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16508646-RF-Optimisation.pdf

16508646-RF-Optimisation.pdf

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Published by Wale Ogunniran
Radio Network Optimisation
Radio Network Optimisation

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Published by: Wale Ogunniran on Feb 13, 2013
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ICN PLM CA NP

© SIEMENS Limited 1999

s

Main Topics
What is network optimisation? Why optimisation? Aim of network optimisation Advantages for the customer Planning vs. optimising Major problem areas Radio optimisation related processes Tuning Test types Measurement analysis Change request and action Acceptance tests Ongoing optimising Pre-analysis: general network check Customer complaints analysis Collect/analyse OMC statistics Collect/analyse drive test measurements Implement changes Test mobile Repeated call setups Continuous call Statistics 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 Concept for optimisation Analysis programs Problem symptoms Coverage analysis Test mobile measurements Possible problem areas Antenna configuration Antenna types - typical beam patterns Antenna fine tuning Omni vs. sectorised Vertical antenna beam Tilting Antennadiversity type Verification of RF network design Site check Antenna isolation Site physical configuration Site-to-site distances and distribution Special features for improving coverage Cell splitting, sectorisation DTM check Propagation model verification Link budget analysis 14 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 19 20 20 21 22 23 23 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 28

ICN PLM CA NP

© SIEMENS Limited 1999

s

Main Topics (continued)
Dropped call analysis Call setup analysis MAXRETR Handover performance analysis Handover parameters Consequence of missing neighbours Consequence of many neighbour definitions Handover measurements Handover parameters Radio link measurements Handover algorithm Handover criteria - quality Handover decision Intracell handover Level handovers Distance handover Power budget handover Cell reselection Speech quality analysis Downlink interference measurement Frequency changes BSIC optimisation 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 36 37 37 38 39 40 40 41 43 43 44 45 Call setup/handover mechanisms Location area codes Interference reduction Power control Frequency hopping DTX Channel configuration Capacity enhancements Adding TRX Interference reduction features Traffic load distribution Call setup/handover mechanisms Hierarchical cell structures Concentric cells Overlaid micro-and picocells Microcell frequency planning Speed sensitive handovers Half rate coding/dual rate operation Cell parameter optimisation Performance measurements 45 46 46 47 48 49 50 50 51 51 52 52 53 53 54 54 55 55 56 56

ICN PLM CA NP

© SIEMENS Limited 1999

Quality and General Performance of the existing Network Infrastructure ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .s What is Network Optimisation? Improving Capacity.

s Why Optimisation? Coverage holes Performance degradation by interference Different subscriber distribution compared to that assumed for the network design Unexpectedly high subscriber growth Extensive network expansions ongoing Frequency resources at the limit Unexpected mobility profile of subscribers ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

Call success rate. Radio Coverage Increase in subscriber potential Improved Network Availability ² Optimised utilisation of installed equipment ² ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .s Aim of Network Optimisation Improved Network Quality ² Speech quality. Call setup time Service area .

s Advantages for the Customer Optimum utilization of the system resources Minimized costs Reduced subscriber complaints Optimised subscriber satisfaction Increased Profit One step ahead of the Competitors ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Planning vs. achievable optimisation effects without major re-design are rather marginal A close link between the two activities is necessary Be involved Feedback result ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 . Optimising Thorough network planning from start can reduce the optimisation effort significantly! ² In a poorly planned network.

s Major Problem Areas no coverage interference blocking handover not working HW/SW failures ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Radio Optimisation Related Processes Tuning Acceptance Tests Ongoing Optimisation The following processes involve optimisation related activities ² Tuning Process E E drive tests adjustment of network parameters ² ² Acceptance tests Ongoing Optimisation E Repeated quality control and improvement as network grows / matures ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Tuning Test Measurement Measurement Analyzing Change Request Action Repeat Process until Agreed Quality Objectives : ² ² ² Verify network configuration against current planning status Identify and eliminate equipment faults (HW/SW) and installation errors Ensure that the network is ready for acceptance testing ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

interferences etc. missing handovers.s Test Types Continuous drive test ² setup a test call and drive over an area for detecting lack of coverage. detail measurement to be taken at dedicated problem spots for detail analyzing of specific problem Spot test ² ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

together with a GPS) ² ² ² ICN PLM CA NP Signal Strength Co-channel and adjacent interference Handover relations © SIEMENS Limited 1999 . CI. consistency HO and power parameters Call Setup on all timeslots and speech quality check HO to other sectors or other neighbours Test measurement (TEMS etc. orientation and tilt OMC E E E E E Basic cell parameters and functions ² BCCH. LAC Neighbour List.s Measurement Analysis Antenna Installation check ² height. BSIC.

s Change Request and Action SBS System Database ² ² ² Change BCCH to avoid interference Change HO-Margin Add neighbour relations (Mutual) Antenna tilt etc. (ADPCM) Site Hardware ² System error ² ² ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 . Software bugs Transmission sync.

