CHECK YOUR VOCABULARY FOR

ACADEMIC ENGLISH
THIRD EDITION

by David Porter

A & C Black London

www.acblack.com

For Ana Rita

First edition published 2001 Second edition published 2003 This third edition published 2007 by A & C Black Publishers Ltd 38 Soho Square, London W1D 3HB

© Copyright A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the permission of the publishers.

A CIP entry for this book is available from the British Library ISBN-10: 0 7136 8285 X ISBN-13: 978 0 7136 8285 4

eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0232-9
Text typeset by A & C Black Printed in Great Britain at Caligraving Ltd, Thetford, Norfolk

This book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in managed, sustainable forests. It is natural, renewable and recyclable. The logging and manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin.

Contents

Contents
Page Title Unit One
4 5 6 6 7 8 9 1a – Fill in the gaps 1b – Choose the right word 1c – Finish the sentence 1d – Word substitution 1e – Choose the best word 1f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Page Title Unit Seven
43 43 44 45 46 47 48 7a – Fill in the gaps 7b – Choose the right word 7c – Finish the sentence 7d – Word substitution 7e – Choose the best word 7f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Two
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 2a – Fill in the gaps 2b – Choose the right word 2c – Finish the sentence 2d – Word substitution 2e – Choose the best word 2f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Eight
49 49 50 51 52 53 54 8a – Fill in the gaps 8b – Choose the right word 8c – Finish the sentence 8d – Word substitution 8e – Choose the best word 8f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Three
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 3a – Fill in the gaps 3b – Choose the right word 3c – Finish the sentence 3d – Word substitution 3e – Choose the best word 3f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Nine
55 56 56 57 58 59 60 9a – Fill in the gaps 9b – Choose the right word 9c – Finish the sentence 9d – Word substitution 9e – Choose the best word 9f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Four
24 24 25 26 27 28 29 4a – Fill in the gaps 4b – Choose the right word 4c – Finish the sentence 4d – Word substitution 4e – Choose the best word 4f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Ten
61 61 62 63 63 64 65 10a – Fill in the gaps 10b – Choose the right word 10c – Finish the sentence 10d – Word substitution 10e – Choose the best word 10f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Five
30 31 32 33 34 35 23 5a – Fill in the gaps 5b – Choose the right word 5c – Finish the sentence 5d – Word substitution 5e – Choose the best word 5f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Eleven
66 67 68 69 70 71 72 11a – Fill in the gaps 11b – Choose the right word 11c – Finish the sentence 11d – Word substitution 11e – Choose the best word 11f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Six
37 38 38 39 40 41 42 6a – Fill in the gaps 6b – Choose the right word 6c – Finish the sentence 6d – Word substitution 6e – Choose the best word 6f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Answer key
73 74 75 Units One to Four Units Four to Eight Units Eight to Eleven

76

Index

1
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Keep Your Own Notes Next. Using your Dictionary A dictionary is really a long list of individual words.Introduction Introduction The purpose of this book is to help students learn a common core of vocabulary which will be useful for almost any subject studied at college or university. Although not exactly identical. Doing the Exercises There are different types of exercise in this book. Although not exactly identical. Sample Answers With the exercise from which these sentences were taken. whenever you find out what a new word means. which you can organise in alphabetical order like a dictionary. the words similar (adj) and formulate (v). the two books are so ___?adj?___ to each other that one writer must have copied much of his book from the other. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and __________ new policies. For this reason. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and ___?v?___ new policies. appearing instead together with other words. 2 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. such as the Easier English Dictionary for Students (ISBN: 978 07475 6624 3) published by A&C Black Publishers Ltd. This will help you to learn the word. which this workbook has been based on. Working Out the Word or Meaning Also. the two books are so __________ to each other that one writer must have copied much of his book from the other. and to use them correctly. Advice to the Student Obtain a Dictionary Before attempting to use this book. 2. In the same way. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and formulate new policies. words are very rarely used on their own. Because of the grammar of these words and their meanings – which we can check in the dictionary if necessary – the completed sentences will look like this: 1. because the policies mentioned in the second example are described as new. were included in the list of answers. the vocabulary you will learn in this book is presented in example sentences which will help you to understand the words. With any new word. you will need to obtain a good English-English dictionary. . notice that the other words in the sentences can help you to guess the meaning of the missing words. Although not exactly identical. 1. but in normal situations. to remember them more easily. In the examples above. 2. but one small example will be enough to show you how to use the book. the verb in the second example seems to mean plan or prepare: 1. 2. notice first of all that the other words in these sentences show you the grammar of these words – here an adjective and then a verb. In these two sentences from Unit One. we can see from the phrases not exactly identical and copied much of his book that the adjective in the first example must mean something like almost the same. the two books are so similar to each other that one writer must have copied much of his book from the other. write it into your vocabulary notebook. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). you should copy either the sentence from this book or the example from the dictionary.

word matching. Similarly. S. The exercises include gap-filling. undergraduate or postgraduate level. a noun or an adjective read the other words to help you guess the meaning of the new word then if necessary use your dictionary to select a suitable answer if possible. I. so try to look for one central meaning. This information will help you to use the new words correctly. In all cases. at foundation. Instead.Introduction Introduction Words With Many Meanings When you do look in your dictionary. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). matching sentence fragments. Although the immediate goal is for students to learn the words here. For example. S. plans or programs and so on which are formulated (examples of 'collocations'). but also how to use them. however. MA: Heinle & Heinle. which culminated in a series of approximately 800 words ranked in sets according to their frequency of occurrence in texts drawn from a number of very different academic subjects. and far preferable that they use an English-English learner's dictionary rather than a translation dictionary. which means that students should work through the book sequentially. Since the order of the eleven units presented in this book reflect this ranking. P. if it can encourage students to take a more active. Inside the units. it is vital that students use dictionaries appropriately. it is important that students do not regard simply filling in blanks as the sole purpose of this book. . It is envisaged that this book will be used to supplement an English for Academic Purposes/Study Skills course. This means keeping a vocabulary notebook in which they should be encouraged to write an example for each new word. and word-completion. Word That Go Together Remember also to write down any other words which are often found together with your new word. 3 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. this book will have succeeded in its wider aim. with special attention being paid to any dependent prepositions and collocations. Boston. Nation*. identifying synonyms. (1990) Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. This form of presentation will allow students to find out not only what words mean. *Nation. the words in Unit One have a wider range of application than those in Unit Two and so on. you may find that one word has many meanings. The vocabulary items presented here are based on research by I. you will often find that they are not so different from each other. It may either be used in class or be assigned for study on a self-access basis. P. students should approach vocabulary learning actively. the style and content of the examples I have written are intended to be typical of language used in academic contexts. choose one central meaning for the word from the dictionary entry write down your new word with an example sentence to help you remember its meaning note down any dependent prepositions or collocations to help you use the word correctly Advice to the Teacher The purpose of this book is to equip non-native speakers of English at upper intermediate level and above with a core of sub-technical vocabulary relevant to the full range of university subjects. In approaching the exercises. each word is presented in an example sentence which aims firstly to provide a context from which students may be able to infer the meaning of the word in question and secondly to give instances of associated words such as collocates and dependent prepositions. thoughtful approach to vocabulary learning. notice in your dictionary that we normally use the word to after the word similar (a 'dependent preposition') and that it is usually policies. To sum up: decide if the word in the example sentence is a verb. If you compare these.

2. the _____________________. defence or taxation. The rise in the number of deaths from AIDS has had a very significant _____________________ on people's sexual behaviour. In 1990. 6. Before we can judge a government's success. a murderer may go to prison for life. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 14. 13. Although not exactly identical. the two books are so _____________________ to each other that one author must have copied much of his book from the other. In newspapers. The new journalist was ____________________ to researching the election promises of the main political parties. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: arbitrary (adj) assign (v) context (n) criterion (n) data (n) denote (v) devise (v) formulate (v) ignore (v) impact (n) similar (adj) summary (n) usage (n) vertical (adj) 1. We use the term "class" to _________________________ groups of people who share the same social and economic backgrounds. In one case. 7. the layout of the columns is _____________________.Unit One 1a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and _________________ new policies. 4 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. and so paved the way for the development of the World Wide Web. 9. . 10. 4. 12. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. the British researcher Tim Berners-Lee _____________________ the first browser. 11. Students should not try to write down everything they hear in a lecture. 8. although they appeared at the top of every page. we have to decide the ____________________. while another may be set free: it all seems completely __________________. Market researchers use _________________________ such as people's spending patterns as well as information about age and occupation to decide on the most effective marketing strategies. One student failed because he completely ________________________ the instructions on the paper. but just make a _____________________ of the most important points. It is often possible to guess the meaning of a word from the other words around it — that is to say. 3. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. while the rows run across the page horizontally. The _____________________ of drugs has increased significantly in spite of more severe penalties such as longer prison sentences. such as unemployment. 5. use each word only once to complete the sentences below.

Increasingly. 13. During the 1970's and 1980's. people are becoming more worried about the danger of pollution and its effect on the environment / ecology. the design of buildings is being adjusted / modified to allow easier access for disabled people. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. decide which word in bold is more suitable. Many students acquire / derive a great deal of enjoyment and satisfaction from their time at university. 5. The lack of extra student accommodation restricted / narrowed the expansion in student numbers which the university was planning. the police followed / pursued the robbers but were unable to catch them. involving / including 23 cars and 16 lorries. Following the bank raid. 2. journals and other resources for study. There has been a major road accident.Unit One 1b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. 5 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. The United Kingdom makes / publishes more books than any other country. it became increasingly evident / visible that companies in the West were uncompetitive. 3. 7. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. the library has an excellent range / variety of books. 9. Although the world is getting warmer slowly. On the basis of the latest survey. the increase in temperature varies / fluctuates from country to country. 10. In many parts of the world. Assessment on this course includes / consists of coursework (30%) and examinations (70%). 1. 8. we know that most people have a very negative / bleak view of politicians and their parties. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 11. 6. 12. Although it is not very big. . Education experts from France travelled to Japan to evaluate / judge the secondary school system there. 4.

Anybody driving a car is obliged by law to have insurance. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. 13. given the magnitude… Although computers are becoming increasingly complex. many Westerners equate… Advertisers use a variety of techniques… At first. …happiness in many different ways. h. …your points by providing some supporting examples. 8. 9. l.… The investigation was stopped because the witnesses could not identify… …theories.Unit One 1c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. c. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). University regulations state that students must pass 18 modules to graduate. f. 6. 3. …them to understand what they actually mean. but realised later that there was a pattern linking them. but we probably all define… Many universities now have language centres to facilitate… Numbers and results are not particularly useful in themselves. but I want you to illustrate… What will the result be if in the future we assume… Students may be asked to compare many alternative… The Channel Tunnel between France and England was constructed… Everyone wants to be happy. …a sun tan with health and youthfulness. $4 was equal to £1. g. …to persuade consumers to buy products and services. …events. 3. b. …language learning for international students. j. …of this problem. a. k. …at a cost of over £8 billion. 6 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 2. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 2. 11. . from which they have to select the most convincing. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: comply with (v) conclude (v) imply (v) method (n) proceed (v) require (v) 1. equivalent (adj) obvious (adj) specify (v) guarantee (n) presume (v) sum (n) If a company does not observe health and safety laws. m. d. i. it may be fined very heavily if any of its workers are injured. I like your essay. 5. we need to interpret… In spite of warnings about cancer. 10. 4. 7. the police viewed the crimes as random… It may be the case that no solution is possible. 12. …that nearly everyone has access to a motor car? …the programs they use are becoming much easier to operate. 1d – Word substitution From the list below. ____________________ For many years. 4. e. …the man they had seen commit the robbery.

succeeding b. method c. 4.Unit One 5. 8. the biggest _________________________ health risk for tourists travelling abroad is actually road traffic accidents. prime c. The lecturer gave the students a 10 minute break before continuing with the rest of her lecture. ____________________ Many people think that oil will run out in the next 100 years. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ It may cost an overseas student around £15. measure In a seminar or tutorial. 7. potential b. a. the Middle East is one of the most unstable __________________________ of the world. diverse c. regions The ___________________________ cause of death today in Britain is heart disease. possible c.or two-year warranty in case something should go wrong. oppress Although it is impossible to give a _________________________ age. points out In political terms. 5. subsequent The clothing of men and women used to be quite ___________________________. but thousands more died from _________________ radiation sickness. Most electrical products have a one. a. dominate c. The fact that crime increases when unemployment goes up seems to suggest a link between the two. In this first assignment. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). with cancer in second place. One problem facing overseas students is adapting to new teaching techniques. choose the best word from a. components b. 2. elements Computers can be difficult to repair because there may be hundreds of different ________________ inside. a. 11. pieces c. . 13. redress Many people were killed instantly at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. many organisations pay higher salaries to _________________ for the high cost of living there. At the end of her talk.000 per year to live and study in ____________________ Britain. distinguished Research _______________________ that customers want free car-parking when they go shopping. On the basis of their examination results. 6. parts Because Paris is expensive. a. 9. locations b. 8. namely oxygen and hydrogen. overwhelm b. a. a. we believe that the woman was between 25 and 30 when she died. claims b. ____________________ ____________________ 1e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. but they are assuming that we will continue to use oil at the same rate as today. the lecturer finished with a brief review of the main points. following c. sections b. 9. distinct b. which is a very large amount of money. b or c: 1. judge c. a. 6. approach Surprisingly perhaps. we will _______________________ your work and then give you detailed feedback on how to improve your writing. compensate b. absolute Rather than try to treat it. everyone should take part rather than allow one person to _______________________ the discussion. a. initial 7 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. indicates c. it was clear that most students had completely misunderstood the first part of the paper. way b. assess b. whereas today women often wear trousers as well as men. a. definite b. the best _________________________ to the problem of poor public health may be to attempt to prevent it. first b. a. a. 12. 3. 10. 7. 11. a. aspects c. 10. theoretical Water is made up of two _______________________. a. certain c. adjust c. 12. places c.

and yet today it is accepted by nearly everyone. In some instances. a Court of Appeal may _________________ _________________ reached at the first trial and released somebody who has been wrongly held in prison. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). For example. the project failed in the long run because of a lack of interest. One travel company is now advertising a completely _________________ _________________ in tourism: flights into outer space by rocket. Investigators have been able to _________________ _________________ between childhood illnesses and industrial pollution.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: new ultimate establish reverse minimum analyse valid new tense leading marital initial constant put forward status responsibility role concept the hypothesis results dimension temperature reason a link atmosphere results the verdict requirement 1. 5. 4. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. Engineers have played a _________________ _________________ in improving our health by giving us clean water supplies. the idea was not taken seriously. At the bottom of the ocean. 7. 13. the water remains at a _________________ _________________ irrespective of changing weather conditions at the surface. If you submit work late. valid can be joined with reason. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. Following the demonstrations by thousands of students. The growth of China will add a _________________ _________________ to the economic and political situation in the Far East. 2. 8 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Students are expected not just to describe what they have done but also to _________________ _________________ when they write a research report. 14. unless you have a _________________ _________________ such as illness. 8. On the form. there was a very _________________ _________________ in the capital. please give your name. although the _________________ _________________ were very promising. 6. but _________________ _________________ rests with the Board of Directors. nationality. 11. perhaps more so than doctors. Most universities require international students to have an IELTS score of at least 6 as a _________________ _________________ for English language competence. 12. 9. you will lose marks and may even be given a fail grade. with many choosing to leave the city and head for the countryside. address and indicate your _________________ _________________. 10. When some scientists originally _________________ _________________ known as global warming.Unit One 1f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. Unfortunately. The Managing Director may run the company. 3. .

