humidity to avoid wet-dry staining.James Technical Advisory Service on 1800 452 637. weld splatter. sandblasting. Thoroughly wash off any detergent residue with clean water. Thick glass. Do not under any circumstances use any form of abrasive cleaner as this may cause damage to the glass.7a: Handling and Storage • The only practical remedy for glass that is badly damaged by scratches.1.7 Care and Storage Glass quality can be maintained and risk of damage minimised by following some simple guidelines in storing and handling. Storage areas should be clean and dry with a good circulation of cool dry air. it should be unpacked. which in turn can cause surface decomposition Iridescence or the oil-stain image is a direct result of the wet-dry action of condensation or water on. or between the glass(es) • • Glass should always be stacked at an incline of 4 degrees from the vertical. varnish or mortar splash A white staining effect which occurs when condensation repeatedly forms and dries on the glass.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS • Abrasions to the glass surface by using harsh. etching and even damaged edges is full replacement. which contains adipic acid which acts as a stain inhibitor. insulated glass (IG) units and reflective glass should be stored out of direct sunlight to avoid any risk of thermal breakage. Store glass on even surfaces in areas not subject to heavy traffic or overhead debris. dried and restacked with separators that allow airflow between the panels. IG units must not be rotated or ‘cartwheeled’ over their corners. if possible with ‘lucite’ or ‘colacryl’. Correct removal Incorrect stacking ! Risks scratching 1 1. 2 1 Correct stacking 1. paint. Cleaning For cleaning purposes use a soft. Interleaving material should be used at all times. Do not allow any metal or hard parts of squeegees or other cleaning equipment to contact the glass surface. Where glass has been received in a wet condition.

5˚ to 89. It leaves a diamond smooth unpolished finish to the edge and arrises.P . cut-outs and shapes – the complexity of which would be impossible by hand. The result is a higher quality edge compared to a rough arris This is the standard edge produced by a straight line rectilinear machine and produces a fine polish to the edge and arrises. including five state-ofthe-art Computer Numeric Control (CNC) machines. this edge is ground to a bullnose shape and then polished Brilliant Cut Mitre • • Rectilinear machines produce ground edges suitable for use in angled butt glazing This process cuts and polishes linear V shapes into the surface of the glass.James’ Intermac CNC processing machines Flat Polish (F.James offers a wide variety of processing options with a comprehensive range of glass processing equipment.A.)/Flat Smooth (F. 19 and 25mm may require processing) Edges are sharp • Rough Arris (R.G JAMES IS GLASS 1.A.) Smooth Arris (S. and is the normal finish for silicone butt glazing • Using special purpose machinery. To achieve a typical 135˚ angled butt-joint. Edgework Clean Cut (C.G.8 Glass Processing G. wet belt or split-arris diamond wheel which leaves a white arrised edge. This edge is suitable for all furniture glass or wherever glass edges are exposed 1.S. Discuss your special needs with our Technical Advisory Service on 1800 452 637. a nominated mitre of 67. It provides a classic elegant finish for decorative purposes 13 .5˚ are possible Ordering mitred glass • The nominated mitre is the angle of the glass edge remaining. This equipment is capable of automatically probing and accurately processing edges.) • • This edge is produced by a wet stone or belt machine producing a smooth arris leaving the edge as cut.) Round and Polish (R&P) • This edge is produced on a straight line rectilinear machine with the polishing wheels retracted.C.5˚ is therefore required Always give long point measurements Supply a drawing for out-of-square panels • • • Edges are as cut with no further processing (15.) • This edge is produced by a rough stone.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS Flat Grind (F. This is the typical edgework for toughened glass One of G.) • • Polished mitre edges are also available Mitres ranging from 22. holes.

up to maximum weight of 250kg. Pay and speak hole Rectangular cut-out Switchplate cut-out Finger slot • Slot depth equal to or less than half glass thickness (but residual depth must be greater than 3mm when toughened) • The length and depth of the slot is dependent on the glass thickness • Standard finger slot width is 13mm Bevelling Straight Line Bevelling • • Minimum size 100mm x 100mm Maximum size of 3200mm x 1500mm. and the required residual edge.8a: Special Processing Special cut-out for specific requirement (CNC shape) Shaped cut-out Holes – Limitations • Minimum 5mm diameter • Holes up to 100mm diameter – ground finish only • Holes over 100mm diameter – polishing on application • Notches and cut-outs not available on wired or laminated glass Oval cut-out Multiple speak holes Corner notch CNC drawn processed shapes and internal and external radius curves. All bevelled glass has a clean cut edge as a standard finish.8a: Straight Line Bevels 1. Bevelling limitations may apply.1. up to a maximum size of 2000mm x 1200mm Minimum 100mm cut-off corners on 10mm/12mm glass.8b: Shaped Bevels Polished and Bevelled Cut-off Corners • Minimum 200mm cut-off corners on 10mm/12mm glass. Thickness 4mm 5mm 6mm-19mm Max. Bevel Width 20mm 30mm 35mm • 14 . The bevel width is dependent upon glass thickness.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS With straight line and shaped bevelling machines. Consult our Technical Advisory Service for larger sizes Table 1. a beautiful and decorative touch can be added to mirrors. up to a maximum size of 1500mm x 1000mm Thickness 4mm 5mm 6mm-19mm Max. NB: For toughened glass a 4mm minimum residual edge is mandatory. Bevel Width 25mm 30mm 35mm Shaped Bevelling • • • Minimum 350mm diameter Minimum internal radius 70mm Maximum diameter 2100mm Table 1. table tops and glass panels in doors.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS Figure 1. flat polishing is an optional extra.

Cut-outs.8a.8a • • • Countersunk Hole • • Holes can be countersunk in toughened glass before toughening to accommodate mechanical fixings • Not recognised as irregular shapes are: • Hole Sizes The available holes are: 5mm. 35mm.G JAMES IS GLASS Holes Irregular Shapes Defined as irregular shapes are: • Shaped pieces of glass Glass cut to templates Circles or ovals Rakes with more than two corners not at right angles (90˚) Glass that requires a diagram because it cannot be expressed as a size on paper Squares and rectangles with notches • Holes can be drilled in all thicknesses of glass.5mm. 7mm. Squares and rectangles with radius or cutoff corners (charged as corners) See Figure 1. 16mm. 45mm. 50mm. 23mm. 15mm. Notches and Special Processing See Figure 1. 30mm. 18mm. Templates In many instances templates provided on plywood or proper architectural drawings are requested. 13mm. 58mm and 80mm. 8mm.8b: Examples of Irregular Shapes Simple shapes Complex shapes unequal equal equal unequal unequal unequal Radius corners 15 1. Detailed information required is as follows: • • • • • Glass sizes Holes Edgework Cut-outs Stamp position (if applicable) Figure 1. 6mm. For your specific requirements contact the G.James Technical Advisory Service on 1800 452 637. 19mm. 14mm.10mm. 11mm.) Finger pull/thimble hole size = 21mm. 6. 32mm. 21mm. 25mm. 9mm. 12mm. (Other hole sizes are available on request.8b for examples of irregular shapes. For hole limitations see Figure 1. 22mm. 20mm. 40mm. 28mm. 26mm. 42mm. 17mm.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS .

Often the removal of shattered pieces is difficult and dangerous. The breakage of heat strengthened 16 .9 Breakage Characteristics Ordinary Float Glass The familiar jagged edge pattern with lethal slivers of glass which. Broken laminated safety window glass will remain intact as a barrier against the weather while visibility is partially retained. depending on the force of impact. Safety applications are limited to Grade B safety glass applications. safety or resistance to temperature fluctuations. the glass tends to remain attached to the wire enabling the panel to remain intact and in place. Laminated Safety Glass In the event of breakage. Grade A toughened safety glass should be used where the possibility of human impact exists or in any situation requiring strength. relatively harmless particles compared with the sharp splinters resulting from the breakage of ordinary glass. Toughened Safety Glass Should toughened glass break.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS Ordinary float glass Laminated safety glass Toughened safety glass Wired safety glass 1. Heat Strengthened Glass Heat strengthened glass is about twice as strong as ordinary float glass and is used generally as a protection against thermal breakage.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS intact. Wired Safety Glass When wired glass is broken. either fly out or remain precariously 1. the severity of physical injury is significantly reduced. With a tendency to remain within the frame under impact.1. a web-like pattern is formed as a result of the bond between the glass and the vinyl interlayer. it shatters into small. Grade A laminated safety glass should be used anywhere there is a risk of human impact.

Graph 1. The solar spectrum is divided into three bands.G JAMES IS GLASS glass is such that it fragments into large. For example. visible light and infrared (solar energy) strikes glass it is reflected (R).000 of a metre).10 Solar Spectrum The sun radiates solar energy or sunlight by electromagnetic waves over a range of wavelengths known as the Solar Spectrum (290 – 2500 nanometres. This gives us the RAT Equation which accounts for 100% of solar energy. It is important to understand that the shorter the wavelength (i. depending on the type of glass involved. the lower the nanometres). Absorbs 9% and Transmits (directly) 83% (See Figure 1.6.10b).Optilight HL229 Laminate 20 d e f 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Wavelength (nm) 17 1. nonjagged pieces which tend to remain in place within the frame. low energy radiation produced by the visible light and infra-red bands are less damaging. 3mm clear float glass Reflects 8% of solar energy. Only the visible light band is seen by the human eye.6.000.10a: Electromagnetic Spectrum Far infra-red Short wave Ultra-violet Infra-red Gamma Cosmic X-rays Radar fm pm (Å) nm um mm(cm) m VHF km Visible light 380 400 500 600 700 780 Wavelength (nm) Radio UHF Graph 1.e. where 1 nanometre = 1/1.6mm Clear 60 b b .38mm Grey Laminate e . 47% visible and 51% infra-red.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS . RAT Equation When the combined UV. the higher is the energy associated with the radiation. these are: Ultra-violet light (UV) Visible light Infra-red 290nm – 380nm 380nm – 780nm 780nm – 2500nm The energy distribution within the solar spectrum is approximately 2% UV. fabrics to fade and plastics to deteriorate.000. absorbed (A) and transmitted (T) in different proportions. This is highlighted by the fact that it is the shorter wavelength.10b: UV Transmission 100 Visible Light Band 80 Spectrum of representative glass products showing UV transmission Relative Intensity (%) a a .6mm Grey c . Heat strengthened glass is not considered a safety glass and therefore cannot be used where human impact requirements apply. high energy UV light which causes humans to sunburn. 1.Solarplus TS30 on 6mm Clear f .38mm Clear Laminate 40 c d . While the longer wavelength.

(See Graph 1.10b Solar Spectrum Ultra-violet Visible Infra-red Thermal Heat Transfer Heat is transferred either by convection (upward warm air currents). the better the glass is able to exclude solar radiation. Solar Energy Reflectance: The percentage of solar Shading Coefficient (SHGC) SHGC = T+E SC = SHGC of glass SHGC of 3mm clear glass energy that is reflected from the glass surface(s).780nm’s) that is transmitted through a glass type.780nm’s) that is reflected Solar Radiation from the glass surface(s). Solar Control As visible light and infra-red account for 98% of solar energy. Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) or Total Solar Energy Transmittance: 1. Solar Energy Transmittance: The percentage of Convection & Conduction Thermal Radiation ultra-violet. The lower the number is. . the better the insulating qualities of the glass. absorbed or transmitted). Shading Coefficient (SC): Phone: 1 8 0 0 G J A M E S (452637) National Toll Free Number 18 The ratio of total solar radiation through a particular glass type. Solar control glasses are either body tinted and/or coated or surface modified to absorb or reflect the sun’s energy and reduce the solar heat gain transmitted through the glass.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS T The proportion of directly transmitted and absorbed solar energy that E enters into the building’s interior. in varying proportions.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS Figure 1. Thermal Heat Transfer Visible Light Reflectance: The percentage of visible light (380 .10b) Performance Terms Visible Light Transmittance: A R E 3mm Clear Glass 100 % A 9% R 8% 6% Re-radiated Outside T 83% 3% Re-radiated Inside (E) Expressed as the percentage of visible light (380 . dependent on the R = Reflection A = Absorption T = Transmission E = Emission T 47% 2% 51% RAT Equation type of glass and external weather conditions. conduction (passing from one object to another) or radiation (where heat passes through space to an object where it is reflected.1. The lower the number is. The absorbed portion of the energy is subsequently dissipated by reradiation (or emission) to both the outside and inside. U-value (expressed in W/m2K): i The measure of air- Technical Advisory Service to-air heat transfer (either loss or gain) due to thermal conductance and the difference between indoor and outdoor temperatures. they are extremely important considerations when selecting the glass. visible and infra-red energy (290 2500nm’s) that is directly transmitted through a glass type.

These include: The intensity of solar radiation on the glass which is determined by the geographical location of the building. Certain types of body tinted glass and coated glasses. The amount of thermal stress depends upon the temperature difference between the hottest and coldest areas of the glass and also on the distribution of the temperature gradient across the glass.11b: Examples of Thermal Breakage Low Stress High Stress 19 1. the better the glass performs in reducing heat gain. This ratio is helpful in selecting glass in terms of those which transmit more light than heat.10b) Luminous Efficacy (or Coolness Factor): The ratio of visible light transmittance to the shading coefficient. Area of High Stress Figure 1.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS . the orientation of the building and the outside day and night temperatures. The crack in the glass is initially at 90˚ to the edge and glass face for approximately 2cm5cm and then branches out into one or more directions.11 Thermal Breakage Cause of Thermal Stress Thermal stress is caused when the central area of the glass is heated (naturally or artificially) and expands. Climate: 1. The number of branches or secondary cracks is dependent on the amount of stress in the glass. (See Figure 1.G JAMES IS GLASS relative to the total solar radiation through 3mm clear float glass. The lower the number. inherently have a higher risk of thermal breakage due to their higher energy absorption.11a) Thermal breakage is a result of an excessive build-up of thermal stress in annealed glass. Glass which has cracked as a result of thermal stress can be easily identified by the break pattern which is unique to a thermal fracture.11a: Effects of Thermal Stress Cold Edges (glass tends to contract) Solar Energy Heated Portion Heat Absorption Cold Edge Heated Central Portion (glass tends to expand) The frame draws the heat from the glass edge. Similarly IG units or doubleglazing are at greater risk as the outer glass is usually at a higher temperature due to the reduced heat transfer across the air space. (See Figure 1.11b) Factors affecting Thermal Stress Any factors that encourage an increase in the ‘hot centre/cold edge’ conditions tend to increase the thermal stress. (See Table 1. while the glass edges remain cool resisting expansion. A glass with a luminous efficacy of 1 or greater is considered thermally efficient. (See Figure 1.11a) Glass Types: Figure 1.

timber. heaters. transoms and columns.70 80 .40 45 .11c: Glass Edge Condition Clean cut edge – acceptable Good edge with little feather – acceptable The risk of thermal breakage increases as the size and thickness of the glass increases.65 60 .85 Risk of Thermal Breakage Low Medium Medium . therefore flat ground edges are recommended on all high performance laminated products. computers etc. sun shades or deep mullions. Glazing System: The thermal properties of the glazing system are an important consideration including: • Severely feathered edge – just acceptable Framing materials (aluminium. Where thermal breakage is a concern. 1.High High Very High 20 . heat strengthened glass should be specified as it has higher compressive stresses which resist thermal breakage. as a light coloured surface will reflect heat back towards the glass while a dark coloured surface will absorb heat.11e) Internal Cooling/Heating Sources: Table 1. This can be achieved by allowing a minimum 38mm clearance to the top and bottom or side and bottom of the shading device and creating a minimum 50mm clearance between the glazing and shading device.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS Direct air streams from air conditioners.11c) Size and Thickness: Figure 1. onto the glass surface may increase the risk of thermal breakage. canopies. (See Figure 1. increasing the thermal stress and the risk of thermal breakage. With laminated glass good edges can be difficult to achieve. a thermal safety assessment should be conducted to determine if heat strengthened glass is required (See Appendix One for a Thermal Safety Assessment Request form). steel. If in doubt. Good clean cut edges are considered the strongest edge for monolithic glass. reduce the heat loss of the glass. therefore raising the glass temperature. The colour of the backup material is important. (See Figure 1. To reduce the risk of thermal breakage it is recommended that the confined space between the internal shading device and the glazing be ventilated.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS Edge Condition: The breaking stress of the glass is directly related to the position and size of any flaws in the edges.11a: Risk of Thermal Breakage Glass Type Clear Tinted Supertints Reflective coating on clear Reflective coating on tinted Solar Absorption % 18 30 . Backup Material: Materials used behind glass in spandrel or suspended ceiling applications Internal Shading: Internal blinds or curtains can reflect heat back into the glass increasing thermal stress. 2-sided captive or 4-sided structural) Vented edge – not acceptable • • External Shading: Thermal stress will be increased if the glass is partially shaded by balconies.1. and PVC) Colour of framing materials (light or dark) Type of glazing (fully captive.

11d: Factors affecting Thermal Safety solar radiation overhang heating & cooling devices ventilation shadow glass type double glazing wind velocity air velocity glass size condition of glass edge outdoor air temperature indoor air temperature tilt blinds frame material frame colour glazing material orientation Figure 1. However by selecting an appropriate glass type. the process of fading should firstly be explained. Avoid pockets of warm air 21 . curtains and furnishings exposed to direct sunlight for continual periods of time will experience the 1.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS ceiling effects of fading and yellowing.G JAMES IS GLASS Figure 1.12 Fade Control It is well recognised that carpets. it is possible to allow natural light to enter a room yet significantly reduce the rate at which fading occurs. this darkens the room and shuts out any view of. or relationship with the outside. While the solution is usually to close off the room with curtains and blinds. Before we computer pocket of warm air consider glass in this respect.11e: Air Pockets 1.

In the instance of reducing the damaging effects of UV radiation. By incorporating Fading is caused by a combination of UV radiation. it is absorbed by the exposed fabric causing the temperature to rise.0 Depth of daylight penetration (metres) 4. clear 3mm float is designated as the benchmark against which the fading reduction qualities of all other glass types are measured.38mm Solarplus SL22 Laminate 6. From a glass perspective. combine to deteriorate and breakdown the dye and fabric structure of the furnishings.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS Table 1. other contributing factors.38mm Clear Laminate 6.12 0. Pollutants. a reflective or tinted solar control glass into a laminated product will reduce both the amount of visible light and total solar energy that passes through the glass. the better the fade reduction. which comprises of three specific energy bands: ultra-violet radiation (UV). The right glass can eliminate up to 99% of UV radiation and significantly cut sunlight and heat. UV radiation is the greatest contributing factor to fading and its effect is increased by heat. a measurement called the Damage Weighted Transmittance (Tdw) is employed. to a lesser extent. This measure is ‘weighted’ to include the fact that fading damage decreases as the energy wavelength increases.0Tdw.12a: Damaged Weighted Transmission Glass Type 3mm Clear Float 6mm Clear Float 6.2 0. Graph 1.1.38mm Green Laminate 6mm Solarplus TS30 on Clear 6.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Visible light transmission (%) 22 . sunlight and heat. This continual heating of the fabric by the visible light and infra-red radiation.2)/Optilight (refer to Section 3.72. it is important to know the clear polyvinyl butyral interlayer in laminated glass effectively 1.26 0. the objective is therefore to select a product that has high absorption or reflection of UV.65 0. In addition.13a: Glass Transmission 6.8 3.5) How sun fades your furnishings Research has confirmed that one of the major causes of fading is solar radiation (or sunlight).4 1.12a: Fading your Furnishings Heat created by sunlight at n t He igh iatio d Ra Su nl UV NB: Solarplus (refer to Section 6.15 0.34 0. Consequently the lower the Tdw of a glass. For this purpose 3mm float has a Tdw of 0.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS absorbs up to 99% of the UV. visible light and infra-red radiation.6 2.38mm Optilight HL229 Laminate Tdw 0. moisture and oxygen are. visible light and infra-red radiation. In order to compare the relative fading reduction offered by different glass types and configurations. As solar radiation enters the room. eventually leading to the discolouration that is associated with fading.72 0. and the more damaging effects of the UV rays. while complete exposure is stated as 1.12 Figure 1.

it should be noted that a one-half reduction in VLT does not translate to a one-half reduction in daylight depth. Studies have shown that the psychological considerations of the brain and eye influence the way we perceive colour. three dimensional sound waves. the curve reveals a daylight depth of 4. the view outside will appear normal through tinted or coated glass unless there is a reference to natural. or given a transmittance %. Because of the clarity of clear float. the relationship between the depth of daylight and the visible light transmittance (VLT) of glass has been mapped (See Graph 1. Colour Perception Transmitted colour is produced from either tints in the body of glass. similar to when a stone is dropped Table1. For example. can supply adequate daylight to a depth of approximately six metres.G JAMES IS GLASS 1. In summary. snow will still look white through grey glass. white light. NB: Refer to Section 15 for the visible transmittance properties for various glass types. However if an adjacent window is glazed with clear glass or open. The more daylight. and compensates for the colour of the light received through the glass.13a). what depth of daylight can be expected. it has been determined that 6mm clear float with a VLT of 87%. The question here then is to ascertain what transmittance is required to achieve a specific penetration of daylight.14a: Perceived Loudness Change in sound pressure level (dB) Apparent loudness change ±3 Just perceptible ±5 Clearly noticeable ±10 Twice (or half) as loud Table1. Where the view out is exclusively through a tinted glass (with no reference to normal daylight).14 Sound Insulation Sound is created when a source or object produces vibrations. The vibrations result in small changes in the surrounding air pressure producing spherical. the human eye adapts to. If we consider 6mm grey tinted float with a VLT of 43%.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS . For a reference point.50 metres. six metres has therefore been nominated as the maximum depth possible and hence the curve peaks at 87% transmission.13 Daylighting and Colour Perception Daylighting As building occupants we have traditionally required daylight to work. tinted interlayer (laminated glass) and/or applied coatings. approximately one-half that of 6mm clear. 1. 23 1.14b: Recommended Design Sound Levels Environment Classrooms Conference rooms Hotel/motel sleeping areas Residential Recreation areas Sleeping areas Work areas 30 dB(A) 30 dB(A) 35 dB(A) 40 dB(A) 35 dB(A) 40 dB(A) Satisfactory 35 dB(A) 30 dB(A) 30 dB(A) Maximum 40 dB(A) 35 dB(A) 35 dB(A) NB: (A) refers to a weighted measure which has been included to correlate subjective results with measured results. enhance the appearance of interiors and save energy by reducing the need for artificial lighting. As an indicator. In essence there is no correlation between the percentage decrease in VLT (when compared to 6mm clear float) and the daylight depth. As the curve is non-linear. the snow will appear purple/blue (when viewed through the grey glass) as the eye attempts to balance the white of daylight and the colour of the tint. these vibrations would resemble a series of concentric circles that spread out in all directions from the point source. If they were visible. the higher the amount of solar energy and heat that enters the interior hence cooling costs become a major concern.

any change in the sound intensity multiplies (or divides) tenfold for every 10 dB increment change. and employs a non-linear.000 Hz. Sound Insulation Measures As all glass allows the transmission of sound. 6mm and 12mm Float Glass showing how the coincidence dip occurs at different frequencies for each glass thickness.e. it is important to be aware of Graph 1. Note that as a normal human ear can only detect sound at 0 dB. logarithmic scale to evaluate sound intensity. ible thr esh old Graphs 1. The human ear is able to detect frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 20.14a). 24 . The vibrations travel at a constant speed of 344 metres per second at 20˚C (i. there is a gradual decrease in the energy associated with the sound waves and the sound decays or attenuates. the louder the sound. The more the air pressure is disturbed.14a & b provide an indication of the 500 1000 5000 10000 Frequency (Hz) various SPL’s experienced in our daily lives and the frequency range over which certain sounds occur. this is used as a reference point for such acoustic scales it does not mean there is no sound. 115 105 Loud car horn (1 metre) Pop group (20 metres) Sound pressure level (dB) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 25 45 75 65 Average traffic (kerbside) Conversational speech Living room Bedroom at night Threshold of hearing Environmental conditions Graph 1. in varying degrees. the speed of sound) but faster if the temperature is higher. This logarithmic or compressed scale is such that it cannot be used to compare the loudness of particular sounds in a simple linear fashion. To the contrary.14a: Acoustic Spectrum 140 130 120 110 134 Threshold of pain kilometre. In this instance the noise has 10.14c: Coincidence Dip 50 into water. For instance. A sound wave with a frequency of 800 Hz implies there are 800 vibrations per second generating from the source. All sound waves have a frequency which is 1. The resulting sound pressure intensity may be similar to a domestic vacuum cleaner at 3 metres. The SPL is measured in Decibels (dB).000 times more sound power.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS measured in Hertz (Hz).1. Sound Intensity Sound intensity is the amount of acoustical energy associated with a sound wave and is directly proportional to the Sound Pressure Level (SPL).0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS Graph 1.000 Hz however it is most sensitive to sound within a range of 500 Hz to 8.14b: Acoustic Spectrum Sound pressure level (dB) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 50 100 Min im um aud Threshold of feeling Perceived loudness on the other hand relates Orchestal music Conversational speech to the human ears ability to detect changes in the sound pressure level and doubles every 10 dB change in measured SPL (See Table 1. As the distance from the source increases. This example clearly illustrates how the sound pressure intensity relates to the sound power of the source and the distance from the source. For example an 80 dB sound is not twice as loud as a 40 dB sound. the SPL of a jet plane’s engines at 10 metres would be significantly reduced at a distance of 1 45 12mm float 6mm float 4mm float Sound transmission loss 40 35 30 25 20 15 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 Frequency (Hz) Frequency spectra for 4mm.

STC ratings are often specified for such purposes. Laminated glass also has superior sound insulation qualities in the higher frequency range where the noise from sources such as aircraft are a problem. The parameters used in determining this figure only considers the frequency range between 125 Hz . which is generally associated with unwanted traffic noise. the thicker the glass. Graph 1. A common misconception is that a standard hermetically sealed double glazed unit with an airspace (up to 12mm) will provide effective sound insulation. Combining this factor with the basic sound insulation of the window. G. ceilings and walls. provides a more meaningful guide to the actual acoustic performance of a glazed area. To minimise this intrusion all aspects of the building construction need to be evaluated. the sound insulation qualities of the various glass configurations are as follows: Monolithic Glass Glass generally follows the Mass Law.14c illustrates this principle by portraying 12mm monolithic float as superior to 4mm or 6mm float over the lower frequency range. this is not the case. the amount of sound diffused or lost as the noise travels through the glass.38mm to 1.James can provide a comprehensive range of openable windows and doors. While not intended for use in selecting glass for exterior wall applications. Note the coincidence dip for solid glass is virtually non-existent for laminated glass. Sound Transmission Class (STC) Sound transmission loss (dB) 30 25 20 15 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 STC utilises a single-number rating system to categorise the acoustic reducing qualities of glass when used for interior applications such as partitions. Traffic Noise Reduction (Rtra) Frequency (Hz) The effect of lamination on the sound insulation of glass. the better the acoustic performance of the glass. The first step in this analysis is to determine the source of the unwanted noise. Double Glazing Glass Performance Unwanted sound is considered noise when it intrudes on our daily lives.e. This is a critical step. Laminated Glass This measure incorporates a weighted factor for typical town and city road traffic noise over a range of frequencies. as the noise source can vary from low frequency traffic noise to high frequency aircraft noise. Increasing the interlayer thickness will only have a marginal effect on improving the sound insulation performance of laminated glass. The frequency at which this occurs is largely dependent on the thickness of the glass (See Graph 1.14c). .0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS This term refers to the dip or loss in insulating properties of glass which occurs when the glass is vibrating at the same frequency as the sound being transmitted. i. the better the sound insulation properties. For double glazing to be effective an airspace 25 1. and fixed glass systems that have been STC rated and tested at the National Acoustic Laboratories. To proceed in this regard. i. Coincidence Dip The polyvinyl butyral interlayer (0. with the higher the STL (dB).14d shows the coincidence dip for laminated glass is significantly reduced when compared to float glass of equal thickness. Sound Transmission Loss (STL) Graph 1. however in this instance we will only analyse the acoustic qualities of glass. Graph 1.e.14d: Laminated Glass Insulation 40 6mm laminated 6mm float 35 The STL measures (in decibels) the insulation effectiveness of a particular glass as a barrier in reducing exterior noise.52mm) used in laminated glass provides a dampening effect which reduces the loss of insulation at the coincidence frequency.4000 Hz.G JAMES IS GLASS the various rating systems that may be referred to when considering the acoustic performance of glass in the construction industry.

Insulated Glass Units It is important to note that no matter how good the noise insulation qualities of the window are. If this is unacceptable. unopacified glass by 26 . It is essential the glass in these applications be heat strengthened to withstand thermal stress. Where double glazing is not feasible. the most cost-effective method of reducing sound is achieved by installing a thick monolithic or laminated glass.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS choice of a relatively similar match to the vision glass or a complete contrast.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS between 100mm to 200mm would be required. the question of what glass to use in the spandrel area became more of an issue for architects and designers. insulated glass units should be specified. timetested product available in a comprehensive range of colours. an organic (polyester) opacifier film is bonded to the coated (second) surface of monolithic panels. Under certain lighting conditions a banding effect may be noticeable between the vision and spandrel glass. that panels used in structural glazing applications are to be ordered with the necessary cutback to the opacifer to ensure good adhesion of the silicone to the glass substrate. Should breakage.15 Spandrel Design As curtain wall design became more popular. The resulting product is both mechanically and thermally stable. In the spandrel cavity. To minimise the banding effect and achieve greater uniformity between the vision and spandrel glass. A minimum gap of 50mm should be maintained between the spandrel glass and other building components. Today reflective glass is being specified for spandrel as well as vision panels providing the facade with an overall uniform appearance. A unit that incorporates the vision glass as the outer lite and a ceramic painted (dark grey) panel as the inner lite is now considered the ultimate spandrel glass. the opacifier will tend to hold the glass in place until the panel can be replaced. a minimum 50mm gap should be maintained between the opacified glass and any backup material. To mask the vision into the spandrel area. either mechanical or thermal occur. Shadow Boxes Some designers prefer to address the ‘read through’ of reflective. 1. G. An additional benefit can be obtained by incorporating glasses of different thickness (at least 30% difference) or using laminated glass in one or both of the panels.James does not recommend the use of opacifier on glass which has a visible light transmission greater than 25%. Areas around windows Organic Opacifier As reflective glass became more popular. This saw the development and introduction of IG units into spandrel applications.1. This spandrel make-up provides an ideal match for vision areas regardless of whether reflective. it was increasingly difficult to match the spandrel panels to the vision glass. In addition. Low E or tinted glass is installed. A gap of no more than 1% of the total window area will result in a 10 dB loss in sound insulation. there should be no gaps or cracks around the window frame. As with all spandrel glass. It is therefore critical for architects and designers to ensure the building and glazing materials specified in the spandrel design are temperature stable and chemically compatible. The process of manufacturing ceramic painted glass involves paint being fused into the glass surface through the heat treatment process. temperatures can exceed 100˚C along with extreme humidity. It should also be noted. new glass combinations were required. Many monumental projects use IG units in the spandrel applications. This allows architects either the 1. The spandrel glass options are as follows: Ceramic Painted Glass Ceramic painted glass offers a well proven. with a colouring that will not fade or peel. as it highlights any imperfections in the film application. ceramic painted glass should not be used in applications where the painted surface is viewed or where backlighting may occur.

Melbourne) 27 1. i Technical Advisory Service Phone: 1 8 0 0 G J A M E S (452637) National Toll Free Number Glass – The versatile building material (Rialto Hotel.0 GETTING TO KNOW GLASS .15a: Spandrel Design Types using a simple shadow box design.James does not recommend the use of shadow boxes with unopacified Solarplus products or transparent glasses.G JAMES IS GLASS Figure 1. Consequently G. depositing a visible film on the glass. A situation arises when the temperature and humidity conditions in this cavity become extreme causing out-gassing from the backup materials.