Unit One 9 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. . For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

15. Over a _________________ of twenty years. Reports are usually divided into separate _____________________ with headings such as 'Findings' and 'Conclusions. automatic (adj) equilibrium (n) innovative (adj) series (n) conceive (v) period (n) stable (adj) create (v) precede (v) tradition (n) manipulate (v) In order to be successful. some politicians _______________________ other people to get what they want. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: achieve (v) ensue (v) mathematics (n) section (n) 1. wedding guests in most cultures give presents or money to the newlymarried couple. 5. The price of a product will not change if there is _________________ between the supply and the demand for that product. The Internet was first _____________________ of as a way of linking computers in the USA together. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. 8. 6. By ____________________. _______________________ thousands of new jobs.' After a very difficult night. 3. companies which can be __________________ are more likely to succeed. 10 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. his blood pressure became ___________________ again and his family were allowed to visit him. 9. In addition to the regular lectures. 13. Most employers insist that their employees have qualifications in English and _______________. 12. Some academics have argued that standards have been falling because more students are _______________ first class degrees. Although the arrival of coffee in Britain ___________________ that of tea.Unit Two 2a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. 11. 10. we have a __________________ of public lectures given by guest speakers from other universities. Japanese and Korean companies have invested heavily in the UK. . Most planes today are controlled not by human pilots but by a computer system known as an ________________ pilot. the economy grew at an average of 8% per year. 7. 4. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 2. Serious unrest and rioting _____________________ as a result of the decision to ignore the result of the election. 14. Since consumers are always demanding new products. it is the second drink which is the more popular today. which is even responsible for taking off and landing.

Member countries award / contribute money to the United Nations to pay for the running of the organization. 11. Although their plan / design was often very good. The fact that population growth is still accelerating / catching up is one of the most important problems we face. It is now possible to infer / imply a link between using mobile phones and contracting some forms of cancer. Because foreign exchange rates ebb and flow / fluctuate. tanks and aeroplanes consumes a large piece / portion of a country's wealth. A new moon occurs / takes place every 28 days. 2. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 12. Most universities need to earn money from private sources.Unit Two 2b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 6. Prehistoric man could not think / comprehend why the moon appears to grow bigger and then smaller each month. 4. the quality of many British cars tended to be poor. but the important / major part of their funding still comes from the government. Although it is very expensive. Students should not be inert / passive but should try instead to contribute as much as possible to discussions in seminar groups. 3. 13. a law court can authorise / let the police to enter a house without the owner's permission. . 14. 1. 8. 7. the course director and the subject tutor explained their respective / single roles to the new students. it is not always possible for exporters to know how much money they will receive from sales. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 10. decide which bold word is more suitable. In some situations. 9. Expenditure on weapons such as guns. 5. 11 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. On the first day. it is possible to convert / exchange other forms of carbon into diamonds. The main concentration / focus of Greenpeace is on problems concerning pollution.

m. …what they say so that the readers cannot read the truth. …on your work and so it is a good idea to take a break. 5. which completely changed our ideas of time and space. 3. 9.… In the seventeenth century. …by the fact that the patient had a history of heart disease. according to government statistics. …of the European immigrants. there is a coffee bar adjacent… After studying for two hours. b. n. …heat of the fire. 15. rather than from that of the original inhabitants. o. 12 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 7. …the pollution problem from the car itself to the electricity station. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). …at a young age. Einstein published the first part of his theory… Environmentalists point out that electric cars just shift… Most metals expand… As a result of the intense… Fifty years ago. k. 10. c. f. while others may continue to be irresponsible. 14. g. l. 6. …decision to reduce the number of atomic weapons. d. . 11. e. 8. i. it becomes difficult to concentrate… Some children show a great deal of maturity… Sadly. …of relativity.Unit Two 2c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. 4. j. 12. 13. a. most smokers were not aware… The new grading machine has the function… In many universities. h. the US and Soviet governments made the crucial… Politicians often complain that newspapers distort… The history of the Americas is usually from seen from the perspective… An already difficult operation was complicated… …of the dangers of smoking. …to the library where students can take a break. …over 30% of marriages end in divorce within five years. …when they are heated. In 1905. the front half of the train was completely destroyed. 2. …that all objects (heavy or light) fall at the same speed. Galileo demonstrated… In the 1980's. …of separating the larger pieces of metal from the smaller pieces.

The first thing to do is to choose the courses which you would like to study and then look at each university prospectus. Lecturers often speak more loudly and more slowly when they want to stress an important point.Unit Two 2d – Word substitution From the list below. The organisation of the company has changed completely. 11. ___________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. Most economists forecast that China will become a leading world economy in the twenty-first century. ___________________ 10. The decision to give longer prison sentences indicated a hardening of the government's attitude towards drug offenders. ___________________ ___________________ 12. ___________________ 7. When the government increased the tax on petrol. ___________________ 9. through the lungs and along the arteries before reaching the small blood vessels within the skin. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. we have seen an enormous growth in the number of home personal computers. The new computer system created a lot of interest among potential customers. ___________________ 8. Pollution is a problem which has an effect on every country today. ___________________ 14. One important function of newspapers is to uncover dishonest behaviour and wrong-doing by those in power. Until the sixteenth century. ___________________ 6. there was a resultant rise in transport costs. In the first instance. ___________________ 4. ___________________ 13. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). capillary (n) generate (v) select (v) notion (n) decade (n) emphasise (v) pertinent (adj) undergo (v) consequent (adj) signify (v) structure (n) Over the previous ten years. ___________________ 5. the idea that the Earth moves around the Sun was regarded as a ridiculous idea. The company has experienced a number of significant changes in the last few years. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. 13 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: affect (v) expose (v) predict (v) 1. the blood passes out of the heart. with far fewer senior managers. ___________________ 2. whereas today we accept this concept as completely normal. One difficult aspect of writing an essay is selecting material which is relevant to the topic and excluding irrelevant information. ___________________ 3. .

rough Some economists argue that new ______________ causes unemployment while others feel that it allows more jobs to be created. got As everyone knows. segments b. concept Further information can be ______________ from the nearest British Council office. the ______________ age of the universe is about 4. 3. chapters c. external c. 14 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. approximate b. phase c. a. a. a. idea c. general c. contemporary c. sections One problem for any teacher is that each student has his/her own ______________ needs. a. variation The allied forces launched ______________ bombing raids on several important sites in and around the enemy capital. 5. a. coincidental Students are often advised to look at the first and last ______________ of a book before attempting to read it in detail. choose the best word from a. process b. 6.b or c: 1. technology After you have submitted your application. verify b. 9. outside b.Unit Two 2e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. 12. realistic 2. 13. a. a. 4. a. transition In the some countries. a. contrast c. science b. pieces c. certify c. found c. opposite b. but we must have _______________ evidence to support them. 11. simultaneous b. outlying There is a marked ______________ between the poverty of the poorest members of society and the affluence of the richest. doctors later found that he was suffering from internal bleeding. Although he had no _____________ injuries. . a. individual c.6 billion years. obtained b. there is no tax on books on the ______________ that education should not be taxed. 7. investigate Young children go through a ______________ in their development when they try to copy everything they hear. distinctive Good theories are important of course. a. a. principle b. a. 14. engineering c. titles Although this is far from certain. true c. separate b. headings b. magnetic c. 8. certain metals such as iron and steel can have a __________________ field while others like copper cannot. always try to break up a longer piece of text into small blocks of words. the university will attempt to ______________ that the information you have supplied is correct. a. empirical b. electrical b. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). chemical Just as dividing up an orange into _____________ makes it easier to eat. 10.

There is considerable doubt over whether the proposal by the American government for a manned trip to Mars is technically and _________________ _________________ Tigers (and other large cats) are now an _________________ _________________ and may disappear altogether in the future. 10. 4. Are the mind and body the same thing or are they two _________________ _________________? 2. is still a contract. 8. the satellite is still continuing to _________________ _________________ to Earth. In spite of advances in technology.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: endangered separate transmit precise natural assert reacted sequence of devote highly inhibit verbal events signals details growth entities sophisticated species agreement angrily feasible the right phenonema time and money economically 1. a _________________ _________________ even though it is not written down like a formal contract. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. 13. drug companies have to _________________ _________________ on a huge scale to their research and development activities. Most economists believe that high taxes _________________ _________________ in the economy. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.Unit Two 2f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. In law. 9. One threat facing companies today is _________________ _________________ computer 'hackers' who break into the most advanced computer systems. African nations started to _________________ _________________ to become independent. The accident was the result of a tragic _________________ _________________ which could have been prevented with better safety procedures. 3. In spite of its age. While she refused to give any _________________ _________________. 7. . After the Second World War. 6. 11. 5. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 15 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. In order to produce new medicines. 12. the Minister admitted that several people had been arrested. we are still at risk from _________________ _________________ such as earthquakes and floods. The company _________________ _________________ to the suggestion that its products were unsafe.

.Unit Two 16 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

use each word only once to complete the sentences below. 8. 10. In __________________. 3. 5. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). we study the physical features of the world – such as rivers and mountains – and how we make use of them. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: co-ordinate (v) norm (n) scheme (n) 1. result in. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. most ___________________ point to a significant increase in average air temperatures in the next 100 years. Remember that some verbs may need to be followed by a _____________________. 17 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. but this doesn't take account of the fact that we often use our emotions instead. 9. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. but what we are not so sure about is the ___________________ cause of this. 12. Although speech is mostly continuous sound. while at the opposite __________________ many Third World countries have not grown at all. such as lead to. . 2. and so on. Most economic theories assume that people act on a ___________________ basis. 11. Most countries in the Far East have developed very quickly. 7. written language is divided up into ___________________ units which we call words. While half of the students were responsible for writing the questionnaires. 6. Everyone knows that diseases such as malaria are on the increase again. the others had the __________________ of analysing the data. One of the roles of the Managing Director is to ___________________ the work of different departments to ensure that they work well together. discrete (adj) pole (n) source (n) estimate (n) preposition (n) task (n) geography (n) rational (adj) underlie (v) Paying for large purchases by credit card instead of in cash has become the ___________________ in many parts of the world. Although we cannot be sure. 4. The government has launched a new ___________________ aimed at reducing youth unemployment.Unit Three 3a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. The purpose of a bibliography at the end of an essay is to show the ____________________ of information used in writing the essay.

viewers have access to more television channels. The opinions expressed in a newspaper usually reflect the views of the proprietor / landlord. decide which word in bold is more suitable. There are many reasons behind the success of the fastest-growing economies. but this style of dress is not correct / appropriate when they start work. Extreme religious groups living in isolated communes / societies have been responsible for a number of violent crimes. The transition / transit from a communist to a free-market economy has been very difficult for a number of countries. 6. the President convened / gathered a meeting of his top advisors at the White House. . but one common factor / idea seems to be high levels of education. An important social and political topic / issue in many developed countries is the growing number of old people. 12. Because of the growth in the number of communication stations / satellites in space. 9. Because the weather was so bad. In order to discuss the implications of the crisis. 5. 4.Unit Three 3b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. If somebody has a diet which is deficient / inadequate in vitamins. the astronauts abandoned / left their attempt to launch the space shuttle. 3. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Sometimes. 11. 8. Students usually dress casually at university. Although the characters were very convincing. he/she may suffer poor health as a result. unexpected economic changes force an organisation to deviate / divert from its original business plan. 18 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. the tale / plot was so weak that the film was a failure. 10. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 1. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 2. 7.

… Multi-national companies are often keen to seek… The Earth rotates… It is better to work at a constant rate and to maintain… Nowadays. the children often adapt… a. Edinburgh and Cardiff. g. …within society and can lead to violence. c. 2. …of the future. while others are much more optimistic. 11. 3. k. …to their new environment more quickly than their parents.Unit Three 3c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. e. …of the monarchy to life in modern society. 19 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. j. h. 6. d. . …local companies in developing economies willing to act as partners. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). …more people from the unemployment totals. 8. …although the police were heavily armed and very aggressive. E and C on the map correspond… Some environmentalists have a very bleak vision… One way in which some countries can produce very cheap goods is to exploit… The demonstrators refused to disperse. Resentment and jealousy over jobs is a common source of conflict… Many members of the public question the relevance… Retraining courses for the unemployed may just be a way to exclude… The letters L. 12. l. 4. 7. i. 5. f. …to London. most people have a more favourable attitude… If a family moves abroad. b. 9. …child workers by paying them very low wages. …on its axis once every 24 hours. …this during the year rather than to try to learn everything the night before the examinations. 10. …towards women having top positions in the workplace.

___________________ 12. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: accomplish (v) conduct (n) exert (v) adequate (adj) consume (v) manifest in (v) area (n) credible (adj) occupy (v) chemical (n) dispose of (v) rely on (v) 1. . he achieved a great deal in his short life. as shown by his very poor examination results. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). A growing number of scientists find it plausible that other life forms may exist elsewhere in the universe. He suffers from a lack of self-confidence. Although Mozart lived for only 40 years. ___________________ 5. a university will make sure that the student's English is sufficient. the USA exercises considerable influence over world politics. Poisonous substances released into the sea may be absorbed by fish and then find their way into the human food chain. many regions of the world will become drier while others may become wetter. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Environmentalists are keen to persuade us to throw away rubbish and waste in more environmentally-friendly ways. ___________________ 10. ___________________ 8. Because of its economic and military strength. ___________________ 7. ___________________ 11. ___________________ 9. Prisoners are sometimes released from prison early if their behaviour has been good. go to the library early as all the places tend to be filled very quickly. Before accepting an overseas student. ___________________ 4. At examination time. ___________________ 2. ___________________ 20 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. ___________________ 3.Unit Three 3d – Word substitution From the list below. ___________________ 6. If global warming continues. Some countries have such great economic problems that they are forced to depend on aid from richer countries in order to feed their inhabitants. The North Americans use more energy and resources than any other nation.

12. 21 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 6. . a. adjust b. displayed b. a. value 2. 9. change The changes companies make to their cars are often very ______________________ and may not change the basic structure of the cars at all. 4. circumstances The results of the government inquiry ______________________ that there had been no deliberate attempt by the company to deceive investors. revealed c. 7. Before giving a presentation. and as a result the pilot made an error and crashed. explained One important aspect of marketing is to create a positive ______________________ of a company or product. I would really ______________________ some help with this assignment. biggest In special ______________________. objective b. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). a. people are probably more familiar with ______________________ on the television and radio rather than in the theatre. explicit c. 5. places b. 11. choose the best word from a. appreciate b. motive c. a. purpose The first two weeks of the course are designed to ______________________ new students and to allow them to settle into university life. style Today. contact If you have time. touch b. image b. microscopic b. drama b.Unit Three 3e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. 10. move c. a. a. complete A large number of people became ill after receiving blood transfusions ______________________ with the AIDS virus. 3. b or c: 1. polluted b. instruct c. poisoned c. always ______________________ the focus on the projector so that everyone can read what is on the screen. 8. minute Although most cars can travel much faster. a. a. the ______________________ speed limit in the UK is 70 mph (110 kph). a. a. a. introduce The instructions from air traffic control were not fully ______________________. picture c. superficial c. total b. acting c. orientate b. times c. a person who is found guilty of murder may receive no punishment at all from the court. 13. respect c. a. contaminated Joining a newsgroup allows computer users to make ______________________ with other people who share a similar interest. a. play Police could not understand why the arrested man had murdered his neighbour since he appeared to have no ______________________. highest c. maximum b. approach c.

Unfortunately. 3. Some people found Mrs Thatcher's style somewhat aggressive. Employers are always keen to recruit staff with good qualifications and relevant _________________ _________________. 10. His doctor advised him to give up fatty foods and to take some form of _________________ _________________ such as golf. Coca-Cola is probably the _________________ _________________ of a product that is known world-wide. In most countries. Those language learners who focus on the _________________ _________________ of living in a new culture rather than on the disadvantages tend to learn more quickly. 2. The university refused to make a _________________ _________________ on his application until he had taken a language test. 22 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. as the name implies. . 5. 12. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. 11. After the Second World War. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. Because she was an _________________ _________________ of the government.Unit Three 3f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). there was a _________________ _________________ in Britain and so workers from other countries had to be recruited. linking computers all over the world. is really a huge _________________ _________________. 6. 9. 7. while others preferred to regard her as having a forceful and _________________ _________________. rising crime rates seem to be an increasingly _________________ _________________ of life in big cities today. she was kept under house arrest for a number of years. Mercedes-Benz cars are very famous because they are regarded as symbols of _________________ _________________. 8. Without doubt. 4. earning millions of dollars. Tourism is now a very significant part of the _________________ _________________.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: global power and outspoken physical common previous dynamic labour computer final positive classic shortage prestige experience aspects personality example decision network exercise critic feature economy 1. The Internet.

Unit Three 23 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. .

For some university courses. 8. 11. Psychology / Biology can help the police understand how criminals think. 4.Unit Four 4a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. Studying a language can take up a great deal of time. scientists were keen to assess / investigate the cause of the accident. A large number of people _________________ outside the Parliament to show support for their party. 10. Usually. Following the explosion at Chernobyl. many scientists _________________ that life may exist on other planets. the house was unsafe because the walls were no longer _________________. the bank praises / appraises all of its staff and gives a bonus to the best performers. 5. but some researchers think that this comparison is too simplistic. The police have a duty to _________________ the law fairly and give everyone the same treatment. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Because hundreds of people were dying. At the end of the year. Although he was interested in many fields. 2. 12. 5. money and _________________. 3. Artificial intelligence draws an _________________ between the digital computer and the human brain. Einstein is best known for his work in the sphere / globe of physics. The spell-check facility on a computer allows students to check the _________________ of their assignments for basic errors. At the beginning of the examination. The imaginary line between the North Pole and the South Pole is known as the Earth's axis / axle. we try to reach a conclusion after careful thought. 24 . 9. Although there is very little evidence. the United Nations decided to _________________ and provide emergency food supplies. 4b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. 3. analogy (n) impress (v) speculate (v) assemble (v) intervene (v) spontaneous (adj) distribute (v) perpendicular (adj) text (n) She so _________________ the interviewers that they gave her the job. 4. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: administer (v) energy (n) reject (v) 1. 1. decide which word in bold is more suitable. 2. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). but sometimes we may make _________________ decisions instead. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Following the earthquake. 6. 7. the majority of applications are _________________ because the competition for places is so great. question papers were _________________ to all of the candidates in the hall.

causing heavy flooding. 8. while others show no emotion / sympathy at all. …his decision to reduce spending on education. 10. some approximate / tentative conclusions can already be drawn from the responses we have so far. you can see a diagram… In mathematics. 11. 9. …for several days. 6. On the screen above me. After he had moved to Australia. 10. e. with no conclusions as yet. f. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 4c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. k. h. c. If you are taking notes in a lecture. 7. 7. 4. The two sides have been engaged for some hours now in a lengthy discourse / chat on the issue of weapons. j. …more UV radiation is reaching the Earth. l. d. …if we can prove it by using logic and reasoning. resulting in more skin cancer. …their colleagues from prison. …outcome was agreement on all the main points. a. use shapes / symbols such as "+" and "=" as opposed to the words 'and' and 'equals. In a dangerous situation. with many more part-time and mature students. …that all the goods had to be delivered within four weeks. a statement is known as a theorem… The student population is much more diverse… Older university buildings may be wonderful in aesthetic… The contract stipulated… The Internet may soon not be capable… The police usually contact parents about any incident… Because of pollution in the atmosphere. 9. 8. . …than in the past. …showing the different parts of the system. 12. …of sending all the information users want.Unit Four 6. he started to acquire / obtain a marked Australian accent. g. but the eventual… Heavy rains persisted… …terms. …which involves young children.' The principle of heredity / inheritance explains why children tend to look like their parents. 11. Although the work is far from finished. b. most people panic and become very frightened. 25 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.… The terrorists demanded that the government release… One journalist asked the minister to justify… The negotiations went on through the night. i. 5. 2. 3. but are not always very practical.

___________________ 8. ___________________ 10. When the interest in the company declined. there is a pool of people who are unemployed because they do not have any skills. Your research proposal doesn't need to be too detailed: keep it simple and concentrate on the main points. ___________________ 26 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. As so many jobs require good skills. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Because of the possible link between disease in cows and humans. ___________________ 5. reservoir (n) The prisoner claimed that he had been attacked by the police. A number of universities are worried about legal action in the law courts by students who are dissatisfied with their courses. ___________________ 3. During the last twenty-five years. ___________________ 6. The government's refusal to accept the result of the election prompted thousands of people to come out on to the streets and protest. ___________________ 7. but there was no evidence to prove this.Unit Four 4d – Word substitution From the list below. ___________________ 9. the value of its shares began to fall. ___________________ 2. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: allege (v) alter (v) cease (v) philosophy (n) subside (v) elaborate (adj) litigation (n) upsurge (n) fragment (n) induce (v) 1. Global warming will change the way we live: everybody will experience some change. there has been a significant increase in the number of overseas students in British universities. many companies stopped trading in British beef and associated products. ___________________ 11. investigators examine every piece of the wreckage to determine the cause of the crash. The most recent management thinking encourages managers to listen more carefully to the ideas of their employees. Following an air accident. . ___________________ 4. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

credited to b. 8. trials The Channel Tunnel between France and the United Kingdom was a huge engineering __________________. goal If public transport is to succeed in serving the public. integrate b. understanding The __________________ of the American space programme in the 1960's was to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade. development c. a. 6. comprise c. eradicated c. a. unite c. elements Young army officers led the violent __________________ which brought down the democraticallyelected government. policy c. it is important to __________________ services such as trains and buses so that they work together and offer a more convenient service. eliminated b. 12. thought c. a. attributed to One of the reasons for the relatively high price of many drugs is the huge cost of __________________ and development. and another for contacting people outside the university. ambition b. a. logic b. 10. are composed of 2. __________________ of uranium are split into smaller particles. revolt b. atoms b.Unit Four 4e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. research c. 27 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. constitute b. 9. imprint b. a. a. 4. 1. indoors The police interviewed three men but later __________________ them from their investigation as they were all innocent. chunks c. way The recent rise in leukaemia and similar diseases has been __________________ radiation leaking from the nearby nuclear power station. b or c. internal c. releasing huge amounts of energy. since all its operations are based on __________________. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). The former West Germany tried to __________________ its business approach onto the former East Germany. exterminated A computer cannot blindly guess the answer to a question. a. attempt We have two e-mail systems here: one for __________________ use. a. 3. 11. a. combine Approximately 30 of the world's most industrialised countries __________________ the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. a. 7. a. enforce c. led to c. experiments b. choose the best word from a. point c. 5. a. project b. inside b. superimpose In a nuclear power station. .

) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: atom embodies dedicated military mobile flatly high dense Western judicial fog system service proportion bombs contradicted phones culture his life the principle 1. In many European countries compulsory _________________ _________________ is the norm. 6. 9. whereas in Britain no one is required to join the armed forces. An official spokesman _________________ _________________ allegations that the company had been responsible for the deaths of three employees. Nelson Mandela _________________ _________________ to achieving equality between black and white people in South Africa. we will need more new telephone numbers. One major criticism of the _________________ _________________ in Britain is that there are not enough female judges. 3. In some countries. 4. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 5. 10. The policy of privatisation _________________ _________________ of a property-owning democracy. 28 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. . _________________ _________________ has been rejected in favour of a more traditional view of society.Unit Four 4f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. 7. an airport may be closed down to prevent the possibility of an accident. A _________________ _________________ of people released from prison continue to commit offences. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. Because of the growth in fax machines and _________________ _________________ . As more countries acquire the technology necessary to produce _________________ _________________. 2. insisting that every precaution had been taken. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. When there is heavy snow or _________________ _________________ . For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. 8. the probability that they will be used again increases.

© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.Unit Four 29 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. . For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

7. 3. but luckily their tutor was able to ____________________ them. 12. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: aid (n) homogeneous (adj) trait (n) 1. 2. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Japan may well be the most ____________________ as the great majority of its people are from the same race. 10. . 8. 11. 5. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. ____________________ can be defined simply as the study of life. She found physics easy because some of the course ____________________ with the maths she had studied at school. biology (n) overlap (v) trivial (adj) edit (v) stress (n) version (n) enlighten (v) symptom (n) x-rays (n) __________________ are not simply used to photograph broken bones but also to fight against cancers within the body. Jealousy is one of the most unpleasant human ________________________. but the second witness gave a very different __________________ of events. 9. inadequate exercise and too much ____________________. These experiments may seem ____________________ but they are in fact extremely important. 30 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Headaches may just be the result of tiredness but can be a ____________________ of a more serious problem. couples who were previously unable to have children may now be able to start a family. With the __________________ of new medical techniques.Unit Five 5a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. The first witness accused the defendant of murder. 4. 6. Heart disease can be caused by a bad diet (especially too much fat). Two students had great difficulty in solving the equation. One big advantage of a word processor is that it allows you to check and then _________________ your work easily. Of all the countries in the world.

each of the others made a full confession. 2. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). drink. 8. smoke or talk for the time / duration of the examination. 31 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. governments usually stop / suppress any newspaper reports which contain bad news. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 7. Although one of the prisoners refused to respond / answer to any questions. 12. plants soak up / absorb CO2 and release oxygen. The UK Government can decide to suspend / expel an overseas student who does not have a visa and refuse permission for the student to return. it is perhaps the motor car which has transformed / modified our lives more than anything else. During the process known as photosynthesis. 3. decide which word in bold is more suitable. Divorce arouses such strong feelings that it is difficult to remain honest / objective and logical about the best way to tackle this problem. 1. conjunctions (and. The opening of a new car factory stimulated / aroused the local economy and improved employment possibilities. Of all recent inventions. Examination candidates are not allowed to eat. go). 11. 5. in. green). During times of war. The United Nations representative managed to secure / acquire agreement between the two sides who had been fighting over an area of land rich in oil. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 10. When the government tried to implement / start new employment legislation. there was a general strike. 6. 4. for) are all categories / groups of words. 9. but) and prepositions (to.Unit Five 5b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. Adjectives (big. So many contrary / unlike opinions were expressed that no agreement was possible. verbs (come. .

c. d. they may completely forget recent events. g. e. …that he had accepted money from any criminal group. f. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. …the author's name. b. …additional safety features. the date and the page number: (Brown 1996:76). 6.… The measurements taken by researchers must be accurate… Religion has many aspects. …of conduct to show people how they should behave. 7. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. …moving around the proton at the centre. The European Union has insisted that all new aircraft incorporate… In today's economy. 8. 11. 4. 32 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. j. h. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). one of which is to provide a code… Although many elderly people retain… At university. k. impersonal style… Some clothes can be made from synthetic… Inside the hydrogen atom. …in your writing. remember to put in parentheses… Because the universe is so vast. 12. there is one electron… a. …materials such as nylon as well as natural materials such as cotton. 10. …otherwise the conclusions they come to will be useless. full-time permanent jobs… Most British students used to receive a grant… The police officer denied… At the end of a quotation. …clear memories of their childhood. food and books. i. and to avoid contractions such as 'isn't' and 'doesn't'. …are disappearing to be replaced by part-time temporary employment. 5. it is best to use a formal. …from the government to pay for costs such as rent. 9. 2. . …it is unlikely that man will be able travel to other galaxies. l. 3.Unit Five 5c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1.

while opponents argue that such service disrupts young people's education. __________________ 3. __________________ 9. choose one word which could be used to replace the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Although the factory had to be closed. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. __________________ 4. Those who support military service claim that it promotes discipline. 33 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. __________________ 5. __________________ 10. initial results suggest that the President has won the election. __________________ 6. you can see that unemployment has been in decline for the past six years. One of the many effects of the hole in the ozone layer is that increased radiation will delay the growth of plants and lead to food shortages. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: advocate (v) compound (n) insist (v) subtle (adj) contract (v) preliminary (adj) tiny (adj) transfer (v) dictate (v) graph (n) retard (v) 1. __________________ 8. only a very small proportion of consumers made a permanent change in their buying habits. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). If you look at this second chart. __________________ 7. The prisoner said repeatedly that he was innocent until he was released. __________________ 11. Some organisations have a dress code which lays down what their employees should wear.Unit Five 5d – Word substitution From the list below. __________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. Most metals shrink as they become cooler. Although not all the votes have been counted. In spite of a massive advertising campaign. Although the two cases seemed to be identical. all the employees were relocated to another factory belonging to the same company. one lawyer showed that there were some slight differences between them. __________________ 2. Water is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen. .

a. customer c. a. a. drill c. post-graduate students are asked to become teaching assistants in order to ___________________ undergraduates. extension 5. restore 4. You can buy goods on the Internet with a credit card. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). b or c. choose the best word from a. corruption b. embezzlement 34 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. instruct b.Unit Five 5e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. confronted b. superior 8. The invention of printing allowed ideas to __________________ much more quickly than before. encountered 6. supplement c. disseminate 7. rudimentary c. Police officers face many dangers. but now they are highly developed. a. A defence lawyer has a duty to try to establish the innocence of his/her ____________________. In many cultures. met c. client 12. a. manage b. crude b. reinstate b. a. renew c. diffuse c. patient b. scatter b. Increasingly. uncomplicated 9. message c. use c. a. a. it was traditionally believed that men were _________________ to women. but there is a danger of ____________________ if someone else obtains the number. but this attitude has been changing rapidly in recent years. tag 11. reinforcement b. inferior c. disagreements c. label b. better b. 1. facilities for tourists were rather ___________________. a. Many athletes take extra vitamins as a/an ________________ to their diet when they are preparing for competition. Engineers worked throughout the night to ________________ electricity to homes whose supplies had been cut off by heavy snow. . a. Cigarette packets on sale are required to carry a _________________ clearly stating the dangers of smoking. fraud c. a. especially when they are __________________ by violent criminals carrying weapons. disputes 2. The role of the middle manager is not to formulate new policies but to ______________ them. As trade union membership has declined. a. inform 10. In the early years. execute 3. arguments b. the number of ______________ and strikes has also decreased.