4 0. Crown Towers. 2.0 2.2 2.5 Wavelength (um) 28 .9 2.1 1. where it is then cut to suit customer requirements. Addition of colour does not affect the basic properties of the glass although visible light reflectance will be slightly lower than clear glass.6 1.7 0.8 0. spreading out and forming level parallel surfaces. the majority of which is subsequently dissipated to the outside by re-radiation and convection.1 Clear Float Production of float glass involves the pouring of molten glass from a furnace onto a large. The standard range of colours are Green.8 1.2 Tinted Float Body tinted or heat absorbing glasses are produced on the float process with the addition of small quantities of metal oxides to the normal clear glass mix.0 glass continuous ribbon.6 0. The colour density will increase with thickness while the visible light transmittance will decrease correspondingly as the thickness increases. Surfers Paradise 2. with the thickness controlled by the speed at which the solidifying glass is drawn off the tin bath.2a: Transmitted Energy Wavelength 2.3 2. to avoid the risk of thermal breakage. particularly with the thicker glasses.5 0. Clear float glass is colourless and transparent thereby providing a high degree of visible light transmittance. It is for this reason that extra care needs to be given to edge condition and the fact that heat strengthening may be required. The glass floats on the molten tin. Blue and Bronze.9 1.3 1.7 1. Grey.0 1. Tinted glasses reduce solar transmittance by absorbing a large proportion of the solar energy.2 1.0 FLOAT GLASS Float FLOATGLASSFLOATGLASS 2. The glass then travels through an annealing lehr where the cooling process continues under controlled conditions and emerges in one long Graph 2.3 0.4 2.0 FLOAT GLASS 100 90 UV Visible Light Solar Infra-red (heat) Transmittance (%) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.4 6mm clear 6mm bronze 6mm grey 6mm green 6mm Evergreen 1.2.1 2.5 1. shallow bath of molten tin.

Products such as Starphire and Diamant are ultraclear glasses that are amazingly white. In monolithic form. In addition it has very low indoor and outdoor reflectance of only 4% and is extremely effective in reducing glare and the need for internal blinds. architects are looking for a white glass because of its high fidelity colour transmittance and the clarity of the edges make it ideal for atriums or indeed entire facades where solar control is not a factor. Its deep grey toned colour enables it to be used in matching spandrel panels with no read through. As supertints have higher absorption properties than standard tinted glass. Increasingly. Supergrey: Provides the lowest visible light transmittance (8%) of any body tinted glass. 2. relatively low shading coefficient.49. With a 66% light transmittance. Evergreen: light transmittance has the added advantage of cutting reflection down to 5% while simultaneously allowing only 8% ultra-violet transmittance. this compares to 43% for standard grey.47 and a luminous efficacy of 0. In contrast. in some instances. At 71% light transmittance.58 compared to 0. Products such as Evergreen/Solargreen.72 respectively. However. An additional benefit of Evergreen is that it offers approximately 20% better solar performance than body tinted glass with a shading coefficient of 0. Evergreen is an ideal choice for reducing both air-conditioning and lighting costs. It is therefore very beneficial in providing protection against fading. Supergrey blocks 99% of ultra-violet radiation reducing the degradation of carpets and fabrics.4 Low Iron Standard everyday clear glass has an inherent green tinge. shopfronts and toughened glass entries. 51% for standard bronze and 78% for standard green.71 for the standard tints. the total heat transmittance is reduced to 41% and achieving an effective shading coefficient of 0. The reduction of the i Technical Advisory Service Phone: 1 8 0 0 G J A M E S (452637) National Toll Free Number 29 .69 . Is one of the supertints specifically 2. Azurlite and Arctic Blue provide excellent light transmittance while still maintaining effective solar control properties. Its overall solar performance ratio or luminous efficacy is exceptional with a ratio of 1.3 Supertints The supertints are a further extension of the family of tinted glass products.G JAMES IS GLASS 2. These products are often termed ‘spectrally selective’ as they effectively select the visible light band from the solar spectrum (resulting in a higher light transmission) and filter out the UV and infra-red bands when compared to standard tints.0 FLOAT GLASS designed to provide high light transmittance along with excellent solar control properties.22. Further.58 and a luminous efficacy 1. a thermal safety assessment is recommended to determine if heat treatment is required. the total solar energy transmitted is only 50% giving a shading coefficient of 0.39) of any uncoated glass and. which is more apparent when viewing the edge of the glass or in a composite stack of many panels.0.62 and 0. and combines a high light transmittance with an effective. The colour is due to the iron content in the sand (silica) whereas the low iron glasses contain approximately one tenth of the iron content of standard clear glass. Has a pleasing azure blue appearance. While at the same time. Azurlite: Optigray: Optigray 23 is designed to offer a much lower light transmittance of only 23%. better than that of certain reflective glasses.13 (the higher the figure the better) which compares to standard grey or bronze with 0. it gives exceptional solar control with the lowest shading coefficient (0. these are ideal in decorative and furniture applications while it can be toughened or laminated for use in showcases. Supergrey and Optigray have been designed to reduce light transmittance and solar heat gain to achieve desirable shading coefficients. At the same time it reduces glare and UV transmittance.

through tinted. reflective to multi-ply.James Malaysia A PVB interlayer. to ensure the atmosphere is free of dust. Table 3.James produce laminated glass covering the full spectrum from basic 2 ply clear laminates. with operators wearing special lint-free headgear and clothing. held the fragments of glass together. on hardening. Brisbane . which tended to turn brown with age and become brittle.38mm 100mm x 100mm Maximum 50mm 2440mm x 3660mm 30 3. initially translucent in 3. 3. Clean room.0 safety glass Vinyls have long since replaced the earlier use of celluloid. This pre-nip.0 LAMINATED SAFETY GLASS Autoclaving glass. Here the humidity and temperature are strictly controlled. and very high impact performance products. appearance.1 Introduction In 1903 French chemist Edward Benedictus accidentally broke a bottle of cellulose acetate in his laboratory. The glass is then autoclaved where it is again heated and subjected to extreme pressure (between 8 and 12 BAR) permanently bonding the glass and the interlayer.2 Process The manufacture of laminated glass commences with the glass being thoroughly washed and dried before passing into an airconditioned ‘clean room’.3. It is during this final process that the glass becomes completely transparent. G. de-airing process removes air trapped between the glass and the interlayer(s) as well as softening the PVB to give initial adhesion or pre-tacking. A Saint-Gobain patent of the process followed in 1910. Further development by Dupont and Monsanto led to the use of laminated windscreens in cars after the Second World War. As a result. G. This subsequently led to the use of cellulose as the binding agent in the glass laminating process. he discovered that the cellulose. bandit and bullet resistant. is sandwiched between the glass(es) which then pass through pressurised rollers and heating ovens.0 LAMINATED SAFETY GLASS Laminated LAMINATED SAFETY GLASS 3. Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) is now the most common interlayer material used around the world for laminating purposes. moisture and debris of any description.2a: Manufacturing Capabilities Minimum Thickness Size 5.

can reduce heat gain by absorbing this radiated heat while simultaneously cutting down the amount of glare that occurs with high levels of natural light. Also. if attacked the glass will tend to remain in the opening. G. keeping wind and rain out of the building until it can be replaced at a convenient time.2000 Hz). Sound Reduction In many instances laminated glass is often overlooked as an acoustic glass.James’ range of Optilight products (See Section 3. versatile. high performance glazing material that offers a range of benefits: Safety When subjected to accidental human impact. Should the impact be sufficient to break the glass. Coincidence impairs the overall acoustic performance of glazing systems. resisting penetration of the laminate.5) or laminated glass incorporating a Solarplus reflective coating (See Section 6. Security Laminated glass offers greater protection for people and property by providing an effective barrier when under attack. brick or similar object. the interlayer will resist penetration ensuring any attempt to enter the premises will be slow and noisy.0 LAMINATED SAFETY GLASS Heat and Glare Control While it is desirable to allow more natural light into our homes and buildings.James laminated glass is a durable. more light often means more heat entering the interior. 31 . The underlying benefit is lower costs associated with cooling the interior. This is achieved through the ‘viscoelastic’ properties of the PVB interlayer which dampens the coincidence dip (See Section 1. For most applications. This important characteristic significantly reduces the likelihood of serious injury qualifying laminated glass as a Grade A safety glass. the resulting fragments typically remain intact. low cost method of reducing the transmission of noise through the glass. laminated glass provides an effective. 3.3 Benefits G. Although the glass will break if hit with a hammer. Laminated glass with a tinted interlayer. the bond between the glass and interlayer combine to absorb the force of the impact. as general environmental noise sources such as traffic and aircraft have significant amounts of sound energy in this frequency range. firmly adhered to the PVB interlayer.2) are recommended.14) in the mid to high frequency range (1000 .G JAMES IS GLASS Brisbane Convention Centre 3. For optimum heat and glare control.

NB: These benefits are dependent on the nature of the final processed product. By combining readily available raw glass and Laminated glass application interlayer.James laminated glass products protect expensive curtains. Capable of being supplied as either a laminated product or incorporated into an IG unit. embassies and security vehicles Blast resistant glazing • • • • • 3.) Figure 3.5 Optilight Optilight is G. facades glazed with laminated. sliding doors and sidelights Shopping centres. G. and the latest hard-coating technology.James has the capability to manufacture the complete range of architectural glass products to satisfy specific design requirements for colour. providing significantly sharper reflections. The PVB interlayer filters the sun eliminating up to 99% of UV rays while allowing the important visible light to pass through.76mm Optilight HL719 . Optilight provides a cost-effective product with proven durability.James’ range of spectrally selective. As with all high performance solar control products.5a: Optilight HL719 UV Elimination G. mirrors.4 Applications The many features and possible configurations of laminated glass combine to provide a product that has a wide and varied range of applications: • • Incident solar energy 5% reflected 53% absorbed and reradiated 58% total rejected out in 30% directly transmitted 12% absorbed and reradiated 42% total admitted Overhead glazing. thermal and mechanical performance. 3. Optilight products are suitable for vision and overhead glazing applications. annealed glass avoid the risk of visible distortions. furnishings and carpets from the damaging effects of short-wave ultra-violet radiation. skylights and rooflights Glazed areas surrounding gymnasiums and swimming pools 32 Solar performance analysis based on 12. a thermal safety assessment is recommended to assess the need for heat processing to avoid thermal fracture of the glass. (See Appendix One for a Thermal Safety Assessment Form. 3. offices and banks Hospitals. Low Visible Distortion Due to the controlled nature of the laminating process. The neutral coloured coating incorporated within this glass ensures minimal reflection and is therefore ideal in commercial applications where the original clear or tinted appearance of glass is desired.0 LAMINATED SAFETY GLASS • • Glass balustrading and lift wells Showerscreens. reliability and serviceability. schools and libraries Aquariums and zoos Jails. reduced solar heat gain/loss and minimum reflectance while maintaining the natural toning of the glass.0 LAMINATED SAFETY GLASS With glass laminating facilities in Australia and Malaysia.3. high performance laminated glass products that offer optimum light transmission.

If delamination is a concern. Also designed to satisfy the criteria for protection in openings. It is essential that cyclone resistant glass is held captive in a suitable framing system to prevent the glass from evacuating the building when subjected to severe storm and cyclone conditions.2. as defined in the Australian Standards AS 1170.0 LAMINATED SAFETY GLASS . 3. It is this increased thickness of interlayer which foils attacks from such items as bricks. hammers and axes. travelling at 15mtrs/sec.8 Characteristics Edge Delamination Delamination to the edge of laminated glass is an inherent characteristic of this product. More noticeable where the glass edges are exposed. Tests have shown that cyclone resistant glass meets the requirement of resisting penetration from impact of a 4kg.7 Anti-bandit Glass G. Lloyds of London 33 3. G. delamination is the result of a breakdown in the bond between the polyvinyl butyral interlayer and the glass.G JAMES IS GLASS 3. 50mm x 100mm timber plank on end. laminated safety glass can be manufactured to incorporate solar control products.James Anti-bandit glass is a laminated product incorporating a 1.6 Cyclone Resistant Laminate By incorporating a thicker combination of interlayers. The extent of the breakdown will depend on the glazing application and location but generally will not extend any further than 10mm in from the glass edge. this product resembles an ordinary panel of glass when glazed. it is recommended that the glass be glazed fully captive in a frame. Cyclone Resistant laminate is designed to resist penetration of flying debris and maintain clear vision (dependent on glass configuration) in the event of breakage.52mm PVB interlayer. 3.James cyclone resistant. This is equivalent to an impact energy of 450J. It is essential that anti-bandit glass is held captive in a suitable framing system to prevent the glass evacuating the building when subjected to an attack. It should be noted delamination is not detrimental to the strength or performance of the glass.

4. almost all architectural glass is produced on horizontal furnaces. the additional stresses created within the glass increases its strength by 4 . rather than fully toughened. Although the physical characteristics remain unchanged. the glass moves into the quench where it is rapidly cooled by blasting both sides with air. Progressing from the furnace. Similarly ‘Prince Rupert’s Drops’ were produced by dropping molten gobs of glass into water. the complete teardrop explodes with a surprising amount of energy. which dissipates through the compressed outer surface.0 HEAT TREATED GLASS Heat Treated HEATTREATEDGLASS 4.0 glass In 1879 De La Bastie took this principle further by quenching the glass in a bath of linseed oil and tallow. Both these methods had severe bowing problems which Siemens tried to overcome by quenching the glass between two cast iron blocks. The result is a teardrop shaped piece of glass. However if the fine tail is snapped off. Breaking the tail releases the tension.2 Process Toughened Glass The cut-to-size glass sheets are fed from the loading conveyer into the furnace where it oscillates back and forth on ceramic rollers until it reaches approximately 620˚C.5 times that of annealed glass of equal thickness.) followed quickly with their process of quenching by blowing air on both sides of the glass simultaneously. Brisbane today and although vertical furnaces are still used. This is a classic demonstration of the principles involved in the toughening process.1 Introduction In the Mappae Clavicula (a 9th century book) there is a description of ‘unbreakable glass’. Consequently. Heat Strengthened The process is similar to that of toughening. The resulting product however was closer to what is today termed ‘heat strengthened’. which is now in compression. the head of which is strong enough to withstand heavy blows with a hammer.K. This phenomenon occurs due to the outer ‘skin’ of the drop immediately solidifying on contact with the water while the centre cools at a slower rate. It was not until 1928 that Reunies des Glaces in France invented the vertical electric furnace where large sheets of glass could be processed with minimal bowing. the centre of the drop is put into tension and pulls inwards on the already hardened outer surface. It was understood at this early stage that glass could be toughened and made stronger by quenching in hot oil.James Toughening Furnace. however in this instance the glass is quenched 34 4. Pilkington (U. This ‘snap cooling’ or quenching induces compressive stresses to the glass surface while the centre remains in tension. 4.0 HEAT TREATED GLASS . 4. In essence the process remains the same G.

Sydney: Three horizontal furnaces (one of which manufactures both flat and curved toughened glass) and one vertical tong furnace for specialty glass. marine. The latest development in technology has been the introduction of gas-fired. glass balustrades. forced convection heat processing which has resulted in improvements in the speed of manufacture and quality of heat treated glass.James operates the following heat processing facilities: Brisbane: The small and relatively harmless fragments of toughened glass recommended for doors. It is 35 4.2a: Stresses in Heat Treated Glass Compressive stresses Tension at a slower rate. increasing the strength to only twice that of annealed glass of equal thickness. rail and land transport as well as furniture applications. • 4. the largest of which is gas-fired. It is also used in automotive. shower and bath screens. pool fences and glass walled squash courts.G JAMES IS GLASS Figure 4. the panel will fracture into relatively small harmless particles • • Phone: 1 8 0 0 G J A M E S (452637) National Toll Free Number • Greater resistance to thermal stress when compared to annealed glass (can be subjected to temperatures ranging from 70˚C to 290˚C) 4. G. • • One horizontal furnace. The result is lower compressive stress. Heat Strengthened • Two horizontal furnaces.James Safety Glass can offer an extensive range of toughened and heat strengthened products and manufacture to the following size specifications: Because of its mechanical strength it is ideal for creating a ‘total vision’ concept in all glass assemblies. Melbourne: Malaysia: Twice as strong as annealed glass of equal thickness Not designated as a safety glass Greater resistance to thermal stress when compared to annealed glass Typically breaks into large pieces. side panels and low lites.4 Available Sizes G. foyers and entrance ways.0 HEAT TREATED GLASS i Technical Advisory Service . which tend to remain in the opening One horizontal furnace.3 Properties Toughened Safety Glass • Up to five times stronger than annealed glass of the same thickness Designated Grade A safety glass as per AS/NZS 2208 In the event of breakage.

The glass thickness used for such purposes is dependent upon the application with strict compliance to the relevant regulations. 9mm. it should be full size and of a rigid material such as plywood. diagrams must comply with the following guidelines: Diagram Guidelines • Each item should be drawn separately on A4 size paper Each item must be clearly dimensioned with clearly indicated measurements from reference points Cut-out or notch positions and sizes must be clearly dimensioned with the measurement preferably to the edge of the cut-out or notch Hole sizes indicated and hole positions clearly dimensioned from the edge to the hole centre Glass thickness and type indicated Edgework requirements indicated to all individual edges Stamp position and type indicated Square corners indicated on rakes or irregular shapes Radii clearly indicated Melbourne: • 2100mm x 5000mm @ 4mm . 35mm. Suitable for both commercial and residential situations.5 Manufacturing Guidelines As heat treated glass cannot be cut. 26mm.0 HEAT TREATED GLASS Brisbane: • • Due to the dimensional precision required for the various applications of heat processed glass. 25mm. 45mm. stylish and unique balustrade alternative.25mm thick Sydney: • • • • 2100mm x 4000mm @ 4mm .25mm thick 1500mm x 2400mm @ 4mm . manufacturing delays and costly replacements. 6. 22mm. 21mm. please consult our technical advisory service. tinted or decorative). the direction of roller-wave should be specified (See Section 4.25mm thick 2100mm x 3600mm @ 5mm . while the minimum size on all horizontal furnaces is 350mm x 350mm. Holes G. 20mm. 19mm. drilled or edgeworked in any way. 58mm and 80mm. Again due to the heat process involved. 42mm. The following hole sizes are available: 5mm. • • • 4. If a template is required. 15mm. 30mm. 6mm. It is recommended the roller-wave run horizontal provided the sizes are within the constraint of the furnace width. 8mm. particularly reflective glasses including Low E. 2100mm x 4500mm @ 3mm .19mm thick 1500mm x 5100mm @ 5mm .James offer a selection of powder coated Hole sizes 4.0 HEAT TREATED GLASS colour.6 Applications Balustrades Framed and structural self-supporting balustrades are ideal for use in pool fencing. sandblasted or figured rolled glass. (vertical) To avoid confusion.19mm thick 20mm diameter min. 36 . 7mm. ceramic painted. 13mm. 23mm.5mm. and in particular with reflective glasses. staircase and other applications where the ultimate in unobstructed views is desired. • • • If applicable. 12mm. 50mm. 17mm. 14mm.25mm thick • Malaysia: • 2440mm x 4200mm @ 4mm . codes and standards. 32mm. aluminium framed balustrade or structural selfsupporting systems glazed with Grade A safety glass (clear. 10mm. NB: Should your glass requirements approach these maximum or minimum sizes. toughened glass will contain localised warp or bow which will vary with thickness and 4.4. it is therefore important to ensure the sizes ordered are correct. 28mm. balcony.19mm thick • Height to width ratio limitation on all furnaces is 15:1. 40mm. accurate and detailed diagrams are essential. these systems provide a low maintenance. 16mm. 18mm.8).

N.0 HEAT TREATED GLASS . 37 4.5b: Process Limitations – Cut-outs and Notches Cut-out / notch width and height must be less than 33% of the height / width dimension Minimum 19mm radius at semi-circle of cut-out Interior width and height of cut-out / notch must be equal to.B.5mm 38.5 times (4-6mm) or 2 times (8-25mm) the glass thickness NB: Holes will have a ground finish with arris unless otherwise specified. or greater than glass thickness Corner radius to be equal to. Minimum 75mm (4-6mm) and 100mm (8-25mm) Corners rounded NB: Cut-outs and notches will have a ground finish with arris. Polished cut-outs and notches are available on request. or greater than the glass thickness The distance between holes must be at least 4 times the glass thickness The distance from edge of hole in a corner to both edges of glass must be at minimum 4 times the glass thickness Glass (with holes) width to be at least 8 times the glass thickness The distance from the edge of hole to edge of glass must be at least 1. Figure 4. or greater than the glass thickness The distance between edge of cutout / notch and edge of glass to be at least 50% of the relevant width or height of the cut-out / notch.5a: Process Limitations – Holes Hole diameters must be less than 33% of the panel measurement at the narrowest height / width dimension.G JAMES IS GLASS Figure 4.5mm 62mm 44mm Cut-outs / notches with corner holes must be as noted in Insert (above) External corners must be rounded Cut-outs / notches to have rounded corners or semicircular ends with a radius equal to. or greater than glass thickness Insert 16mm Ø hole 51. Countersunk holes at 45˚ are available upon request Minimum hole diameter is 5mm but must be equal to.

providing greater light and a feel of open space with minimal visual barriers. flush faced patch fittings Structural trusses (without the need for holes) G. each screen is custom designed and measured to suit the particular site to ensure structural stability and functionality. Types Frameless toughened glass showerscreen Consult the following to ensure compliance: • • • • • • Toughened glass assemblies can be designed to incorporate the following systems: • • • • AS 1170: Wind Load requirements AS 1288: Use of Glass in Buildings The Building Code of Australia Local Authority requirements AS 1926: Fences for Swimming Pools AS 2820: Gate Units for Private Swimming Pools ‘Spider’ fittings with cable/bow trusses Patch plate fittings Countersunk. Toughened glass fins are used at each vertical joint to act as stabilisers and provide stiffness against high wind loads. Glass Assemblies Suspended glass assemblies allow designers to create an impressive feature without the interference of framing. can accommodate a certain amount of movement within the floating facade. An exciting new development in frameless glass assemblies is the use of structural trusses eliminating the need for patch fittings. This channel. the system involves toughened glass panels bolted together at the Toughened glass assembly 38 4. With configurations limited only by the imagination.0 HEAT TREATED GLASS edges/ends with specially designed fittings and hung from the building structure hence the term ‘suspended’ glass assemblies. NB: G. Frameless Showerscreens Frameless toughened safety glass showerscreens offer a unique and stylish alternative to aluminium framed screens by creating the illusion of space and a distinct feature in bathrooms and ensuites.James can design assemblies to suit a wide range of applications incorporating either flat or curved toughened glass. designed with deep glazing pockets. In principle. NB: It is recommended that glass used in suspended glass assemblies be heat soak tested. The panel to panel joints are sealed with silicone and the entire assembly is suspended on adjustable hangers and retained at the bottom and sides in a peripheral channel.James does not recommend monolithic toughened glass be used on the exterior sheer face in elevated locations above trafficable areas. chrome or gold plated finishes.0 HEAT TREATED GLASS .4. A wide selection of handles (or knobs) and hinges are available in powder coated.

6a: Toughened Glass Assemblies Suspension point Suspension hanger Peripheral channel Fin Splice plate Facade glass Patch fitting Fin support box 39 4.G JAMES IS GLASS Toughened glass assembly incorporating spider fittings Figure 4.0 HEAT TREATED GLASS .

patch fitted at top corner B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12 B13 4.0 HEAT TREATED GLASS Type C Patches fitted at top and bottom corners C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 40 .4.6b: Frameless Glass Door Options Type A Full width rails fitted along top and bottom edges A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 Type B Full width rails fitted along bottom edge only. or at the handle position Figure 4. Types: • Heavy-duty floor springs in single or double action with hold open or non-hold open functions Automatic pivot systems Concealed overhead closers Automatic. unobstructed views with design flexibility and functionality.0 HEAT TREATED GLASS Frameless Entries For building entrances and shopfront applications. card readers or panic bars • • • Hardware Options: • Frameless toughened glass entry Locks fitted to the top and/or bottom rails. overhead operators with electric locks. frameless toughened glass entries provide impressive.

be totally hidden from public view. surrounding countryside or pool area. In addition. This facility allows any commercial operation to have maximum business exposure and full use of all available space making it perfect for cafes. Frameless toughened glass stacking door system Figure 4. coffee shops etc. All above are available in either brass. 4. NB: Weatherproofing issues need to be considered.7 Colourlite (Ceramic Painted Glass) The application of fused colour to glass provides architects with the ability to complement or contrast the vision glass used in today’s modern buildings. The coloured frit used in this process consists of glassflux (70 . Bi-folding and Stacking Doors Utilising the latest hardware componentry with the features of toughened glass. bi-folding and stacking systems are capable of incorporating sliding or pivot doors. The glass panels can be either framed or frameless and.G JAMES IS GLASS • Handles in a selection of designs and sizes Multi-stacking configurations can be designed to suit residential applications to provide unobstructed views of the city.0 HEAT TREATED GLASS Black High Opacity White Gannet Denim Hawthorn Green Pewter Sandhill Federation Red NB: Colours are for illustrative purposes only 41 . powder coated or anodised finishes. polished or satin stainless steel. once completely opened.95%) and ceramic pigment (5 . bi-folding and stacking doors offer a moveable wall system which allows the glass panels to travel in a concertina style folding action.30%).7a: Colourlite Standard Colours 4.

4. It is recommended the roller-wave run horizontal provided the sizes are within the manufacturing constraints of the furnace. Variation in perceived colour may occur with any ceramic frit.7b: Colourlite Spandrel Application Concrete slab Vision glass Insulation Colourlite Ceiling transom Vision glass Front view 42 .0 HEAT TREATED GLASS Figure 4. This method of application ensures total and complete coverage of the glass surface. Minimum size: 350mm x 350mm Maximum size: 1500mm x 2700mm Properties and Applications The application of Colourlite bonds the colour to the glass. G. It is recommended that fullsized prototypes (incorporating all specified spandrel materials. Inevitably this results in slightly higher levels of compression at those areas adjacent to the air nozzles. lighter colours are more influenced by the colours of materials installed behind the glass. Colourlite spandrel application 4. slightly softened glass being in continual contact with the oscillating ceramic rollers. This effect is referred to as the ‘quench pattern’ as it occurs in the furnace quench. Colourlite’s excellent colour stability and aesthetic features means this product is perfect for spandrel panels in high rise/apartment buildings.8 Characteristics Roller-wave An inherent consequence of the heat treatment process is roller-wave which is caused by the heated. in particular insulation) are viewed on-site and approved by the client to avoid any oversight in this regard. the direction of roller-wave should be specified. the glass is then heat treated with the heat generated within the furnace sufficient to melt the frit into the glass substrate. nor should Colourlite be used in applications where backlighting may occur.James Colourlite is impervious to weathering and fade resistant.0 HEAT TREATED GLASS Process The manufacture of Colourlite involves ‘screening’ the selected coloured ceramic paint onto one side of the glass. Quench Pattern During the quenching phase of the heat treatment process. if white Colourlite is specified.4.7a) or select your own customised colour. Viewing should always be from the glass side and never the painted surface. the glass is rapidly cooled by high velocity blasts of air. Once the colour has been applied. the area behind the glass must be of a uniform light colour to avoid any shadowing effect. Such variations however will be more apparent with white or light colours because of unavoidable light transmittance. The consequence of these areas of high compressive stresses is the occasional appearance of a strain pattern of iridescent spots or darkish shadows. supplying a permanent nonporous surface with excellent scratch resistance (removal of the colour is not possible without damage to the glass substrate). Therefore. Further due to inherent variations in the ceramic frit thickness. This distortion is more noticeable in reflective or dark tinted glasses and if applicable. Choose from the eight standards colours (See Figure 4.

This accelerated testing process reduces the likelihood of breakage by a factor of 20 with a 95% conversion rate of potentially damaging nickel sulphide inclusions. the more obvious the quench pattern will be. Obviously identifying NiS inclusion prior to on-site installation has distinctive cost. building in Melbourne had extensive breakage in the spandrel panels. However while other such particles can be found using electronic scanners. occur over periods of time ranging from a few minutes to years after glazing. this would typically indicate the presence of NiS. as would occur during the toughening process. While glass manufacturers are extremely careful to ensure that no nickel enters the glass tank. The cause of spontaneous breakage is not limited to NiS but any foreign particle. only being identified after breakage.9 Heat Soak Testing G. In the early 1960’s.1 gram of nickel in a 500 tonne tank to produce 50. the I. Microscopic examination may reveal a minute black speck or NiS stone in the centre of the glass.C. Nickel Sulphide Inclusion Toughened glass can on rare occasions shatter for what appears to be no apparent reason.000 NiS stones. Since the quenching process is very rapid. Once subjected to heat.2mm diameter). Typically.04um in diameter.G JAMES IS GLASS shaped like ‘butterfly wings’. to date NiS stones go undetected. safety and security benefits and is therefore strongly recommended for toughened glass assemblies or where the consequence of breakage could result in injury. the pattern is only visible at times of polarised light or by viewing the glass from the inside at acute angles. Mr Ron Ballantine of the CSIRO investigated the case and discovered the cause was nickel sulphide (NiS) inclusions. a substance that possesses both an Alpha and a Beta phase.James Safety Glass can conduct heat soak testing (HST) on toughened glass if required. This is sometimes referred to as a ‘spontaneous breakage’. which may enter the raw glass mix or float glass manufacturing process. as always seen on dangerous NiS stones i Technical Advisory Service Phone: 1 8 0 0 G J A M E S (452637) National Toll Free Number 43 4. If there appears two larger fragments This phase transformation will continue to Right: Scanning Electron Micrograph of a typical NiS inclusion observed after the spontaneous failure of toughened glass (about 0. the structure of NiS does not have time to transform back to the stable Alpha phase.0 HEAT TREATED GLASS Left: Typical failure pattern (butterfly wings) observed after spontaneous breakages of toughened glass due to NiS inclusions . this phase alters to the more unstable Beta phase. An example of a quench pattern viewed under polarised light 4. Identification is possible by following the fracture radii to the centre point of origin. the thicker and more reflective the glass. One can note the rough aspect of the surface. Heat soaking is a destructive test which heats the glass for several hours at 280˚C to speed up the Alpha to Beta transformation of any nickel sulphide (NiS) should it be present. it should be noted that it takes only 0. Stones of concern are always situated in the central or tensile zone and vary in size upwards from 0.I. even silica stones. Similarly.

the need for expensive press moulds has been eliminated.0 CURVED TOUGHENED GLASS 5.Curves J . Radius: The distance from the centre of the circle to the circumference of the circle.0 TOUGHENEDGLASS toughened glass 5.Curves Cylindrical with Flats Cylindrical S . specifiers and interior designers a range of innovative and exciting design options.0 CURVED TOUGHENED GLASS CURVEDCurved 5.1 Introduction In another first G. The distance between two parallel lines which enclose the curved glass. then curving the glass to the required shape before finally toughening. This technology allows each shape to be precisely moulded to customer specifications providing cost effective building solutions. The continuous manufacturing process involves heating.5. (See Figures 5.2a & 5. Tangent: A straight line extending from the arc of the curve. By employing movable platens in the quenching process.Curves 44 . V .James combines the strength of toughening with the latest in curved safety glass technology to offer architects. Girth: The distance around the surface of the curve. Chord: The straight distance between the edges of the curve.2 Terminology To assist designers and clients when seeking quotations or placing orders the following terminology should be used: Height: Depth: The straight edge length of the glass. Degree: The angle of a segment in a circle expressed in degrees.3a: Available Curves A range of possible curves 5.2b) Figure 5.

2a: Dimensional Specification No.1 Depth Radius Degree Height Girth Figure 5.4a: Maximum Sizes Thickness 3mm 4mm 5mm 6mm 8mm 10mm 10mm 12mm 12mm 15mm 19mm Glass type Heat Strengthened Heat Strengthened Toughened Toughened Toughened Toughened Toughened Toughened Toughened Toughened Toughened Girth 2140mm 2140mm 2140mm 2140mm 2140mm 2140mm 2140mm 2140mm 2140mm 1830mm 1830mm Height 2500mm 2500mm 2500mm 3000mm 3000mm 3000mm 3660mm 3000mm 3660mm 1830mm 1830mm Minium radius 635mm 635mm 635mm 635mm 762mm 762mm 1525mm 889mm 1525mm 2550mm 2700mm Height 45 5.0 CURVED TOUGHENED GLASS .2 Thic knes s Radius Radius Tan ge nt Tangent Degree Th ick ne g Tan ss ent Girth Height Girth Depth Chord Chord Depth Radius Table 5.G JAMES IS GLASS Figure 5.2b: Dimensional Specification No.

Similarly as the 5. particularly for cylindrical shapes.James curved toughened safety glass has many and varied applications including: • • • • • • • • • • 5. Sydney 5.4a. The preferred dimension is the radius from the inside edge of the glass. Templates would be preferred for cylindrical shapes but are a must for cylindrical shapes with flats. b)the centre of the glass.James’ flat and curved glass toughening furnace. . the glass becomes more difficult to curve and therefore the minimum radius must be increased. therefore a full circle (360˚) can only be achieved using four pieces of glass.6 Applications G. 5.3a) It should be noted that the maximum bending angle is 90˚. All templates must be of a hard material such as plywood and remember the minimum possible radii as previously listed in Table 5.5. In particular.0 CURVED TOUGHENED GLASS G. 5. Deli bends and Food Cabinets Glass Furniture Windscreens 46 c) the outside of the glass. the maximum height must be decreased and the minimum radius increased (See Table 5. a computer program will be used to print out all necessary dimensions for clients checking and sign off. Where the chord and depth dimensions can be supplied. or Shopfronts and Internal Partitions Balconies. Balustrades and Pool Fencing Revolving Doors Elevators and Lifts Skylights and Covered Walkways Bay Windows Showerscreens Display Cases.0 CURVED TOUGHENED GLASS glass weight and thickness increases.4a).3 Available Curves (See Figure 5.4 Maximum Sizes As height increases.5 Measuring Providing accurate dimensions for the purpose of manufacturing curved toughened is crucial to the whole process. the radius and girth dimension must be clearly stated as being measured from either: a) the inside edge of the glass.

0 CURVED TOUGHENED GLASS . As 3mm and 4mm are only available in heat strengthened and not fully toughened.James can also supply. 5.8 Acceptance Criteria Limitations Curved toughened glass can only be curved in one plane (dimension). such panels are not covered by the above standards as heat strengthened is not classified as a Grade A safety material.7 Glazing Please refer Section 11.5mm for glass up to 6mm thick and 3mm for glass over 6mm. curved aluminium channels for head and sills if required. 5.4a Minimum height 400mm As per flat toughened glass • i • Technical Advisory Service Edgework: Cut-outs: Phone: 1 8 0 0 G J A M E S (452637) As per flat toughened glass As per flat toughened glass National Toll Free Number Holes / Spacings: Applications for curved toughened glass 47 5.G JAMES IS GLASS It is also possible to incorporate Colourlite onto the surface of curved toughened glass panels. G. At the curved edge: 1. the appropriate standard is AS 2080. For automotive glasses 5mm – 12mm thick.9 Standards The appropriate standard for Architectural curved toughened glass covering the thickness range of 5mm – 12mm is AS/NZS 2208. Tolerances Curve: To fit within ± 3mm of the specified shape or 6mm more than the glass thickness. The manufacturing limitations are as follows: • Maximum girth or curved dimension – 2140mm (5mm – 12mm) Maximum height – 3000mm (6mm/8mm) – 3660mm (10mm/12mm) For other thicknesses see Table 5. Local Warpage: 5.

This process takes place at very high speed and atoms of the target material are ejected and then recondense on the glass below. reflective and Low E solar control glass products. technology evolved that allowed metallic coatings to be applied to the glass surface.0 glass curved if required. and collide with the target cathode (the material to be sputtered). the material to be sputtered is the cathode in a high voltage electrical circuit. to the extent that they can be heat treated and G. The result was a range of glass products that offer the following benefits: • 6. 6.2 On-line Coatings On-line coated (or pyrolytic) glass is produced by depositing a metallic oxide onto the glass surface during the float manufacturing process. In this state-of-the-art technology. The application process does however limit the range of available colours when compared to off-line coatings. Electrons are taken from the gas and leave positively charged ions.James coating line 48 . By fine-tuning. Auckland 6.6. The result is a series of reflective coatings that are extremely hard and durable. The ions are attracted to.0 REFLECTIVE AND COATED GLASS A wide choice of external appearances with varying degrees of reflectance Superior.0 REFLECTIVE AND COATED GLASS Reflective & Coated REFLECTIVE COATEDGLASS 6.3 Solarplus (Off-line Coatings) Solarplus is G. On-line coated products include Stopsol.James’ range of Airco (off-line) processed. K Glass and Sungate 500.1 Introduction As demand for better performing glass products increased. Solarcool and Eclipse in addition to Low E types Energy Advantage. Process gas is fed into a vacuum chamber where a glow discharge (plasma) forms. the process is capable of uniform coatings on sheets of glass up to 2140mm x 3660mm or as small as 300mm x Royal Sun Alliance Building. all-round performance levels when compared to those of body tinted glass A multitude of combinations to satisfy specific aesthetic and performance requirements • • 6.

conversely the lower the number the better the glass performs in reducing heat transfer.3a: 3 Chamber Off-line Coating System Chamber 1 Chamber 2 Sputter Chamber Vacuum Pumps Chamber 3 Glass Washing Entrance Chamber Transfer Chamber 1 Glass Transfer Chamber 2 Exit Chamber Unload Cathode Valve Lock Glass Transport Direction Vacuum Chambers are separated by Valve Locks Figure 6. resulting in a glow discharge (plasma) within the magnetic field created by permanent magnets in place behind the target. The two letters identify the type of coating and the two numbers indicate the visible light transmittance on 6mm clear glass. bombarding the target with such force that atoms of the target are ejected and deposited. Almost any non-magnetic alloy or metal can be sputtered. is 10 – 100 times more efficient than previous sputtering processes. Light transmittance and colour. atom by atom. Figure 6. With oxygen or nitrogen either a metallic oxide or metallic nitride layer is produced. A controlled amount of gas is fed into the chamber.This plasma creates positive ions which are attracted to the negatively charged target. a metallic coating is produced. and a negative charge is applied to the cathode. 49 6. for example TS21. Coating Definitions The coating description comprises two letters and two numbers. depend on the coating material and the density of the deposit. developed by AIRCO scientists. depending on the selected coating. Off-line coatings applied to tinted glass or incorporated into a laminated glass with a tinted interlayer further reduces the visible light transmittance.James Safety Glass has the only architectural glass coating facility in Australia. the greater the visible light transmittance. onto the glass panel being coated. the more common ones being stainless steel.3b: The Sputtering Process 0 to 100+ Anode Volts – -500 to -800 Volts Gas in + Material to be deposited (Target) Surface atom ejected + DC Power Supply Plasma Positive ions accelerated to target Vacuum Coating Material to be coated (Glass panel) How glass is coated? The Sputtering Process Glass is conveyed into a vacuum chamber which houses a proprietary AIRCO cathode and a ‘target’ (bar of the material to be deposited onto the glass).0 REFLECTIVE AND COATED GLASS .G JAMES IS GLASS 900mm. In these instances the number reference serves as a guide only to the visible light transmittance and may assist in comparing types of glass. G. Solarplus products are available in either annealed monolithic form (clear and tinted). silver and titanium. This cathode technique. heat treated or laminated glass or incorporated into a Twin-Glazed unit. With argon present in the chamber. The higher the number.

sealant guns etc.5 Low E (Low Emissivity) All materials lose heat. SS14*** and SS22 SC Series Don’t • • External Appearance*: Pewter (Antique Silver) Product Code: SC22**. or by leaning materials against the coated surface Glaze with coated surface to the INSIDE of the building (monolithic form only) Remove excess lubricants immediately and check regularly for any reappearance Clean up splashes from plaster.6. TS30. but some more quickly than others. Clean panels as soon as possible after installation. SC30*** and SC40*** SL Series (Laminated glass only) • Cleaning Do • External Appearance**: Silver Product Code: SL10***. Emissivity is defined as the rate of emitting (radiating) absorbed energy. Don’t • General Don’t • • 6. For example. or with clean. **External appearance based on clear glass with clear PVB. TS35***. a silver teapot will retain the fluid temperature far longer than a glass teapot because the surface of silver has a much lower ‘emissivity’. mortar or concrete before they harden Minimise damage by hanging protective plastic drapes over (but not touching) glazed panels once completed Glaze sheets with damaged edges Use glass with vented or severely feathered edges Glaze with coating exposed to weather External Appearance*: Silver Blue to Deep Blue Product Code: TS21. especially if there is a risk of leaching.0 REFLECTIVE AND COATED GLASS Handling Do • Handle glass manually. abrasions and excessive pressure . oil-free vacuum pads Don’t • Use gloves or vacuum pads which are dirty or contaminated Installation Do Plasma glow during the sputtering process • Solarplus Coatings TS Series Take care not to damage the coating when fitting into the frame. run-off or spattering from other materials Use ammonia and water or well-diluted mild detergent for routine cleaning Use abrasive cleaners • 6.. • Don’t • 50 • . TS40 and TS50*** TE Series • • External Appearance*: Earth Product Code: TE10 SS Series • • External Appearance*: Neutral Silver Product Code: SS08. SL20 and SL30*** Notes: *External appearance based on clear glass. a thermal safety assessment is recommended to determine if heat treatment is required to avoid thermal breakage. ***Non Standard coating (surcharge may apply). The rate of heat loss depends on the surface emissivity of the material.especially on edges Keep surfaces dry.4 Handling Criteria Delivery & Storage Do • • Apply protective films to any coated surface Mark or label the coated surface Make sure the glass is always supported Protect from knocks.0 REFLECTIVE AND COATED GLASS As with all solar control glass products. clean and interleaved with polyfoam Bend Store in direct sunlight or unventilated spaces 6. or with glazing tools.

the better the glass reduces heat gain or heat loss. Therefore the lower the surface emissivity. This range of coatings can only be supplied on glass that will form part of a TwinGlaze unit (edge deletion required). toughened. low reflectance and is only available on clear glass. the better the performance of the glass. Solarplus Low E LE54 is a tinted coating which is ideal for use in warm climates.20. G. protects and suppresses the visible reflectance of the silver. Solarplus Low E is the optimum glass product.0. ordinary clear glass has a surface emissivity level of 0. When incorporated with a solar control glass in a laminate (Optilight) or a Twin-Glaze unit. which surround the silver.G JAMES IS GLASS The radiant energy is long wave infra-red. a desirable shading coefficient is achieved while maintaining good light transmittance. when combined with a high performance reflective or body tinted glass and incorporated into a Twin-Glaze unit. the surface emissivity is reduced to less than 0. Solarplus Low E LE80 has a neutral colour in both reflection and transmission.84.0 REFLECTIVE AND COATED GLASS Figure 6. NB: Please refer to Section 15 for performance figures i Technical Advisory Service Phone: 1 8 0 0 G J A M E S (452637) National Toll Free Number 6.5a: Low E Glass Shading Coefficient = 0. minimal external reflectance and low U-value. For assessment purposes. as it offers a balance between light transmission and solar energy control. results in a thermally efficient window with both a low shading coefficient and U-value. Solarplus Low E In terms of visible light transmission and thermal insulation.James produce two off-line Low E coatings. These off-line sputtered coatings are transparent layers of silver and metal oxide deposited onto the glass surface. The metal oxides. G. namely LE80 and LE54 as part of the Solarplus Low E range. which is in effect re-radiated back towards the heat source. This is accompanied by very high light transmission which. #3 surface 51 . Comparatively. meaning 84% of the absorbed heat is emitted from the surface. laminated or curved in the same way as ordinary annealed glass and requires no edge deletion for fabrication. A black body is the perfect emitter with a surface emissivity of 1. When Low E coatings are applied to the glass.39 34% Total Solar Transmittance 24% Direct Transmittance 59% Outward Radiation and Convection 7% Reflectance 10% Inward Radiation 66% Total Rejected 6mm Evergreen Glass Exterior 6mm Energy Advantage Glass Interior. a desirable shading coefficient and a reduction in U-value can be achieved. heat gain or loss is measured in U-value (W/m2K) with the lower the number.James also stock a range of on-line coated Low E glass which can be cut. By combining this coating with a body tinted glass in a Twin-Glaze unit. This range of coated products has very high light transmission.

to . a single piece of glass has little resistance to either heat gain or loss.2a: Typical Twin-Glaze Unit 7.0 INSULATED GLASS UNITS Insulated INSULATEDGLASSUNITS 7. 7.0 INSULATED GLASS UNITS Stetson (USA) registered the patent for insulated glass in 1865. Stetson discovered that by adding a second panel of glass separated by still.1 Introduction By nature.D. T. The improved performance of this insulated glass is attributed to the low thermal conductivity of the air pocket.James began manufacturing IG units in 1991 and registered the name ‘Twin-Glaze’ under which it markets this product. dry air the insulating properties of glass could be improved.2 Process Cut-to-size glass is moved vertically along a conveyor through a washing and inspection process which ensures the glass is thoroughly clean and free of defects.0 glass units metal soldered. to the current day. then glass fused and finally. primarily because it is a good conductor and a very poor insulator. G. It was not until after World War One that commercial production of the ‘bonded units’ commenced. The hollow aluminium spacer is then shaped to suit with a strip of Polyisobutylene applied to both sides providing the primary seal and an excellent vapour barrier. is Russell Offices. Canberra positioned between the two panels of glass Figure 7. with manufacturing techniques improving throughout the 1950’s in Europe and the USA. The spacer.7. which is filled with molecular sieve (desiccant) to prevent condensation from forming after sealing. Recognising this problem. 7. Methods used to seal the unit have progressed Molecular sieve Hermetically sealed space Glass as selected Aluminium spacer Polyisobutylene primary seal Silicone secondary seal 52 over time from the original metal to metal. double sealed system.

16mm.James Twin-Glaze Line and then pressed together.4 Properties and Applications The principle function of a Twin-Glaze unit is to improve the building occupant’s comfort and reduced heating and cooling costs by minimising the flow of heat from the inside to the outside.G JAMES IS GLASS G. 14mm. 8mm. Good tensile strength to the glass to glass edge 7. 22mm and 24mm. Maximum size will be dependent on weight (max.depending on the season. 9mm. or outside to inside . 12mm. 225kg) and unit configuration. glass thickness and spacer width. 10mm. 18mm. pressing and sealing with state-of-the-art robotic equipment. G.3a: Size Limitations Twin-Glaze units incorporating Annealed glass Heat Strengthened glass Toughened glass Laminated glass Various Various Various Various Available Thickness Minimum Sizes 400mm x 400mm 400mm x 400mm 400mm x 400mm 400mm x 400mm Maximum Sizes 2400mm x 3500mm 2100mm x 3500mm 2100mm x 3500mm 2400mm x 3500mm NB: Minimum/maximum sizes will be dependent on human impact/wind loading requirements.0 INSULATED GLASS UNITS The insulation value (U-value) is dependent on the unit configuration this includes the glass type/s. Application of the secondary seal provides the following benefits: • 7. Finally the silicone secondary seal is applied to the perimeter void around the unit. 19mm. 7. TwinGlaze units incorporating solar control • • Low vapour and gas diffusion Excellent adhesion between the glass and the metal spacer with short curing times • Superior structural bonding for the total unit Today’s automated systems such as the Lisec machines operated by G. Table 7. spacer bending. 15mm.3 Manufacturing Guidelines Spacer Widths Available: 6mm.12.8-M90. 53 . 20mm.James provide computerised washing.James is an accredited member of the Insulated Glass Manufacturers Association (IGMA) and complies with BS5713:1979 and CAN/CGSB . This is achieved by the airspace diffusing the transfer of heat creating insulation properties almost twice that of a single panel of glass.

0 INSULATED GLASS UNITS Outside Inside Long wave radiation exchange Long wave radiation exchange to skies and surroundings Conduction Conduction Long wave radiation exchange to interior surfaces An air space between two panels of glass significantly improves insulation due to the low thermal conductivity of air (compared to glass).4b: Heat Gain/Loss – Single Glass vs Twin-Glaze Unit Outside Inside Convec tion vection C on wind an Long wave radiation exchange to skies and surroundings Conduction Long wave radiation exchange to interior surfaces As single glass is a poor insulator and easily conducts heat. In colder climates where solar energy transmittance is encouraged. d ra in 7. tropical climates this same combination helps reflect and prevent the near infra-red (heat) from transferring through to the interior.7.0 INSULATED GLASS UNITS products such as Solarplus significantly reduce solar heat gain. Conduction & Convection 54 Convec tion vection C on wind an d ra in . The second panel further assists with thermal resistance. Should air with excess Figure 7. tinted. reflective. At any given temperature.in particular Low E and high performance glass. air reaches a ‘saturation point’ where it cannot hold any more water. there is minimal resistance to heat gain/loss. reduced air conditioning costs.5 Condensation Air comprises a mixture of gases including water vapour. a combination of clear glass and Low E (inner) will ensure high light and energy transmittance while the Low E ensures it stays ‘trapped’ inside. A thermal stress analysis is strongly recommended where solar control glass is involved . improved noise reduction. In warmer.4a: Solar Control Summer Heat source Winter Less heat gain Less heat loss Heat source Low E glass helps prevent heat from entering in the summer Low E glass helps prevent heat from escaping in the winter Figure 7. while certain combinations can provide superior solar and glare control. 7. low emittance (Low E) or Colourlite glass. greater fire resistance and increased security. Twin-Glaze units can incorporate combinations of processed clear.

the rings will move and change Sky Tower. the glass in large Twin-Glaze units may deflect to the extreme where they touch in the centre of the unit.0 INSULATED GLASS UNITS i Technical Advisory Service the same thickness with precise parallel surfaces. If either panel is pushed. These naturally occurring changes although quite small at times. This distortion known as ‘pillowing’ is visible mainly in the corners of the unit when viewed from a distance and can be either convex (where the glass bows outwards) or concave (inward bowing). The reflected light within one glass blends with the reflection within the other glass to form faint coloured streaks. condensation will form on this surface. 7. To overcome this temperature variation. this rare and temporary occurrence is a consequence of using two glasses of exactly 7. Phone: 1 8 0 0 G J A M E S (452637) National Toll Free Number 55 . Newtons Rings With changes in atmospheric pressure.6 Characteristics There are three main optical effects that can occur with Twin-Glaze units: Distortion and Reflection All buildings are subject to constant interior and exterior changes in temperature and pressure.G JAMES IS GLASS water vapour come into contact with a colder surface. The temperature at which condensation occurs is known as the ‘dew point’. Once the unit has pressure equalised. creating irregular. Brewsters Fringes Only possible with very high quality float glass. coloured circles similar to an oil stain effect. the effect of Newton Rings will disappear however it can be avoided by limiting the size of the unit and/or using thicker glass. Brewsters Fringes can appear anywhere over the glass surface and can be avoided by using different glass thicknesses. Auckland shape. thereby minimising the occurrence of condensation. Twin-Glaze units should be selected to provide a thermal barrier between the inside and the outside. This unavoidable effect is more noticeable with reflective type glasses. condensation can develop on the inside of windows when the outside temperature is significantly lower than the inside temperature thereby reducing the surface temperature of the glass. resulting in a distorted. In colder climates. are sufficient to cause the glass to deflect or bow. reflected image.

8. The G. from small hand guns to highpowered rifles and shotguns. cut-outs and shapes are available but may involve some limitations. while the polycarbonate absorbs the force of impact. The multiple layers of glass used on the attack side deform and slow the bullet. having proved their effectiveness after extensive testing and in-situ service. Bullet resistant glass construction can be customised to include tinted glass. G.James has developed the ArmaClear range of specialty glass products to ensure optimum protection should the need arise.0 glass individual components into one complete panel. permanently bonding the Range of weapons 56 . reflective coatings and one-way mirror.0 SAFETY AND SECURITY GLASS 8. Bullet resistant glass under attack Properties and Applications ArmaClear BR products are multi-ply laminates ranging in thickness from 32mm to 45mm and may consist of an all glass construction or incorporate a combination of glass and polycarbonate. ArmaClear has been installed in a variety of safety and security sensitive applications throughout Australia and overseas.James has the manufacturing capabilities and technological experience to satisfy a wide range of specifications.James Technical Advisory Service is available to assist with reliable and confidential advice.James’ laminating process where multiple layers of glass and polycarbonate are subjected to tremendous heat and pressure. Holes. tinted or obscure interlayers.0 SAFETY AND SECURITY GLASS Safety and Security SAFETYANDSECURITYGLASS 8.8. with certain curved configurations also possible. G.2 ArmaClear – Bullet Resistant (BR) Glass The Process ArmaClear Bullet Resistant (BR) glass is manufactured employing G.1 Introduction With safety and security becoming an increasingly important feature in modern building design. These high impact products are visually similar to ordinary glass (of the same thickness) providing an unobtrusive barrier against most forms of attack. The actual product thickness and configuration is totally dependent upon 8.

flat nose S0 Shotgun 12 gauge 12 gauge 70mm.35g single slug R1 Rifle 5.4 metal case bullet G1 Handgun 357 magnum 10. and must be of a strong construction and capable of providing the same level of protection to that of the bullet resistant glass. government offices and special defence vehicles. flat nose G2 Handgun 44 magnum 15.62mm NATO standard 7.56mm M 193 5. The components used in the manufacture of ArmaClear BR ensure normal vision is maintained. Care must be taken to avoid edge damage.6 full metal case R2 Rifle 7. For this reason.56mm 3. framing and accessories 57 . In the event of an attack.6 soft point semi-jacketed.G JAMES IS GLASS Table 8. Installation can also be provided if required. ArmaClear will maintain a protective barrier and degree of visibility.2g soft point semi-jacketed.3g full metal case 10m 3 45 98 10m 3 38 86 3m 2 38 86 3m 2 34 73 3m 3 34 73 3m 3 32 70 3m 3 Thickness (mm) 35 Weight (kg/m2) 82 the nominated calibre of weapon correlating to a specific level of protection (See Table 8. police stations.2a: ArmaClear Bullet Resistant Products Level Weapon and calibre Ammunition Range Number of strikes G0 Handgun 9mm military Mk 2Z standard 9mm 7. except around the area of bullet impact. embassies. Framing and Accessories It should be emphasised that the surrounding frame and support structure are equally important as the glass. airports. payroll offices. It is ideal for installation in banks. The final product is resistant to abrasion while also providing superior sound insulation. prisons.James has developed framing systems to complement all ArmaClear BR products.62mm 9. armoured vehicles. The strength and appearance of this product is unaffected by exposure to sunlight however a thermal safety assessment is recommended where tinted or reflective components are incorporated.0 SAFETY AND SECURITY GLASS ArmaClear bullet resistant glass. 8. including the supply of document trays and voice transfer louvres.2a). G. high velocity magnum 32g SG shot S1 Shotgun 12 gauge 12 gauge 70mm 28. public buildings.

In the event of an attack. The strength and appearance of this product is unaffected by exposure to sunlight however a thermal safety assessment is recommended where tinted or reflective components are incorporated. shopfronts (jewellery stores etc.26mm 17. Physical Attack glass construction can be customised to include tinted glass.3 ArmaClear – Physical Attack (PA) Glass G.26mm 22.0 SAFETY AND SECURITY GLASS Performance Standards Australia issued AS 2343 to ensure high standards of performance and detail strict guidelines for bullet resistant glazing. It is ideal for use in prisons. Properties and Applications ArmaClear PA products comprise an all glass construction or incorporate a combination of glass and polycarbonate with the multi-ply construction resisting penetration even after the glasses within the composite are broken.James has the manufacturing capabilities and expertise to meet the various criteria for intruder resistance and levels of attack. ArmaClear PA will maintain a protective barrier and degree of visibility. making the progress of penetration slow with the attacker quickly tiring and eventually ceasing the attack. except around the area of impact.76mm 100 x 400 100 x 400 100 x 400 100 x 400 Maximum Size (mm) 1100 x 2200 1100 x 2200 1100 x 2200 1100 x 2200 ‘G’ . permanently bonding the multiple layers of material into one complete pane.8.James Technical Advisory Service is available to assist with reliable and confidential advice.Resistant to rifle attack ArmaClear BR products have been tested and certified by an independent.76mm 19. Table 8. The Standard defines three broad attack categories: • • • mirror with certain curved configurations also possible.James’ ArmaClear Physical Attack (PA) glass has a remarkable resistance to human attack and penetration.Resistant to hand gun attack ‘S’ . tinted or obscure interlayers. Care must be taken to avoid edge damage. Test certificates can be supplied upon request. reflective coatings and one-way 58 8.Resistant to shotgun attack ‘R’ . however due to the product configuration processing limitations do apply. The multiple glass layers used on the attack side absorb the force inflicted by various hand held implements. detention centres.). The G. ArmaClear PA glass is made-to-order with holes.0 SAFETY AND SECURITY GLASS ArmaClear physical attack glass – Mental health facility . police stations.3a: ArmaClear PA Products Product Thickness Minimum Size (mm) PA4H3P4H PA6H4P6H PA6H6P6H PA6H9P6H 12. mental health facilities. The components used in the manufacture of ArmaClear PA are resistant to abrasion and also provide excellent sound insulation. G. cut-outs and shapes available if required. computer installations and other associated establishments.2a. NB: NATA .National Association of Testing Authorities. accredited NATA laboratory to ensure compliance with the various parameters outlined in Table 8. 8. The Process ArmaClear PA is manufactured using modern laminating processes where the multiple layers of glass and polycarbonate are subjected to tremendous heat and pressure.

James’ security products has been extended to include a range of dedicated window products for the transport and railway industries. G. Performance Standards Australia issued AS 3555 to maintain high levels of performance and outline the guidelines for physical attack glazing. tinted or obscure interlayer.James ArmaClear Prison Shield (PS) is a range of thin. special purpose windows incorporating high impact laminated glass and aluminium perimeter frames. detention centres and police stations.James can supply fully fabricated.0 SAFETY AND SECURITY GLASS window systems which includes forward i Technical Advisory Service Phone: 1 8 0 0 G J A M E S (452637) National Toll Free Number 59 . heat strengthened glass and polyvinyl butyral interlayer between the two glasses.James offer associated framing systems which can be supplied knock-down condition (KDC) or fully installed. Customised to suit individual requirements.28mm 100 x 400 100 x 400 100 x 400 Maximum Size (mm) 2100 x 3660 2100 x 3660 2100 x 3660 8. reflective coating or one-way mirror. G.5 Train and Special Purpose Windows The development of G. With extensive in-house design and manufacturing capabilities. This configuration provides initial strength in addition to continued strength even after one or both of the glass skins have been broken. lightweight anti-intruder laminated glass products which has been specifically introduced for low security applications where intrusion is of concern. Of particular mention is the range of railway facing windscreens. lockups.James is the chosen supplier to QR tilt trains 8. 8. To complement the range of ArmaClear PA glass. jemmy bars. ArmaClear PS is constructed using a combination of toughened safety glass.28mm 23. driver’s cab side windows.04mm 12. ArmaClear Prison Shield can be manufactured to incorporate tinted glass. bricks and axes have far exceeded industry standards and expectations.4 ArmaClear – Prison Shield (PS) Glass G. making it well suited for watch houses.G JAMES IS GLASS Framing It should be noted that the surrounding frame and support structure are of equal importance and must be of a strong construction and capable of providing a level of protection similar to that of the PA glass. G. Table 8.4a: ArmaClear PS Products Product Thickness Minimum Size (mm) PS6H26H PS10H310T PS5H25H 14. Extensive testing of ArmaClear PA products subjected to attacks from sledgehammers. These systems have undergone extensive testing and comply with British Standard BRB 566 and the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Standards. test performance figures are not published but are available on request against a specific project enquiry. For security reasons. saloon side windows.

. The almost pure silver (99. 9. Six centuries later in 1840 the process of silvering.1a) Handling and Processing Although the back of the mirror is protected. Process The production of mirror commences with float glass being thoroughly washed with deionised water and cerium oxide. Applications Aside from the obvious bathroom and bedroom applications. was patented.0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS Automatic processing equipment such as peripheral edge working machines or drilling machines must be cooled by water with a PH level of between 6 . Therefore it is recommended that only water soluble oils be used when cutting and processing silvered glass. (See Figure 9. as we know it today. Finally two layers of special backing paint.9%) coating is next applied. mirrors can also create the illusion of space and be an additional source of light: Table 9.1a: Silvering Process Topcoat Copper Silver Glass a manner that prevents water accumulating on the surface or along the bottom edge. A thin layer of tin is then sprayed onto the surface of the glass to promote the adhesion of the silver.8.0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS Special SPECIALPURPOSEGLASS 9. For cutting purposes.0 purpose glass 9. contaminates can still cause damage. After wet processing. only the mirror (non-coated) surface should be scored. mirrors should be washed. the first (basecoat) protects against chemical attack and corrosion and the second (topcoat) resists mechanical abrasion.1 Mirrors (Silver Glass) In 1317 Venetian glass makers discovered the art of ‘silvering’ by applying a combination of mercury and tin to the glass surface.9. followed by a coating of copper which protects the silver from tarnishing. dried and stored in Basecoat Figure 9.1a: Available Mirror Types Clear 3mm 4mm and 4mm Vinyl Backed 6mm 6mm Vinyl Backed • • • • • • • • • • • Bronze Grey Venetian Strip 60 NB: Other colours available on request.

childcare centres. and clear.fix mirrors to the end wall of a room To add light to a room .0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS . G. and can be supplied as a single laminate or incorporated into a TwinGlaze unit or ArmaClear product. lifts and gymnasiums. minimising the risk of injury. 61 9. one-way mirror offers a reflective surface one side.2 One-Way Mirror Extensively used for security and discrete observation purposes. and clear or tinted interlayer. conveniently connects to any standard power point and reaches operating temperature within minutes. This element is available in a range of sizes.James can supply Solarplus SS08 grey laminate where one-way vision is required. consideration should be given to the type of mirror. 9.fix mirrors to the ceiling To increase room length . fixings and number of fixings. Mist Free Mirrors The formation of condensation on bathroom mirrors can be avoided by installing an energy efficient heating element that warms the mirror preventing the unwanted build-up of mist on the surface.use floor to ceiling mirrors at right angles (90˚) and where possible adjacent to windows To increase room height . grey interlayer and clear glass. Bathroom mirror Mirror Doors Wardrobe mirror doors are a means of providing a full height dress mirror and perception of increased space. Such an effect is only possible with a specific balance of lighting between the observation and subject sides. For this application. The product combines stainless steel and titanium nitride coated glass. the fragments of glass will remain attached to the vinyl backing.install mirrors adjacent or opposite to windows or doorways • • • NB: In all the above situations. or supply and install fully fabricated aluminium mirror wardrobe doors in a range of fashionable colours to suit specific decorative needs.G JAMES IS GLASS Mirror doors in bedroom application • For increasing room width . Laminate Mirror Comprising of standard mirror or venetian strip. the glass fragments will remain intact reducing the risk of serious injury. The ratio of light from the observation side should be as specified in Figure 9. Solarplus SS08 Grey Laminate G.James can supply. The interlayer ensures that should human impact occur.2a. with no light shining directly onto the glass. seethrough vision on the other. the superior safety qualities of laminated mirror makes this product ideal for use in schools. mirror with an adhesive vinyl backing is used so that in the event of breakage.

3b (Outdoor Only & Combined Indoor/Outdoor) as an approximate guide. It is an excellent low cost alternative to Solarplus SS08 Grey Laminate making venetian strip suitable for medium security applications such as supermarkets. from the mirror to the area or point to be observed. 5mm lead glass provides the same protection as 1mm lead sheet (See Table 9.9.3 Convex Mirrors Convex mirrors are useful in both indoor and outdoor situations to control vandalism and theft. With such a high metal content. administration offices. or central observation is preferred ceiling domes are recommended. Distances are an indication only .4 Lead Glass Float glass offers no barrier to the harmful effects of X-rays and gamma rays. or where blind corridors. with half domes supplying a 180˚ view and corner domes a 90˚ view. Lighting minimised to 30% Lighting maximised to 70% Table 9. of which a minimum 55% is lead oxide. 300mm 450mm 600mm 800mm 1000mm Venetian Strip Mirror Venetian strip mirror is produced by applying alternate strips of 99. 9. Ceiling Domes Where general surveillance of a broader area is needed. Today most ‘shielding’ glass contain over 60% heavy metal oxide. In addition. venetian strip mirror should be installed with the strips running vertically. If in doubt choose a larger size. corners or intersections are an issue. the lighting source must not shine directly on the glass as this will only increase the brightness on the observation side and reduce the effect intended. and use Table 9.0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS 9. Indoor (Only) Outdoor (Only) Combined Indoor/Outdoor 62 The size of the mirror depends mainly upon the distances involved and the degree of clarity required in the reflected image. For the best results.4a). Although vision through the clear strips is still possible from either side. Full domes may be suspended on chains or fastened directly to the ceiling and provide a 360˚ view.3a: Convex Mirrors – Indoor (Only) Mirror Diameter 300mm 450mm 600mm Best Distance To 6m To 8m To 12m Over 12m Observation Side Subject Side 760mm Distances are an indication only .2a: Lighting Conditions required for One-Way Mirror Table 9. The types of convex mirrors available are: • • • 9.9% pure silver to clear glass. To select the appropriate mirror. By including heavy metal oxides into the raw mix.3b: Convex Mirrors – Outdoor (Only) & Combined Indoor/Outdoor Mirror Diameter Best Distance To 12m To 15m To 20m To 25m Over 25m When lighting is installed to maximise one-way observation. chemist shops and doctor’s surgeries. Add the two.3a (Indoor Only) or Table 9. continual exposure to such rays will eventually destroy the atomic structure of the glass causing dark discolouration. the mirrored reflection ensures any vision is limited and extremely difficult.most mirrors provide satisfactory service well beyond this range. it was discovered that glass could prevent the penetration of damaging radiation.0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS Figure 9.most mirrors provide satisfactory service well beyond this range. estimate the distance from the viewer to the mirror and .