11. 35 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 3. 4. Because of the danger of an explosion.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: force of at regular lines abstract imposed crisis of err on within a research perpetrated a ban concern thought confidence crimes gravity intervals intersect institutes radius legitimate the side of caution 1. 5. Following the rise in violence. 10. There is a tradition that a falling apple helped Newton develop his theory about the _________________ _________________. most animals appear to experience a range of emotions. everyone who was _________________ _________________ of 500 metres of the bomb was evacuated. 6. it is better to _________________ _________________ and recheck the results. perhaps every month or every quarter. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. 7. Most academic journals are published _________________ _________________. 2. In the 1970's. 9. the government _________________ _________________ on the private ownership of guns. Most people accept that fighting against terrorism is a _________________ _________________ of any government. . 8. On this graph. He _________________ _________________ which were so terrible that a massive manhunt was launched by the police to find him. causing an international economic _________________ _________________. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. there is increasing hope that effective treatments for AIDS will soon be available. Before publishing the results of new research. While it is probably true they are not capable of _________________ _________________. the price of oil increased dramatically. where the two _________________ _________________ we find the ideal balance.Unit Five 5f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. Because of the work of _________________ _________________.

Unit Five 36 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. .

President Roosevelt introduced _______________ new policies to solve the American unemployment problem. from the managers at the top down to the employees at the bottom. cold. Some religious groups _______________________ that Darwin's theory of evolution is completely wrong. a young baby will start to cry if it is hungry. The argument became so heated that it soon _______________________ into accusations of dishonesty and corruption. During the 1930's. 9. and so he made the driver stop. 3. 7. but it is still too early to claim that machines can actually think for themselves. Some people emphasise the _________________ of new technology. Students at university are encouraged to play sports or join clubs in addition to following their ________________ studies. 4. 2. Animals with a very fast ___________________ have to eat very frequently and do not live very long. or in pain. ___________________ of rock likely to contain oil have recently been located under the ice-sheet in Antarctica. while others stress the disadvantages. 37 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 6. By _______________________. use each word only once to complete the sentences below.Unit Six 6a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. The fact that the car was being driven very badly ___________________ the policeman's suspicions. We can make machines which can _________________ huge numbers of mathematical problems. 10. 12. 5. . For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 8. An organisational chart shows the company __________________ . All the equipment is made up of __________________ pieces which can be easily assembled in weightless conditions. 11. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: academic (adj) contend (v) interlocking (adj) arouse (v) degenerate (v) metabolism (n) benefit (n) hierarchy (n) radical (adj) compute (v) instinct (n) strata (n) 1.

6c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. 11. …for most of the previous century. …to the same safety and pollution regulations. l. …centres today. In India. g. 4. 2. and these special words can make progress very slow. any parts which are not of uniform… When selecting new employees. b. …was the fact that the murderers were both under 10 years old. 9. it is important to ignore subjective… Buildings in places such as California have to be reinforced… In the United Kingdom. He is such a powerful boxer that all his opponents are in awe / fright of him. …in our solar system. a. …the university careers service can give you advice. 10. The appeal / claim by protesters for more money to be invested in education was rejected by the Government. 8. …shape and size are rejected and sent back for recycling. i. Government safety inspectors found abnormal / unlikely levels of radiation in the area around the nuclear power station. h. you should avoid alcohol as the two may interact / cooperate and make you ill. Medium. m. 5. 12. before her son became king in 1901. 11. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).… The murder was a very strange case but the most striking aspect… All new cars on the market today have to conform… The Pope in Rome is – according to the doctrine… Cars are not allowed to enter many civic… The police accompanied… The film was made on a very low budget. If you are taking medicine. Mahatma Gandhi refused all food and indeed nearly died in his protest / complaint against British control of his country. 10. k. 9. j. 8. because of pollution and congestion problems. 2. …impressions and to base decisions on facts instead. c.… At the end of the process.Unit Six 6b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. 6./ Middle-sized companies are often more flexible than larger organisations. 3. Companies which cannot adapt to changing situations very often go into decline / decrease. 13. The tone / style of the meeting was rather serious and formal. More than 30. decide which word is more suitable: 1. e. Queen Victoria reigned… …the witness to the court to ensure that he would be safe. Studying a new subject means having to learn a lot of new vocabulary / terminology. Most universities oblige / force overseas students to take an English language test before they start their course. 7. f. d. 5. …so that they will not collapse in the event of an earthquake. …of the Catholic Church – the representative of God here on Earth. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. The decision to expand the airport has caused a great deal of controversy. 6. Many police officers argue that ex-prisoners commit / perform as much crime after they come out of prison as before they went in. …roles were played by people from the local area. …but construction has already started and should be completed soon. 38 . so all the minor… Mercury is the smallest planet… Whatever type of job you may be contemplating.000 people participated / contributed in the experiment. 4. 3. 12. 7.

By the age of three. In recent environmental demonstrations. Because of unhappy childhood experiences. Students should not read every page of a book but instead identify and then take out only those ideas which are relevant. Some students will stay up all night to finish their work. but it is impossible to maintain this for very long and so it is not recommended. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: activist (n) extract (v) propensity (n) 1. Heavy smokers have a tendency to develop lung cancer and other serious illnesses. 39 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. students are not allowed to talk to or help other students in any way. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. ___________________ 7. ___________________ 6. campaigners have protested against the building of new roads. It is impossible to grow crops without an adequate supply of water. During examinations. One of the main causes of the increase in inner-city lawlessness is the number of young people dependent on drugs. 2. ___________________ 4. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). ___________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. assist (v) clarify (v) converse (v) incline (v) sustain (v) propagate (v) urban (adj) ___________________ The lecturer tried to explain her point more clearly by using another example more familiar to her students. ___________________ 9. ___________________ 5.Unit Six 6d – Word substitution From the list below. he is disposed to believe that most people are basically very selfish. ___________________ 8. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. most children are able to talk with an adult in a limited fashion. ___________________ 10. ___________________ 3. .

an adult c. a. revise c. 11. 6. 12. 10. b or c: 1. unite c. 13. a. and people who do not so may be punished in the courts. place There are many parts of the world which are ______________________ enough to produce food but do not have enough water. rewrite b. sympathise c. productive b. a. collided The journalist asked the Prime Minister repeatedly about the scandal but he refused to ______________________ on it. North Korea is still relatively underdeveloped. students are often asked to ______________________ to produce a group report or presentation together. console b. the employers agreed reluctantly to _____________________ their pay offer to the workers. employees receive extra ______________________ if they do extra work. binding Because the strikers still refused to return to work.Unit Six 6e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. position b. choose the best word from a. income b. locate c. discuss Despite a great deal of evidence to the contrary. the German government decided to move the capital from Bonn and ______________________ it once more in Berlin. mention c. volume c. a. legal b. prospered c. compulsory c. fertile c. assured c. hit c. 4. an individual Many scientists believe that most dinosaurs were killed as a result of a huge meteor which ______________________ with the Earth 65 million years ago. 5. reproduce The age at which a child becomes ______________________ in the United Kingdom is 18. 9. a. comment b. cheer The ______________________ of world trade increased enormously during the twentieth century. a. 7. tobacco companies ______________________ the public for years that smoking was not a direct cause of cancer. a. revenue c. . agricultural Most universities have trained counsellors who can reassure and ______________________ students who have academic or personal problems. co-operate 2. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). achieved In most companies. scope To improve teamworking. size b. a person b. 3. assist b. crashed b. a. persuaded While South Korea has ______________________ over the last fifty years. a. a. a. a. Wearing a seatbelt when travelling in a car is now a ______________________ requirement in many countries. promised b. succeeded b. a. salary Following unification. 40 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 8.

8. While the Volkswagen car was designed to appeal to the masses. In order to increase pressure on the government. 5. . (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. _________________ _________________ were imposed preventing the sale of oil. 3. university life just seems to be an _________________ _________________ of assignment after assignment. Sometimes. Some lecturers are difficult to follow because they _________________ _________________ and talk about something completely different. After two months of non-stop fighting there was a _________________ _________________ of peace on Christmas Day before the fighting started again.Unit Six 6f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. 6. niche brief under southern economic go off at endless hemisphere their goals reality a tangent your nerve cycle sanctions interlude twins market the microscope When you look at your exam paper. In spite of equal opportunities policies. _________________ _________________ is now so advanced that pilots train with it. The countries in the _________________ _________________ are in general poorer than those in the northern. 9. the Rolls Royce has only ever been aimed at a _________________ _________________. 4. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Some insects are so small that they can only really be seen properly _________________ _________________. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. 41 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 11.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: keep identical attain virtual 1. try to _________________ _________________ and don't panic. 10. concentrate on what you can do! 2. Most _________________ _________________ not only look alike but also behave and even dress similarly. 7. women are still not able to _________________ _________________ as easily as men in terms of reaching the top positions.

For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.Unit Six 42 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. .

2. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: adolescent (n) collapse (v) friction (n) affiliate (v) commodity (n) invoke (v) aristocracy (n) democracy (n) repudiate (v) cell (n) dissolve (v) saint (n) muscle (n) 1. In times of unemployment. 9. ___________________ can arise between people who have jobs and those who do not. Many political scientists argue that it is impossible to have a truly modern economy without ___________________ and a more open society. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). He was more than a national hero. As a result of the revolution of 1917. 7b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. . the Managing Director ___________________ all suggestions that the company had tried to avoid responsibility for the accident. in fact. there has been a worrying increase in the number of _____________________ taking drugs. 13. 12. 2. At the public enquiry. Individuals who have become very rich through business usually also have a lot of political ___________________ and can therefore influence political decisions. _____________________ are the tiny. 8. 3. 11. Computer equipment can become obsolete / antique very quickly because new technology emerges so fast. the economy remained depressed / distressed because consumers still felt insecure about their jobs. the building ___________________ killing more than 300 people inside. the royal family and the ___________________ in Russia were overthrown and a communist government was installed. In many countries. citizens can ______________________ the right to silence if they do not want to answer a question in court.Unit Seven 7a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. 10. 6. most people looked up to him almost as a ____________________. 43 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. there is a slight odour / fragrance because of the chlorine in the water. 7. steel and sugar. 3. and refute / contradict even wellestablished theories such as evolution. Although unemployment was falling. Without any warning. In order to become more powerful. In swimming pools. 4. Some religious groups are strongly opposed to modern science. 4. basic building blocks from which all living creatures are made up. trade unions usually ___________________ to a national union organisation. decide which word in bold more suitable 1. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. ___________________ markets allow traders to buy and sell raw materials such as cotton. In the USA. Sugar and salt ___________________ easily in water. 5.

Recent tests show that girls are getting higher scores / results than boys in most school subjects. 44 . …law based on the Koran. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). b. …which is concerned for example with lines and the shapes and angles they make. c. President Saddam Hussein of Iraq invaded… The new management team managed to revive… When we talk about sociology. 7. 8.… Electrical equipment is usually supplied with a fuse. 2. 12. When designers choose material for making new clothes. Increasingly. d. …and concentrated resources on the airforce instead. Some species of birds migrate / commute from North Africa to Britain. 13. 9. 10. e. …between the communist and capitalist worlds. 12. …which will blow if a fault develops. …rather than speak in great detail about this new topic. There are so many aircraft using Heathrow Airport these days that the noise is almost incessant / eternal. The creditors / debtors of a company are those individuals or organisations to whom that company owes money. the chance of an accident will increase. j. they are particularly interested in the colour and the touch / texture of the material. 11. 7. The defendant is allowed to discuss / confer with his/her lawyer before and during the trial. 11. Before the election. 5. 8. …the company. f. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. I just want to give you a brief sketch… Fifty years after the Second World War. a state of tension prevailed… Like the United States Congress. a. 10. 9. g.Unit Seven 5. all the main political parties tried to explain their main policy / line to the voters through television broadcasts and newspaper advertisements. …we are interested in the study of society and how people behave within it.… Muslims have a system of divine… In 1991. the UK Parliament… Early computers were very cumbersome… The Government has reduced the number of ships in the navy… …due to the economic growth of the last 30 years. i. it seems that politicians who are dogmatic / pragmatic rather than rigid in their views tend to be more successful. One branch of mathematics is geometry. k. 7c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. l. which many had thought was beyond hope. 6. 3. 4. 6. …the neighbouring country of Kuwait. h. …but today they are much smaller.… People in Japan enjoy a great deal of affluence… In this lecture. …is responsible for making laws. If the pattern / configuration of the control panel in an aircraft makes it difficult for the pilot to read the instruments. called the Cold War.

peasant (n) prudence (n) In many types of music. Companies often give employees inducements such as bonuses and pay rises to encourage them to work harder. and I thought that her decision not to expand the company showed a great deal of wisdom. 8. Only a small proportion of the competitors in the Olympic Games actually ___________________ win a medal. Agoraphobia can be defined as a dread of large. ___________________ 45 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Increasingly. 2. During the 1930's. ___________________ 10. ___________________ 3. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. and yet consumption of drink actually increased. ___________________ 9. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: alcohol (n) defer (v) competence (n) domestic (adj) conserve (v) horror (n) corporate (adj) incentive (n) rhythm (n) ___________________ fraction (n) negotiate (v) 1. employers are keen to recruit people who have at least a basic ability in computing. ___________________ 13.Unit Seven 7d – Word substitution From the list below. I am impressed by her business sense. It is now common organisational policy for a company to have a mission statement explaining the aim of the organisation. Some products are exported and may not be available at all in the home market. ___________________ 11. open spaces. it is possible to postpone your entry to university by one year. If you wish to travel or work before studying. the sale of strong drink was illegal in the USA. Rather than use force. There is growing pressure on governments to protect forests and wild animals. ___________________ 12. ___________________ 6. ___________________ 4. some kind of drum is used to provide the beat. the authorities tried to have discussions with the terrorists to secure the release of the hostages. ___________________ 5. The 1949 revolution in China was successful because the agricultural workers and farmers gave their support to the communists. its opposite being claustrophobia. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). . ___________________ 7.

a. the ________________________ of Asia will become the most significant sector of the world economic market. neutral b. triangle b. more and more children live with one parent. a. a. the building should be ready for use by the end of the year. In the US today. disinterested c. a. a. Monetary c. a. corrupt 12. schedule c. nutrients 9. a. time 11. square c. a. stereotype c. Finance 2. In the Second World War. . symbol 6. The roots of a plant absorb water and ______________________ from the soil in which it grows. rectangle 46 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. icon b. astronomy b. b. tissue b. The study of ___________________ has been helped considerably by the Hubble telescope. reform 3. flesh c.Unit Seven 7e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. perform b. In any large company. degenerate c. the only telescope up in space. a. choose the best word from a. a.b or c: 1. rewrite b. astrology c. Because of modern communications. matter 5. Mad cow disease was probably caused by allowing cows to eat nerve _____________________ from sheep and other cows. impartial 8. continent c. redraw c. and yet the ___________________ of the two-parent family still exists. degrade b. In the next century. Switzerland declared that it would remain _______________________ and not take part in any of the fighting. Economic Some political parties want to ________________________ the process by which we vote in general elections so as to make it more representative. a. A simple everyday example of the _______________________ is the standard postcard. area 4. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). transact c. a. According to the _______________________. nutrition c. the ________________________ Department is responsible for managing money within that organisation. it is increasingly common for people to _______________________ business without actually meeting. Many food products carry a 'sell by' date since they ________________________ over time and become unusable. timing b. food b. make 10. astronomer 7. region b.

2. pleaded salt precipitated intermediate political campaign colloquial US not guilty a crisis energy crystals stages Congress rivalry of terror of ethics spectrum upon language The shortage of oil in the 1970's _________________ _________________ in the world economy. Doctors have a _________________ _________________ which requires them to act in the best interest of their patients. 4. Although there has been some success. 3. we tend to use _________________ _________________. When speaking.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: sibling thermal code contingent 1. 8. The water evaporated. but in academic writing we need to be much more formal. The results of the vote showed agreement across the _________________ _________________. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. the court sentenced him to three years in prison. Although he _________________ _________________. 9. 6. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. including hijacking. . (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. the discussions are still only in the _________________ _________________. kidnapping and bombing. 7. In areas with active volcanoes. 10. The _________________ _________________ is made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate. _________________ _________________ refers to the competition which often exists between the children in a family for the attention and love of their parents. One extreme political group started a _________________ _________________. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt.Unit Seven 7f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. 47 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 5. leaving behind only _________________ _________________. 11. both on the extreme left and extreme right. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 12. the _________________ _________________ from underground hot water supplies can be used to produce electricity. The decision by Japanese companies to invest in the UK was _________________ _________________ Britain being part of the European Union.

review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). .Unit Seven 48 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt.

_____________________ energy provides approximately 80% of the electricity used in France. 10. The former President's personality was so strong that her influence invaded / pervaded every aspect of political life. followed by more high growth again. fraternal (adj) oxygen (n) lens (n) pendulum (n) liable (adj) postulate (v) supreme (adj) subordinate (adj) By putting two _____________________ together. By law in the UK. 49 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. In many cases. he/she may fail. About 20% of the atmosphere is made up of _____________________. 2. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. they are _____________________ to fail their examinations. countries which may have been enemies in the past are often allies / friends today. 5. The _____________________ value of all the companies in the group was in excess of $250 million. If students do not attend lectures. 3. which is vital for life on Earth. 7. If a student does not follow / adhere to the regulations concerning examinations. more than in any other country. 11. 3. Karl Marx _____________________ that the structure of a society is determined by the economic structure of that society. decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1. Some students complained because the extra lecture coincided / synchronised with one of their religious festivals. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: aggregate (adj) nuclear (adj) reproduce (v) 1. 9. In his book The Plague. 4. 8b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. Periods of high economic growth tend to be followed by low growth. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). who in turn report to the Production Manager. In any strike action by a trade union. ___________________ support from workers in other unions can be very important for it to succeed.Unit Eight 8a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. In this company. The _____________________ Court in the United States is the highest and most important court in the country. you are allowed to _____________________ up to 10% of a book for your own personal study. Camus uses the disease mentioned in the title as a metaphor / simile to represent fascism and other extreme political ideas. 4. 6. 2. it is possible to make a simple telescope. the supervisors are _____________________ to the inspectors. 8. like a _____________________. 5. .

2. It is very important that a child's linguistic… Teachers have noticed an increase in aggression. … The US Navy has the largest fleet… Medical researchers managed to correlate… University courses used to be very rigid… From a very early age. …themselves with the North.Unit Eight 6. …abilities develop fully so that it can communicate and learn. 6. energy sources such as the wind or the sun will in effect never end. . Some students are reluctant / unhappy to ask questions because they are shy. f. While our reserves of oil and coal are fixed / finite. with capitalist countries aiding the South. 3. j. 9. …up and down or from side to side. i. In some parts of the world. 11. 8c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. h. 7. a. 11. …of ships in the world. children have to work very long hours. e. as this would cause it to collapse. g. k. The number of people living on our planet is on an upward trend / pattern and is expected to top 10 billion in the years to come. …which may be caused by the food which children are eating.… The European Union has reduced most of the bureaucracy… Because of radio telescopes. 50 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. The idea that HIV and AIDS only affect homosexuals is a complete error / fallacy. …either a king or a queen. d. while others have a monarch. 8. 4. …and offered students no real choice or flexibility. The contents / index at the back of a book allows the reader to find specific information. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). children develop a spatial… During the Korean War. …distant stars which are invisible from Earth. to the detriment / expense of their education and even their health. …asbestos to lung cancer and other respiratory diseases many years ago. we can now detect… It is vital to make sure that the structure of a bridge will not oscillate… …awareness allowing them to understand where things are around them. 7. thereby simplifying trade regulations. b. 9. communist countries aligned… Some countries have a president. 10. 5. …associated with customs. c. 10. 8.

Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: allude (v) evolve (v) cater (v) launch (v) discern (v) proclaim (v) testify (v) utilise (v) drug (n) rebel (n) territory (n) 1. __________________ 3. The witness was so nervous that he refused to give evidence when the case came to court. 51 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). . __________________ 5.Unit Eight 8d – Word substitution From the list below. __________________ 4. The independence of the United States of America was announced in 1776. __________________ 10. __________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. __________________ 11. __________________ 2. In the course of a trial. Britain developed gradually from an industrial economy into a service economy. There is a very real danger that medicines currently used to treat infection will become completely ineffective if they are used too often and indiscriminately. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. One of the most important skills to learn as a student is how to make use of your time effectively. Despite the efforts of the doctors. Revolutionaries overpowered the troops holding the radio station so that they could announce the change of government to the people. __________________ 9. Most animals will attack other animals which try to enter their space. __________________ 8. it was not possible to notice any real improvement in the condition of the patient. lawyers are forbidden to mention or even refer to any previous criminal activity the accused may have been responsible for in the past. __________________ 7. The government has decided to initiate an investigation into the increase in deaths from drugs. In the twentieth century. __________________ 6. Many companies in the developed world are trying to provide for older customers as the proportion of young people decreases. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

. frustrated c. despondent b. sticky liquid to attract insects. Many political parties support the introduction of a common _____________________. The decision of the university to close the swimming pool at weekends _____________________ an angry reaction among students. provoked c. To cut down on costs. Some plants _____________________ a sweet. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). a. allocates 3. a. finance c. a. pours 7. a. accepted all over Europe. circulates c. Students on the new technology course became very _____________________ at the lack of suitable books in the library. a. league 8. biased Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. division b. choose the best word from the following list: 1. a. exude b. currency 10.Unit Eight 8e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. deprived c. the university _____________________ each student a limit of 500 pages of computer printing. a. The G8 is a _____________________ of the world's eight richest countries. trickery b. some UFO's can appear and disappear again as if by _____________________. club c. allots b. stimulated 5. a. a. 52 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. magic c. sad 6. and the right-wing all opposed him. stripped b. William Harvey showed that blood _____________________ around the body on a continuous basis. miracle 9. a. partisan b. created b. According to witnesses. denied 4. money b. factional c. flows b. The decision of the House of Commons surprised no one. as the politicians simply voted along _____________________ lines: the left-wing all supported the Prime Minister. If children are _____________________ of love and security they may have problems in later life. leak c. drip 2. gives c. In the seventeenth century.

2. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. Most of the students complained that the lectures were an _________________ _________________ because it was impossible to understand the lecturer. It is almost impossible to _________________ _________________ people who use the Internet for criminal purposes. 7. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 8. Many students make the mistake of reading without considering first why they are reading. During the nineteenth century. One common complaint is that companies do not _________________ _________________ in new developments for the long-term future. There is very little evidence to suggest that _________________ _________________ as portrayed on television and in film actually cause antisocial behaviour. . In some countries. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. The _________________ _________________ signed at Versailles marked the end of the First World War. if both pairs of parents _________________ _________________. 6. 3. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 4. One obvious source of energy is _________________ _________________.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: solar imperial dissipates Peace sex and legislate on the premise invest give utter against energy money violence control their consent waste of time power that Treaty 1.Unit Eight 8f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. Some years ago. 5. _________________ _________________ this would reduce the number of serious injuries. young people can get married below the age of 18. 53 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. seat-belt legislation was introduced. 9. perhaps a quarter of the world's population was under British _________________ _________________. which just _________________ _________________ for no good reason. since the sun produces so much heat. 10.

© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.Unit Eight 54 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. . For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

The grid on the left of your handout is known as a square __________________. 10. and don't bother with any fractions or decimal points. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. A great deal of research has shown that poverty. just use _________________. it was believed that the Earth was _________________. Car batteries also have to be handled with care as they often contain an _________________ which can burn holes in clothes or even cause injury. One of the biggest problems for electric cars is that the __________________ they use for power are rather heavy.Unit Nine 9a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. Astronomers' work is becoming more difficult as the night sky is increasingly _________________ by electric street lighting from urban areas. The music was really quite boring and had no real __________________. the '_________________ of Wales' is the official title of eldest son of the monarch. 2. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). and that the Sun moved around the Earth. In this exercise. 8. in the air we breathe. Until 400 years ago. 11. 9. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: acid (n) illuminate (v) molecule (n) battery (n) integer (n) prince (n) breed (v) lustre (n) carbon (n) matrix (n) stationary (adj) 1. In the United Kingdom. The element _________________ is all around us. as the number of columns and the number of rows are the same. 7. 6. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. 3. 4. . even in the pencils with which we write. Two atoms of oxygen and an atom of hydrogen together produce one __________________ of water. lack of education and unemployment can _________________ social unrest. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 5. 55 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.

9. In some countries. 10. as opposed to those who simply want a degree. the Pope… The organisation of the department is really quite amorphous. Most universities have a special fund / finance for students who have run out of money and need help. a. In the 1970's. Because of the rise in the number of prisoners. 4. the whole penal / punishment system will have to be changed. when they like. 11. …of Monmouth led a rebellion against the English king. 2.… The Romans built a large number of castles or forts… Because of their high price. e. …into several different families. …to stealing books from the library. 8. She won the championship by a margin… Examples of animals imported by man replacing the indigenous… In 1685. you must confine… Because of the special apparatus… From the Vatican in Rome. …called 'castra. Saudi Arabia and other oil-rich states accumulated / collected vast sums of money through the sale of oil. 9. Because he lied to his colleagues and family about his girlfriend / mistress. After six weeks trapped in the embassy. higher fees are charged for science and technology courses. decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1. …has the power to influence the lives of millions of Catholics. 4. h. the police regularly use torture / torment to force prisoners to give them information. 56 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 7. 6. 3. 5. k. 10. c. …species already living there can be seen in all countries. d.Unit Nine 9b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. 2. …yourself to giving relevant ideas and information only. …of only one point. b. The most successful students are probably those who have a strong integral / intrinsic interest in their subject. 9c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. 3. . the hostages were finally emancipated / liberated. f. The biggest issue on which the two parties' policies divide / diverge is the amount of money to be spent on education. 8. 5. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). some students are not averse… …and so the people in it are free to work on what they like. …required. …in a country start fighting each other. j. the minister destroyed not only his marriage but also his career. 7. 6. g. Sometimes a piece of music can evoke / provoke very strong memories and emotions. i. an aristocrat by the name of the Duke… Civil war may break out very quickly if different factions… Plants can be subdivided… When you write an essay.' which we now see in place names like Lancaster. The prediction that we will completely tire / exhaust our reserves of oil in the not too distant future seems now to be incorrect.

___________________ 2. 57 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. ___________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: ambiguity (n) efficient (adj) residue (n) 1. ___________________ 4. ___________________ 3. He is a very pleasant colleague. with the remainder used for new equipment. ___________________ 8. Because of reports that the meat was not safe. ___________________ 5. . The noise of the explosion echoed through the empty streets. Some psychologists think our language ability is intrinsic. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. while others think that we know nothing about language at birth. ___________________ 10. Most of the money was spent on salaries. ___________________ 7. ___________________ 11. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Aluminium is a very suitable substance for aircraft because it is light and strong. ___________________ 9. ___________________ 6. The International Space Station circles the Earth about every 90 minutes. He lost a great deal of political support because his speeches were so full of uncertainty and anomalies. Some industry experts believe that the Internet will supplant television and all programmes will be viewed from a computer. annual (adj) innate (adj) construe (v) material (n) displace (v) orbit (v) reverberate (v) suspend (v) The yearly external examiners' meeting is held at the end of every academic year to discuss the examination papers which the students have written. The workers went on strike as they viewed the management's plans as an attack on their job security. and very proficient at his job. all sales were halted until more tests could be carried out.Unit Nine 9d – Word substitution From the list below.

they work very well together and produce some very good ideas. asset b. unduly b. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. a. When writing a summary. violate c. absolutely c. a. named 9. a considerable amount of petrol ____________________ from car fuel tanks and into the atmosphere. the movement of the drum causes the air molecules to __________________. which we hear as sound. a. The supervisor was not __________________ concerned about the student asking for a week's extension to finish his essay. condense b. a. miracle c. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). bizarre 8. attach c. b or c. but warned him that there would be no more extensions after that. shrink c. a.Unit Nine 9e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. fix Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. a. link b. shake 7. try to ____________________ the main ideas into just a few short sentences. wonder b. conventional b. There are still too many countries which regularly ____________________ their citizens' human rights. . a. breach 2. a. dries 3. evaporates b. choose the best word from a. 1. a. vibrate c. 58 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. highly 10. reverberate b. Please _____________________ two colour passport photographs to the application form. benefit c. numbered b. The professor __________________ several possible explanations for the rise in recorded crime. In very hot climates. marvel 6. His health is so bad that it will be a _______________________ if he is alive next year. collapse 4. dehydrates c. The chief _______________________ which many companies have today is not the property they own but rather the creativity and skills of their employees. odd c. enumerated c. Although the research team are all somewhat _____________________ people. break b. When you hit a drum. liability 5. a.