3 7mm ± 0. both the surfaces are ground and polished to achieve the necessary optical quality. eventually causing breakage. Produced as a cast glass.3 Minimum Lead Equivalent 1. or can be incorporated into laminated glass or Twin-Glaze units.0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS Amiran application in shopfront.3 9mm ± 0. C.5mm 1. Non-reflective glass is available in thicknesses ranging from 2mm . ensuring true representation and improved clarity of the picture or photograph.G JAMES IS GLASS store. i. However annoying reflections from ordinary glass can obscure the shopfront and the products on offer. To combat this problem. float glass will crack very easily when subjected to temperatures of between 50 . 9. Standard sheet size is 920mm x 1220mm. The coating can be applied to tinted glass for increased solar control performance resulting in an effective.6 Non-Reflecting Glass Shopfront windows are designed to display a store’s products and/or image with the purpose of encouraging customers into the 63 . scanning and angiography observation rooms.12mm (single glazed). Lead glass can be processed as with normal glass and can be curved and/or toughened where required.3 8mm ± 0.60˚C. These products have a low reflectance of 1 .5 Diffused Reflection Glass (Picture Glass) With a light reflectance of 8%. Note the difference to the right of the picture which has been glazed with ordinary glass. clear float often obscures framed images or portraits with surrounding reflections. all-round shopfront glazing material. The maximum size available is 1100mm x 2400mm which allows an excellent field of vision for X-ray.4a: Lead Glass Comparison Table Glass Thickness 5mm ± 0.7 Heat Resistant Glass With poor tensile strength and a relatively high rate of expansion. 2mm diffused picture glass is specifically produced with fine textured surfaces to eliminate disturbing reflections.T.3 11mm ± 0. Japan Table 9. particularly when viewed at a distance. For this purpose. Ltd.8mm 2.0mm 1.e. LX lead glass is manufactured by Nippon Electric Glass Co. supplying light transmittance similar to clear float. Toughened Glass Toughened glass has compressive stresses ‘built-in’ to the surface and can therefore tolerate a thermal gradient of 290˚C on one side and ambient air temperature on the other. 9. multi-coated glass products such as Amiran and Luxar were developed. Observation window for angiography room.0mm 2.0mm X-ray peak voltage (KV) 150 150 150 150 150 200 9. This occurs because the glass surface heats up disproportionately.5mm 3. 9.3 14mm ± 0. causing tensile stresses to build up around the edges.2 % (compared to a single piece of clear glass with 8% and a clear TwinGlaze unit with 15%) and is an ideal product for applications where near perfectly clear vision is desired.

Robax can be cut and processed in the same way as ordinary annealed float. Borosilicate. furnaces and wood stoves. Ltd. Borosilicate Borofloat has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion and therefore is capable of withstanding temperatures up to 500˚C. Glass Ceramics Glass ceramics such as FireLite. cook tops etc. Standard toughened glass is generally used in oven doors. Borofloat is produced on a float measures the system’s ability to prevent the spread of flames and combustible gases as specified by AS 1530. framed window assembly must achieve certain Fire Resistant Levels (FRL’s). Borofloat and Robax are manufactured from a unique mix of raw materials.9. This glass can be cut and worked as would float glass and be supplied toughened (not a Grade A safety glass) if required. It can also be toughened for improved heat resistance. Borosilicate has a lower rate of expansion and higher softening point when compared to ordinary float glass. Japan . With an extremely unusual ‘thermal expansion coefficient’ of almost zero. This special composition results in glass products with dramatically reduced coefficients of linear expansion and therefore. is better than most metals. As the name implies. or the non-heated surface is rapidly reduced in temperature. Traditional applications for ceramic glass include space heaters. Available in sheet sizes up to 2438mm x 1220mm. protective barrier in the event of fire. These FRL’s correspond to the period of time (in minutes) the assembly can perform in relation to the specified test criteria defined in AS 1530. is a glass ceramic with a brownish colour capable of tolerating temperatures and thermal shock up to 700˚C.0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS 64 All fire rated glazing systems must be tested and certified to meet the stringent criteria required for building and glazing as defined by the Building Code of Australia (BCA). Ltd. a greater ability to tolerate thermal stresses (heat). (Japan). FireLite will not crack even when heated to 800˚C and then doused with ice cold water.3).4. FireLite line and consequently offers superior optical qualities and light transmittance. a fully fabricated. Structural Adequacy is a transparent. Available in thicknesses from 3. fire guards. In addition the chemical resistance of Borofloat. unlike that of ordinary soda/lime/silicate glass. a nominated FRL of -/60/60 requires: no structural adequacy/60 minutes integrity/60 minutes insulation. They form an important and integral component of a complete fire rated window or door system. The standard sheet size is 840mm x 1580mm. Fire rated glass in its many forms provide a non-combustible.3mm to 15mm with a standard sheet size of 850mm x 1150mm (larger sheet sizes are available on request).0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS However once the temperature exceeds this parameter. toughened glass will disintegrate in the normal manner (See Section 4.800˚C. crystallised glass developed by Nippon Electric Glass Co. below the limits nominated in AS 1530. is manufactured with the inclusion of Boron using the sheet drawn process. or where temperatures can reach 700 .4. FireLite is manufactured by Nippon Electric Glass Co. For example (and with reference to the above definitions). even at temperatures above 100˚C. 9.4. The thermal expansion coefficient of FireLite is almost ‘zero’ so it will not crack when heated to 800˚C and then hit with cold water. Fire rated systems are graded and measured based on three distinct criteria: relates to the system’s ability to maintain structural stability and adequate load bearing capability as specified in AS 1530. Integrity Insulation refers to the system’s ability to restrict the rise in temperature of the glass surface not exposed to the fire. In order to satisfy the BCA requirements.4. Robax 9.8 Fire Rated Glass The heat radiating from a fire through glass can often inhibit escape and ignite materials on the unexposed side.

G JAMES IS GLASS Table 9. 9. Their low expansion and high softening points allow such products as FireLite to achieve long integrity ratings of up to 180 minutes.4 – 1990 (Test Report No.0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS Pyrostop glass samples before and after exposure to heat A fire resistance test conducted in accordance with AS 1530. FireLite is capable of withstanding a rapid rise in temperature. Toughened laminated safety glass can only achieve a maximum 30 minute integrity rating. Reinforced systems contain either wired glass or glass block products where the glass will remain intact if broken thereby preventing the spread of flames.an important attribute in fires. Insulated systems are classified as those systems that satisfy both of the following: • • Pyrostop shields against temperatures of over 1000˚C an integrity criteria for ‘up to 120 minutes’ and. However multi-laminates containing a water based. There are three types of fire rated systems.8a: Fire Rated Products System Reinforced Georgian Wired Glass Blocks NEG Glass Blocks Non-Reinforced FireLite Pyroswiss Borofloat/Borosilicate Swissflam Securiflam Promaclear Insulating Intumescent Pyrostop Swissflam Pyrobel Promaglas Gel Contraflam Laminated Laminated Laminated Laminated IG Unit up to 120/120/120 60/60/30 up to 120/120/120 up to 90/90/90 up to 120/120/120 Description Wired Glass 190 x 190 x 100mm 190 x 190 x 95mm Glass Ceramic Calcium Silicate Glass Ceramic Laminated Laminated Coated Glass BCA .FR1376 – National Building Technology Centre (NSW)) on a panel of 5mm FireLite (2440mm x 880mm) was awarded a 180 minute fire rating classification. alkali silicate interlayer achieves 60 minutes integrity. an insulation requirement for ‘30 to 90 minutes’ 65 . while maintaining visibility . Non-Reinforced systems incorporate the range of ceramic glass products and are installed as fire rated walls and openings.FRL 60/60/NA 60/60/NA 90/90/NA 180/180/NA 90/90/NA 120/120/NA up to 120/120/NA 60/60/NA 60/60/NA NB: It must be stressed that all the above FRL classifications are based on tested framing and glazing systems.

9. any glass broken by the heat will remain intact within the frame maintaining a protective barrier. Maya Metallik Meteor * Inka * 66 * Patterns are also available in Goldtone. opaque shield against radiant and conducted heat. It should be noted that when using Shade-12. It should be noted that both these insulated systems are prone to ultra-violet degradation and when used as external glazing it is recommended they should be combined with standard PVB interlayers. . insulated glass unit where the airspace is filled with layers of a special soft gel containing high concentrations of water. Being a laminated product. The first is a multi-layered intumescent (expanding) laminate which can also be incorporated into an insulated glass unit for improved performance. On exposure to fire. the reflective surface must face the light source.this will occur after the nominated fire rating time of the system. The second system is based on a toughened.007% ensuring excellent protection against welding flash.0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS There are two types of glazed systems that are classified as a fire rated insulated system. the higher the fire insulating qualities.9 Welding Glass 9. The product is designed so the water within the special purpose interlayer evaporates and absorbs the energy from the fire. The thicker the gel. Simultaneously the interlayer expands. This system is so effective that while the exposed glass may be melting. G. the unexposed internal surface can be touched quite safely. converting into a ‘foam glass’ and producing a tough.James can supply Shade-12 welding glass.0012% and infra-red transmittance to 0. This process continues until the gel has burnt and expired . the gel forms a crust which holds the glass together.0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS For the purpose of absorbing and reflecting harmful radiation emitted during welding and similar operations. 9. while the evaporating water within the gel absorbs the heat energy.10 Glass Blocks Nubio-wolke * Cross ribbed (Also available in Broad cross ribbed) Nobless * Welle Helios * Regent Broad parallel ribbed (Also available in Parallel ribbed) Clear view 9. This product incorporates a special filter that reduces ultra-violet transmittance to around 0.

0kg 7. Perfect for use in windows. entries and foyers. G.10a: Glass Blocks Patterns and Sizes Names of designs Nubio-wolke Cross ribbed Broad cross ribbed Parallel ribbed Broad parallel ribbed Clear view Nobless Welle Meteor Inka Helios Regent Maya Metallik Aktis Light diffusing Security block LEGEND No 1919 2424 2411 3030 1111 1919/10 Dimension 190x190x80mm 240x240x80mm 240x115x80mm 300x300x100mm 115x115x80mm 190x190x100mm Weight per unit 2. Glass blocks used in bathroom application Table 9. or supply and install glass blocks in curved. partition walls and other areas where light is required. The many benefits of glass blocks include: • • • • • • High light transmittance Excellent thermal performance Noise control Security Large range of patterns.8kg No. stepped or straight panels using either silicone or mortar systems.G JAMES IS GLASS For those wanting a unique decorative feature. glass blocks are an excellent alternative to ordinary glass. colours and sizes Fire rating possible* * Fire rated blocks must be 95mm or 100mm thick and installed in mortar into a tested steel perimeter frame.3kg 1.James can supply. of blocks per m2 25 16 32 9 64 25 Available in sizes 1919 1919 1919 1919 1919 1919 1919 1919 1919 1919 1919 1919 2424 2424 2424 2424 2424 2424 2424 2424 2424 2411 3030 2411 3030 2411 3030 1111 1919/10 1919/10 1919/10 1919/10 1919/10 1919/10 2424 2424 1919 1919 1919 2424 2424 1919/10 67 9.0kg 2.4kg 4.0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS 2424 . Glass blocks comprise of two separate sections which are sealed together at high temperatures to literally fuse the sections together.0kg 2.

can pose serious and costly problems in today’s IT reliant age.e. G. Protecting premises where such installations are housed can be achieved by employing Faradays cage principle thereby ensuring all the external surfaces (i. Consequently any radio frequencies omitted from equipment meets Figure 9.James’ Technical Department can provide the necessary recommendations for your specific requirements. The consequence of breakage must always be considered in any design. the floor. Thick monolithic annealed or laminate (annealed or heat treated) is generally recommended for aquatic applications.g.11a: Triangular Loads of Water on Glass Water Level Load Water Level Load Water has an approximate density of one tonne per cubic metre. unwarranted interrogation of computers and interference or accidental loss of information by electronic noise (e.9.11a) Glass Selection AS 1288 requires reduced stress levels for sustained loads.12a: Performance of Electronic Security Glazing (Shielding Effectiveness) 120 Mesh properties 90 Radio Frequency Signal Attenuation (dB) 150opi 60 100opi 30 0 10 100 1000 10000 Radio Frequency (MHz) opi=openings per inch in interlayer mesh 68 . radar). This mass exerts significant pressures which increase 9. and all walls) are electrically conductive and then earthed. the ceiling.12 Electronic Security Electronic eavesdropping to obtain proprietary information.0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS linearly with the water depth. (See Figure 9. Graph 9. At water level and above. but due to the exertion of triangular loads on the glass. 9. even at a depth of 600mm (as would be the case in an average household fish tank) this would equate to 6 kPa of pressure. this pressure is zero.0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS 9.11 Aquatic Glazing Water pressure in aquatic applications (such as view windows into swimming pools or aquariums) has a sustained pressure which is directly proportional to the depth of the water.

The various product codes 80 70 T60 Attenuation (dB) (T45. G.12a & 9. For example.12b). T50 & T60) indicate the approximate attenuation of that product at 1000 MHz. L45 indicates a laminated data shielding glass with an approximate attenuation of 45 dB at 1000 MHz.12a). a metallised fabric mesh is incorporated within a laminated glass product (See Graph 9. For example. Data shielding systems are recommended for use in television and radio stations.James can supply a range of specialised laminate or Twin-Glaze products that effectively shield radio frequencies within the range of 100 .12c: Laminated Data Shielding Glass . The various product codes 80 70 Attenuation (dB) (L45 & L60) indicate the L60 approximate attenuation of that product at 1000 MHz. Data sensitive installation Graph 9.12b: Data Shielding Twin-Glaze Unit 90 Recommended for external glazing applications. T50 indicates a data shielding Twin-Glaze unit with an approximate attenuation of 50 dB at 1000 MHz. 60 50 40 L45 30 0 100 300 1000 3000 10000 Frequency (MHz) 69 9.0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS Graph 9.100 MHz. (See Graphs 9. any random external electronic interference is also diverted to ground.10.12b & 9.12c).G JAMES IS GLASS the walls and simply travels to the ground. security and computer installations and protecting operating personnel from harmful electromagnetic fields. Similarly.000 MHz. For applications where protection is required in the lower bracket of 10 . 60 T50 T45 50 40 30 0 100 300 1000 3000 10000 Frequency (MHz) Cell Phones VHF Radio TV Transmission Radar and Satellite Bands 90 Recommended for internal walls and partitions. As glazing systems are an integral part of most external walls they also need to be electrically conductive (See Figures 9.

0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS be bedded and cushioned with a specified resilient material ensuring there is no direct glass to metal (or other hard object) contact. In these types of applications. All materials considered. however with the obvious visual effects it can create.12b: Typical Internal Screening Outside Silicone Setting Block Inside Laminated Glass Conducting Gasket 20mm min Metal Frame Wall Screen (also suitable for secondary sash applications) Main viewing ports. An interesting application of glass used in flooring is shown in the viewing panels set into the floor of the main observation deck of Auckland’s landmark Sky Tower (NZ). It is recommended the glass panels 9. The four main viewing ports were glazed with Aluminium Frame Connection to Wall Screening Figure 9.0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS Figure 9. Consideration should also be given to installing a sacrificial piece of low cost glass to the top surface. Glass stair treads.12a: Typical Drained Glazing System Outside Silicone Setting Block Inside Twin-Glaze Unit Conducting Gasket 9.13 Glass Floors and Stair Treads Glass is normally not considered a traditional flooring material. Auckland’s Sky Tower 70 . Auckland’s Sky Tower laminated Starphire (low iron glass) providing safety.9. the glazing system should be supported on all sides with a substantial frame to ensure minimal deflection. glass in such applications is gaining in popularity. incorporating thick annealed or laminated glass. the rebate depth should be designed so the glass finishes flush with the floor. This would protect the more expensive glass underneath and can be easily and economically replaced when required. can also produce a stunning visual effect as well as Main viewing ports. strength and excellent clarity.

stair treads or similar applications where lighting is involved.0 SPECIAL PURPOSE GLASS reduce the possibility of heat build-up and Star Casino – Sydney i Technical Advisory Service Phone: 1 8 0 0 G J A M E S (452637) National Toll Free Number 71 . a sandblasted top glass should be considered to avoid highlighting scratches and scuff marks while also acting as a diffuser where under-floor lighting is used.G JAMES IS GLASS Star Casino – Sydney complementing any surrounding glass features. 9. In this instance. the glass should be adequately ventilated to subsequent thermal stress. When used in floors.

10.1 Introduction Rolled plate glass was first produced by James Hartley (U.) in 1847. Wired glass was patented in 1855 however it failed to perform in service. 10.2a).James’ range of decorative glasses encompass figured rolled patterned and decorative ceramic painted glass.James offers patterned glass in a variety of colours. and subsequently ground and polished on both sides using the old plate glass method. totally transparent wired glass. square mesh wire was introduced. Types With 16 different designs.2a). The pattern is printed onto one Georgian Polished Wired is a clear.0 glass Patterned glass manufacture 10.0 DECORATIVE GLASS Decorative DECORATIVEGLASS 10. three of which are wired (See Figure 10.10. permanent impression onto the glass ribbon.K. and later by the Chance Brothers (U. Note that polished wired glass is a Grade B safety glazing material. For the production of wired glass.K. The glass then travels through the annealing lehr where it is cooled before being cut to the required size. 72 . G. surface only while the other side remains smooth.0 DECORATIVE GLASS G. square steel wire mesh is sandwiched between two separate ribbons of glass which is then pressed through a further pair of patterned rollers to imprint the selected design. textures and degrees of opacity with the majority capable of being toughened while a small number can be laminated (See Table 10.2 Figured Rolled Patterned Glass Process Patterned glass is manufactured by squeezing semi-molten glass between two rollers. this product is optically true and the preferred glass for use in fire doors where small vision panels are installed.) who manufactured ‘cathedral’ and figured rolled between twin rollers in 1870. Produced as a cast glass. one of which has a surface pattern and creates a continuous. In 1898 Pilkington’s began producing wired glass on a commercial basis however the quality was still poor up until the 1930’s when welded.

0 DECORATIVE GLASS .G JAMES IS GLASS Table 10.2a: Figured Rolled Patterned Glass Tandarra Seadrift Broadline Narrow Reeded Strata Sparkle Kosciusko Roughcast Satinlite Spotswood Glue Chip New Cathedral Flemish NB: Polished Wired not illustrated Scintilla Obscura Squarelite 73 10.

8).10. Non-dir – Non-directional. shelving. balustrading and other areas where a decorative effect or visual obscurity is desired. Dir – Directional. Similarly. To achieve any fire rating it must be part of a complete glass window/door assembly (See Section 9. it should be noted that wired glass alone does not have a fire rating.0 DECORATIVE GLASS Applications Patterned glass has many applications including use in partitioning. Further information can be obtained from the G. The coloured ceramic paint used in the process of manufacture consists of glassflux (70 . While the use of wired glass is common in fire rated products. doors and sidelights. 10. Wir – Wired. furniture. W4 – White 4mm. leadlighting.James Technical Advisory Service on 1800 452 637. toughened or safety wired product is required. G6 – Grey 6mm. It is preferable not to Table 10.0 DECORATIVE GLASS Spotswood Glue Chip New Cathedral Flemish Scintilla Obscura Squarelite Polished Wire Legend: Text – Textured. 74 . W3 – White 3mm.30%). B5 – Bronze 5mm. expose wired glass to severe direct sunlight.95%) and ceramic pigment (5 . G5 – Grey 5mm. Characteristics Wired glass absorbs solar radiation and may be subject to thermal stress.2a: Figure Rolled Patterned Glass Selection Chart Type Text Print W3 W4 W5 Colour/Thickness W6 B5 B6 G5 G6 Safety Form Lam Tou Wir Non-dir Dir Tandarra Seadrift Broadline Narrow Reeded Strata Glacier/Sparkle Kosciusko Roughcast Satinlite • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 10. Tinted patterned glass may be susceptible to thermal breakage when glazed externally. B6 – Bronze 6mm. Print – Printed. coloured ceramic paint to glass provides architects and designers with a new dimension in the use of patterned glass by offering a cost effective and unobtrusive means of minimising exposure and/or controlling the amount of light transmission.3 Patternlite (Ceramic Painted Patterned Glass) The application of fused. W5 – White 5mm. blasts of very hot water placed directly onto wired glass may result in thermal cracking and should be avoided. W6 – White 6mm. showerscreens. Although figured rolled glass is obvious by its presence. Lam – Laminated. in certain specific situations consultation with the relevant section of AS 1288 should be consulted to determine whether a laminated. Tou – Toughened.

3a) in eight standard colours (See Figure 4. 60% cover 3mm strip.3a). Patternlite can be applied to clear or tinted glass substrates.7a) however custom designed patterns and colours for specific project requirements are available. combining Patternlite with a reflective coated glass will significantly reduce glare and decrease solar transmission. When specifying the pattern colour. Further. laminated glass. Table 10. with the heat generated within the furnace sufficient to melt the ceramic paint permanently fusing the pattern onto the glass substrate. Overhead canopies and skylights are the primary uses of Patternlite while the application of custom or corporate door motifs on toughened glass entry doors are also possible. Types G. decorative glass is created by silk-screening the selected colour and pattern onto one surface of the glass. Patternlite can be applied to surface 2. the glass is then either toughened or heat strengthened.James Patternlite is impervious to weathering and fade resistant. 50% cover Figures based on 6mm clear float with printed coverage to Surface #2. light colours will naturally reflect solar energy while darker colours will absorb such energy. G.3a: Light Transmission Cover (%) Transmission (%) 40 63 50 56 60 49 Figure 10.James offers Patternlite in four standard designs (See Figure 10. Properties and Applications The manufacture process of Patternlite bonds the pattern to the glass providing a permanent non-porous surface with excellent scratch resistance (removal of the pattern is not possible without damage to the glass substrate).G JAMES IS GLASS Process This type of patterned. 40% cover 3mm reverse dots. In essence Patternlite is used for light diffusing purposes.0 DECORATIVE GLASS . Once the pattern has been applied. 3 or 4 depending on the glass configuration and desired effect. Further.3a: Standard Designs 3mm dots. Gum leaf design Patternlite – Gum leaf design i Technical Advisory Service Phone: 1 8 0 0 G J A M E S (452637) National Toll Free Number 75 10. with the reduction in light transmittance equal to the glass area covered by the applied pattern (See Table 10. or incorporated into a Twin-Glaze unit. be aware that lighter colours will act as a daylight diffuser.

0 GLAZING TECHNIQUES Glazing GLAZINGTECHNIQUES 11.0 GLAZING TECHNIQUES 11. reference to Australian Standard AS 1288. foyers and ground floor entries are today common sights. Large picture windows. neoprene and Santoprene to one or both sides of the glass to provide a tight weather seal.2 Dry Glazing Dry glazing is the common description for systems utilising extruded rubber gaskets manufactured from either PVC. balustrades and expansive use of glass in shopfronts.0 techniques The framing system should be adequately designed to support and retain the glass under the design load conditions and also provide an effective weather-tight seal while the glass remains free floating and non-load bearing.11. EPDM. Glass in Buildings . the glazing techniques used in the installation process are equally as important. It is important the gaskets are cut slightly oversize and continually worked towards the starting point to minimise the chance of shrinkage.2a: Example of Dry Glazing Glass 11. glass awnings.1 Introduction Architects and designers are continually looking for better and more complex ways to use glass in buildings. Setting Block Extruded Rubber Gasket Aluminium Channel 76 . To assist Figure 11.Selection and Installation is recommended. Installation of the gasket commences in one corner of the frame with the gasket pressed into the glazing pocket in 100mm to 200mm sections until completed. While many factors are considered in selecting the glass. 11. In essence this involves choosing the correct materials and their proper installation and use to ensure long term performance of any glazing. As this section is a guide only.

G JAMES IS GLASS

with installation, lubricate and soften the gasket by placing it in a container of hot, mildly soapy water. Internal applications such as partitions, doors and viewing windows generally have no air or weather sealing requirements. Framing in this instance can comprise aluminium channels or timber beads. External glazing systems are designed to be pressure equalised and self-draining, with extruded gaskets used to achieve air and weather sealing. PVC gaskets are suitable for use in the glazing of shopfronts, residential and commercial buildings under 10 metres high. For buildings over 10 meters high, the use of Santoprene or neoprene gaskets should be considered. It is essential the correct thickness of gasket is used to ensure compression on the internal gasket is achieved to prevent air and water ingress.

Butyl Tapes Butyl tapes are an elastomeric material extruded into a ribbon and available in various widths and thicknesses. This tape is extremely durable and has excellent adhesion to both glass and metal surfaces when continuous pressure is applied. A shim can be incorporated into the tape to reduce the butyl compound being ‘pumped out’ of the glazing channel as a result of the combined actions of heat and wind. Over the last decade the use of butyl tapes has declined in favour of other glazing materials. Elastomeric Sealants Silicones, polyurethanes, acrylics and butyl sealants are the main types of elastromeric sealants used throughout the glazing industry.
Sealant Selection

When selecting an appropriate sealant for a specific glazing installation, it is important to consider the properties of the various sealant types in order to avoid any long term problems. Gunable silicone and polyurethane are the most commonly used elastromeric sealants and cure by way of chemical reaction assisted by temperature and humidity or by solvent release.
Silicone

11.3 Wet Glazing
Wet glazing materials can be classified into one of three main types:
• • •

Putty based compound Butyl tapes Elastomeric Sealants

Putty Based Compounds The use of putty based compounds as a glazing material has declined with the introduction of more versatile materials and techniques, and is now only used in the glass replacement market on older homes and buildings. Oil-based putty is not compatible with glazing materials such as silicone or neoprene and CANNOT be used in the glazing of laminated glass or Twin-Glaze units.

Silicone is the most widely used sealant with many benefits including, longevity, flexibility and good adhesion to glazing substrates. In addition silicone is less affected by ultra-violet radiation providing excellent long-term weatherability, making it an ideal material for use in external applications such as structural, each silicone type has some drawbacks which may be detrimental to the application. 11.0 GLAZING TECHNIQUES weatherseal and butt-joint glazing. However

Table 11.3a: Silicone Applications
Type Structural Structural Application Glass to aluminium Monolithic glass to glass Structural Laminated glass to glass Weatherseal Laminated glass to glass
NB: The use of black silicone is recommended in all applications.

Details Neutral cure ONLY Acetic structural or Neutral cure Neutral cure ONLY

Colour Black Black and translucent Black

Site Applied 1 part 1 part

Factory Applied 1 part or 2 part 1 part

1 part

1 part

Neutral cure ONLY

Black and translucent

1 part

1 part

77

11.0 GLAZING TECHNIQUES

A range of glazing material and tools

There are two main categories of silicone: acetic cure and neutral cure. Recognised by their pungent odour, acetic cure silicones contain chemical compounds that produce acetic acid as a by-product of the curing (hardening) process. Alternatively certain types of neutral cure silicones release alcohol as a byproduct of the curing process. Table 11.3a details the specific type/s of silicone suitable for various glass applications. Silicone is available in either high or low modulus (i.e. movement capability and tear resistance) and/or in a choice of one-part or two-part products. Adhesion, Compatibility and Stain Testing Due to the wide variety of painted and other surface types currently available for construction purposes, simple adhesion, compatibility and stain testing should be carried out prior to the commencement of any sealant application. If required, samples of all intended materials can be supplied to the relevant sealant manufacturer for testing. Surface and Joint Preparation 11.0 GLAZING TECHNIQUES
Glass and polycarbonate surfaces

that release solvents or ammonia during curing. Specific glazing products and methods must be used when glazing polycarbonate products.

Masonry surfaces

should have loose dust, dirt

and debris removed by a brush.
Aluminium surfaces

should be cleaned with

white spirit using clean cloths or lint free paper and employ the two stage cleaning process described above.
NB: It is important to use white spirits as the cleaning solvent to properly remove waxes and other contaminates from painted aluminium surfaces. Alcohol based cleaners like methylated spirits may not be sufficient to obtain optimum adhesion on all surfaces.

Priming

may be required if adhesion tests show

cleaning only, provides inadequate adhesion. Should this occur the manufacturer’s recommendations must be followed.
NB: Suitable protective clothing, eyewear and gloves should be worn when using solvents or primers.

Sealant Application and Tooling After preparing the surface (and the primer, if required, has dried), it is critical the sealant is immediately applied. Delays will allow dust etc. to collect on the various surfaces and contaminate the frames. Apply the sealant by pushing a bead of sealant forward into the joint cavity. Do not pull the applicator gun as the sealant will tend to lay over the joint rather than be pushed into the cavity as is required to achieve a proper seal. Pushing the sealant also helps wet all the contact surfaces. Care must be taken to ensure joints are filled without voids, air pockets or bubbles. Under no circumstances should uncured sealant be tooled off with solvents. Tooling fluids are not recommended as they can cause possible joint contamination and inhibit sealant cure.

should be

subjected to a two stage cleaning process as recommended in sealant suppliers’ literature. This procedure is as follows:

Thoroughly clean the surface with either methylated spirits or isopropyl alcohol (only) on clean cloths or lint free paper

Before the solvent completely evaporates, wipe the surface dry with a second, clean lint-free cloth to remove all contaminants

NB: It is important that cleaning solvents containing chemicals such as ammonia, xylene (i.e. white spirits) are not used with polycarbonate materials as it will cause crazing of the material. This also applies to glazing products

78

G JAMES IS GLASS

11.4 Glass Setting Blocks
Glass setting blocks can take the form of neoprene, EPDM, silicone or PVC materials which generally have a 80 Durometer Shore hardness. Setting blocks are used in the glazing of monolithic, laminated and Twin-Glaze units to:
• • •

Prior to installation, correct cleaning (and possibly priming) of the aluminium frames and glass is paramount to ensure good adhesion.
4-sided Structural Glazing involves adhering the glass or cladding to aluminium on all four sides achieving a totally flush, frameless, external appearance.

Provide a cushion for the glass Maintain the proper location of the glass Ensure correct edge clearance and frame retention

involves adhering the glass or cladding to aluminium on opposite sides, either vertically or horizontally, with the other two edges held captive with an aluminium bead or cover strip.
2-sided Structural Glazing

For correct size and position of setting blocks consult AS 1288.

For sloped overhead glazing, either 4-sided or 2-sided structural glazing can be used to ensure a weather tight system is achieved.

11.5 General Glazing Applications
Structural Glazing (1 or 2 part silicone) Structural glazing, either 4-sided or 2-sided, utilises structural silicone to adhere and seal glass or cladding materials to the aluminium substrates. In all structurally glazed applications, a calculation is required to determine the thickness and width of the silicone (structural) bite in order to satisfy load requirements on the framing and glass. The nominated bite size is attained by correctly positioning and selecting an appropriate double-sided, structural tape which is available in varying thicknesses and widths. During installation glaziers must ensure the structural silicone being pumped into the joint totally wets both substrates being glued, filling the aluminium to glass void. Temporary retainers may be required to secure the glass in place while the silicone is curing. One-part silicones may require 21 days to reach full strength after which time temporary retainers can be removed. Figure 11.5a: Example of Structural Glazing
Silicone (structural and weatherseal)

Legends Hotel, Surfers Paradise

Butt-Joint Glazing
2-edge Support

2-edge butt-joint glazing involves the glass being retained horizontally in an aluminium channel glazed with a gasket while the

Double-sided glazing tape Flat aluminium section

Laminated glass

vertical joints are sealed with silicone. This type of glazing is used in office partitions and internal shopfronts (subject to the requirements of AS 1288).
NB: In certain instances glass fins may be required for structural support.