_________________ _________________ can set in. Researchers work at the _________________ _________________ in order to increase our knowledge. 3. 4. many people choose to do some type of _________________ _________________ even though they receive no pay for this. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. The company was losing so much money that only _________________ _________________ by the management – including the dismissal of 15% of the employees – enabled it to survive. . the _________________ _________________ has overall responsibility for foreign affairs and defence. 10. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 2. whereas today most of us live in cities. All students will need a _________________ _________________ in order to understand the sources of information they have to use. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). high gained voluntary federal umbilical low wide of science areas government morale complement velocity momentum vocabulary cord action work In the United States.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: full frontiers drastic rural 1. 11. Policemen carrying _________________ _________________ rifles surrounded the building. sometimes resulting in a revolution against the government. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. often referred to as the '_________________ _________________'. most people lived and worked in _________________ _________________. Young children need a stimulating environment so that they can develop the _________________ _________________ of intellectual and social skills.Unit Nine 9f – Make a collocation Unit 0000 Start by reading through the sentences below. After retiring. 5. While walking in space. Until very recently. Political change in Central Europe _________________ _________________ when President Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union. 59 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 9. the astronauts are connected to the spacecraft by a long life-line. 8. If soldiers are not paid on time. 6. 7.

Unit Nine 60 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). .

One of the simplest but strongest shapes is the ____________________. 4. 61 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. If you have made a plan for your writing. 6. . Recent research has shown that drinking heavily during pregnancy can harm the ____________________. In nearly all parts of Eastern Europe. Before they take their examinations. 3. attempts to ____________________ movements for political change failed completely. The Canadian capital Ottawa is in the ____________________ of Ontario. The costs were so enormous that they ____________________ the project impossible. When there is a ____________________ of oil. 8. A huge trench was dug to channel / deviate excess water away from farming areas. it appears to be increasingly easy for teenagers to procure / secure drugs if they want them. 2. it becomes much easier to ____________________ through your notes and decide which ideas to include. The ____________________ between a mother and a child is very important for the emotional development of the child. the price on the world market falls. Although many drugs are illegal. make sure that the words you write are exactly the same as those in your source. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: anthropology (n) province (n) sift (v) quote (v) surplus (n) foetus (n) render (v) triangle (n) intimacy (n) repress (v) 1.Unit Ten 10a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. 10. 2. 7. students should revise thoroughly and try to assimilate / ingest what they have been studying. 10b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. 9. 4. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. 3. When you want to _______________________ something. If you have a lot of data which you want to include. decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). an appendix / index at the end of the report or essay is the best place for it. 5. ____________________ is the scientific study of man including such topics as religion and culture.

… Sometimes articles are anonymous. France's road and rail networks diverge / converge on Paris because it is the capital. it is a huge advantage to be fluent… Although the lecturer's explanation was very cogent. 10. e. 10. giving details of the sources of information they have used. the shapes of cars were very angular / bent whereas today they are much more rounded. students should always append / affix a bibliography. 4. 9. d. …with conventional phones altogether and use mobile phones instead. …some students still could not understand the solution to the problem. c. 9. …of the law by introducing longer prison sentences. 62 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. …to slow down the ageing process. 6. j. 10c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1.… …whereby a 16 year-old may get married but is not allowed to buy a beer. 7. …in both French and English. h. 7. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). f. Some years ago. a. 3. i. the idea that executions help to prevent murder is a complete myth / legend. …the design for the Concorde was just too expensive to produce commercially. 8. 2. For health reasons. …high levels of stress and insecurity. g. 8. smoking is restricted if not completely embargoed / prohibited in many public places.… In some American states.Unit Ten 5. …of choosing extra subjects to study if they wish. 6. 5. . …from almost nothing to become major economic players. some Asian countries have emerged… Some analysts think that many customers will dispense… New government proposals will increase the rigour… University students usually have the option… A new drug developed by a leading company purports… Although it was particularly radical and ingenious. k. …but in the majority of cases the name of the author appears with the article. At the end of an essay. The influence of television is so great that actors can be elevated / lifted to superstar status almost overnight. Many people working today find it difficult to tolerate… In Canada. b. According to opponents of the death penalty. there is a strange anomaly… In recent years. 11.

11. a. 63 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. which makes it very difficult for them to stop. undying If a questionnaire is badly written. obtain 2. In Britain. The President's speech was so __________________ that many people were persuaded to accept the need for change. sketch b. The minister resigned because many people felt that his behaviour was at variance with his role in public life. 8. obligation c. The new law course attempts to cover all aspects of international law. a. 4. that is.Unit Ten 10d – Word substitution From the list below. a. compulsion b. Wages and inflation are closely linked. 9. a. solicit b. 5. it will not _________________ the type of information required from the people completing it. 6. Some people argue that robots in the home will liberate us from having to do the housework in the not too distant future. choose the best word from a. expressive b. a. addiction Although we now believe this to be impossible. skeleton c. but on rare occasions they may be _________________. A recent survey has found that most people have only an uncertain understanding of how and why we study theoretical science. The result of the experiment was a complete surprise to everyone: the new process was a success! The market for cars in Europe is almost full to capacity. draft People who smoke heavily experience a/an_________________ to smoke. a. The clear increase in skin cancer has been attributed to the fact that more people now take holidays in hot countries. articulate c. in that as one rises or falls so does the other. the Queen must give her agreement to a new law before it can come into force. everlasting c. perpetual b. 2. machines which would never stop. 3. early scientists tried to produce ________________ motion machines. 3. A significant number of students decide to study for a Master's degree to boost their knowledge. 5. deliberate The outline is a kind of ______________________ which gives in general terms the basic structure and content of a piece of work. 10e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. 4. The USA is composed of 50 states. . Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: ascribe (v) embrace (v) assent (n) enhance (v) outcome (n) comprise (v) emancipate (v) inconsistent (adj) interrelate (v) saturate (v) vague (adj) ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 1. forcing car manufacturers to look for customers elsewhere. elicit c. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). eloquent Car crashes are almost always accidental. b or c: 1. 7. conscious b. 10. purposeful c. 6.

a. 11. 7. a. Because they increase the availability of information. _________________ _________________ of computer technology argue that computers help protect our freedom. 4. 9. a. Because the original information was incorrect. recur c. there is a/an _________________ _________________ provided especially for students and staff. bolster No doubt every country has ____________________ in its history which its people now regret. politicians often ignore what they are asked. episodes b. 64 . _________________ _________________ is usually an economic disaster. 10f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: maternal television high political null and health tangible leading under have fossil interviews clinic exponents instinct ambitions fuels void benefits access to inflation the auspices of 1. such as improved communications and more jobs in the local area. settled One of the biggest problems with malaria is that the disease can _________________ and give the patient serious medical complications again and again throughout his or her life. domiciled b. but playing sports and joining clubs will help to ___________________ a student's time at university. extracted Studying is important. 6. preferring instead to discuss their own interests. An international rescue operation was organised _________________ _________________ the United Nations. students now _________________ _________________ information from academic libraries all over the world.Unit Ten 7. Many successful business figures want to enter government in order to satisfy their _________________ _________________. 3. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 5. 10. boost b. the court decided that the contract was _________________ _________________. a. enrich c. In many universities. One of the problems with _________________ _________________ such as coal and oil is that they will not last for ever. 11. arise 8. resident c. 9. Many feminists now argue that women do not have a _________________ _________________ towards children. a. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. 10. stages c. causing prices to rise and the value of money to fall. In _________________ _________________. 8. 2. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. Books are usually electronically protected so that they cannot be _________________ from the library unless they have been issued in the proper way. repeat b. removed b. withdrawn c. The building of a new airport will bring _________________ _________________. sections Students who are ____________________ on the campus make more use of the university sports facilities than those living outside. Through the Internet.

Unit Ten 65 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. . © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.

Most international students choose to live in university accommodation. 66 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. We recommend that you take a pre-sessional study skills course. which will ________________ you to practise the language skills you will need later. 13. With any quotation you wish to use. 9. . Supplying ________________ to Third World farmers may seem an excellent idea. thousands of people ________________ in Sudan and Ethiopia because there was no food. 10. 2. 7. One major problem with some early insecticides was that they tended to kill not only harmful ___________________ but also those insects which actually helped the farmer. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: challenge (n) export (n) pest (n) 1. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. what used to be considered as ___________________ goods are now regarded as necessities. with a ___________________ of about 570. The Director reminded the middle managers that full cooperation from all workers was _________________ to the success of the company. 5. but in practice these machines are often not suited to local conditions and so tend to break down. The USA has a huge domestic market and so is less reliant on ___________________ for the success of its economy. while others may stay with a host family as a ___________________ measure before renting their own houses. During the 1980's. 3. 6. 11. In many developed countries. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Increasingly. 4. 8. diameter (n) fundamental (adj) starve (v) enable (v) import (n) temporary (adj) expert (n) luxury (n) tractor (n) pollution (n) The ________________ of live animals is strictly controlled so as to prevent diseases from being brought into the country.000 kilometres. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). major industrial companies are finding that consumers are concerned about any ________________ created by the manufacture of their products.Unit Eleven 11a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. Some business leaders become bored with well-established organisations and prefer instead the ________________ of setting up a new company. 12. make sure that the author you are quoting is an ________________ or academic authority.

67 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 4. Following the decision to pass legislation to compel / urge employers to improve safety standards at work. At first. Car theft / burglary remains higher in Britain than in any other European country. 5. 11.Unit Eleven 11b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. 9. and yet today these countries make many high-quality products. 7. but they soon realised that this would help them to improve their technique. The process / action by which plants use sunlight to produce food is known as photosynthesis. 8. The area around the Great Pyramids is one of the most important archaeological sites / spots for the study of ancient Egypt. the number of deaths from accidents has fallen sharply. 3. 2. The introduction of the fax and more recently e-mail has made it much easier to communicate / contact with other people all around the world. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. large parts of Holland were drained / emptied of water to produce new farmland. students were hostile / unfriendly to the idea of being videoed during their presentations. decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1. Two of the missing children have been rescued but the fate / destiny of the other six is still unknown. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 6. 10. The government lost the election because of a whole brochure / catalogue of scandals and political errors. Until recently. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. causing it to become weak. . In the past. goods from countries such as Taiwan and Korea were often thought to be worse / inferior. Very small bubbles / blobs of air can become trapped in liquid metal.

…all tutorials for a week. 3. 11. …conditions. k. l. the equipment… Japan's greatest resource… A group of students decided to complain because one tutor cancelled… Some countries use a thirteen-month calendar… Young plants will grow quickly if the soil is moist… Increasingly. …and warm. …about the safety of the national railway system. 5. 12. 2. it was simply not robust enough for everyday use. e. 8. j. …is its people. unlike the decimal… Although the new equipment performed well under laboratory… a. but not if it is too damp or cold. b. . 9. universities are being asked to undertake… As people can now make purchases on impulse… Computers make use of the binary system (0. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. …– such as solar power – since oil will not last for ever. …with credit cards. levels of reading and writing skills are still low. h. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. d. 4. c. …research in order to develop new products on behalf of large companies. …based on the lunar cycle. buying habits have changed. According to a recent large-scale government survey… Car manufacturers are keen to develop other sources of fuel… An increase in the number of accidents led to a public debate… Although it means that people live longer. since it has very few sources of raw materials or energy.Unit Eleven 11c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. g. 7. 10. i. rather than the more normal twelve-month system. …used in modern hospitals has increased the cost of health care. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).1). f. 6. …system (0-9) which we use in everyday life. 68 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. …conducted in the UK.

Unit Eleven

11d – Word substitution
From the list below, choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word:
bulk (n) inspect (v) shrink (v) 1. fluid (n) instance (n) switch (v) fulfil (v) novel (n) topic (n) huge (adj) revolve (v) vital (adj)

In some cases, the patients did not make any improvement, but generally the treatment was a huge success. While a few students stay in university halls of residence, the majority of students choose to rent their own accommodation at some point in their studies. In the course of a marathon, a runner needs to drink water periodically in order to make up for the liquid lost through sweating. Before starting work on your dissertation, make sure that you have discussed the subject with your supervisor. Staff responsible for examining aircraft checked the plane and declared it unsafe. Some students find it very confusing when a lecturer changes from the topic under discussion to share a joke with his audience. The stories of Charles Dickens give us a very clear picture of life in Britain in the nineteenth century. Many students complained when the university failed to keep its promise to allow students 24 hour access to the computer centre. Each time the star rotates, it sends out a radio signal which we can detect on Earth, allowing us to calculate the speed of rotation.

___________________

2.

___________________

3.

___________________

4.

___________________

5.

___________________

6.

___________________

7.

___________________

8.

___________________

9.

___________________ 10. It is absolutely essential that you check your examination entries to make sure they are correct; if they are not you may not be allowed to sit your examination. Most universities have found that demand for engineering courses has decreased, while new subjects such as media studies have become very popular. The amounts of money owed by some Third World countries were so enormous that in many cases it was decided to cancel the debts since they would probably never have been repaid.

___________________

11.

___________________

12.

___________________

69
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Unit Eleven

11e – Choose the best word
For each of the sentences here, choose the best word from a,b or c:
1. In addition to reading books and journals, the other main source of information available to university students is the ________________ given by the academic staff. a. lectures b. lessons c. classes

2.

The atmospheres of most planets are not ________________, making it difficult for us to see the surface. a. transparent b. lucid c. clear

3.

Three terrorists managed to escape but all of them were ________________ within 24 hours and returned to prison. a. trapped b. snared c. captured

4.

Anybody who joins the army as a soldier has to accept that danger is an ________________ part of the job. a. inside b. internal c. inherent

5.

Students without the normal academic qualifications but who have relevant work experience may be offered a place on an easier diploma course on the ________________ towards an MBA. a. journey b. direction c. route

6.

In Egypt, water from the River Nile has been used for thousands of years to ________________ the dry desert land so that crops may be grown. a. irrigate b. moisten c. fundamental

7.

Improvements in quality control techniques have resulted in more high-quality products with very few ________________. a. mistakes b. failures c. defects

8.

As you can see from your handout, the first ________________ of figures down the left-hand side shows the growth in population. a. line b. column c. string

9.

The ________________ of men to women in China is unusual, in that there are more men than women. a. ratio b. number c. quantity

10.

According to a recent survey in Europe, most workers expressed a preference for increased ________________ time rather than the chance to do more overtime and earn extra money. a. leisure b. hobby c. relaxation

Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

70
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Unit Eleven

11f – Make a collocation
Start by reading through the sentences below. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below:
public television air gas electrical academic career mental tropical cassette fares stations circuits change transport cylinders journals illness tapes

rain forests

1.

In modern cars, sound systems play CDs rather than _________________ _________________.

2.

The _________________ _________________ of the Amazon contain over 10% of all known plant species found on Earth.

3.

One of the most important developments in the history of the computer was the printing of tiny _________________ _________________ on small chips of silicon.

4.

The explosion was caused by terrorists, who had packed a number of _________________ _________________ with home-made explosive.

5.

Increasingly, cars are being excluded from city centres and improved _________________ _________________ is being developed instead.

6.

For the most recent developments in any subject, _________________ _________________ are a much better place to look in than text books.

7.

Psychologists have shown that living in very tall buildings can lead to depression, or even _________________ _________________.

8.

Thanks to the introduction of satellite communications, we can confidently expect the growth in the number of _________________ _________________ to continue.

9.

Increased competition among the airlines in Europe has meant that _________________ _________________ has become much cheaper.

10.

After several years working as a lawyer, she decided to have a _________________ _________________ and become a university lecturer instead.

Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

71
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Unit Eleven 72

Vocabulary sheet
_____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

k. task 3b 1. 11. 11. 5. 3. rejected. convert. accomplished. 4. manifested. 8. motive. h. 7. revealed. 12. global economy Unit Two 2a 1. innovative. 7. 2. environment. 13. minimum requirement 2e 1. restricted. sum. accelerating. signified. 6. f 1d 1. regions. 5. I. negative. 8. obtained. 7. co-ordinate. structure. 9. 10. d. 12. 13. 6. 6. 4. 4. 2. 4. 10. expose. 11. 2. 8. capillaries. chemicals. orientate. 13. 4. 7. 5. 3. psychology. appropriate. h. 8. 10. generated. 10. 4. areas 3e 1. 6. proceeding. 12. 8. 10. 4. k. concluded 1e 1. classic example. assess. 6. c. common feature. 7. 7. 3. image. automatic. 4. passive. assert the right. discrete. 5. previous experience. n. 6. endangered species. 4. arbitrary. design. acquire. k. d. . 2. indicates. f. 14. modified. 9. f. 5. a. 10. 12. 2. obvious. 6. 6. a. superficial. analyse results. technology. d. 11. b. comprehend. principle. valid reason. contribute. analogy. 3. 9. 7. involving. i. methods. deviate. 7. 7. comply with. affects. conduct. 7. 14. major. contaminated. 5. 8. put forward a hypothesis. 8. formulate. 10. 13. spontaneous. 3. 12. sources. initial results. contact. 9. m. preceded. 2. 8. 8. presuming. dispose of. 12. 10. 6. pole. d. 7. 3. 11. a. 2. 9. 15. 9. o 2d Unit Four 4a 1. 6. 5. fluctuate. 4. 11. range. 7. 3. l. similar. approach. decade. heredit. 2. 8. 10. 12. 11. undergone. 5. intervene 4b 1. publishes. 7. ensued. a 3d 1. 5. devised. credible. 5. 5. notion. 8. 6. external. devote time and money. is required. emotion 4c 1. 5. 4. chapters. tentative. l. derive. criteria. 11. infer. 8. 3. 11. appraises. drama . constant temperature. new concept. 4. 5. 6. 10. 5. labour shortage. power and prestige. 3. 13. evaluate. sphere. 15. 9. 6. m. norm. 13. components. establish a link. 4. simultaneous. 14. 11. 13. subsequent. satellites. abandoned 3c 1. c. plot. 5. g. 11. definite. 11. investigate. creating. 6. 13. 12. administer. g. 3. compensate. 11. consume. b. proprietor. 8.Answer key Answer key Unit One 1a 1. speculate. 3. 10. 4. occurs. 11. 6. 12. b. 3. c. e. select 1. physical exercise. individual. 11. distinct. 2. 5. leading role. l. 8. 2. natural phenomena. preposition. 9. 7. 6. occupied. reacted angrily. vertical. 3. 3. j. circumstances. 7. sections. geography. economically feasible. reverse the verdict. evident. exerts. 7. 9. impact. i. pursued. segments. dominate. 9. 9. 5. 7. text. specify. 11. ignored. 13. 14. phase. 11. 4. 5. 4. computer network. ultimate responsibility. 12. i. predict. axis. 12. 3. 11. 2. pertinent. 3. 2. g. 8. varies. inhibit growth. stable 2b 1. prime 1f 1. empirical 2f 1. b. 7. final decision. rely on. dynamic personality. 12. tradition. 4. 12. 13. e. energy. verbal agreement. context. rational. 5. 6. issue. estimates. 12. emphasise. period. perpendicular. impressed. 13. assigned. 5. 3. separate entities Unit Three 3a 1. scheme. g. summary. approximate. 9. l. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 8. 2. consequent. maximum. equivalent. 9. 10. 4. marital status. communes. 10. 2. e. respective. 10. focus. underlying. appreciate 3f 1. imply. 8. 7. assembled. transmit signals. sequence of events. elements. achieving. 2. usage. 8. 6. 11. 2. h. tense atmosphere. 11. 12. transition. j. magnetic. 7. 9. 14. symbols. c. factor. 4. outspoken critic. 9. conceived. contrast. discourse. convened. new dimension. 2. 14. verify. 9. equilibrium. precise details. 10. 3. f. 8. 3. 4. 5. 9. manipulate. 10. 12. 10. positive aspects. 2. consists of 1c 1. portion. j. 10. 2. 9. authorise 2c 1. 4. 6. 8. 2. j. 4. 9. adequate. 9. 10. 13. 3. 6. 12. highly sophisticated. guarantee. data 1b 1. denote . 2. 12. 8. 3. 11. 9. 6. deficient. distributed. 10. potential. 12. e. explicit. k. h 73 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 10. 7. 12. adjust. mathematics. series.

j. 7. preliminary. 11. at regular intervals. 12. 3. e. 10. 12. 8. 4. 2. 9. fraternal. insisted 5e 1. 3. transferred. subtle. fraud 5f 1. 3. expel. client. 3. intermediate stages. 7. campaign of terror. dissolve. 10. h. commodity. 8. 4. d 5d 1. Nuclear. radical. pendulum. version. crisis of confidence. southern hemisphere. 8. reproduce. 2. 3. 13. label. 5. logic. 3. Supreme. 4. co-operate Unit Five 5a 1. force of gravity. 74 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 6. high proportion. 6. tone. confronted. b. 11. comment. 5. 2. hierarchy. repudiated. upsurge. benefits. 4. extracts. rectangle 7f 1. fraction. 10. within a radius. participated. identical twins. i. legal. brief interlude. 10. prudence. 12. alleged. 7. degenerated. 4. revolt. respond. 3. propagate. under the microscope. 11. 10. 12. 7. 4. litigation 4e 1. invoke 7b 1. 8. metaphor. 3. adhere. academic. 10. revise. 6. 11. texture. incessant. 3. 10. 10. f. propensity. competence. l. reservoir. contract. go off at a tangent. cells. 4. 2. 11. 5. subordinate. instruct. 6. 9. 10. 2. 5. 10. imposed a ban. 11. m. 11. commit. transact. 12. 13. 2. instinct. ceased. secure. supplement. stress. 9. 8 subsided. 7. conserve. liable. 8. 8. creditors. traits. index. 5. h. j Unit Eight 8a 1. 6. inclined. restore. peasants 7e 1. US Congress Unit Six 6a 1. f. 5. 9. economic sanctions. disputes. 6. strata. 3. salt crystals. contrary. 11. 3. homogeneous. tiny. internal. 5. flatly contradicted. 12. retard. 9. 6. endless cycle. compute. judicial system. rudimentary. clarify. urban. 8. 8. oblige. horror. 8. 7. advocate. neutral. 1. Medium-. 4. collided. 9. locate. 2. constitute 4f 6f 1. attain their goals. 2. 4. project. 7. incentives. 6. nutrients. 6. biology. duration. 6. political spectrum. edit. Finance. 12. allies. reform. a. virtual reality. 9. 12. 8. 1. volume. 3. obsolete. 6. configuration 7c 1. 7. 7. 3. migrate. 3. rhythm. 7. 10. l. dense fog. decline. 5. 10. h 7d 1. 10. research institutes. 3. 12. 10. g. 2. Western culture. 9. console. prospered. alter. graph. protest. 2. 5. 9. 2. 3. 7. execute. 5. dedicated his life. 9. pragmatic. appeal 6c 1. refute. 3. i. superimpose. X-rays. 8. 11. elaborate. k. defer. 11. absorb. trivial. 5. Sibling rivalry. implement. 8. 6. integrate. 6. induced. 2. legitimate concern. stereotype. schedule. adolescents. affiliate. 4. 2. odour. postulated 8b 1. 12. 4. diffuse. domestic. 5. astronomy. 7. 8. colloquial language. thermal energy. 3. policy. 9. attributed to. 6. 5. 4. a. symptom. 2. d. e. 4. transformed 5c 1. keep your nerve. i. negotiate. 9. 7. g. b. j. 12. 9. 8. aroused. research. superior. aid. 6. 2. interact. l. aristocracy. 5. 10. 9. 8. 5. 9. 9. 5. stimulated. 8. 2. 4. detriment. lenses. 3. enlighten 5b 1. friction. 8. 5. atom bombs. 4. interlocking. b. 6. 11. 13. trend. 9. 8. 12. eliminated. 7. fertile. 11. assured. 2. 11. 5. e. 4. 11. 13. . 13. 4. contend 6b 1. goal. objective. 5. activists 6e 1. 2. 3. democracy. 8. 7. terminology. 10. sustain. coincided. 6. 12. income. 9. d. 6. 4. 4. 10. 5. an adult. embodies the principle. 10. dictates. 2. precipitated a crisis. contingent upon. philosophy. finite 4. k. 8. a code of ethics. 7. 6. 6. military service 1. 5. 11. 10. 2. 9. lines intersect. atoms. 8. 11. 11. 6. c. perpetrated crimes Unit Seven 7a 1. 3. abstract thought. 11. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 7. 5. aggregate. confer. fragment. 6. oxygen. metabolism. corporate. 7. suppress. a. 11. 3. 4. c. 4. 12. pleaded not guilty. 10. 8. 5. 9. pervaded. 4. awe. muscle. 12. 7. depressed. 2. assist. compound.Answer key Answer key 4d 1. 7. 9. err on the side of caution. 7. degrade. c. collapsed. 11. 9. 3. 7. 6. converse. 10. reluctant. k. saint. fallacy. overlapped. f. tissue. mobile phones. niche market 6d 1. 2. g. 9. 10. abnormal. 10. continent. 2. 7. alcohol. categories. scores.

attach 9f 1. 11. 7. catalogue. prohibited. odd. Rebels 8e 1. 8. episodes. 3. cater. 5. 8. acid. 10. 2. enrich. provoked. Federal Government. temporary. maternal instinct. 4. 5. 11. ascribed. 8. 10. liberated. 9. procure. 7. fund. television stations. 7. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 7. irrigate. invest money. 10. a. inherent. shrunk. 7. 8. 5. channel. converge. frustrated. 10. j. h. 8. 3. null and void. f. 4. 4. 8. residue. torture. . intrinsic. 4. 7. 4. 9. 10. 8. 2. gas cylinders. proclaimed. vital. hostile. 5. elevated. 11. material. umbilical cord. 2. expert. 10. sex and violence. a. huge Unit Ten 10a 1. myth. 8. fossil fuels. lustre. j. 9. 9. stationary. 6. orbits. diverge. 8. construed. vibrate. 11. enhance. 7. bulk. 7. challenge. 3. 8. testify. political ambitions. enumerated. 5. surplus. legislate against. mental illness. vague. 3. a. 4. reverberated. 6. 10. rendered. province. 6. 10. 13. eloquent. fluid. 4. 4. leisure 11f 1. exude. embrace. 2. 4. 4. 9. breed. topic. theft. elicit. 6. 10. 9. have access to. 5. 6. 8. 2. 5. cassette tape. g. 3. career change 75 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. currency. skeleton. 7. 7. on the premise that. 2. tractors. g 8d 10d 1. drained. 11e 1. circulates. evolved. launch. 5. efficient. mistress. integers. carbon. 5. 10. 11. 6. 8. j. e. appendix. 9. 3. 9. 2. 5. 7. 4. 6. 8. matrix 9b 1. resident. evaporates. assent. public transport. 6. 9. 10. 9. defects. drugs. repress. 2. 8. 8. 5. 3. 11. 12. 10. 10. 2.Answer key Answer key 8c 1. column. g. 11. 10. 3. 7. 9. f. 3. ambiguity 9e 1. wide vocabulary. deliberate. under the auspices of 10c 1. 7. 9. 7. 8. condense. 4. pollution. sites. gained momentum. emancipate. 4. 4. inconsistent. television interviews. 10. 6. 2. 8. c 9d 1. fundamental 11b 1. imperial control. b. 2. lectures. 3. 2. league. d. 9. 8. j. voluntary work. 5. tropical rain forests. f. l. innate. drastic action. 2. 6. 6. append. 7. annual. i. 10. luxury. 8. switches. ratio. 3. comprises. 2. 5. novels. 3. captured. rural areas. 7. deprived. saturated. 3. 4. fate. 2. penal. allocates. 6. triangle. 3. 4. leading exponents. 7. k. 4. 4. foetus. e. assimilate. compel. 6. i. 6. communicate 11c 1. 7. 5. compulsion. f. 8. unduly. transparent. i. evoke. h 11d 1. miracle. Peace Treaty. 5. quote 10b 1. 2. utilise. inferior. 9. partisan 8f 1. High inflation. 9. 5. g. 6. 5. c. 9. discern. 3. high velocity. 8. dissipates energy. perpetual. angular 3. solar power. h. utter waste of time. 4. route. e. 6. exhaust. 10. 11. Anthropology. full complement. 10. b. pests. 7. Prince. air fares. h. electrical circuits. c. allude. k. revolves. 6. asset. 7. low morale Unit Eleven 11a 1. 6. exports. e. 5. 9. 10. 3. b. 3. 12. 6. 11. fulfil. c. 4. 3. territory. accumulated 9c 1. 9. 2. bubbles. k. 3. intimacy. magic. 5. i. 2. 10. 8. removed. 10. 11. 7. 2. sift. 9. 11. 7. 2. enable. interrelated 10e 1. 2. 9. 6. violate. 11. molecule. 11. import. 3. 12. inspecting. academic journals. recur 10f 1. illuminated. tangible benefits. 3. suspended. batteries. frontiers of science. 6. 5. 5. 6. 4. 11. k. d. d. 10. health clinic. starved. d. process. 9. b Unit Nine 9a 1. 5. give their consent 1. a. outcome. 2. 9. displace. 4. diameter. instances.