Steel structure

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11.0 GLAZING TECHNIQUES

with acetic cure silicone being the most detrimental.Non-structural Weatherseals have many different forms and include glass to glass butt-joints. 90° Butt Corner 11. It is important that silicone weatherseals have the correct joint design to accommodate building movement.11. It should be noted that delamination does not effect the structural integrity of the glass or joint. Laminated Glass Glazing systems incorporating laminated glass should include weep (drain) holes as it is essential that the edges remain dry as prolonged exposure to moisture will cause delamination around the edges.0 GLAZING TECHNIQUES available. This may also apply to internal angles up to 135°. Weatherseal Glazing .6 Considerations for Glazing Annealed and Heat Treated Glass Annealed and heat treated glass with any surface or edge damage must not be glazed as this weakens the glass causing possible thermal or spontaneous breakage. Brisbane 4-edge Support 4-edge butt-joint glazing incorporates a glass fin at the silicone joint which provides structural support for the glass panels. 80 .0 GLAZING TECHNIQUES Cathedral Place. This may even occur when laminated glass is glazed in unframed applications such as balustrade in-fill panels.e. Twin-Glaze Units All systems glazed with Twin-Glaze units must incorporate weep (drain) holes as any long term exposure to moisture WILL result in unit With 90° butt corner joints. i. All types of silicones may cause slight delamination. It is necessary to check that the glass thickness is sufficient to provide the required silicone bite. the glass panels support one another in a similar method to that of a glass fin providing sufficient structural bite is 11. The size of the glass fin and how it is retained at the head and sill are important considerations to ensure adequate structural support is achieved. glass to aluminium seals or aluminium to aluminium seals for cladding joints. the glass is considered to be structurally supported by the adjacent panel. expansion and contraction due to heating and cooling. If silicone is to be used a neutral cure type is recommended.

white spirits) are not used as they induce stress into the polycarbonate edges resulting in crazing. Batten Fixing The suggested way of achieving a plumb installation.0 GLAZING TECHNIQUES i . Weep holes must be equivalent to three (3) 10mm holes per sill. Either double-sided tape.g.G JAMES IS GLASS failure. Fixings . ensuites or rooms with high humidity. silicone. Silicone/Adhesive Fixing The use of silicone or structural adhesive is useful on uneven surfaces or where concealed fixings are required. Bullet Resistant and Physical Attack Glass With glass polycarbonate composite panels it is important that cleaning solvents containing chemicals such as ammonia and xylene (e.3mm thick.Screws. This is especially important in bathrooms. Double-sided Tape Such tape must be capable of permanently bonding to the wall and at least 2. The vertical battens (50mm x 25mm) should be primed. Screws must not be over-tightened as breakage will occur. Due to the glass and aluminium bending tolerances. Technical Advisory Service Phone: 1 8 0 0 G J A M E S (452637) National Toll Free Number 81 11. For vinyl backed mirrors. Supporting the bottom edge should also be considered for safety purposes. Mirrors should never be fixed directly to unpainted concrete. Domes or Rosettes The most widely used method of fixing frameless mirrors is by using screws and domes or rosettes fixed through holes in the four corners of the mirror. it is recommended a silicone capseal is employed to alleviate any pressure points in the glass curve that may be caused by dry glazing with PVC gaskets. is to 11. the vinyl should be removed in areas where the silicone or adhesive is to be applied to ensure sufficient bonding between the mirror and the wall. adhesives or rosettes can then be used to install mirrors to the battens. plaster or timber.7 Mirror Installation Mirrors should be mounted plumb and flat to avoid distortion and installed in a manner which permits air circulation between the wall and mirror back minimising condensation. holes should be at 900mm centres and a minimum 50mm from the edge. Double-sided tape is used to hold the mirror in place while the silicone or adhesive cures. Silicone or adhesive should be applied in vertical strips and never in ‘blobs’.James Technical Advisory Service. before fixing to ensure no chemical reactions between the resins and mirror back. as from these unsealed surfaces. All Twin-Glaze units have silicone secondary seals and therefore do not require additional protection against UV radiation. This can also occur with some glazing products which release solvents during curing. Curved Glass For the glazing of curved glass an extra setting block is required in the centre of the curve. brick. For mirrors over 3m2. particularly for large areas. To avoid any problems the glass should be cleaned with a mild solution of soap or detergent and luke warm water. there is always the potential of chemical attack use vertical batten fixing. For compatible silicones and adhesives consult with G. Vertical strips are recommended to reduce the possibility of moisture and other contaminants being trapped behind the mirror.

Hermetically sealed IG units. AS 2820 Canadian insulating glass units national standard. ASTM 1036 Glass in buildings . BS 5713 Safety glass for land vehicles.Selection and installation. AS 3959 Construction of buildings in bushfire-prone areas.Railway transport/safety glazing.M90 Bullet-resistant panels and elements. Building elements . AS/NZS ISO 9000 Series Quality Management System Standards. BRB 566 Safety glass materials in buildings. Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers. AS 1530 Specification for flat glass.12. 12. components and structures. AS 2107 British Standard . ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials.2 Other Industry Standards and Publications: ASHRAE Minimum design loads on structures .Rail transport/safety glazing.Wind loads. AS 1288 American Society of Heating. ASTM 1048 Methods for fire tests on building materials.12.Rating sound insulation. AS/NZS 2080 Building Code of Australia. BCA Swimming pool safety. BS 5821 Acoustics . AS/NZS 2208 British Standard .8 .Recommended design sound levels and reverberation times for building interiors. AS 3555 Federal Railroads Administration (USA) . FRA I & FRA II Gate units for private swimming pools.0 STANDARDS AND TESTING Standards STANDARDSANDTESTING 12.0 and testing 12.0 STANDARDS AND TESTING AS/NZS 2343 British Rail Board .1 Standards Australian Standards (AS): AS 1170. 82 . AS 1926 Specification for heat treated glass.Testing and rating for intruder resistance. CAN/CGSB .

James: ASIO G. 83 12. 809.James Safety Glass Pty Ltd (Vic) Toughening Lic.James Engineering Services Pty Ltd • • • • • • Physical attack testing BRB 566 and FRA testing Optical and thermal measurements Accelerated life testing of products • AS/NZS 2343 (Bullet resistant panels and elements) • G. Faculty of Building Environment and Engineering: Forcible attack testing.Certificate No.Certificate No.James Industries (Malaysia) Sdn. No. No. G.James Industries (Malaysia) Sdn. G.Sydney • Cyclone test facility. Toughening Lic.James Glass & Aluminium Pty Ltd .James Safety Glass (Qld) Pty Ltd Laminating Lic.0 STANDARDS AND TESTING .James Safety Glass (Qld) Pty Ltd Toughening Lic. CSIRO • Commonwealth Science Industry Research Organisation: Acoustic testing. G.James Safety Glass Pty Ltd (Vic) Toughening Lic. G.Laminating Lic. 592. 1441. 809.James Safety Glass (Qld) Pty Ltd Laminating Lic. G. 821. No. QEC 2153. G. James Cook University .Townsville 12. Bhd. 951.3630 (within the field of mechanical testing). 949. G. G. P302.2 Product Standards AS/NZS 2208 (Safety glazing materials in buildings) • 12. No.4 Test Facilities The following are test facilities used by G.James Testing Laboratory NATA Registered Laboratory No.G JAMES IS GLASS 12. • • Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (T4 Protective Security): Forcible Attack Testing.3 Quality Management Systems Certification to ISO 9000 Series G. BRANZ • AS/NZS 2080 (Safety glass for land vehicles) • G. BHP . No. No. 1499. No. QEC 079.James Safety Glass (Qld) Pty Ltd Toughening Lic. No.James Safety Glass Pty Ltd (NSW) Toughening Lic. G. Bhd.Security Products Lic. 821. Building Research Australia and New Zealand: IG unit testing. Ballistic Edge • Bullet resistant glass testing. No. No.Certificate No. QEC 7280. 1441.James Safety Glass Pty Ltd .James Safety Glass Pty Ltd (NSW) Toughening Lic. G. No.James Safety Glass Pty Ltd (Vic) Laminating Lic. National Acoustic Laboratories Acoustic testing.Brisbane Photometric Laboratory: UV transmittance/ laminated glass and luminous transmittance through laminated glass. Queensland University of Technology . G.James Safety Glass (Qld) Pty Ltd . G. Cyclone resistant glazing. G.James Extrusion Co Pty Ltd . 471. No.

5mm & 6mm 4mm. 3mm. 10mm & 12mm 4mm.5mm.10mm & 12mm On-line Reflective Solarcool Grey: Narrow Reeded: Roughcast: Satinlite: Seadrift: 4mm & 6mm 4mm & 6mm 4mm & 6mm 3mm & 5mm Solarcool Bronze: 3mm 5mm 3mm 13.1 Clear Float 1. 4mm.4 Figured Rolled Patterned Non-reflective: 4mm.0 STOCKLINES Stocklines STOCKLINESSTOCKLINES 13. 6mm. 8mm. 10mm.13. 2. 4mm & 5mm 6mm 6mm 6mm 6mm 3mm & 5mm 5mm Eclipse Arctic Blue: Tandarra: Stopsol Classic Dark Blue: Tinted Grey (Cathedral): Stopsol SuperSilver Dark Blue: 5mm 5mm & 6mm 84 Reflectafloat: 6mm Grey (Spotswood): .0 13.0 STOCKLINES Solarcool Azurlite: Eclipse Grey: 6mm 6mm Glacier/Sparkle: Spotswood: Strata: Eclipse Blue Green: Eclipse Evergreen: 3mm. 15mm. 6mm. 6mm & 10mm Arctic Blue: Azurlite: 13. 5mm. 4mm.10mm & 12mm Glue Chip: Kosciusko: 6mm. 8mm. 5mm. 6mm & 10mm 5mm & 6mm 2mm Panasap (Dark) Blue: Optigray 23: Supergrey: White Broadline: Cathedral: Flemish: 6mm 4mm 3mm. Bronze: Green: * Only available in laminated. 12mm. 5mm.3 Super Tints/Performance Glass Evergreen: 3mm. 19mm & 25mm Solarplus TS21: TS30: SS08: SS22: 3mm & 6mm 3mm & 6mm 3mm & 6mm 3mm & 6mm 3mm & 6mm 3mm & 6mm 13.2mm. 2mm. 10mm & 12mm NB: Other coatings available upon request. 4mm & 6mm Sungate 500: K Glass: 4mm & 6mm 4mm & 6mm 3mm. 4mm. & 10mm Low E Energy Advantage: 13. 6mm.2 Tinted Float Grey: SL10*: SL20*: 4mm. 6mm. 5mm. 4mm & 5mm 4mm & 6mm Low Iron Glass Starphire: Diamant: 4mm 5mm 3mm 4mm 6mm.

76mm 6.James representative.7 Mirrors Clear 6mm 3mm.76mm. 8.52mm & 12. 6.38mm Grey 5. 6..38mm & 6.38mm.38mm.76mm. 5.76mm NB: Some discontinued patterned glass also available ex-stock Figured Patterned Laminated Translucent: 6. 10.9 Special Purpose Glass Heat Resistant Glass FireLite: Robax: 5mm 13. 8.38mm 13.38mm & 6. 10.38mm.76mm. 10.52mm & 12.38mm.38mm Evergreen 6. 6. 6.38mm Bronze 5. 11.H.P .76 W.H.38mm 5mm 5mm & 6mm 5.38mm. 10.38mm.0 STOCKLINES 5mm 5.52mm. 6.38mm & 11.38mm.38mm Clear Showertex (Cathedral): 6. 8. 8. patterned glass blocks 13.38mm.38mm. 4mm & 6mm Tinted Tinted Bronze (Scintilla): Qualage Tudor Clear: 4mm & 5mm 4mm & 5mm 4mm & 5mm Grey: 4mm & 6mm 4mm & 6mm Colonial Clear: Bronze: Colonial Cathedral: Venetian Strip Clear: 6mm 13.P 6.P .H. Dark (Brown) Neutral: 5mm 6. 11.8 Glass Blocks A large range of clear.P 6.38mm 85 .38mm. 6.38mm & 6.38mm.38mm.38mm. 8.38mm & 13.38mm..38mm.76 . 8.76mm 6mm Grey Showertex (Cathedral): White Obscura: Scintilla: Bronze Showertex (Cathedral): 6mm 6mm 6mm NB: Other patterns available on request Squarelite: 13. 10.52mm & 12. 6. 11. 6. 11.76mm.76mm.38mm.38mm. Bronze (Spotswood): Bronze (Tandarra): W.52mm.6 Laminated Clear 5.52mm Green 5.38mm.76mm 6.76 W. 10.76 W. NB: Some items maybe temporarily out of stock or only available on request.38mm.38mm & 6. 5.38mm.5mm Borofloat: Radiation Shielding Glass Lead Glass: Various colours and glass thicknesses available Automotive Clear: Grey: Various thicknesses Prior to selection/ordering any of the above stocklines verify available sheet size with your G. 10. 5. 5.38mm.5 Wired Glass Clear Georgian Polished: 12.G JAMES IS GLASS Bronze (Cathedral): Bronze (Seadrift): 5mm Bronze: Green: 5.38mm Opticolor Vinyl Back Mirror Grade A & B: Grade B: 4mm 6mm One Way Mirror Solarplus SS08 Grey Laminated: 6.52mm & 12. 6. 6.38mm.H.

0 UNITS/CONVERSION FACTORS Units/Conversion NITS/CONVERSIONFACTORS 14.829 metres = 0.37 inches = 3.205 pounds = 0. foot . kilometre Imperial to Metric = 10 000 sq.394 inch = 39. yards = 0.386 sq.4 millimetres = 0. feet = 1.016 tonnes = 0. metres = 100 000 sq.59 sq.405 hectare = 2.0 UNITS/CONVERSION FACTORS Metric to Imperial 1 gram 1 kilogram 1 tonne 1 centimetre 1 metre Volume & Capacity Metric to Metric 1 kilometre Area Metric to Metric 1 cubic centimetre 1 cubic metre = 1000 cubic millimetres = 1 000 000 cubic centimetres = 1000 litres = 1000 kilograms (fluid) = 1000 millilitres = 16. metre 1 litre Imperial to Metric 1 cubic inch 1 cubic foot 1 UK gallon 1 US gallon 1 sq. mile = 2.35 kilograms = 1.387 cubic centimetres = 0.093 sq.914 metre = 1.836 sq.293 sq.14. inch 86 1 sq. metres = 100 hectares = 645.305 metre = 30.16 sq. centimetres = 10 000 sq.454 kilogram = 6.035 ounce = 2.621 mile 1 gram 1 kilogram 1 tonne Imperial to Metric = 1000 milligrams = 1000 grams = 1000 kilograms = 1 cubic metre (fluid) = 28.0 Units Length: Mass: Time: Temperature: Energy: Force: Power: Pressure: Length Metric to Metric factors 1 sq.196 sq. metre 1 hectare 1 sq.764 sq.785 litres 1 sq.48 centimetres = 0.028 cubic metre = 4. millimetres = 0. metre 1 millimetre 1 centimetre 1 metre 1 kilometre Imperial to Metric = 1000 micrometres = 10 millimetres = 1000 millimetres = 100 centimetres = 1000 metres = 25.471 acres 1 perch 1 acre 1 sq. mile Metric to Imperial 1 sq. yard metres (m) kilograms (kg) seconds (s) Kelvin (K) joule (J) newton (N) watt (W) pascal (Pa) 1 sq.35 grams = 0. metres = 0. kilometres = 10.28 feet = 1.609 kilometres = 1.546 litres = 3. metre = 25. kilometre 1 hectare Mass Metric to Metric = 0.984 ton 1 ounce 1 pound 1 stone 1 ton Metric to Imperial 1 inch 1 foot 1 yard 1 mile 1 fathom 14.094 yards = 0.

948 Btu ˚ Fahrenheit = ˚Celsius + 273.45 mph Area of Circle 1 kilowatt 1 newton Energy Metric to Metric = 1.264 US gallon 1 pound force/ sq.895 kilopascals = 47.22 UK gallon = 0.0 UNITS/CONVERSION FACTORS 1 foot pound force Temperature Conversions = 1.055 kilojoules Kelvin = 0.G JAMES IS GLASS Metric to Imperial Imperial to Metric 1 cubic centimetre 1 cubic metre 1 litre = 0.14159 x radius2) Circumference of Circle Circumference = 2πr (2 x 3.273. inch 1 watt 1 kilowatt 1 megawatt Imperial to Metric 1 metre/second = 3.448 newtons = 3.K Pressure Metric to Metric = 1 ÷ U-value = 1 ÷ R-value = W/m2.6 kilometres/hour 1 kilometre/hour = 0.25 kph 741.447 metre/second = 4.K ÷ 5.˚F W/m2.68 1 pascal 1 kilopascal = 1 newton/sq.341 horsepower = 0.609 kilometres/hour = 0.738 feet pound force/second 1 watt 1 metre/second = 3.225 pound force 1 joule 1 kilojoule 1 megajoule 1 kilowatt hour Imperial to Metric = 1000 millijoules = 1 newton metre = 1000 joules = 1000 kilojoules = 3.746 kilowatt Metric to Metric = 0.738 foot pound force = 0.281 feet/second 1 kilometre/hour = 0. inch 1 pound force/ sq.15 .88 pascals Power & Force Metric to Metric 1 kilopascal Speed = 1000 milliwatts = 1 joule/second = 1000 watts = 1000 kilowatts = 0.852 kilometres/hour = 0.145 pound force/sq.621 mile/hour Speed of Sound 1193.412 Btu/hour = 0.6 megajoules Area = πr2 (3.277 metre/second 1 knot Imperial to Metric 1 horsepower = 1. foot Metric to Imperial = 6.061 cubic inch = 35.32) x 5/9 = Kelvin .68 = Btu/ft2.356 joules ˚Celsius = (˚Fahrenheit .514 metre/second 1 British Thermal Unit (Btu)/hour = 0.14159 x diameter) 1 Btu Metric to Imperial = 1.h. metre = 1000 pascals 87 14.293 watt 1 pound force Metric to Imperial 1 foot/second 1 mile/hour Metric to Imperial = 0.15 = (9/5 x ˚Celsius) + 32 1 joule 1 kilojoule Thermal Values R-value U-value Btu/ft2.˚F x 5.315 cubic feet = 0.305 metre/second = 1.14159 x radius) = πd (3.h.

67 0.95 0.3 6.98 1.1 5.00 0.15.7 Body Tint Glass Visible Properties Substrate Transmittance 6mm Green 6mm Bronze 6mm Grey 6mm Evergreen 6mm Azurlite 6mm Panasap Dark Blue 6mm Arctic Blue 6mm Optigray 6mm Supergrey 78 51 43 66 71 58 56 23 8 Reflectance Reflectance S1 7 6 5 6 7 6 6 5 4 S2 7 6 5 6 7 6 6 5 4 Transmittance 49 48 47 34 33 43 35 19 8 Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 S2 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 Shading Coeff.62 1.88 0.86 0.13 1.92 0.33 6.9 5.80 Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Transmittance Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Shading Coeff.8 5.9 5.8 5.72 0.69 0.71 0.63 0.10 0. (W/m2.3 6. (W/m2.92 0.72 Solar Heat 0. Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy Gain Coeff.69 0.85 0.63 charts U-value Luminous Efficacy 0.72 0.92 0.9 5.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS Laminate .58 0.K) 88 Grey * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions .04 Gain Coeff. (W/m2.72 0.82 0.9 5.89 0.61 0.38mm Clear 83 41 7 5 7 5 73 48 7 5 7 5 0.21 Gain Coeff.3 15.0 0.87 0. 0.92 0.86 0.81 0.92 0.3 6.83 0.58 0.00 1.38mm Clear Grey Green Bronze Cool Blue 8.9 5.9 0.58 0.90 0.39 Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy 1.K) 0.95 0.72 0.81 0.41 0.98 0.1 6.90 0.78 0.73 0.64 0.52 0.8 5.78 0.50 0.3 6.89 0.60 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS Performance PERFORMANCECHARTS 15.93 0.61 0.92 0.69 0.8 6.76 0.93 0.47 0.9 5. 1.3 6.71 0.61 5.78 0.86 0.96 0.59 85 42 69 52 69 7 5 6 5 6 7 5 6 5 6 76 51 64 52 69 7 5 6 5 6 7 5 6 5 6 0.57 0.59 0.Single Interlayer Visible Properties Substrate Transmittance 6.82 0.50 0.0 6.3 6.71 0.0 Clear Glass Visible Properties Substrate Transmittance 3mm 4mm 5mm 6mm 8mm 10mm 12mm 15mm 19mm 25mm 89 88 88 87 85 83 82 80 78 75 Reflectance Reflectance S1 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 S2 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 Transmittance 86 84 82 80 77 73 70 65 60 53 Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 S2 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 Shading Coeff.3 6.3 6.76 5.9 6.49 0.63 0.K) 5.22 0.93 0.

00 0.68 5.89 0.86 0.81 0.76mm Clear Grey Green Bronze Cool Blue 8.72 0.86 0.61 0.71 0.9 6.Single Interlayer (continued) Visible Properties Substrate Trans.8 6.72 0.0 6.71 0.70 0.67 0.48 0.78 Green Bronze Cool Blue 10.8 0.83 0.1 5.64 5.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 Solar Properties Trans.54 0.9 0.78 0.72 * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions 89 15.94 0.56 0.58 0.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 61 50 67 6 5 6 6 5 6 Shading Coeff.58 0.46 0.98 0.0 5. (W/m2.0 5.75 0.47 0.73 0.80 0.0 5.79 0.76mm Clear Grey Green Bronze Cool Blue 81 20 53 30 53 7 4 5 4 5 7 4 5 4 5 63 28 44 29 53 6 4 5 5 6 6 4 5 5 6 0.2 5.86 Solar Heat U-value Gain Coeff.73 82 20 54 30 54 7 4 5 4 5 7 4 5 4 5 66 29 47 31 55 6 5 5 5 6 6 5 5 5 6 0.48 0.1 5.0 5.2 6.66 0.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 Shading Coeff.8 6.53 0.69 5.77 0.G JAMES IS GLASS Laminate .76mm Clear Grey Green Bronze Cool Blue 10.75 0.67 0.76 5.55 0.80 0.0 6.60 0. (W/m2.38mm Clear Grey Green Bronze Cool Blue 12.73 0.0 5.8 6.57 0.53 0. Solar Heat U-value Gain Coeff.66 0.81 0.70 0.68 0.57 0.38mm Clear Grey Green Bronze Cool Blue 83 41 67 50 67 7 5 6 5 6 7 5 6 5 6 69 46 58 47 64 7 5 6 5 6 7 5 6 5 6 0.83 81 40 66 49 66 7 5 6 5 6 7 5 6 5 6 66 44 56 45 60 7 5 6 5 6 7 5 6 5 6 0.53 0.70 5.K) Luminous Efficacy 6.76mm Clear Grey Green Bronze Cool Blue 12.73 0.59 0.8 6.9 0.55 0. 0.9 1.51 0.68 0.1 6.37 .69 0.9 6.97 0.9 0.83 0.84 0.58 0.9 Luminous Efficacy 0.38 0.K) 0.9 6.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS 0.80 0.95 0.50 0.47 0.70 84 21 55 31 55 7 4 5 5 5 7 4 5 5 5 72 32 52 34 61 7 5 5 5 6 7 5 5 5 6 0.8 6.71 5.0 0.1 5.3 6.77 0.76 0.37 0.54 0.50 0.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 67 50 67 6 5 6 6 5 6 Solar Properties Trans.99 82 20 54 30 54 7 4 5 4 5 7 4 5 4 5 69 30 49 32 58 7 5 5 5 6 7 5 5 5 6 0.Double Interlayer Visible Properties Substrate Trans.61 0.1 6.2 6.62 0.70 0.36 0.8 6.9 6.87 0.61 0.60 0.63 0.76 0.75 0.73 0.88 0.66 0.84 Laminate .66 5.79 0.57 0.77 0.69 0.55 0.

49 0.76mm Clear/4mm EA 6mm Evergreen/ 0.62 0.15.53 0.76mm Clear/6mm EA HL229 4mm Green/0.24 66 64 65 9 8 8 10 10 9 32 29 30 5 5 5 8 11 7 0.44 0.38mm Grey.39 0. 0.1 0.54 0.39 51 7 9 31 5 8 0.45 0.38mm Clear/4mm EA 6mm Green/0.76mm Clear/4mm EA 6mm Grey/0.38 Reflectance Reflectance S1 S2 Transmittance Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 S2 Shading Coeff.85 50 38 39 7 6 6 10 9 8 40 29 29 5 5 5 8 10 8 0.79 0.34 4.30 58 8 10 26 5 11 0.76mm Clear/4mm EA 6mm Green/0.3 5.29 0.41 0.50 10 19 27 6 21 35 0.1 1.76mm Clear/4mm EA 6mm Evergreen/ 0.69 0.39 0. (W/m2.49 0.38 4.2 0.43 4.76mm Clear/4mm EA HL519 6mm Panasap Dark Blue/ 0.89 37 6 10 25 5 11 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS Optilight Series Visible Properties Laminate Make-up (Coating on Surface 4) HL219 4mm Green/0.66 0.39 0.K) 90 6mm Evergreen * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions .3 5.50 0.3 5.3 5.K) 15.82 35 6 9 20 5 10 0.58 3.04 50 7 10 31 5 11 0.34 0.57 0.26 0.31 0.76mm Clear/6mm EA HL719 4mm Azurlite/0.41 0.9 1.42 4.07 1.38 4.76mm Clear/4mm EA 6mm Green/0.46 4.Monolithic Visible Properties Substrate Transmittance TE10 6mm Clear TS21 6mm Clear 6mm Green 6mm Bronze 6mm Grey 21 18 12 10 16 19 17 10 8 16 33 33 33 33 33 15 10 9 9 7 20 12 11 10 8 40 40 40 40 40 0.38mm Grey.3 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS EA = Energy Advantage.76mm Clear/6mm EA 75 74 12 11 13 12 56 51 10 9 10 10 0.1 1.30 0.35 1.33 0.38mm Clear/4mm EA 6mm Green/0.76mm Clear/4mm EA 6mm Panasap Dark Blue/ 0.48 0.2 4.29 0.12 59 8 10 27 5 8 0.45 0.49 0. 0.53 0.53 0.85 73 68 69 10 9 9 11 10 10 45 37 36 6 5 6 9 8 8 0. (S2) = Additional coating to Surface 2 Solarplus TE/TS Series .47 0.29 66 9 11 36 5 8 0.43 0.47 0.28 5.1 0.29 0.90 35 6 9 19 5 10 0.2 1.76mm Clear/4mm EA 6mm Grey/0.24 1.0 4.32 0.76mm Clear/6mm EA HL919 4mm EA(S2)/0.9 0.54 0.36 0.70 0.34 0.9 3.38mm Clear/6mm EA HL319 4mm Grey/0.47 4.76mm Clear/6mm EA HL419 6mm Bronze/0.1 1.1 0.03 45 7 9 36 5 8 0.61 0.47 0.55 0.76mm Clear/4mm EA 6mm Azurlite/0.36 1.1 4.33 4.2 4.19 1.1 4.22 4.40 4.1 1.47 4.1 0. Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy Gain Coeff.42 4.2 4.1 1. Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy Gain Coeff.87 0.76mm Clear/4mm EA 6mm EA(S2)/0.76mm Clear/4mm EA 6mm Azurlite/0.76mm Clear/6mm EA HL819 4mm Evergreen/ 0.2 1.41 4.29 Transmittance Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Transmittance Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Shading Coeff.38mm Grey.48 0. (W/m2. 0.

3 5.50 0.9 5.48 0.6 5.28 0.0 5.9 5.9 5.39 0.48 0.9 5.7 5.9 5.45 0.7 5.86 0.7 5.9 5.49 0.51 0.43 0.53 0.39 0.6 5.52 0.34 * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions 91 15. 0.65 0.33 Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy 0.22 5.42 0.40 0.40 0.9 5.35 5.9 5.75 0.3 5.37 0.9 5.35 0.37 0.69 0.9 5.36 0.41 0.56 0.42 0.33 0.79 0.69 0.9 5.34 0.19 0.6 5.Monolithic (continued) Visible Properties Substrate Transmittance 6mm Azurlite 6mm Panasap Dark Blue 6mm Arctic Blue TS30 6mm Clear 6mm Green 6mm Bronze 6mm Grey 6mm Evergreen 6mm Azurlite 6mm Panasap Dark Blue 6mm Arctic Blue TS35 6mm Clear 6mm Green 6mm Bronze 6mm Grey 6mm Evergreen 6mm Azurlite 6mm Panasap Dark Blue 6mm Arctic Blue TS40 6mm Clear 6mm Green 6mm Bronze 6mm Grey 6mm Evergreen 6mm Azurlite 6mm Panasap Dark Blue 6mm Arctic Blue TS50 6mm Clear 6mm Green 6mm Bronze 6mm Grey 6mm Evergreen 6mm Azurlite 6mm Panasap Dark Blue 6mm Arctic Blue 52 44 31 26 39 42 33 33 6 7 5 5 7 7 5 5 18 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 41 25 25 25 21 21 24 21 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 19 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 0.42 0.7 5.39 0.49 17 14 13 Reflectance Reflectance S1 16 11 11 S2 33 33 33 Transmittance 8 9 8 Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 9 10 9 S2 40 40 40 Shading Coeff.33 0.38 0.57 30 27 18 16 22 24 19 18 15 12 9 8 10 11 7 7 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 22 14 14 14 10 10 14 10 15 10 10 9 7 8 9 8 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 0.39 0.74 0.G JAMES IS GLASS Solarplus TE/TS Series .61 0.Monolithic Visible Properties Substrate Trans.42 0.41 0. (W/m2.34 0.34 0.38 0.90 0.39 0.0 0.41 0.44 0.23 0.33 5.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S2 Solar Properties Trans.57 34 29 21 18 26 27 23 22 12 10 8 7 9 10 8 8 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 26 16 17 16 12 12 15 12 11 7 8 7 7 7 7 7 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 0.42 0.29 0.70 0.9 5.43 0.36 0.48 0.7 5.K) 0.9 5.28 5.6 5.6 5.51 0.60 0.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S2 Shading Coeff.50 0.44 0.56 0.44 0.44 0. (W/m2.74 0.69 0.47 0.45 0.46 0.37 0.7 5.7 0.41 5.56 0.6 0.31 5.80 0.35 0. Solar Heat U-value Gain Coeff.44 0.K) Luminous Efficacy SS08 6mm Clear 6mm Green 8 7 38 30 39 39 6 5 33 17 48 48 0.47 0.44 0.81 0.9 5.51 0.44 0.72 0.34 0.67 0.34 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS .39 0.39 0.36 0.6 5.38 0.68 40 34 23 19 30 33 25 23 10 9 7 6 8 9 6 6 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 30 19 19 18 14 14 18 14 10 8 8 8 6 7 8 8 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 0.3 Solarplus SS Series .38 0.32 0.41 Gain Coeff.7 5.65 0.6 5.33 0.35 0.9 0.44 0.51 0.66 0.37 0.31 0.41 0.25 0.40 0.41 0.9 0.

24 0.22 0.19 0.36 0.22 3.17 0.76 0.53 0.82 3.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS 6mm Evergreen 6mm Azurlite 6mm Panasap Dark Blue 6mm Arctic Blue SC30 6mm Clear 6mm Green 6mm Bronze 6mm Grey 6mm Evergreen 6mm Azurlite 6mm Panasap Dark Blue 31 25 15 14 22 22 17 17 15 11 9 8 10 11 9 9 26 25 27 25 26 26 26 26 26 15 15 15 11 12 15 12 12 7 7 7 9 9 7 7 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 0.25 3.41 0.82 3.73 0.26 0.1 5.0 5.41 14 13 8 7 11 12 11 12 29 24 13 10 18 21 22 23 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 10 7 6 6 5 5 6 6 24 13 12 11 10 12 12 12 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 0.25 0. Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy Gain Coeff.25 5.27 5.29 0.84 3.4 0.82 3.K) 0.25 0.42 0.Monolithic (continued) Visible Properties Substrate Transmittance 6mm Bronze 6mm Grey 6mm Evergreen 6mm Azurlite 6mm Panasap Dark Blue 6mm Arctic Blue SS14 6mm Clear 6mm Green 6mm Bronze 6mm Grey 6mm Evergreen 6mm Azurlite 6mm Panasap Dark Blue 6mm Arctic Blue SS22 6mm Clear 6mm Green 6mm Bronze 6mm Grey 6mm Evergreen 6mm Azurlite 6mm Panasap Dark Blue 6mm Arctic Blue 22 19 13 11 16 17 14 13 20 16 11 9 14 16 12 12 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 15 10 10 10 7 7 9 7 19 12 11 10 9 10 11 11 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 0.28 0.27 0.77 0.15.25 0.32 0.25 0.28 0.23 0.28 0.Monolithic Visible Properties Substrate Transmittance SC22 6mm Clear 6mm Green 6mm Bronze 6mm Grey 23 19 13 11 17 18 14 14 20 16 10 9 13 15 10 10 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 18 10 11 11 8 8 10 8 16 9 10 10 8 9 10 10 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 0.1 0.27 0.24 0.4 5.82 3.24 0.0 Solarplus SC Series .53 0.25 0.30 0.28 0.21 0.84 3.84 3.25 Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy 0.44 0.24 0.24 0.1 5.84 3.32 0.25 0.22 0.42 0.60 0.22 0.1 5.26 0.31 0.1 5.1 5.48 0.66 0.29 0.30 0.23 0.21 0.52 0.22 5.0 5.48 0.28 0.78 0.29 0.28 0.54 Reflectance Reflectance S1 S2 Transmittance Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 S2 Shading Coeff.28 0.39 0.33 0.33 0.72 0.1 5.4 5.32 0.82 3.32 0.41 0.25 0.0 5.29 0. (W/m2.4 5.28 0.26 0.22 0.52 0.28 0.34 0.28 0.32 0.25 0.84 3.82 3.32 0.45 0.4 5.K) 15.4 5.32 0.32 0.22 0.29 0.82 0. 0.29 0.28 0.84 3.28 0.27 0.24 0.46 0.23 0.70 0.40 5 4 7 7 6 6 Reflectance Reflectance S1 16 12 24 26 13 13 S2 39 39 39 39 39 39 Transmittance 4 4 3 3 4 3 Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 15 14 12 14 14 14 S2 48 48 48 48 48 48 Shading Coeff.49 0.39 0.29 0.27 0.4 5.84 3.36 0.34 0.4 5.38 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS Solarplus SS Series .0 5.25 0.29 0.29 0.22 Gain Coeff.34 0.84 0.55 92 6mm Arctic Blue * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions .29 0.30 0.26 0. (W/m2.1 5.0 5.82 3.25 0.68 0.

38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 6.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 8.29 0.15 6.28 0.32 0.26 0.98 5.60 0.22 0.90 6.28 0.29 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 6.31 0.98 5.56 0.30 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 10.98 5.24 0.33 10 10 10 9 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 5 8 8 8 8 9 8 8 8 9 8 8 8 25 25 24 24 9 9 9 9 11 11 11 10 17 17 17 16 18 18 18 17 15 15 15 15 23 23 23 22 25 25 24 24 25 25 24 24 25 25 24 24 25 25 24 24 22 21 21 21 5 5 5 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 33 32 29 29 13 13 13 12 16 16 16 14 24 23 23 21 27 26 26 24 21 20 19 19 30 29 29 26 33 32 29 29 33 32 29 29 33 32 29 29 33 32 29 29 30 29 28 27 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 6.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 12.15 6.75 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 8.26 0.30 0.98 0. Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy Gain Coeff.27 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 12.36 0. Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy Gain Coeff.26 0.40 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 10.07 5.40 0.90 6.90 6.27 0.15 0.62 0.98 5.38 0.23 0.29 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.90 6.24 0.38 0.43 0.26 0.25 6.37 5.07 5.98 5.22 0.38 0.27 0.07 5.46 0.32 0.27 0.98 5.31 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 10.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS .15 0.26 0.24 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 8.98 5.30 0.52 0.65 0.32 0.31 0.37 0.24 0.47 0.64 0.K) * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions 93 15.98 5.15 6.31 0. (W/m2.98 5.35 0.64 Reflectance Reflectance S1 S2 Transmittance Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 S2 Shading Coeff.07 5.31 0.28 0.98 5.19 0.25 0.23 0.29 0.30 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.90 6.36 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 8.07 5.33 0.98 5.28 0.26 0.18 0.98 5.47 0.90 6.Laminate Visible Properties Laminate Make-up Transmittance TE10 6.22 0.90 0.19 0.81 0.43 0.28 Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Transmittance Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Shading Coeff.07 5.07 5. (W/m2.40 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 6.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 25 24 24 23 12 12 12 23 23 22 22 9 9 9 22 22 22 21 23 22 22 17 16 15 14 10 10 9 27 26 24 24 11 11 11 25 24 24 22 27 26 24 0.28 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) TS21 6.31 0.46 0.15 6.19 0.G JAMES IS GLASS Solarplus SC Series .40 0.Monolithic (continued) Visible Properties Substrate Transmittance SC40 6mm Clear 6mm Green 6mm Bronze 6mm Grey 6mm Evergreen 6mm Azurlite 6mm Panasap Dark Blue 6mm Arctic Blue 42 36 24 26 32 35 29 28 10 9 7 7 8 9 7 7 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 37 20 19 20 15 15 19 15 7 6 6 6 5 5 6 6 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 0.36 0.07 5.66 0.65 0.37 0.24 0.28 0.24 0.30 0.29 0.31 0.76 0.32 0.39 0.25 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.15 6.37 0.28 0.43 0.25 0.37 0.98 5.16 0.25 0.30 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.37 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 6.30 0.15 6.98 5.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 10.27 0.15 6.32 0.98 0.25 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 8.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 12.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 12.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 6.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 12.24 0.31 6.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 10.28 0.15 6.25 0.27 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 8.70 0.29 0.K) Solarplus TE/TS Series .32 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 10.15 0.52 0.28 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.

38 0.36 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 10.43 0.37 0.15 6.35 0.44 0.44 0.32 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 6.63 0.37 0.32 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 6.47 0.46 0.77 0.39 0.39 0.07 5.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 8.90 6.31 0.K) 0.98 5.46 0.07 5.46 0.54 0.39 0.47 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) TS35 6.38 0.32 0.34 0.53 0.32 0.07 5.98 5.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.60 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.40 0. (W/m2.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 8.41 0.40 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 8.38 0.90 15.38 0.31 0.90 6.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 8.90 6.46 0.46 0.07 5.32 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS Solarplus TE/TS Series .38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 12.15 6.46 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.52 0.32 5.90 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 12.43 0.39 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 6.15 6.90 6.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 6.78 94 10.37 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.54 0.42 0.54 Gain Coeff.38 0.Laminate (continued) Visible Properties Laminate Make-up Transmittance 12.07 5.38 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.32 0.64 0.37 0.15 6.15 6.38 0.36 0.45 0.15 6.90 6.98 5.90 6.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 6.98 5.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 10.43 6.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 35 34 33 33 17 17 16 16 20 20 20 19 29 28 28 27 30 29 29 28 30 29 28 28 17 17 16 16 7 7 7 7 9 9 9 8 13 13 13 12 14 13 13 13 11 11 11 11 17 17 17 16 17 16 16 16 17 16 16 16 17 17 16 16 17 17 16 16 14 14 13 13 26 25 23 22 15 15 14 13 18 17 16 15 23 22 21 19 24 23 22 21 22 21 20 19 19 18 17 17 9 9 9 9 11 11 11 10 16 15 15 14 17 17 17 15 13 13 13 12 19 18 18 17 19 18 17 17 19 18 17 17 19 18 17 17 19 18 17 17 17 16 15 15 0.90 6.98 0.63 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 12.43 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 12.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 8.98 5.33 0.40 0.37 0.33 0.64 12 15 14 14 14 21 20 20 19 21 21 20 20 21 21 20 20 Reflectance Reflectance S1 8 10 10 10 10 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 16 15 15 14 14 S4 22 23 22 22 22 23 23 22 22 23 23 22 22 20 20 19 19 Transmittance 9 12 11 10 10 15 14 13 13 16 15 14 14 15 14 13 12 Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 10 14 13 13 12 20 19 19 18 23 22 22 20 18 17 16 16 S4 24 27 26 24 24 24 26 24 24 27 26 24 24 24 23 22 22 Shading Coeff.41 0.07 5.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.34 0.37 Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy 0.44 0.62 0.07 5.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions .48 0.63 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 6.37 0.98 5.90 6.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 10.73 0.07 5.38 0.39 0.40 0.38 6.42 0.45 0.31 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 8.39 0.61 0.40 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 10.33 0.15 6.07 5.47 0.40 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 8.41 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) TS30 6.15 6.40 0.38 0.07 5.33 0.98 5.40 0.98 5.36 0.36 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 6.37 0.37 0.33 0.53 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 6.72 0.39 0.90 6.45 0.39 0.45 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.73 0.55 0.39 0.41 0.15 6.40 0.47 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 12.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.32 0.15 6.46 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 41 40 39 15 15 14 15 15 15 31 30 28 17 16 15 17 16 15 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS 12. 0.15.32 0.39 0.40 0.53 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 10.07 5.47 0.45 0.36 0.63 0.50 0.64 0.61 0.91 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.35 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.53 0.38 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.98 5.56 0.98 5.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 6.55 0.38 0.45 0.73 0.63 0.52 0.54 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.15 6.

45 0.67 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.52 0.90 6.41 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 47 46 45 44 23 23 22 22 27 27 26 26 39 38 37 36 40 39 38 37 40 39 38 37 13 13 12 12 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 10 10 10 10 11 11 10 10 9 9 9 9 13 13 13 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 12 12 13 13 12 12 10 10 10 10 36 34 32 31 21 20 19 18 25 23 22 21 32 30 28 27 34 32 30 29 30 29 28 26 15 14 13 13 8 7 7 7 9 9 9 8 12 11 11 11 13 12 12 12 10 10 10 9 14 14 13 13 15 14 13 13 15 14 13 13 15 14 13 13 15 14 13 13 13 12 12 11 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 10.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS .46 0.90 6.15 6.07 5.45 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 8.90 0.44 0.90 6.Laminate (continued) Visible Properties Laminate Make-up Transmittance 12.50 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) TS40 6.42 0.82 0.07 5.54 0.98 5.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.38 0.45 0.98 5.49 0.K) 0.54 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.59 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 6.48 0.90 * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions 95 15.71 0. 0.40 0.15 6.38 0.G JAMES IS GLASS Solarplus TE/TS Series .49 0.49 0.66 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 6.07 5.15 6.46 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 8.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 8.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.41 0.39 0.73 0.43 0.71 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 10.73 38 20 20 19 19 23 23 23 22 34 33 33 32 35 34 34 33 28 27 26 26 Reflectance Reflectance S1 14 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 11 11 11 10 12 12 11 11 9 9 9 9 S4 14 15 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 14 14 15 15 14 14 11 11 10 10 Transmittance 27 18 18 17 16 22 20 19 18 28 27 26 25 29 28 26 25 21 19 18 17 Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 15 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 9 14 13 13 13 15 15 15 13 9 8 8 8 S4 15 17 16 15 15 17 16 15 15 17 16 15 15 17 16 15 15 11 10 10 10 Shading Coeff.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 10.90 6.07 5.67 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.54 0.98 5.59 0.45 0.48 0.83 0.46 0.50 0.15 6.90 6.15 6.07 5.98 5.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 10.41 0.40 0.47 0.07 5.07 5.53 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 6.55 0.38 0.15 6.51 0.43 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 8.51 0.48 0.71 0.42 0.44 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 12.07 5.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 6.38 0.98 5.53 0.52 0.81 0.98 5.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.78 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 8.07 5.38 0.73 0.46 0.46 0.74 0.98 5.47 0.67 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 12.15 6.51 0.48 0.49 0.51 0.57 0.90 6.72 0.46 0.39 0.54 0.44 0.67 0.90 6.37 5.55 0.39 0.65 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 6.82 0.48 0.51 0.48 0.41 0.54 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 6.59 Gain Coeff.39 0.52 0. (W/m2.90 6.90 6.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 12.48 0.44 0.15 6.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 12.51 0.90 6.53 0.44 0.40 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.44 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 6.07 5.50 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 12.98 5.69 0.70 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 8.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 6.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 12.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.58 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.48 0.54 0.47 0.43 0.72 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 6.46 0.55 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.70 0.43 0.45 0.56 0.45 0.48 0.69 0.37 0.47 0.59 0.15 6.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 12.44 6.48 0.44 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.98 5.52 0.51 0.07 5.42 0.45 0.44 0.44 Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 8.50 0.47 0.98 5.47 0.44 0.44 0.74 0.15 6.42 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 6.45 0.48 0.48 0.98 5.45 0.15 6.

54 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 12.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 8.15 6.07 5.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 8.48 0.71 0.81 0.59 0.07 5.25 6.57 0.32 0.54 0.57 0.31 0.50 0.14 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 6.47 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 6.42 0.32 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 12.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 12.98 5.90 6.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 Solar Properties Trans.50 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 8.26 0.98 5.07 5.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 8.30 0.45 0.56 0.57 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS 12.80 0.50 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.69 0.16 0.31 0.54 0.90 6.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 8.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 12.98 5.31 0.43 0.90 6.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 6.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 10.52 0.48 0.41 0.98 5. (W/m2.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 6.26 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.43 0.61 0.62 0.70 0.15 6.15 6.32 0.Laminate (continued) Visible Properties Laminate Make-up Trans.98 5.28 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 8.54 0.72 0.15 6.98 5.Laminate Visible Properties Laminate Make-up Transmittance SS08 6.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS Solarplus TE/TS Series .29 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 12.55 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 12.30 0.48 0.71 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 6.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 8.34 0.07 5.16 0.15 6.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 10.33 0.48 0.47 0.07 5.56 0.90 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 9 9 9 8 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 7 7 7 7 43 42 40 40 11 11 11 11 14 14 14 13 24 23 23 23 33 32 32 31 43 42 40 40 43 42 40 40 43 42 40 40 7 7 6 6 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 6 6 6 5 40 38 35 35 14 13 13 12 17 16 16 15 25 24 24 22 31 30 30 27 40 38 35 35 40 38 35 35 40 38 35 35 0.47 0.26 0.31 0.24 0. Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy Gain Coeff.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 10.49 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 8.27 0.27 0.14 0.69 0.70 0.40 0.29 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 10.48 0.49 0.57 0.25 0. Solar Heat U-value Gain Coeff.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 49 48 47 46 24 24 23 23 29 28 27 27 41 40 39 38 42 41 40 39 42 41 40 39 8 8 8 8 5 5 5 5 6 5 5 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 5 5 5 5 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 7 7 7 8 8 7 7 5 5 5 5 38 36 35 33 23 21 20 19 26 25 24 22 34 32 30 29 36 34 32 31 33 31 29 28 7 7 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 7 6 6 6 7 7 6 6 7 7 6 6 5 5 5 5 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions .07 5.27 0.27 0.90 6.51 0.32 0.13 0.52 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 6.07 5.46 6.54 0.24 0.54 0.22 0.51 0.79 0.72 Solarplus SS Series .70 0.53 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.98 5.90 6.61 0.24 0.90 6.59 0.80 0.25 0.15 6.15.26 0.51 0.13 0.98 5.90 6.07 5.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 6.15 6.90 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 6.49 0.K) Luminous Efficacy TS50 6.26 0.15 6.28 0.90 6.48 0.44 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 10.98 5.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 96 12.24 Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Transmittance Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Shading Coeff.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 10.30 0.27 0.70 0.98 5. (W/m2.52 0.49 0.34 0.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 Shading Coeff.55 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 10.49 0.15 6.49 0.K) 15.71 0.59 0.07 5.22 0.22 0.07 5.69 0.43 0.25 0.59 0.49 0.16 0.27 0.15 6.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.17 0.

37 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 10.26 0.22 0.07 5.98 5.26 0.37 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 10.27 0.98 5.31 0.25 0.90 6.90 6.15 6.29 0.38 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 6.07 5.Laminate (continued) Visible Properties Laminate Make-up Transmittance 6. (W/m2.21 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 12.90 * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions 97 15.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.38 0.29 0.23 0.30 0.29 0.34 0.33 0.30 0.29 0.33 0.36 0.90 6.38 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 8.25 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.34 0.33 0.26 0.58 0.32 0.34 0.31 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 12.28 0.29 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 12.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 6.22 0.07 5.07 5.29 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 8.25 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.34 0.29 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) SS14 6.40 0.07 5.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 6.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.30 0.34 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 8.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 6.40 0.30 Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy 0.26 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 8.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 6.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 10.29 0.25 0.35 0.90 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 12.33 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 10.26 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.31 0.15 6.39 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) SS22 6.38 0.15 6.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS .47 0.25 0.35 0.35 16 16 15 15 8 8 8 7 9 9 9 9 13 13 13 12 14 13 13 13 14 13 13 13 32 31 30 30 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 20 20 20 19 22 21 21 20 19 19 19 18 28 27 27 26 32 31 30 30 32 31 30 30 32 31 30 30 32 31 30 30 29 28 27 27 13 12 12 11 8 7 7 7 9 8 8 8 11 11 10 10 12 12 11 10 11 11 10 9 30 29 26 26 13 12 12 11 15 15 15 14 23 22 22 20 25 24 24 22 20 19 19 17 28 27 27 24 30 29 26 26 30 29 26 26 30 29 26 26 30 29 26 26 27 26 24 24 0.15 6.25 0.37 0.34 0.33 0.31 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 6.31 6.07 5.58 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.23 0.90 6.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 8.23 Gain Coeff.98 5.34 0.26 0.30 0.98 5.32 0.07 5.34 0.29 0.32 0.28 0. 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.29 0.98 5.36 0.15 6.58 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.29 0.07 5.34 0.90 6.07 5.28 0.15 6.90 6.40 0.34 0.29 6.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 8.26 6.35 0.29 0.30 0.38 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 12.15 6.26 0.34 0.35 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 12.38 0.29 0.23 0.31 0.47 0.36 0.90 6.29 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.98 5.25 0.38 0.39 0.33 0.98 5.98 5.45 0.33 0.15 6.29 0.30 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 6.35 0.30 0.07 5.15 6.98 5.59 0.46 0.38 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 23 23 22 21 11 11 11 11 13 13 13 13 26 26 25 25 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 21 21 21 20 26 25 24 24 26 25 24 24 18 17 16 15 11 10 10 9 12 12 11 10 27 26 24 24 11 10 10 10 13 13 13 12 23 22 22 20 27 26 24 24 27 26 24 24 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 10.98 5.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 12.G JAMES IS GLASS Solarplus SS Series .38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 8.90 6.07 5.36 0.29 0.33 0.K) 0.90 0.30 0.31 0.34 0.30 0.31 0.37 0.35 0.34 0.33 0.98 5.26 0.15 6.39 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 6.38 0.38 8 8 7 7 8 7 7 7 Reflectance Reflectance S1 25 25 25 24 22 22 22 21 S4 43 42 40 40 40 39 37 37 Transmittance 7 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 28 27 25 24 22 21 21 19 S4 40 38 35 35 37 36 33 32 Shading Coeff.35 0.38 0.15 6.35 0.30 0.34 0.33 0.

38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 6.35 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 12.40 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 8.K) 0.98 5.39 0.45 0.28 0.98 5.33 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.61 98 12.38 Solar Heat U-value Gain Coeff.98 5.15 6.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 12.48 0.33 6.07 5.43 0.98 5.40 0.44 0.41 0.61 0.44 0.39 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 12.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 10.42 0.33 0.33 0.35 0.33 0.90 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 10.36 0.32 0.34 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 8.49 0.32 0.45 0.37 0.39 6.15 6.49 0.39 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS 6.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 19 19 18 18 20 19 19 18 19 19 19 18 16 15 15 15 17 16 16 16 14 14 14 13 26 25 24 24 26 25 25 25 23 22 22 22 Solar Properties Trans.90 6.47 6.61 0.28 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 8.40 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.37 0.35 0.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 16 15 14 13 17 16 15 14 15 15 14 13 19 18 18 17 21 20 20 18 16 15 15 14 27 26 24 24 27 26 24 24 25 24 21 21 Shading Coeff.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 6.38 0.38 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 8.41 0.33 0.38 0.40 0.90 6.40 0.32 0.27 0.15 6.32 0.40 0.39 0.42 0.07 5.33 0.07 5.33 0.07 5.35 0.44 0.53 0.90 Luminous Efficacy 0.Laminate (continued) Visible Properties Laminate Make-up Trans.90 6.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 8.48 0.40 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 10.37 0.38 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.32 0.15 6.48 0.98 5.40 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 12.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 22 21 21 20 11 10 10 10 13 12 12 12 18 17 17 17 18 18 18 17 18 18 17 17 23 23 22 22 9 9 9 9 11 10 11 10 17 17 17 16 18 18 18 17 15 15 15 15 23 22 22 22 23 22 22 22 23 22 22 22 23 23 22 22 23 23 22 22 20 20 19 19 17 16 15 14 10 9 9 8 11 11 10 10 15 14 13 13 16 15 14 13 14 14 13 12 19 18 17 17 9 9 9 8 11 10 10 10 15 14 14 13 16 16 16 15 12 12 12 11 18 17 17 16 19 18 17 17 19 18 17 17 19 18 17 17 19 18 17 17 16 16 15 15 0.34 0.15 6.45 0.34 0.K) 15.15 6.98 5.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 29 29 28 27 16 16 16 15 16 16 16 15 25 23 22 21 14 14 13 13 14 13 13 12 0.07 5.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 10.40 0.39 0.90 6.34 0.47 0.32 0.15 6.44 0.41 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 6.15 6.34 0.48 0.44 Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Transmittance Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Shading Coeff.37 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS Solarplus SS Series .48 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 6.33 0.98 5.48 0.27 0.15.34 0. (W/m2.34 0.90 6.32 0.32 0.37 0.38 0.48 0.33 6.35 0.34 0.98 5.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.38 0.07 5.07 5. 0.35 0.07 5.39 0.32 0.61 0.98 5.46 0.40 0.39 0.90 0.49 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) SC30 6.98 5.Laminate Visible Properties Laminate Make-up Transmittance SC22 6.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 8. (W/m2.07 5.90 6.15 6.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 6.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 12.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 6. Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy Gain Coeff.90 6.39 0.39 0.15 6.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) Solarplus SC Series .38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions .34 0.47 0.32 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.53 0.40 0.39 0.35 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.34 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.45 0.31 0.39 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 8.54 0.43 0.33 0.45 0.49 0.53 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 10.31 0.07 5.

15 6.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 8.39 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 6.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.53 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 6.15 6.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 10. 0.61 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 10.90 6.34 0.90 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 6.51 0.47 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 6.62 0.98 6.15 6.38 0.42 0.45 0.58 0.34 0.98 5.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 12.41 0.52 0.46 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 6.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 10.47 0.55 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 8.38 0.07 5.39 0.45 0.43 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 12.36 0.61 0.39 0.60 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS 0.35 0.98 5.46 .42 0.62 0.G JAMES IS GLASS Solarplus SC Series .53 0.07 6.07 5.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.41 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 8.44 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 8.44 0.07 5.47 0.51 0.56 0.60 0.90 6.44 Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy 0.38 6.51 0.44 0.45 0.47 0.62 * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions 99 15.07 5.15 6.90 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 40 39 38 37 20 19 19 18 23 23 22 22 33 32 32 31 34 33 33 32 34 33 32 32 12 12 11 11 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 9 9 9 9 10 10 9 9 6 8 8 7 12 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 11 11 11 7 9 9 9 34 32 30 29 20 19 18 17 23 22 21 20 30 28 27 25 32 30 29 27 29 27 26 25 9 9 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 7 7 7 8 8 8 7 6 6 6 6 9 8 8 6 8 8 8 8 9 8 8 8 9 8 8 8 9 9 8 8 7 6 6 6 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.46 0.34 0.07 5.53 Gain Coeff.34 0.60 0.41 0.15 6.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 12.90 6.40 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) SC40 6.98 5.47 0.60 0.45 0.07 5.15 6.69 0.61 0.41 0.46 15 14 14 14 17 17 16 16 24 24 23 23 25 25 24 23 25 24 24 23 Reflectance Reflectance S1 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 12 11 11 10 10 S4 16 16 15 15 16 16 15 15 16 16 15 15 16 16 15 15 13 13 13 13 Transmittance 14 14 13 12 17 16 15 14 22 20 19 18 23 22 21 20 21 20 19 8 Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 8 7 7 7 9 8 8 8 12 11 11 10 13 12 12 11 9 9 9 9 S4 14 14 13 13 14 14 13 13 14 14 13 13 14 14 13 13 12 11 11 11 Shading Coeff.98 5.98 5.47 0.48 0.46 0.44 6.50 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 8.36 0.07 5.98 5.35 0.49 0.45 0.44 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 10.52 0.54 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 12.Laminate (continued) Visible Properties Laminate Make-up Transmittance 6.90 6.52 0.50 0.55 0.42 0.38 0.39 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.52 0.53 0.48 0.15 6.90 6.50 0.98 5.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 6.52 0.41 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 8.90 6.47 0.37 0.57 0.46 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.15 6.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.52 0.41 0.70 0.39 0.42 0.46 0.38 0.98 5.48 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.61 0. (W/m2.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 10.15 6.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 8.47 0.55 0.35 0.53 0.40 0.07 5.90 6.47 0.70 0.41 0.61 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 12.47 0.39 0.98 5.53 0.47 0.45 0.15 6.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 6.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 6.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 12.K) 0.52 0.90 6.69 0.40 0.40 0.46 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 6.41 0.39 0.98 5.42 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 10.54 0.45 0.41 0.55 0.53 0.49 0.39 0.42 0.43 0.07 5.46 0.40 0.39 0.36 0.09 6.53 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 12.43 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.07 5.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.15 6.

38 0.15 6.38 0.33 0.15 6.07 5.29 0.49 0.42 0.58 20 20 19 19 10 10 9 9 12 11 11 11 17 16 16 15 17 17 16 16 17 17 16 16 23 22 22 22 9 9 9 9 11 10 10 10 17 17 17 16 18 18 18 17 18 17 17 17 23 22 22 22 23 22 21 21 23 22 22 21 23 22 22 22 23 22 22 22 23 22 22 22 17 16 15 14 10 10 9 9 12 11 10 10 15 14 13 13 16 15 14 14 15 14 13 12 22 21 19 19 10 10 10 9 12 12 12 11 18 17 17 16 19 19 19 17 17 16 16 15 22 21 21 19 21 21 19 19 21 21 19 19 22 21 19 19 22 21 19 19 21 21 19 19 0.38 0.44 0.36 0. Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy Gain Coeff.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 12.38 0.25 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 6.39 0.45 0.25 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS Solarplus SL Series .38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 6.37 0.40 0.07 5.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) SL30 6.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 33 32 32 31 16 16 16 15 19 19 18 18 27 27 26 25 28 28 27 26 19 19 18 18 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 14 19 19 19 18 19 18 18 18 19 18 18 18 19 19 18 18 19 19 18 18 28 27 25 24 17 16 15 14 19 18 17 16 25 23 22 21 26 25 24 22 19 18 17 17 9 9 9 9 11 11 11 10 16 15 15 14 17 17 17 15 19 18 18 17 19 18 17 17 19 18 17 17 19 18 17 17 19 18 17 17 0.42 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 8.32 0.42 0.98 5.33 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 10.43 0.42 0.66 0.49 0.31 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 12.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 8.98 5.44 0.26 0.42 0.07 5.34 0.33 0.38 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 12.44 0.98 5.39 0.33 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 8.98 5.35 0.34 0. (W/m2.34 0.46 0.45 0.90 6.48 0.98 5.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 6.90 6.41 0.66 0.39 6.32 0.38 0.37 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 12.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 10.32 0.37 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.41 0.37 0.67 0.15 6.32 6.48 0.Laminate Visible Properties Laminate Make-up Transmittance SL20 6.07 5.98 5.15 6.50 0.98 5.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 10.98 5.57 0.32 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 6.43 0.37 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 6.43 0.40 0.57 0.41 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 6.42 0.37 0.32 0.07 5.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 12.56 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.07 5.40 0.15 6.39 0.90 6.38 0.37 0.39 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 8.42 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 6.41 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 6.38 0.15 6.40 0.37 0.34 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS 12.57 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.46 0.33 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.15 6.40 0.90 6.50 0.25 0.37 0.47 0.47 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.90 0.50 0.47 0.07 5.37 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.90 6.98 5.43 0.33 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 8.39 0.33 0.90 0.57 0.07 5.41 0.43 0.45 0.34 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 10.39 0.43 0.15 6.98 5.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 12.38 0.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) 100 12.38mm Cool Blue Interlayer (S3) * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions .07 5.43 0.38mm Bronze Interlayer (S3) 10.38 0.43 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 12.90 6.30 0.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 8.40 0.98 5.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 8.15 6.33 0.07 5.37 0.38 0.43 0.39 0.31 0.39 0.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 10.38mm Clear Interlayer (S2) 6.K) 15.15 6.15.43 0.37 0.32 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 10.37 0.50 0.30 0.32 0.90 6.07 5.90 6.42 0.41 0.58 0.38mm Grey Interlayer (S3) 8.33 0.90 6.38mm Green Interlayer (S3) 10.43 0.15 6.50 0.57 0.67 0.33 0.36 0.43 Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Transmittance Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Shading Coeff.

0 2.23 Solar Heat U-value Gain Coeff.0 2.8 2.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 24 23 21 20 13 13 13 12 17 16 15 15 Shading Coeff.K) 0.44 0.22 0.52 0.10 0.21 0.8 2.33 1.25 0.41 0.8 2.0 2. (W/m2.39 0.33 6mm Clear 6mm Green 6mm Bronze 6mm Grey 6mm Evergreen 6mm Azurlite 6mm Panasap Dark Blue 6mm Arctic Blue 6mm Optigray 6mm Supergrey Twin-Glaze Body Tints with Low E 6mm Outer Glass/12mm Air Space/6mm Low E (Surface 3) Inner Glass Visible Properties Outer Glass Transmittance 6mm Clear 6mm Green 6mm Bronze 6mm Grey 6mm Evergreen 6mm Azurlite 6mm Panasap Dark Blue 6mm Arctic Blue 6mm Optigray 6mm Supergrey 72 61 43 35 53 57 47 45 19 7 Reflectance Reflectance S1 18 14 9 8 12 13 10 10 6 4 S4 17 16 15 15 16 16 15 15 15 14 Transmittance 50 31 31 29 21 21 28 23 12 5 Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 14 8 8 8 7 13 7 6 5 4 S4 13 12 12 12 12 16 12 12 12 11 Shading Coeff.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 8.15 2.3 0.8 2. (W/m2.39 0.39 0.38 0.00 1.00 1.18 Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy 0.71 1. 0.38 6.8 2.59 0. (W/m2.45 0.42 1.49 0.0 2.0 Twin-Glaze Solarplus TE/TS Series 6mm Outer Glass/12mm Air Space/6mm Clear Inner Glass Visible Properties Outer Glass Transmittance TE10 (S2) 6mm TE10 on Clear TS21 (S2) 6mm TS21 on Clear 6mm TS21 on Green 6mm TS21 on Bronze 6mm TS21 on Grey 19 17 12 9 19 15 11 8 34 34 34 34 12 8 7 7 20 12 11 10 32 32 32 32 0.42 0.48 0.47 0.K) 0.0 2.42 0.47 1.8 2.32 0.65 0.69 0.46 0.5 2.5 0.8 2.19 2.57 0.G JAMES IS GLASS Solarplus SL Series .52 0.94 1.83 0.28 0.27 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 12.Laminate (continued) Visible Properties Laminate Make-up Trans.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 76 68 45 38 58 63 52 50 20 8 14 12 7 6 11 11 9 9 5 4 14 14 12 12 14 13 13 13 12 11 Solar Properties Trans.92 1.33 0.14 2.20 2.57 0.19 0.39 0.58 0.8 2.47 0. 0.45 0.49 0.8 2.0 2.53 Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Transmittance Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Shading Coeff.22 0.58 0.75 0.41 0.18 0.72 0.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) 10.K) * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions 101 15.79 0.45 Solar Heat U-value Gain Coeff.38mm Azure Blue Interlayer (S3) Twin-Glaze Body Tint 6mm Outer Glass/12mm Air Space/6mm Clear Inner Glass Visible Properties Outer Glass Trans. 0.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 64 39 39 38 26 26 33 27 15 6 11 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 5 4 11 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 Shading Coeff.5 2.41 0.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 28 27 27 26 13 13 13 12 16 16 15 15 Solar Properties Trans.0 2.0 2.63 0.44 0.0 2.76 0.8 Luminous Efficacy 0.45 0.19 0.08 0.44 0.37 1.33 0.17 0.38 0.K) 0.17 0.76 0.98 5.90 Luminous Efficacy 0.23 0.42 9 19 30 5 21 32 0.47 0.56 0.68 1.49 0.15 6.56 0.38 Gain Coeff.52 0.35 0.58 6.5 2. (W/m2.22 0.83 0. Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy Gain Coeff.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS .07 5.