Index Index To find the entry for any word in this workbook. simply use the alphabetical list below which will give you the exercise listing and item number: assess asset assign assimilate assist assume assure astronomy atmosphere atom attach attain attitude attribute auspices authorise automatic averse aware awe axis 1e 9e 1a 10b 6d 1c 6e 7e 4c 4e 9e 6f 3c 4e 10f 2b 2a 9c 2c 6b 4b 1 4 11 3 5 2 6 6 8 2 10 4 11 4 11 14 6 11 5 11 4 comply component compound comprehend comprise compulsion compute conceive concentrate concept conclude condense conduct confer configuration confine conflict conform confront congress consent consequent conserve consist console constant constitute construct construe consume contact contaminate contemplate contend context continent contingent contract contradict contrary contrast contribute controversy convene converge converse convert co-operate co-ordinate cord corporate correlate correspond create credible creditor crisis criterion critic crucial crystal culture cumbersome currency cycle cylinder 1d 1e 5d 2b 10d 10e 6a 2a 2c 1f 1d 9e 3d 7b 7b 9c 3c 6c 5e 7f 8f 2d 7d 1b 6e 1f 4e 1c 9d 3d 3e 3e 6c 6a 1a 7e 7f 5d 4f 5b 2e 2b 6c 3b 10a 6d 2b 6e 3a 9f 7d 8c 3c 2a 3d 7b 5f 1a 3f 2c 7f 4f 7c 8e 6f 11f 1 7 10 13 6 4 8 3 8 2 12 3 11 10 13 6 1 3 5 12 10 7 3 13 11 3 12 4 3 6 12 11 9 12 3 3 11 2 1 2 2 9 1 7 8 3 12 13 3 6 6 4 4 2 3 9 4 12 9 12 3 4 11 9 3 4 deficient define definite degenerate degrade deliberate democracy demonstrate denote dense deny depress deprive derive design detect detriment deviate devise devote diagram diameter dictate diffuse dimension discern discourse discrete dispense disperse displace dispose dispute dissipate dissolve distinct distort distribute diverge diverse divine doctrine domestic dominate drain drama drastic drug duke duration dynamic 3b 1c 1e 6a 7e 10e 7a 2c 1a 4f 5c 7b 8e 1b 2b 8c 8b 3b 1a 2f 4c 11a 5d 5e 1f 8d 4b 3a 10c 3c 9d 3d 5e 8f 7a 1e 2c 4a 9b 4c 7c 6c 7d 1e 11b 3e 9f 8d 9c 5b 3f 1 5 3 10 11 2 12 11 9 7 4 1 3 10 11 10 8 10 4 10 1 10 7 6 4 7 8 2 6 7 10 1 1 2 8 10 13 2 7 3 3 4 2 2 8 7 2 5 3 10 2 A abandon abnormal absorb abstract academic accelerate access accompany accomplish accumulate accurate achieve acid acquire adapt adequate adhere adjacent adjust administer adolescent adult advocate aesthetic affect affiliate affluence aggregate aggression agitator aid alcohol align allege allocate allude ally alter alternative ambiguity amorphous analogy analyse angular annual anomaly anonymous anthropology apparatus appeal append appendix appraise appreciate approach appropriate approximate arbitrary area aristocracy arouse ascribe aspect assemble assent assert 3b 6b 5b 5f 6a 2b 10f 6c 3d 9b 5c 2a 9a 4b 3c 3d 8b 2c 3e 4a 7a 6e 5d 4c 2d 7a 7c 8a 8c 6d 5a 7d 8c 4d 8e 8d 8b 4d 1c 9d 9c 4a 1f 10b 9d 10c 10c 10a 9c 6b 10b 10b 4b 3e 1e 3b 2e 1a 3d 7a 6a 10d 6c 4a 10d 2f 12 4 1 2 1 5 9 6 7 10 7 8 10 9 12 5 2 7 1 8 2 3 1 4 10 6 7 3 2 10 7 9 7 1 2 9 1 4 3 11 9 3 5 10 1 4 11 2 7 12 7 2 5 13 4 4 5 10 12 11 4 2 2 11 7 7 B battery benefit biology bomb breed bubble bulk bureaucracy 9a 6a 5a 4f 9a 11b 11d 8c 9 9 11 2 6 3 2 9 C calendar cancel capable capture carbon career catalogue category cater cease cell challenge channel chapter chemical circuit circulate circumstance civic clarify classic client clinic code cogent coincide collapse collide colloquial column comment commit commodity commune communicate compel compensate competence complement complex complicate 11c 11c 4c 11e 9a 11f 11b 5b 8d 4d 7a 11a 10b 2e 3d 11f 8e 3e 6c 6d 3f 5e 10f 5c 10c 8b 7a 6e 7f 11e 6e 6b 7a 3b 11b 11b 1e 7d 9f 1c 2c 7 6 6 3 1 10 5 5 3 2 1 4 4 4 2 3 6 4 5 1 6 11 1 8 3 4 3 4 10 8 5 9 5 6 11 6 8 12 4 12 15 E economy edit efficient elaborate electron element elevate elicit eliminate eloquent emancipate embody embrace emerge emotion emphasise empirical enable energy enhance enlighten enrich ensue 3f 5a 9d 4d 5c 1e 10b 10e 4e 10e 10d 4f 10d 10c 4b 2d 2e 11a 4a 10d 5a 10e 2a 12 2 2 3 12 6 9 6 8 1 4 8 3 5 11 2 14 2 4 5 12 8 4 D data debate decade decimal decline dedicate defect defer 1a 11c 2d 11c 6b 4f 11e 7d 14 3 1 11 7 6 7 4 76 .

Index Index entity enumerate environment episode equate equilibrium equipment equivalent err establish estimate ethics evaluate evaporate eventual evident evoke evolve exclude execute exert exhaust expand expel expert explicit exploit exponent export expose external extract exude 2f 9e 1b 10e 1c 2a 11c 1d 5f 1f 3a 7f 1b 9e 4c 1b 9b 8d 3c 5e 3d 9b 2c 5b 11a 3e 3c 10f 11a 2d 2e 6d 8e 13 8 5 9 8 10 4 2 7 6 7 5 6 2 11 1 6 1 3 2 9 2 3 11 11 10 6 4 6 3 1 6 1 G generate geography geometry goal grant graph gravity guarantee 2d 3a 7c 4e 5c 5d 5f 1d 6 4 1 10 3 5 3 7 interval intervene interview intimacy intrinsic invade invest investigate invoke involve irrigate issue 5f 4a 10f 10f 9b 7c 8f 4b 7a 1b 11e 3b 1 12 3 4 9 4 9 3 13 3 6 9 monarch morale motive muscle myth 8c 9f 3e 7a 10b 8 11 8 7 5 N navy negative negotiate nerve network neutral niche norm notion novel nuclear null nutrient 7c 1b 7d 6f 3f 7e 6f 3a 2d 11d 8a 10f 7e 12 4 11 1 11 7 11 1 9 7 6 7 8 H hemisphere heredity hierarchy homogenous horror hostile huge hypothesis 6f 4b 6a 5a 7d 11b 11d 1f 9 7 6 5 8 4 12 12 J job journal judicial justify 5c 11f 4f 4c 2 6 5 10 L label laboratory labour launch league lecture legal legislate legitimate leisure lens liable liberate linguistic litigation locate logic lustre luxury 5e 11c 3f 8d 8e 11e 6e 8f 5f 11e 8a 8a 9b 8c 4d 6e 4e 9a 11a 10 12 1 10 7 1 1 5 5 10 1 2 5 1 11 9 9 4 9 I identical identify ignore illuminate illustrate image impact imperial implement imply import impose impress impulse incentive incessant incident incline income inconsistent incorporate index indicate indigenous individual induce infer inferior inflation ingenious inherent inhibit initial innate innovative insist inspect instance instinct institute instruct integer integrate intense interact interlock interlude intermediate internal interpret interrelate intersect 6f 1c 1a 9a 1c 3e 1a 8f 5b 1d 11a 5f 4a 11c 7d 7b 4c 6d 6e 10d 5c 8b 1e 9c 2e 4d 2b 11b 10f 10c 11e 2f 1f 9d 2a 5d 11d 11d 6a 5f 5e 9a 4e 2c 6b 6a 6f 7f 4e 1c 10d 5f 6 13 13 7 1 6 6 7 8 9 1 9 1 10 5 7 7 4 8 1 1 7 11 2 13 9 4 10 2 10 4 11 8 4 5 11 5 1 11 10 9 3 11 4 2 5 10 7 7 7 11 8 O objective oblige obsolete obtain obvious occupy occur odd odour option orbit orientate oscillate outcome overlap oxygen 5b 6b 7b 2e 1d 3d 2b 9e 7b 10c 9d 3e 8c 10d 5a 8a 6 6 2 10 5 8 1 7 3 8 7 9 11 8 10 9 F facilitate faction factor fallacy fare fate feasible feature federal fertile final finance finite fleet fluctuate fluent fluid focus foetus formulate fort fossil fraction fragment fraternal fraud friction frontier frustrate fuel fulfil function fund fundamental fuse 1c 9c 3b 8b 11f 11b 2f 3f 9f 6e 3f 7e 8b 8c 2b 10c 11d 2b 10a 1a 9c 10f 7d 4d 8a 5e 7a 9f 8e 11c 11d 2c 9b 11a 7c 6 4 11 9 9 1 5 10 1 10 5 1 11 3 8 2 3 10 9 2 10 10 7 5 7 12 4 5 5 2 8 6 1 13 2 M magic magnetic magnitude maintain major manifest manipulate margin material maternal mathematics matrix maturity maximum medium mental metabolism metaphor method microscope migrate military minimum minor miracle mistress mobile modify moist molecule momentum 8e 2e 1c 3c 2b 3d 2a 9c 9d 10f 2a 9a 2c 3e 6b 11f 6a 8b 1d 6f 7b 4f 1f 6c 9e 9b 4f 1b 11c 9a 9f 9 11 11 10 6 10 1 1 6 5 7 11 9 3 3 7 2 3 8 8 12 10 14 7 5 3 9 8 8 5 8 P parenthesis parliament participate partisan passive peasant penal pendulum period perpendicular perpetrate perpetual persist perspective pertinent pervade pest phase phenomenon philosophy physical planet plead plot pole policy pollution pope portion positive postulate potential 5c 7c 6b 8e 2b 7d 9b 8a 2a 4a 5f 10e 4c 2c 2d 8b 11a 2e 2f 4d 3f 6c 7f 3b 3a 7b 11a 9c 2b 3f 8a 1e 5 10 5 11 2 13 4 4 9 5 11 5 12 14 12 5 7 8 1 6 3 8 4 2 10 11 12 8 7 8 11 5 77 .

Index Index pragmatic precede precipitate precise predict preliminary premise preposition prestige presume prevail previous prime prince principle proceed process proclaim procure prohibit project propagate propensity proportion proprietor prosper protest province provoke prudence psychology publish purport pursue 7b 2a 7f 2f 2d 5d 8f 3a 3f 1d 7c 3f 1e 9a 2e 1d 11b 8d 10b 10b 4e 6d 6d 4f 3b 6e 6b 10a 8e 7d 4b 1b 10c 1b 6 13 1 9 11 3 8 6 4 6 9 7 13 2 9 11 2 2 1 6 6 2 9 3 5 7 1 8 4 10 2 2 9 12 render repress reproduce repudiate require research reservoir resident residue resource respective respond restore restrict retain retard reveal reverberate reverse revise revive revolt revolve rhythm rigid rigour role rotate route rudimentary rural 10a 10a 8a 7a 1d 4e 4d 10e 9d 11c 2b 5b 5e 1b 5c 5d 3e 9d 1f 6e 7c 4e 11d 7d 8c 10c 1f 3c 11e 5e 9f 1 7 10 9 4 5 10 10 9 5 3 4 3 9 9 9 5 8 13 2 5 3 9 1 5 7 9 9 9 8 3 spatial species specify spectrum speculate sphere spontaneous stable starve station stationary statistics status stereotype stimulate stipulate strata stress structure style subdivide subjective subordinate subsequent subside subtle sum summary superficial superimpose superior supplement suppress supreme surplus survey suspend sustain switch symbol symptom synthetic 8c 2f 1d 7f 4a 4b 4a 2a 11a 11f 9a 2c 1f 7e 5b 4c 6a 5a 2d 5c 9c 6c 8a 1e 4d 5d 1d 1a 3e 4e 5e 5e 5b 8a 10a 11c 9d 6d 11d 4b 5a 5c 6 6 3 8 6 1 10 15 5 8 8 10 11 5 7 5 3 6 4 10 5 11 8 9 8 8 10 8 2 1 7 4 9 5 6 1 5 7 6 6 8 11 thermal tiny tissue tolerate tone topic torture tractor tradition trait transact transfer transform transition transmit transparent transport treaty trend triangle trivial tropical 7f 5d 7e 10c 6b 11d 9b 11a 2a 5a 7e 5d 5b 3b 2f 11e 11f 8f 8b 10a 5a 11f 2 4 4 1 8 4 8 3 11 9 9 6 12 3 12 2 5 3 10 3 4 2 U ultimate undergo underlie undertake unduly uniform upsurge urban usage utilise utter 1f 2d 3a 11c 9e 6c 4d 6d 1a 8d 8f 10 13 8 9 9 10 7 8 7 6 6 S saint sanction satellite saturate schedule scheme score section secure seek segment select sequence series sex shift shrink sibling sift signify similar simultaneous site skeleton sketch sociology solar sophisticated source 7a 6f 3b 10d 7e 3a 7b 2a 5b 3c 2e 2d 2f 2a 8f 2c 11d 7f 10a 2d 1a 2e 11b 10e 7c 7c 8f 2f 3a 10 2 8 9 10 11 8 14 3 8 12 14 3 12 1 2 11 6 5 5 1 3 9 3 8 6 4 2 5 Q quote 10a 10 R radical radius random range ratio rational react rebel rectangle recur reform refute region reign reinforce reject release relevance reluctant rely remove 6a 5f 1c 1b 11e 3a 2f 8d 7e 10e 7e 7b 1e 6c 6c 4a 4c 3c 8b 3d 10e 7 6 10 7 9 9 4 11 12 11 2 4 12 13 12 9 9 2 6 4 7 V vague valid vary vast velocity verbal verify version vertical vibrate violate virtual vision vital vocabulary volume voluntary 10d 1f 1b 5c 9f 2f 2e 5a 1a 9e 9e 6f 3c 11d 9f 6e 9f 10 1 11 6 10 8 7 3 5 6 1 7 5 10 9 12 7 T tangent tangible tape task technique technology temporary tense tentative terminology territory terror testify text texture theft theorem theory 6f 10f 11f 3a 1c 2e 11a 1f 4b 6b 8d 7f 8d 4a 7b 11b 4c 2c 5 8 1 12 9 6 8 7 10 10 8 9 4 7 5 7 2 1 X x-ray 5a 1 78 .

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