5 Luminous Efficacy 0.7 2. (W/m2.29 2.80 35 30 20 17 27 29 22 21 11 10 7 6 8 9 6 6 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 24 15 15 14 11 11 14 11 11 8 8 8 6 7 8 8 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 0.7 2.22 2.7 2.6 2.27 0.20 0.97 0.37 0.34 0.5 2.7 2.18 2.94 0.32 0.02 1.33 0.22 0.7 2.32 0.37 0.23 0.5 2.6 2.22 0.24 0.K) 0.6 2.92 0.6 2.74 0.20 0.58 6mm TS21 on Evergreen 6mm TS21 on Azurlite 6mm TS21 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm TS21 on Arctic Blue TS30 (S2) 6mm TS30 on Clear 6mm TS30 on Green 6mm TS30 on Bronze 6mm TS30 on Grey 6mm TS30 on Evergreen 6mm TS30 on Azurlite 6mm TS30 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm TS30 on Arctic Blue TS35 (S2) 6mm TS35 on Clear 6mm TS35 on Green 6mm TS35 on Bronze 6mm TS35 on Grey 6mm TS35 on Evergreen 6mm TS35 on Azurlite 6mm TS35 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm TS35 on Arctic Blue TS40 (S2) 6mm TS40 on Clear 6mm TS40 on Green 6mm TS40 on Bronze 6mm TS40 on Grey 6mm TS40 on Evergreen 6mm TS40 on Azurlite 6mm TS40 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm TS40 on Arctic Blue TS50 (S2) 27 26 16 13 20 22 17 16 16 13 9 8 10 12 7 7 31 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 18 11 11 11 8 8 11 8 15 10 10 9 7 8 9 8 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 0.7 2.91 1.94 0.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 14 15 12 12 16 16 11 11 34 34 34 34 Solar Properties Trans.25 0.32 0.57 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS 6mm TS50 on Clear 6mm TS50 on Green 6mm TS50 on Bronze 6mm TS50 on Grey 6mm TS50 on Evergreen 6mm TS50 on Azurlite 6mm TS50 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm TS50 on Arctic Blue 46 39 28 23 35 38 30 29 9 8 6 5 8 8 6 6 22 22 22 22 21 21 22 22 33 20 20 19 16 16 19 17 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 19 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 0.27 0.55 0.72 0.20 2.47 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.44 0.64 0.7 2.21 0.77 15.31 0.6 0.7 0.Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 6 6 7 6 8 9 10 9 32 32 32 32 Shading Coeff.25 0.72 0.24 0.27 0.93 0.20 0.84 0.27 0.37 0.26 0. 0.21 Solar Heat U-value Gain Coeff.23 0.28 0.85 102 * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions .26 0.24 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS Twin-Glaze Solarplus TE/TS Series (continued) 6mm Outer Glass/12mm Air Space/6mm Clear Inner Glass Visible Properties Outer Glass Trans.31 0.29 0.32 0.15.7 2.96 0.28 0.7 2.24 0.27 0.6 2.64 0.08 0.23 0.17 0.61 0.6 2.19 0.6 2.5 2.56 0.33 0.85 0.32 0.7 0.23 2.83 0.20 0.23 0.36 0.55 0.26 0.75 0.7 2.6 2.29 0.25 0.51 0.24 0.23 0.6 2.6 0.41 0.6 2.18 0.34 0.28 0.62 1.14 0.25 0.30 0.77 0.70 31 26 19 16 23 24 21 20 13 10 8 7 10 11 8 8 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 21 13 14 12 9 9 12 10 14 7 8 7 7 7 7 7 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 0.35 0.37 0.6 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.96 1.83 0.31 0.06 0.82 0.23 0.7 2.6 2.24 0.32 0.

19 0.6 2.6 2.29 0.K) * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions 103 15.6 0.19 0.21 0.17 0.77 0.35 0.13 0.22 0.3 2.15 0.13 2.24 0.14 0.6 2.3 2.18 2.5 2.28 0.19 0.23 0.3 2.25 0.16 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.17 0.13 0.78 0.17 0.49 Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Transmittance Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Shading Coeff.24 2.53 0.3 2.6 2.22 0.18 0.65 0.5 2.19 0.22 0.14 0.59 13 12 7 6 10 11 10 11 29 24 15 11 18 21 22 23 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 8 6 5 4 4 4 5 5 24 17 14 12 10 12 12 12 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 0.75 0.20 0.24 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS .15 0.41 0.23 0.17 0.20 0.15 0.17 2.71 0.13 0.21 0.21 0.6 2.55 0. Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy Gain Coeff.3 2.26 0.75 0.60 0.20 0.15 0.3 2.37 0.6 2.41 0.3 2.43 0.18 0.G JAMES IS GLASS Twin-Glaze Solarplus SS Series 6mm Outer Glass/12mm Air Space/6mm Clear Inner Glass Visible Properties Outer Glass Transmittance SS08 (S2) 6mm SS08 on Clear 6mm SS08 on Green 6mm SS08 on Bronze 6mm SS08 on Grey 6mm SS08 on Evergreen 6mm SS08 on Azurlite 6mm SS08 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm SS08 on Arctic Blue SS14 (S2) 6mm SS14 on Clear 6mm SS14 on Green 6mm SS14 on Bronze 6mm SS14 on Grey 6mm SS14 on Evergreen 6mm SS14 on Azurlite 6mm SS14 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm SS14 on Arctic Blue SS22 (S2) 6mm SS22 on Clear 6mm SS22 on Green 6mm SS22 on Bronze 6mm SS22 on Grey 6mm SS22 on Evergreen 6mm SS22 on Azurlite 6mm SS22 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm SS22 on Arctic Blue 20 17 12 10 14 15 12 12 20 16 11 9 14 16 12 12 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 12 8 8 8 6 6 7 6 19 12 11 10 9 10 11 11 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 0.58 7 6 8 4 6 6 8 7 38 30 13 13 28 31 13 13 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 5 4 3 3 2 2 3 2 33 23 15 14 12 14 14 14 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 0.15 0.16 2.3 2.20 0.5 2.3 0.17 0.32 0.16 0.28 0.3 2.56 0.6 2.17 0.49 0.5 2.16 0.26 0.21 0.15 0.5 2.47 0.5 0.41 0.6 2.20 0.74 0.58 Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Transmittance Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Shading Coeff.20 0.58 0.3 2.5 2.20 0.6 0.3 2. (W/m2.3 2.22 0.62 0.6 2.56 0.79 0.5 2.47 0.13 0.47 0.70 0.18 0.23 0.40 0.24 0.49 20 17 12 10 15 16 13 12 22 16 10 9 13 15 10 10 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 14 8 9 8 6 6 8 6 17 9 10 10 8 9 10 10 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 0.18 0.20 0.3 2.17 0. (W/m2.15 0.K) Twin-Glaze Solarplus SC Series 6mm Outer Glass/12mm Air Space/6mm Clear Inner Glass Visible Properties Outer Glass Transmittance SC22 (S2) 6mm SC22 on Clear 6mm SC22 on Green 6mm SC22 on Bronze 6mm SC22 on Grey 6mm SC22 on Evergreen 6mm SC22 on Azurlite 6mm SC22 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm SC22 on Arctic Blue SC30 (S2) 6mm SC30 on Clear 6mm SC30 on Green 6mm SC30 on Bronze 28 22 14 16 12 9 28 28 29 21 12 12 13 7 7 24 24 24 0.3 2.15 0.70 0. Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy Gain Coeff.75 0.13 0.37 0.3 0.

72 0.88 1.9 1.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS Twin-Glaze Solarplus SC Series (continued) 6mm Outer Glass/12mm Air Space/6mm Clear Inner Glass Visible Properties Outer Glass Transmittance 6mm SC30 on Grey 6mm SC30 on Evergreen 6mm SC30 on Azurlite 6mm SC30 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm SC30 on Arctic Blue SC40 (S2) 6mm SC40 on Clear 6mm SC40 on Green 6mm SC40 on Bronze 6mm SC40 on Grey 6mm SC40 on Evergreen 6mm SC40 on Azurlite 6mm SC40 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm SC40 on Arctic Blue 38 32 22 23 29 31 26 25 12 10 8 8 9 10 8 8 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 29 16 15 15 11 11 15 11 8 6 6 6 5 5 6 6 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 0.48 0.28 0.18 2.26 Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy 0.97 0.17 0.29 0.28 0.9 0.79 0.7 2.02 104 6mm TS35 on Evergreen * Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions .19 0.82 0.12 1.0 2.22 2.06 0.22 0.14 0.21 0.79 0.21 0.25 0.23 0.7 2.17 0.9 1.80 18 16 11 9 14 14 12 11 20 15 11 8 16 16 11 11 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 10 7 6 6 5 5 6 6 20 12 11 10 8 9 10 9 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 0.22 0.6 2.9 1.19 0.9 1.97 0.85 0.67 9 24 30 4 24 27 0.24 0.27 0.9 1.17 0.19 0.19 0.14 0.7 2.16 0.02 0.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS 6mm TS30 on Green 6mm TS30 on Bronze 6mm TS30 on Grey 6mm TS30 on Evergreen 6mm TS30 on Azurlite 6mm TS30 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm TS30 on Arctic Blue TS35 (S2) 6mm TS35 on Clear 6mm TS35 on Green 6mm TS35 on Bronze 6mm TS35 on Grey 29 25 18 15 22 14 10 8 7 10 29 29 29 29 29 18 11 12 11 8 12 7 8 7 7 23 23 23 23 23 0.16 1.0 0.9 0.62 1.45 0.9 1.32 0.55 0.15 0.9 1.9 1.22 0.52 0.40 0.6 2.24 0.9 1.22 0.25 0.28 0.19 0.15 0.21 0.9 1. (W/m2.18 0.03 1.63 0.28 0.81 0.61 0.16 0.7 0.32 0.16 0.33 0.24 0.18 0.6 Twin-Glaze Solarplus TE/TS Series 6mm Outer Glass/12mm Air Space/6mm Low E (Surface 3) Inner Glass Visible Properties Outer Glass Transmittance TE10 (S2) 6mm TE10 on Clear TS21 (S2) 6mm TS21 on Clear 6mm TS21 on Green 6mm TS21 on Bronze 6mm TS21 on Grey 6mm TS21 on Evergreen 6mm TS21 on Azurlite 6mm TS21 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm TS21 on Arctic Blue TS30 (S2) 6mm TS30 on Clear 26 24 15 12 19 20 16 15 15 10 7 6 11 12 7 7 30 27 29 29 29 29 29 29 15 10 10 10 7 7 9 7 16 10 10 9 7 8 9 8 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 0.7 2.28 0.88 1.25 0.88 13 20 20 15 15 Reflectance Reflectance S1 8 10 11 9 9 S4 28 28 28 28 28 Transmittance 12 9 10 12 10 Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 7 9 9 7 7 S4 24 24 24 24 24 Shading Coeff.17 0.28 0.15 1.9 1. (W/m2.98 1.23 0.9 1.28 0.64 0.6 2.17 0.15.19 0.7 2.7 2.24 2.19 0.24 0.7 2.11 0.0 2.71 0.K) 15.28 0.0 2.15 0.9 1.6 2.21 0.K) 0.27 0.23 0.67 0.33 0.19 0.33 0.9 1.71 1.18 0.63 Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Transmittance Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Shading Coeff. 0.47 0.24 0.24 0.80 0. Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy Gain Coeff.80 0.9 0.57 Gain Coeff.07 0.0 2.24 0.

G JAMES IS GLASS

Twin-Glaze Solarplus TE/TS Series (continued) 6mm Outer Glass/12mm Air Space/6mm Low E (Surface 3) Inner Glass
Visible Properties Outer Glass Transmittance 6mm TS35 on Azurlite 6mm TS35 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm TS35 on Arctic Blue TS40 (S2) 6mm TS40 on Clear 6mm TS40 on Green 6mm TS40 on Bronze 6mm TS40 on Grey 6mm TS40 on Evergreen 6mm TS40 on Azurlite 6mm TS40 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm TS40 on Arctic Blue TS50 (S2) 6mm TS50 on Clear 6mm TS50 on Green 6mm TS50 on Bronze 6mm TS50 on Grey 6mm TS50 on Evergreen 6mm TS50 on Azurlite 6mm TS50 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm TS50 on Arctic Blue 43 36 26 21 32 35 27 27 10 9 6 6 8 9 6 6 23 23 23 23 22 22 23 23 27 16 16 16 14 13 16 14 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 18 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 0.46 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.29 0.29 0.31 0.29 0.40 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.25 0.25 0.27 0.25 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.93 1.13 0.80 0.66 1.10 1.19 0.87 0.92 34 28 18 16 25 27 21 20 12 9 6 6 9 10 6 6 26 26 26 25 26 26 26 26 20 13 13 12 9 9 12 9 11 9 9 8 6 7 8 8 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 0.36 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.23 0.23 0.26 0.23 0.31 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.20 0.20 0.23 0.20 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.93 1.04 0.68 0.63 1.10 1.19 0.80 0.85 23 19 19 Reflectance Reflectance S1 11 8 8 S4 29 29 29 Transmittance 8 10 8 Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 7 7 7 S4 23 23 23 Shading Coeff. 0.21 0.24 0.21 Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy 1.09 0.81 0.90

Gain Coeff. (W/m2.K) 0.18 0.20 0.18 2.0 2.0 2.0

Twin-Glaze Solarplus SS Series 6mm Outer Glass/12mm Air Space/6mm Low E (Surface 3) Inner Glass
Visible Properties Outer Glass Transmittance SS08 (S2) 6mm SS08 on Clear 6mm SS08 on Green 6mm SS08 on Bronze 6mm SS08 on Grey 6mm SS08 on Evergreen 6mm SS08 on Azurlite 6mm SS08 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm SS08 on Arctic Blue SS14 (S2) 6mm SS14 on Clear 6mm SS14 on Green 6mm SS14 on Bronze 6mm SS14 on Grey 6mm SS14 on Evergreen 6mm SS14 on Azurlite 6mm SS14 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm SS14 on Arctic Blue 12 10 7 6 9 10 9 10 30 23 15 12 18 21 23 23 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 7 5 4 4 3 3 4 4 25 15 14 12 10 12 12 12 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 0.17 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.13 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 0.70 0.67 0.45 0.37 0.65 0.69 0.63 0.65 8 7 7 4 5 6 7 7 37 29 13 13 28 31 13 13 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 4 4 3 3 2 2 3 2 33 17 15 14 12 14 14 14 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.11 0.10 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 0.60 0.55 0.55 0.30 Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Transmittance Solar Properties Reflectance Reflectance S1 S4 Shading Coeff. Solar Heat U-value Luminous Efficacy

Gain Coeff. (W/m2.K)

0.48 0.55 0.58

* Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions

105

15.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS

0.44

15.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS

Twin-Glaze Solarplus SS Series (continued) 6mm Outer Glass/12mm Air Space/6mm Low E (Surface 3) Inner Glass
Visible Properties Outer Glass Trans- Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 Solar Properties Trans- Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 Shading Coeff. Solar Heat U-value Gain Coeff. (W/m2.K) Luminous Efficacy

SS22 (S2) 6mm SS22 on Clear 6mm SS22 on Green 6mm SS22 on Bronze 6mm SS22 on Grey 6mm SS22 on Evergreen 6mm SS22 on Azurlite 6mm SS22 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm SS22 on Arctic Blue 18 15 11 9 13 14 12 11 20 17 12 10 14 16 12 12 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 10 7 7 6 5 5 6 5 19 12 11 10 9 10 11 11 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 0.22 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.16 0.16 0.18 0.16 0.19 0.16 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.14 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 0.83 0.78 0.58 0.49 0.83 0.88 0.64 0.69

Twin-Glaze Solarplus SC Series 6mm Outer Glass/12mm Air Space/6mm Low E (Surface 3) Inner Glass
Visible Properties Outer Glass Trans- Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 Solar Properties Trans- Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 Shading Coeff. Solar Heat U-value Gain Coeff. (W/m2.K) Luminous Efficacy

SC22 (S2) 6mm SC22 on Clear 6mm SC22 on Green 6mm SC22 on Bronze 6mm SC22 on Grey 6mm SC22 on Evergreen 6mm SC22 on Azurlite 6mm SC22 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm SC22 on Arctic Blue SC30 (S2) 6mm SC30 on Clear 6mm SC30 on Green 6mm SC30 on Bronze 6mm SC30 on Grey 6mm SC30 on Evergreen 6mm SC30 on Azurlite 6mm SC30 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm SC30 on Arctic Blue 26 21 13 12 18 19 14 14 16 12 9 8 11 12 9 9 28 28 28 27 28 28 28 28 18 10 10 10 7 8 10 8 13 7 7 7 9 9 7 7 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 0.33 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.20 0.21 0.24 0.21 0.28 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.17 0.18 0.20 0.18 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.79 0.86 0.54 0.50 0.92 0.89 0.60 0.66 19 16 11 10 14 15 12 11 22 16 10 10 13 15 10 10 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 12 7 7 7 5 5 7 5 17 9 10 10 8 9 10 10 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 0.25 0.19 0.20 0.20 0.17 0.17 0.19 0.17 0.22 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.15 0.15 0.16 0.15 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 0.76 0.84 0.55 0.49 0.83 0.90 0.63 0.67

15.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS

SC40 (S2) 6mm SC40 on Clear 6mm SC40 on Green 6mm SC40 on Bronze 6mm SC40 on Grey 6mm SC40 on Evergreen 6mm SC40 on Azurlite 6mm SC40 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm SC40 on Arctic Blue 35 30 20 22 26 29 23 23 12 11 8 8 9 11 8 8 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 13 12 13 10 10 12 10 9 6 6 6 5 5 6 6 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 0.42 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.23 0.23 0.27 0.23 0.36 0.24 0.23 0.24 0.20 0.20 0.23 0.20 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.82 1.05 0.73 0.77 1.15 1.24 0.87 0.98

106

* Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions

G JAMES IS GLASS

Twin-Glaze Solarplus Low E (LE80 and LE54) 6mm Low E (Surface 2) Outer Glass/12mm Air Space/6mm Clear Inner Glass
Visible Properties Outer Glass Trans- Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 Solar Properties Trans- Reflectance Reflectance mittance S1 S4 Shading Coeff. Solar Heat U-value Gain Coeff. (W/m2.K) Luminous Efficacy

LE80 (S2) 6mm LE80 on Clear 6mm LE80 on Green 6mm LE80 on Bronze 6mm LE80 on Grey 6mm LE80 on Evergreen 6mm LE80 on Azurlite 6mm LE80 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm LE80 on Arctic Blue LE54 (S2) 6mm LE54 on Clear 6mm LE54 on Green 6mm LE54 on Bronze 6mm LE54 on Grey 6mm LE54 on Evergreen 6mm LE54 on Azurlite 6mm LE54 on Panasap Dark Blue 6mm LE54 on Arctic Blue 48 42 26 22 35 38 31 30 12 11 7 6 10 11 8 8 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 28 17 15 14 11 13 14 12 22 12 10 10 8 9 10 8 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 0.41 0.29 0.27 0.26 0.23 0.24 0.26 0.23 0.35 0.25 0.23 0.23 0.20 0.21 0.23 0.20 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.17 1.45 0.95 0.83 1.53 1.60 1.18 1.30 68 60 37 31 50 55 44 43 11 10 7 6 8 9 8 8 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 42 25 22 21 17 19 21 17 22 9 10 10 8 9 10 8 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 0.57 0.39 0.36 0.34 0.29 0.32 0.34 0.30 0.49 0.34 0.31 0.30 0.25 0.27 0.30 0.26 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.20 1.54 1.02 0.91 1.73 1.71 1.29 1.42

* Calculations are based on ASHRAE Standard Summer Conditions

107

15.0 PERFORMANCE CHARTS

16. aluminium or other suitable material secured to the rebate to retain the glass in place (sometimes referred to as glazing bead). 108 A profusion of bubbles or gaseous inclusions in the glass. Attenuation is the opposite of amplification. Autoclave The science of sound. and provide an hour glass contour of the finished sealant bead.0 GLOSSARY Glossary GLOSSARY GLOSSARY 16. provide a surface for sealant tooling. Bite To apply a hard corrosion resistant oxide film onto the surface of aluminium using electrolysis. Bent Glass An on-line.1 Glossary Absorption Aspect Ratio The quotient of the long side of a glazing panel over the short side of that panel. controlled heating/cooling apparatus located after the tin bath and before the cooling conveyor of a float glass production line.0 16. serve as a bond breaker to prevent three-sided adhesion. Blisters A small bevel at an angle of approximately 45 degrees to the surface of the glass applied usually with a wet or dry belt.) Bevelling The process of edge finishing flat glass to a bevel angle. Arriss Also referred to as structural bite. . and sound control. Reannealing is the process of removing objectionable stresses in glass by re-heating to a suitable temperature followed by controlled cooling. Attenuation That portion of total incident radiation that is absorbed by the glass and subsequently reradiated either outside or inside. Backer Rod Temperature of the surrounding air (˚C). it is the process of controlled cooling done in a lehr to prevent residual stresses in the glass. creating a laminated glass product. Its purpose is to relieve induced stress from the flat glass product to allow normal cold end processing. Ambient Temperature A vessel that employs high pressure and heat to produce a bond between glass and PVB or urethane sheet. stone or machine. Adipic Acid A weak organic acid whose function is to neutralise any bases produced by the prolonged contact of moisture with the glass surface. Bead A strip of timber. Small bubbles less than 2mm diameter referred to as seeds. Annealing Lehr A polyethylene or polyurethane foam material installed under compression and used to control sealant joint depth. Annealing In the manufacturing of float glass. 16. is the width of silicone sealant that is applied to the panel of glass to adhere it to the frame. Acoustics The reduction of sound intensity (or signal strength) with distance. and is measured in decibels.0 GLOSSARY Anodise (See Curved Glass.

Decorative process in which designs are cut into the glass with abrasive and polishing wheels. a gaseous inclusion. 109 16. (See also Capillary Tubes. Channel Depth An insulating glass unit with a tube factoryplaced into the unit’s spacer to accommodate pressure differences encountered in shipping due to change in elevation. a gas pocket in the interlayer material or between the glass and the interlayer. The larger alkali potassium ions ‘wedge’ their way into the voids in the surface created by the vacating smaller alkali sodium ions. bend or other deviation from flatness in glass. Casting (See Tinted Glass.0 GLOSSARY . British Thermal Unit (BTU) Channel Width The distance between the stationary and removable beads at the widest point.S A surface film on the glass resulting from atmospheric attack or deposition by smoke or other vapours. Beads maybe fixed or removable. Capillary Tube Units Chip A small shallow piece of glass which has become detached from the original glass edge. In laminated glass. These tubes are to be sealed on the job site prior to unit installation. Bullet Resistant Glass A multiple lamination of glass and plastic that is designed to resist penetration from medium-to-super-power small arms and highpower rifles.) Brilliant Cut The measurement from the sight line of the frame to the bottom of the channel. Bubbles Chemically Toughened Glass Chemical strengthening of glass is brought about through a process known as ionexchange.T. (See also Breather Tubes. In float glass. Butt Glazing The installation of glass products where the vertical glass edges are glazed with silicone and without structural supporting mullions. the salt bath consists of potassiumnitrate. Channel Glazing (Pocket Glazing) A three sided. During the submersion cycle.) Bow (and Warp) A curve. (See also Spandrel.) Clips Wired spring devices used in face glazing (putty) to hold glass in sash rebate without beads. Glass is submersed in a molten salt bath at temperatures below the annealing range of the glass. Cast-In-Place Lamination Lamination process where the interlayer is a liquid poured between the glass and then chemically cured to produce the final product. It is not a safety glass. The amount of energy required to raise one pound water to 170˚F. U-shaped opening in a sash or frame to accommodate a glass panel. Cladding Glass An insulating glass unit with a very small metal tube of specific length and inside diameter factory-placed into the unit’s spacer to accommodate pressure differences encountered in shipping because of substantial changes in elevation and the pressure differences encountered daily after installation. This ‘strengthened’ surface may penetrate to a depth of only a few microns.) Special glass usually ceramic painted (Colourlite) in curtain walls or as a cover to columns and walls.G JAMES IS GLASS Bloom C. the larger alkali potassium icons exchange places with the smaller alkali sodium ions in the surface of the glass. Breather (Tube) Units Process of shaping glass by pouring into a mould or onto a table. In the case of soda/lime/silica glass. Body Tinted Glass Abbreviation for cut-to-size glass.

embossed and screen-printed. 16. which is directly transmitted through the glazing. Dice Corrosion The more or less cubical pattern of fracture of fully tempered glass. Diffusing The deterioration of metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction mainly caused by exposure to moisture and/or chemicals. Cutting Draw Lines Refers to the direction of flow (or pull) of glass during production.) Compound A chemical formulation of ingredients used to produce a caulking. Diffuse Reflection Broken glass.processed by craftsmen stained glass. heat and/or other catalyst. 110 . lead-lights.) Scoring glass with a diamond. due to atmospheric conditions. excess glass from a previous melt or edges trimmed off when cutting glass to size. Distortion Alteration of viewed images caused by variations in glass flatness and is an inherent characteristic of heat treated glass. acid etched. etc. Dew Point The appearance of moisture (water vapour) on the surface of an object caused by warm moist air coming into contact with a colder object. Direct Radiation (Transmittance) Cure Glass used in picture framing to avoid reflections and the glare of lighting. dispersing. The sun’s emitted solar heat energy. which reaches us directly in varying intensity. steel wheel. (See also Sheet Glass. The temperature at which condensation of water begins when air is cooled. Cullet Scattering. Design Pressure The permanent deformation of a material after removal of the compressive stress. That portion of solar energy. elastomeric joint sealant. Cullet is an essential ingredient in the raw glass (batch) mix as it facilitates the melting process. sandblasted. Decorated Glass Colonial Bars Clear or patterned . Other methods of cutting glass include water jet and laser. The clear unsupported opening size that admits light. Desiccant (Silica Gel) (See Luminous Efficacy. Compression Set Molecular sieve or extremely porous crystalline substance used to absorb moisture inside the air space of insulated glass units. To alter the properties of a sealant by chemical reaction initiated by the action of air. Colonial bars are smaller in dimensions and weight than mullions. as the tendency to eliminate a direct beam of light. or other hard alloy wheel and breaking it along the score. Condensation Specified pressure a product is designed to withstand.0 GLOSSARY Curved Glass Flat glass which has been shaped while hot into cylindrical or curved shapes. Coolness Factor The amount of bending movement of the centre of a glass panel perpendicular to the plane of the glass surface under an applied load.16.0 GLOSSARY Cohesive Failure Daylight Size Internal splitting of a sealant resulting from over stressing and insufficient elasticity and elongation to absorb the strain. Deflection (Centre of glass) Horizontal or vertical bars that divide the sash frame into smaller panels of glass.

Environmental Control Glass Fully Toughened Glass Flat or curved glass that has been heat treated to induce a high surface and /or edge compression. any use of two panels of glass. Edge Clearance A general term that describes float glass. Etch To alter the surface of glass with hydrofluoric acid or caustic agents. the term often used (loosely) as a synonym for relative hardness. window. Figured Glass Dry Glazing (See Patterned Glass. Permanent etching of glass may occur from alkali and other run-off from surrounding building materials. eliminating possible condensation and providing superior insulating properties. 111 . Flat Glass An instrument for measuring the relative hardness of materials such as rubber. Emissivity A surface treatment for glass. Any glass panel. Also. The measure of a surface’s ability to emit long-wave infra-red radiation. The surface in contact with the tin is known as the tin surface or tin side. The top surface is known as the atmosphere surface or air side.0 GLOSSARY stronger than annealed glass of the same The broad name for all types of glass that have a function in controlling heat. noise or radiation. Fully toughened glass. EPDM A synthetic rubber prepared by polymerising ethylene. to improve insulation against heat transfer and/or sound transmittance. glare. The distance between the edge of the glass and the edge of the rebate forming the sight opening of the window frame. door.G JAMES IS GLASS Double Glazing Fenestration In general. sheet glass. if broken. Float Glass Nominal spacing between the edge of the glass and the bottom of the surrounding glazing pocket (channel). Fins Supporting glass panels incorporated into the design of glass facades installed at 90˚ angle to the glazed surface. separated by an air space. Gaskets A pre-formed resilient rubber-like compound providing a continuous surround for glass and a weather tight seal when compressed. within an opening. propylene and a diene monomer. Edge Working Flush Glazing Glass set in a aluminium frame without any external mullion or transom projections. this term is used to describe various means of sealing monolithic and insulating glass in the supporting framing system using pre-formed and extruded materials such as glazing gaskets. consisting of acid etching or sandblasting of one or both surfaces to diffuse transmitted light. 16. curtain wall or skylight unit on the exterior of a building. plate glass and rolled glass. A protrusion on the edge of a panel of a glass. Flare Durometer To make glass smooth or glossy by the action of fire or intense heat. will fracture into many small pieces (dice) which are more or less cubical. Is sometimes called ‘tempered glass’. Frosted Finish Grinding the edge of glass to a desired shape or finish. Edge Cover Glass formed on a bath of molten tin. In insulating glass units the air between the glass sheets is thoroughly dried and the space is sealed. Fully toughened glass is approximately 4 to 5 times thickness when exposed to uniform static pressure loads.) Fire-Polish Also called compression glazing.

Jamb Flat or bent glass that has been heat treated to a specific surface and/or edge compression range. usually transparent. Insulated Glass Unit (IG unit) Glass that absorbs an appreciable amount of solar energy.g. etc. heated air from a convection heater. Any material used to bond two panels of glass and/or plastic together to form a laminate. gas or liquid occurs. for example. .) Glue Chip Decorative glass produced by sticking material onto the glass with a glue. after setting the panel and before the bead is installed. As the glue cures the material is stripped off the glass. Interlayer Heat Strengthened Glass Glass able to withstand high thermal shock.in which there is direct contact of molecules in a solid body. the passage of heat along a metal bar of which one end is inserted in a fire.by which heat passes from source to object without heating space between them for example. Heat Treated Vertical frame member at the perimeter of the opening of a window or door. Laminated Glass Term used for both fully toughened glass and Two or more panels of glass permanently bonded together with one or more interlayers. Glazing Bead Sealant applied at the base of a channel.) Heat Resisting Glass Where two or more panels of glass spaced apart and hermetically sealed to form a single unit with an air space between each panel. Hermetically Sealed (See Bead. for example. Glass Clad Polycarbonate Heat is transferred in the following manner: Conduction . Radiation . the surface of which is plucked. made by fusing silicates. Glassflux A finely ground powder from one or more ‘low melting’ glasses. (Also see Double Glazing).in which actual movement of the medium. High Transmittance Glass Glass which transmits an exceptionally high percentage of visible light. under high temperatures with soda. Knocked Down Condition (KDC) Fabricated framing components shipped loose for assembly at another location. IGMA Top horizontal frame member of window/door frame. This gives a random pattern.16. 112 heat strengthened glass. Heat strengthened glass is not considered safety glass and will not completely dice as will fully toughened glass. Heat Absorbing Glass Abbreviation for Insulating Glass Manufacturers Association. Heel Bead Two or more panels of flat glass bonded with urethane interlayer to one or more sheets of extruded polycarbonate in a pressure/ temperature/vacuum laminating process. tinted glass. (e. Referred to in the manufacture of insulated glass units. generally because of a low coefficient of expansion. One of its purposes is to prevent air and water ingress.0 GLOSSARY Glass Heat Transfer A hard brittle substance. Glazing The securing of glass in prepared openings. heat from the sun to earth. Convection . lime. Heat strengthened glass is approximately twice as strong as annealed 16.0 GLOSSARY glass of the same thickness when exposed to uniform static pressure loads. Head Made airtight by fusion or sealing.

Neoprene A device for examining the degree of strain in a sample of glass. Low Emissivity (or Low E) (See Patterned Glass. but manufactured without sulphur for vulcanisation. Polariscope and G.e. glass or sashes. Patterned Glass Stress at a given strain. (Either edge or surface compression). NB: Actual thickness of glass may not coincide with nominal thickness. Luminous Efficacy (Light-to-Shading Coefficient Ratio) The visible transmittance of a glazing system divided by the shading coefficient. Also referred to as coolness factor. etc. Multiple Glazed Units One type of rolled glass having a pattern impressed on one or both sides. Live Load Generic description of a reflective glass. Pocket Glazing (See Channel Glazing. Also tensile strength at a given elongation. phosphorous. Sometimes called rolled. such as oxygen. Polished Plate A synthetic rubber with similar properties to natural rubber.P Laser . chlorine.) Points Insulated glass units with three or more insulated panels of glass. long wave infra-red. flat. rain load. Monolithic Glass A single homogeneous piece of glass as opposed to laminated glass or a insulated glass unit.S. 113 16. sulphur. figured or obscure glass.G JAMES IS GLASS Lite One-way Vision Another term for a panel or pane of glass. This ratio is helpful in selecting glazing products for different climates in terms of those that transmit more heat than light and those that transmit more light than heat. Organic A low rate of emitting absorbed radiant energy. triangular or diamond shaped pieces of zinc used to hold glass in wood sashes by driving them into the wood. Pane A single piece of glass in a window or door. particularly used in the USA. nitrogen. Obscure Glass Loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structure and do not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load. Mullion Thin.0 GLOSSARY Glass that has been ground and polished on both sides to produce optically high quality. bath enclosures and decorative glazing. An extremely tough resilient plastic film used to bond glass together in the laminating process. snow load. Suitable for use in spandrel and non-vision areas. seismic load or dead load. i. Polyvinyl Butyral Interlayer The commonly used dimension by which the thickness is described.) Opacifier Applied polyester film or coating to the surface of reflective glass rendering it opaque. Mirror Glass silvered on one side producing a highly reflective surface. Out-gassing A gaseous bi-product from cleaners. solvents and sealants. Modulus Any compound which consists of carbon and hydrogen with a restricted number of other elements. allows visual security to be maintained. which if glazed with appropriate lighting ratios.A. . ice load. A vertical frame member that supports and holds panels. Used extensively for light control. Nominal Thickness Polished Wired Glass Transparent wired glass that has been ground and polished on both surfaces.

16.0 GLOSSARY

Polyisobutylene

Reflective Glass

Typically the primary seal in a dual seal IG unit and the key component in restricting moisture vapour transmittance.

Glass with a metallic coating to reduce solar heat gain. (See also Solar Control Glass.)
Relative Heat Gain

Polysulphide Sealant

The amount of heat gain through a glass product taking into consideration the effects of solar heat gain (shading coefficient) and conductive heat gain (U-value). The value is expressed in (W/m2). The lower the relative heat the more the glass product restricts heat gain.

Polysulphide liquid polymer sealants. They can be converted to rubbers at room temperature without shrinkage upon addition of a curing agent.
Polyurethane Sealant

An organic compound formed by the reaction of a glycol with an isocyanate.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

Roller-wave Distortion

Waviness imparted to horizontal heat treated glass while the glass is transported through the furnace on a roller conveyor. The waves produce a distortion when the glass is viewed in reflection.
Rolled Glass

Polymer formed by polymerisation of vinyl chloride monomer. Sometimes called vinyl.
Pre-Shimmed Tape Sealant

A sealant having a pre-formed shaped containing solids or discrete particles that limit its deformation under compression.
Primer

Glass formed by rolling, including patterned glass and wired glass. (See also Patterned Glass.)
Rub

A coating specifically designed to enhance the adhesion of sealant systems to certain surfaces, to form a barrier to prevent migration of components, or to seal a porous substrate.
Processed

A series of small scratches in glass generally caused during transport by a chip lodged between two panels.
R-value

Glass which has undergone further treatment after manufacture (e.g. laminated, toughened, curved, silvered, coated etc).
PVC

The thermal resistance of a glazing system. The higher the R-value the less heat is transmitted throughout the glazing material. The R-value is the reciprocal of the U-value
STC (Sound Transmittance Class)

(See Polyvinyl Chloride.)
Pyrolytic

A single number rating derived from individual transmittance losses at specified test frequencies. It is used for interior walls, ceilings and floors and in the past was also used for preliminary comparison of the performance of various glazing materials.
STL (Sound Transmittance Loss)

A glass which has a coating deposited during the glass manufacturing process. The coating is fired into the glass surface at 700˚C and is therefore extremely hard and durable.
Quench Pattern

16.0 GLOSSARY

(See Strain Pattern.)
Racking

The reduction of the amount of sound energy passing through a wall, floor, roof, etc. It is related to the specific frequency (Hz) at which it is measured and it is expressed in decibels (dB). Also called Transmittance Loss (TL).
Sandblasted Finish

A movement or distortion of sash or frames causing a shape in angularity of corners.
Rebate

An ‘L’ shaped section which can be face glazed or receive a removable glazing bead to hold the panel of glass in place.

A surface treatment for glass obtained by spraying the glass with hard particles to roughen one or both surfaces of the glass.

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The effect is to increase obscurity and diffusion, but it makes the glass weaker and harder to clean.
Safety Glass

Shelf Life

Processed glass types which satisfy the requirements of AS/NZS 2208 for safety glazing. Laminated, toughened safety glass are rated Grade A. Wired glass is rated Grade B.
Salt Spray Test

Used in the glazing and sealant business to refer to the length of time a product may be stored before beginning to lose its effectiveness. Manufacturers usually state the shelf life and the necessary storage conditions on the package.
Shims

(See Spacers.)
Shore ‘A’ Hardness

Accelerated corrosion test in which samples are exposed to a fine mist of salt water. Primarily used to test silvered glass.
Salvage Edges (Bulb Edge)

The extreme lateral edges of the glass ribbon which are stripped off and recycled.
Sash

Measure of firmness of a compound by means of a Durometer Hardness Gauge (A hardness range of 20-25 is about the firmness of an art gum eraser. A hardness of 90 is about the firmness of a rubber heel.
Sight Line

The moveable window frame which contains the glass pane.
Seeds

The line along the perimeter of the glazed panel corresponding to the edge of stationary or removable bead. The line to which sealants contacting the glazed panel are sometimes finished off.
Silicone Sealant

Minute bubbles in float glass.
Security Glass

Glass not just designed as Grade A safety but to also withstand various forms of violent attack. They are usually special combinations of laminated glass and can incorporate toughened glass and polycarbonates - see G.James ArmaClear range (BR, PA and PS).
Setting Blocks

One part or two part elastromeric adhesive, rubber sealant which cures at room temperature (also referred to as room temperature vulcanising (RTV)). Its inorganic composition means silicone sealant is unaffected by UV, ozone and extremes of hot and cold. Further it will not break-down or lose adhesion and for this reason is widely used in most glazing applications.
Silkscreen

Generally rectangular, cured extrusions of neoprene, EPDM, silicone, rubber or other suitable material on which the glass product bottom edge is placed to effectively support the weight of the glass.
Shading Coefficient

A decorating process in which a design is printed on glass through a fine silk mesh or similar screen.
Sill

Ratio of the solar heat gain through a specific glass product compared to the solar heat gain through 3mm clear glass.
Sheet Glass

The bottom horizontal member of the window/door frame.
Silvering

Refers to the drawn sheet process, which is pulled up vertically and consequently embodies inherent lines of distortion. It is a fire finished glass.
Shadowgraph

Sloped Glazing

Any installation of glass that is less than 70˚ from vertical.
Smoke

A test rig for inspecting glass with respect to distortion and other defects.

Streaked areas appearing as slight discolouration on glass.

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16.0 GLOSSARY

The application by chemical or other methods of a film of silver to a glass surface to create mirrors.

16.0 GLOSSARY

Solar Control Glass

Strain

Tinted and/or coated glass that reduces the amount of solar heat gain transmitted through a glazed product.
Solar Energy Reflectance

The percentage of elongation or compression of a material or portion of a material caused by an applied force.
Strain Pattern

In the solar spectrum, the percentage of solar energy that is reflected from the glass surface(s).
Solar Energy Transmittance

The percentage of ultra-violet, visible and infrared energy within the solar spectrum that is transmitted through the glass.
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient

A specific geometric pattern of iridescence or darkish shadows that may appear under certain lighting conditions, particularly in the presence of polarised light (also called quench pattern). The phenomena is caused by the localised stresses imparted by the rapid air cooling of the tempering operation. Strain pattern is characteristic of all heat treated glass.
Stress (Residual)

The ratio of directly transmitted and absorbed solar energy that enters into the building’s interior (when compared to an open space). Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then re-radiated, conducted, or convected.

Any condition of tension or compression existing within the glass, caused by incomplete annealing or induced temperature gradient during the manufacture of heat treated glass.
Substance

Spacers (Shims)

Small blocks of neoprene, EPDM, silicone or other suitable material, placed on each side of the glass product to provide glass centring, maintain uniform width of sealant bead and prevent excessive sealant distortion.
Spandrel

Refers to the thickness of glass expressed in mm.
Surface Modified

Glass whose surface has been modified in such a way that it reduces solar heat gain by reflection rather than absorption.
Structural Glazing Gaskets

The panel(s) of a wall located between vision areas of windows which conceal structural columns, floors and shear walls.
Spectrally Selective Glass

Tinted and/or coated flat glass that selectively reduces the amount of ultra-violet and infrared transmittance.
Stain

Cured elastomeric channel-shaped extrusions used in place of a conventional sash to install glass products onto structurally supporting sub-frames, with the pressure of sealing exerted by the insertion of separate lockstrip wedging splines.
Structural Silicone Glazing

Discolouration of either a glass or finished aluminium surface caused by alkalis that leach from surrounding materials such as pre-cast or cast-in-place concrete or from sealants, pollutants or other contaminants. 16.0 GLOSSARY
Stained Glass

The use of a silicone sealant for the structural transfer of loads from the glass to its perimeter support system and retention of the glass in opening.
Substrate

A base material to which other materials are applied.
Tape Sealant

Refers to the craft of lead-lighting - glass which is coloured by fusing pigments to the surface or windows made up of pieces of stained glass.

A sealant having a pre-formed shape and intended to be used in a joint under compression.
Thermal Endurance

Stones

116

Any crystalline inclusion embedded in the glass.

The relative ability of glass to withstand thermal shock.

dark grey. Wet Seal A product comprised of a base and curing agent or accelerator. so Phone: 1 8 0 0 G J A M E S (452637) National Toll Free Number 117 16. aquamarine. thermal transmittance. Visible Light Reflectance Tong Marks Small. as well as. etc).0 GLOSSARY . Weathering (also Stain) The ability of the glass to pass light and/or heat. the better the insulation. Small cracks at the edges of glass that can lead to breakage. Weep Holes A cross piece which separates a door from a window above. green. Typical colours include bronze. Toughened Glass Rolled glass having a layer of meshed or stranded wire embedded near to the centre of thickness of the panel. Visible Light Transmittance The percentage of visible light (380 to 780 nanometres) within the solar spectrum that is transmitted through glass. usually expressed in percentages (visible transmittance. Tinted Glass Glass with colourants added to the basic glass batch that give the glass colour. U-value i Technical Advisory Service A measure of air-to-air heat transmittance (loss or gain) due to thermal conductance and the difference in indoor and outdoor temperatures. which is reradiated to the inside of the glazing. Wired Glass The sum of direct solar transmittance plus the proportion of absorbed energy. grey. sashes or sections of curtain wall. (See Fully Toughened Glass) Ultra-violet The name of the invisible portion of the light spectrum with wave lengths shorter than 380 nanometres. Transom Attack of a glass surface by atmospheric elements. This glass is available as polished glass (one or both surfaces) and patterned glass. necessarily packaged in two separate containers which are uniformly mixed just prior to use. surface indentations near and parallel to one edge of vertically toughened or vertically heat strengthened glass resulting from the tongs used to suspend the glass during the heat treating process. Vinyl Back Mirror Organic vinyl backing applied to mirrors that holds the glass together when broken. Vents Stress generated in glasses as a consequence of temperature differentials such as hot centre and cold edges (in the frame). The horizontal member that supports panels. deep green and blue. The colour extends throughout the thickness of the glass. Total Heat Gain Application of an elastomeric sealant between the glass and sash to form a weather-tight seal. light and heat reducing capabilities. As the U-value decreases. The lower the Uvalue.G JAMES IS GLASS Thermal Stress does the amount of heat that is transferred through the glazing material. Transmittance The percentage of visible light (380 to 780 nanometres) within the solar spectrum that is reflected from the glass surface. glass. Two-Part (Multi-Component) Sealant Small holes or slots in the sash or framing system which allows water to drain to the building exterior.

IG unit comprising 6mm TS40 (2) on Green/12mm airspace/6mm Energy Advantage (3). Spandrel Glass Glass Type • Full description required. Glass Sizes Distance (mm) from extreme building face of the glass in a ‘punched’ (recessed) window.APPENDIX ONE How to complete the Thermal Safety Assessment Request (For further information on Thermal Breakage refer Section 1. white). metal sheeting or other material? Colour of Backup Wall Options include Light (clear anodised. Frame Colour Does the spandrel cavity contain a backup wall of masonry. Airspace Ventilated Distance (mm) the mullion extends beyond the front of the glass. either light (white) or dark (black). Glass Type Distance (mm) a column extends beyond the front of the glass face creating a vertical shadow. light blue) or Dark (black. soffit or awning extends beyond the front of the glass.11) Vision / Sloped Glazing Location Depth of Column City. Glass Sizes • Largest and smallest panel sizes required as the size of the glass has an effect on thermal stress. APPENDIX ONE Overhead Shading Refers to the colour of the backup wall material. a fully opened sliding door/window can act as a double glazed unit increasing the amount of solar absorption to the outer lite. e. please contact our Technical Advisory Service. . Blinds/Drapes Behind Glass Largest and smallest panel sizes required as the size of the glass has an effect on thermal stress. If glass is installed to all four sides of the building. 4-sided structural is glass retained by silicone only without any framing. Depth of Set Back Full description required.38mm TS21 Clear Laminated. Mullion Projection Distance (mm) from back of spandrel glass to backup wall. Transom Projection Is there a cavity behind the spandrel glass and is it fully sealed or ventilated (preferable at the top and bottom) to allow airflow? NB: If you require assistance in completing the Thermal Safety Assessment Request. Distance (mm) between glass to blind to glass. e. town or country where building is located. Glass Orientation Will the space between blinds/drapes and the glass be ventilated? The criteria for a ventilated airspace are: • A 50mm clearance between the glass and the shading device A 38mm clearance between the top and bottom or one side and bottom between shading device and surround • Colour of blinds This refers to the aspect of the facades containing glass.g. Distance from Wall to Glass Distance (mm) any overhang. as glass glazed on a slope is subject to higher solar radiation than panels glazed vertically. Backup Wall Frame Material Options are metal (aluminium/steel). Medium (light grey. dark bronze).g. 118 Distance (mm) the transom extends beyond the front of the glass. Venetian Blinds Between Two Glasses Will venetian blinds be installed between any two glasses (i. 2-sided captive – horizontal is the reverse of 2-sided captive vertical. sliding windows and doors (which include double hung windows) and openable awning or casement sashes.e. double glazed or jockey sash windows)? Gaps (Glass-Blind-Glass) Options include the following: • • Glass fully glazed (captive) in a frame 2-sided captive – vertical is framing only to the vertical edges with no framing to the horizontal edges. Glazing Type Refers to the colour of the blinds/drapes. The window configuration may effect thermal stress. for example 6. tick all four boxes. either light (white) or dark (black). wood/timber or PVC. Glass Application Will blinds or drapes be installed to the inside of the glass? Ventilated Airspace Options are fixed glass. The angle of the glazing is also required.

Location Vision / Sloped Glazing Glass Type (Full Description) Glass Sizes Largest Overhead Shading Mullion Projection Depth of Column Transom Projection Sliding Windows/Doors mm mm Smallest mm Glass Application Fixed Glazed Openable Sash mm Depth of Set Back Blinds/Drapes Behind Glass East Angle West Yes No mm Glass Orientation North Vertical South Sloped Colour of Blinds Light Dark Glazing Type Fully Captive 2-Sided Captive – Horizontal 2-Sided Captive – Vertical 4-Sided Structural Ventilated Air Space Yes No Framing Material Metal Wood PVC Venetian Blind Between Two Glasses Yes No Frame Colour Light Medium Dark Gaps (Glass-Blind-Glass) mm and mm Spandrel Glass Glass Type (Full Description) Largest Light Dark Smallest Distance from Wall to Glass Airspace Ventilated No Yes No mm Backup Wall Yes Signed Date 119 APPENDIX ONE Glass Sizes Backup Wall Colour . Project Reference Contact Fax No. The accuracy of the assessment is based on the information supplied. COMPLETE FORM AND SEND TO G. Company Name Phone No.JAMES SAFETY GLASS The following information is required to conduct a Thermal Safety Assessment.G JAMES IS GLASS G. Please complete all relevant sections.James Thermal Safety Assessment Request PHOTOCOPY.

Tinted. On-Line Solar and Low E Coatings) Laminated Glass (All interlayer combinations – thickness and colour) Heat Treated Glass (Toughened.APPENDIX TWO Glass Processing Flow Chart (Possible Combinations) Raw Float Glass (Clear. Super-Tints. Heat Strengthened. Ceramic Painted and Heat Soaked) Airco Coated Glass (Solar and Low E Coatings) Customer Customer Customer Insulated Glass Unit APPENDIX TWO Customer Customer 120 .

.applications . . . . . . .properties . . . . . . . .glazing . . . .processing flow chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . . . . . . . 40 frameless showerscreens . . . . . . . . . 20 balustrades . . . . .applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Glue Chip . . . . . . . . . . . 23 decorative glass . . .process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 float glass process . . . . . . . . . 55 121 INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 flat smooth . . . . .performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 . . .thickness tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .floors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Amiran . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 heat strengthened glass . . . . . 63 . . 57 . . . . .decorative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . .65 flat grind . . . . . . 49 . . . . . . . . . .81 . . . .cleaning . . 80 . . . 65 conversion factors . . . . . . . . . . . . .maximum sizes. . . . 68 Evergreen . . . . . . . . . . 72 I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . . 59 . . . . 48 coated surface identification . . . . . 38 . 10 fire rated glass . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . 34 . . 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 . . . 63 dry glazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .characteristics . . . .process . . . . . .characteristics . .insulated .process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 daylighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 electronic security . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 data shielding glass . . . . . . . . 58 ArmaClear prison shield glass . . 7 frameless entries . . . . . . . . 59 Azurlite . . . 77 electromagnetic spectrum .ceramics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 . . 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .applications . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 anti-bandit glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .curved glass . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 . . . . . . . . .glass ceramics . . . . . . . . . . .65 Borosilicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .framing . . . . .terminology . . . . . . . . . . . .dry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .available curves . . . . . . 16 . . . . . .50 . . . . . . 42 condensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 dew point. . .butt-joint . . . . 65 fire resistant levels (FRL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .product types . . . . . . 65. . . . . . . . . 26.applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .acceptance criteria . . . . . . . . . . . 15 cyclone resistant laminate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 B back-up material . . . . . . . . . . .process . . . . .measuring . . 47 . . . . . . 64. . . . . . . . . 33 elastomeric sealants . . . . . . 79 butyl tapes . . . . . . . . . 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Borosilicate . . . . . . . . . .wet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Borofloat . . . . .edge condition . . . . .applications . . 19 curved toughened glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 . . . . 80 . 64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .techniques . 10 glazing . . . . . . . . . . .process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 . . . . . 55 brillant cut . . . . . . .glazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 . . . . . . . . . . 7 Fourcault process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Diamant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .glazing . .bullet resistant glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 holes . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 . . . . . . . 68 ArmaClear bullet resistant glass . . . . . . .G JAMES IS GLASS Index A acoustic spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 . . . . . . . . 64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 edge delamination . . . . . . . . 36 . . . . . . . . . . .FireLite . . . 64. . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .weatherseal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .laminated glass . 44 cut-outs . . . . .manufacturing guidelines . . . . . 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 bi-folding doors . . . . . . . . . 73 bullet resistant glass . . . . 58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 . . 35 heat treated glass . 38 G Georgian wired glass . . . . . . . . . . .care and storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 . . 12. . . 120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 fire rated systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .surface identification . . . . . . . . 9 . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . .handling criteria . . 25 colour perception . . . . . .characteristics . . . 46 . . . . . . 33 cylinder process . . . . . .product types . . . . . . .glazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Brewsters fringes .stair treads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .framing & accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 . . . 62 ceramic painted glass . . . . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . .blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 D damaged weighted transmission (Tdw) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 . . . . . . . . . 13 Broadline . . . . . . . .Twin-Glaze units . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 clear float . . .staining . . . . . . . . .non-reinforced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .properties .types . . . .process . . . . . . . . . . . . .strength design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .setting blocks . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . . . 64 heat soak testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Flemish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 . 41 . 13 flat polish . . . . . . . 70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .manufacturing guidelines . . 8 . . . . 79 . . . . . . . . . . 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 . . . .breakage characteristics . . . . . . . .structural . . . . . . . . . . .considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 . . . . . . . . 77 C ceiling domes .standards . . . . . 76 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 . . . . . . . 64 fire rated products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 coated glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 ArmaClear physical attack glass . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . . . .process limitations . . . . 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 . . . . 23 Colourlite . . . 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 F fade control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 bevelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .properties . 33 aquatic glazing . . . . . . . . . . . .toughened. . . . . . . . . . . .strength . . .available sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .properties . . . . . 59 . . . . . .physical attack glass . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Contraflam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Faradays cage principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 E edgework . . . . . . . . . . 68 figured rolled pattern glass . . . . . . . 72 finite element analysis. . . . . 62 coolness factor . . . . . . .assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Borofloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 diffused reflection glass . . . . 64. 81 . . . . . . . . . . .properties . . . . .definitions . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 . . . . . . .41 ceramic painted patterned glass . . . . . . . . . .Robax . . 79 . . 11 coincidence dip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 convex mirrors . . . 80 . . 15 insulated glass units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .heat treated glass . . . . . . . . 56 butt-joint glazing . . . . . . . . .properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 . . 42 . . . . . . . . . . 77 glossary . . . . . . . . 64 FireLite .72 Glacier . . . . . . . . . . 72 . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 .reinforced . . .glazing . .annealed glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .heat gain/loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 H heat resistant glass . . 58 . 80 . . 81 . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 63 pillowing . .adhesion . . . . . . . . 78 Securiflam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .stain testing . . . . . . . . . .strength . . . 13 S Satinlite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 . . .types . . . . . . 42 R RAT equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 . . 48 Robax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 stocklines . . 48 opacifier (organic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .types . . . 73 structural glazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 security glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .silicone . . . . . . . . . 58 picture glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 V venetian strip mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 tinted float . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Optilight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 mirror doors . . . . . 19 Luxar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Pyrostop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 INDEX 122 Promaclear . . . . . . . . 35 train windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 stacking doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 visible light reflectance . . 65 Pyroswiss . . . . . . . . . . . . .spectrum . . . . . . . . . .coincidence dip . . . . . 59 Spotswood . . .properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 suspended assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .traffic noise reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 lead glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .energy transmittance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 pyrolytic glass . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Strata . . . . . . . 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 STC . . . . 19 . . . . . . . 18 units of measure . . . . 25 . . . .properties . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 off-line coatings .heat gain/loss . 73 Scintilla . . . . . . . . . . . .characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . . 42 rough arris . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 shadow boxes . . . 88 performance terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . .energy reflectance . 76 New Cathedral. . . . . . . . . . . 16. . 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 . . . . . 61 mitre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .compatibility . . .benefits . 48 one-way mirror . . 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . .INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 nickel sulphide inclusion (NiS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 low iron glass . . 75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .applications . . . 65 Q quality management systems . . . .coatings . . . . . .process . 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 spandrel design . . . . . . . . . 13 N Narrow Reeded . . .applications . . . . . . . . .insulation . . . . . . . . . . 26 Optigray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .perceived loudness . . 18 W weatherseal glazing . . . . 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 supertints . . . . . . . . 17 Solarplus . . . . . . . . . 13 Roughcast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . . . 15 special purpose windows . . . 78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 sealant . . . . . . . . . . . 61 laminated glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 M mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 L laminate mirror . . . . 38 Swissflam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 notches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 silicone applications . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 physical attack glass . . . . 26 Sparkle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 smooth arris . . . .transmission loss (STL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 quench pattern . . . . . . . . . 23 . . . 56 Shade-12 . . . . . . . . . . 17 reflective glass . . . .spandrel design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 . . . . 44 . . . . . . . . . . 49 Squarelite . . .process . 78 . . . . . 59 Twin-Glaze units . . . . . .strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 P patterned glass . . . . 75 performance charts . . . . . . . . . . . 9 irregular shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .glazing . . . . . . 18 toughened glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .curved . . . . . . . . . . . . .process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .low E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Seadrift . . . . . . 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 low E (Low Emissivity) . . . . . . 73 Newtons rings . .process . . 24 . . . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .causes. . . . . . . . . 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 prison shield glass . . . . . 80 welding glass . . 28 total solar energy transmittance .process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 U U-value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 putty based compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .manufacturing guidelines .surface & joint preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 solar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 wet glazing . . . . . . . . . . . .factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 product standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 T Tandarra . . 25 STL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 round and polished . . . . . . . . 41 standards . 73 sputtering process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 non-reflecting glass . . 77 . . . . . .applications . . . . . . . 83 thermal breakage . .selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 mist free mirrors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Promaglas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .heat gain coefficient (SHGC) . . . . . . . 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .solar control . . . . . . . . . 81 . . . .intensity . 19 thermal heat transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 X X-ray glass . . . . . 15 K Kosciusko. . . . . . . . . . .applications . 18 visible light transmittance . . . . . . 72 Patternlite . . . . . .glass performance . . .design levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 shading coefficient (SC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 . . . .solar control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 silver glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 luminous efficacy . . . . . . . . 64 roller-wave . . . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . . . . 75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 thermal safety assessment request form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .transmission class (STC) . . . . . . .33 . . . . . .insulation measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Polished wired . .acoustic spectrum . . . . . 73 neoprene . . . . 15 O Obscura . 79 Supergrey . . . . . . 48 Pyrobel . . .handling & processing . . . 82 Starphire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 wired safety glass . . . . . . . . . 73 test facilities . . . . . . . .spandrel design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 . 118 thermal stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .glazing . 73 special processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 on-line coatings . . .

Borosilicate. Metropolitan Glass (NZ) Nippon Electric Glass P Asahimas Flat Glass Co. Ltd Panasap is a registered trade name of P . Pilkington (Australia) Limited Pilkington United Kingdom Limited Pilkington North America P . (George Fethers & Co. Viracon J. Ashimas Flat Glass Co. Securiflam and Swissflam are registered trade names of Vetrotech Saint-Gobain International Borofloat. Pty Ltd Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Australia Saint-Gobain Schott Solutia Inc. Solarcool. Optilight. Thanks also to the G. Co. Pyroswiss. Solargreen.Registered Names • Acknowledgements We are grateful to the many manufacturers and associations from whose publications we have sourced information for this handbook. Eclipse. Ltd .E. it has certainly not been intentional and we apologise.Weck GMBH U. Colourlite and Patternlite are registered names of G. Supergrey.) . G. Mandl & Co. K Glass. Robax and Amiran are registered trade names of Schott Stopsol and Pyrobel are registered trade names of Glaverbel FireLite is a registered trade name of Nippon Electric Glass Co. Optigray. Industries Inc. Evergreen. Reflectafloat.T. Ltd Arctic Blue. ArmaClear.James Australia Pty. If we have omitted anyone.P R. Ltd Diamant is a registered trade name of SaintGobain Promaclear is a registered trade name of Promat Worldwide/Etex Group Luxar is a registered trade name of Hy-TechGlass Santoprene is a registered trade name of Monsanto AIRCO is a registered trade mane of the BOC Group • • Dorma Dow Corning DuPont Glaverbel Group Guardian Industries Corp./Obeco Glass Blocks • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Georgian.T.. Pyrostop and Energy Advantage are registered trade names of Pilkington Azurlite. Contraflam. Twin-Glaze. Sungate and Starphire are registered trade names of PPG Industries Inc.James staff who have contributed to the success of this publication.James wishes to acknowledge the following for their contributions: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Solarplus. Anti-bandit.G.

James reserves the right to alter product specifications without notice. Educational Glass Conference – Tamglass Engineering Glazing Manual. The Specifier’s Guide. 2nd Edition – National Glass Pty Ltd New Zealand Design Trends. copied. Butterworth Architecture – Button and Pye Glass in Building – Saint-Gobain Glass Processing Days 1997. 1994 Specification Guide – Monsanto. FireLite Applications in Japan – Nippon Electric Glass Glass in Architecture and Decoration – Raymond McGrath Glass in Building. 1998 – Noel C Stokes • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .References • • Disclaimer This handbook is the intellectual property of G. 1997 Edition – Glass Association of North America Guardian Architectural Glass. 4th Edition – Metropolitan Glass National Glass Catalogue and Reference Guide 2000. G. we have also drawn from industry publications and many manufacturers literature from around the world. All rights reserved. January 1980 – Pilkington Flat Glass Limited PPG Architectural Glass 1999 – PPG Glass Technology Silicone Structural Glazing Manual – Dow Corning The Glass and Glazing Handbook.James have been careful and diligent to ensure the accuracy of all the information contained in this handbook but to the extent limited by law G. About Glass… – Flachglas AG AMIRAN Anti-reflective glass. Transparent Solution for Exterior/Interior Applications – Schott Glas FireLite. Volume 13 No. Global Product Selection Guide – Guardian Laminated Architectural Glass. © 2000 While drawing on our experience of almost 90 years in the glass industry. imitated or extracted from in any way whatsoever.James accepts no responsibility for any inaccuracies of any kind.James Australia Pty Ltd and shall not be reproduced. A Worldwide Presence – Guardian Guardian Industries. the Chemical Group LX Radiation Shielding Lead Glass – Nippon Electric Glass Metropolitan Glass Catalogue and Reference Guide. Due to continual product development. G.7 – Trends Pilkington Glass and Thermal Safety.

Malaysia Ph: 60 7 599 3266 Fax: 60 7 599 3212 Other G. Ltd. Gladstone. James branches are located at: Queensland: Logan City. Bhd. Hervey Bay. Sunshine Coast. Mackay. Eagle Farm.MALAYSIA Senai Singapore Cairns Townsville Mackay AUSTRALIA Narangba Eagle Farm Rockhampton Gladstone Bundaberg Hervey Bay Gympie Sunshine Coast Toowoomba Brisbane Ipswich Gold Coast Lismore Perth Logan City Auckland Sydney Melbourne NEW ZEALAND See us on the web: www. 1007 Kingsford Smith Drive. Narangba. Kawasan Perindustrian Senai Fasa 11. Toowoomba. Johor. 26 Long Street.com. 217 Rex Road. Gold Coast. Lot 2596. Smithfield. Campbellfield. Ipswich. Gympie.au Queensland G. Ltd. Bundaberg. Ltd. Rockhampton. James Industries (Malaysia) Sdn. 81 400 Senai.James Safety Glass Pty. James Safety Glass Pty. Jalan Perindustrian 3. Townsville & Cairns New South Wales: Lismore Western Australia: Perth Asia Pacific: Auckland (New Zealand) & Singapore . Melbourne Ph: 61 3 9219 2000 Fax: 61 3 9219 2099 Asia Pacific G. Brisbane Ph: 61 7 3877 2866 Fax: 61 7 3877 2295 New South Wales G.gjames. Sydney Ph: 61 2 9732 2111 Fax: 61 2 9732 2199 Victoria G. James Safety Glass Pty.

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