s Acceptance Tests Setup Test Scenario Performing Test Test Result Setup Test Scenario ² ² E E E ² Test Purpose Test Definitions E E E Test Routes Test Procedure Test Duration Acceptance Criteria Signal Level Signal Quality Handover Call Success Rate Coverage Criteria Coverage Area Successful Call Test Analysis E ² Test Results E E E E ² ² ² Test Condition Test Equipment Test Methodology ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Ongoing Optimising For improvement of the network after it is launched and filled up by subscribers Pre-analysis: Pre-analysis: General General network network check check Collect / / Collect analyse analyse complaints complaints Collect / / Collect analyse analyse OMC OMC statistics statistics Collect / / Collect analyse analyse drive test drive test measuremts measuremts Propose / / Propose implement implement changes changes Repeat Repeat process until process until agreed quality agreed quality ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

– . e. – . e. microcell etc.BTS / BSC locations. ² ² ICN PLM CA NP Visit selected sites (if necessary) Database analysis © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .network structure (macrocell.services and features used – .g.number of TRX per cell – .g.) ² Determine the network element configuration. antenna direction etc.s Pre-analysis: General Network Check Steps to be carried out: ² ² ² ² Kick-off meeting Determine original network planning objectives Collect information about network status Determine functional network structure.sector / omni config.. – .

) What is the problem? (Voice Quality. etc. but difficult to handle Customer service desk must collect all relevant information ² ² ² ² ² Caller and Called No. etc. (PSTN->MS.s Customer Complaints Analysis Additional source of information. Can’t make a call.) MS is moving or fixed while make call Where did the problem occur? When? ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

based on large number of users not limited to time of test drive Uplink and Downlink analysis possible Subscriber behavior mix of outdoor. indoor.s Collect / Analyse OMC Statistics OMC Measurement ² ² ² ² Handled traffic (congestion on TCH. SDCCH) dropped calls Interference Handover reason (due to UL_QUAL. distance…) Less labor intensive and time consuming More comprehensive. Powerbudget. incar use Advantages over test drives: ² ² ² ² ² ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

limitations: ² ² Limited geographical resolution (Where does the problem occur?) Cannot separate problems due to coverage from other E E Call attempts in uncovered areas are not counted Call drop due to lack of coverage ² Network must have minimum load for reliable statistics ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .s Collect / Analyse OMC Statistics Disadvantages.

s Collect / Analyse Drive Test Measurements Test types ² ² ² Continuos drive test (Trace mode) Spot test Network performance test (Statistical mode) Test Measurement ² Collect MS measurement report data (Downlink only!!) E E E E Serving signal level BER (Rxqual) Channel Number CI and LAI E E E E Timing Advance Layer 3 messages BSICs Signal and power levels of neighbouring cells ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Implement Changes Changes related to database parameters Actions related to site hardware Problems to be solved by Normal Roll-out activities Problems to be solved by other system experts ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

g.s Test Mobile Various modes. ² ² ² Repeated call setups Continuous call Scanning mode E check for spectrum occupancy E check for BCCH with no neighbour relations ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 . e.

s Repeated Call Setups UmAbisA-Interface Base Transceiver Station Base Station Controller Mobile Switching Center PSTNInterface Method ² ² Serial Measuremt Software call setup hold for predefined time period and then release E E predefined time = mean holding time call may be dropped earlier ² repeat call setup after predefined waiting time (typical 15 s) simulate subscriber behavior wide area quality assessment and trend identification © SIEMENS Limited 1999 Purpose ² ² ICN PLM CA NP .

g.3 LOW SIGNAL OK 79.9 30:38.8 12 4 14 10 Clear Down RxQual (%) RxLev (%) Category OK 100 100 GOOD FAIL FAIL FAIL NO SETUP OK 98 85.1 26:08.7 6.4 5.8 23:53.7 28:23.8 32:54. e. dropped call rate statistics can be generated in Tornado / Planet.5 100 NOISY FAIL FAIL FAIL DROPPED OK 100 100 DELAYED ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .s Repeated Call Setups Typical parameters ² ² call setup success rate.5 FAIL 5.4 Setup 6. setup time. Call Diagnostics RxQual Full Threshold: RxQual Full Threshold (%): 90 RxLev Full Threshold: RxLev Full Threshold (%): 90 Maximum Setup Time (s): Call 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time 21:38.

s Continuous Call Method ² ² call setup hold continuously until drive test route complete E in case of call drops re-establish Purpose ² ² ² ² ² Wide area quality trace Locating individual problem areas Detailed analysis in problem areas Quality assessment on rural highways etc. BS Testing and Functional Testing ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

handover success rate Import into planning tool ² ² Statistics: ² ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 . prediction RxLev. BSIC.s Continuous Call Typical parameters ² RxLev. handover. Terrain or clutter background Comparison of measured network performance vs. RxQual. BCCH. RxQual. Layer 3 messages etc.

30% Call successfully setup 106 5. of samples Measured value Measurement bin (Tornado) 8.s Statistics Combine from both modes Measurement RxLev > -85 dBm RxQual < 4 Handover success rate Call setup success rate Mean setup time Dropped call rate Test sample unit No.432 99.20% Handover attempt 61 93.90% Measurement bin (Tornado) 8.00% Typical measurements also used for acceptance tests ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .432 99.3 s Call successfully setup 106 1.50% Call attempt 115 90.

91% 3.81% Examples: ² BTS ID LAC 25 6 26 3 ICN PLM CA NP Busy hour SDCCH Blocking Rate 15:00:00 16:00:00 13:00:00 13:00:00 32.53% 30.83% 2.06% 4 4 4 4 83 69 83 69 63 87 © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .16% 7.99% 2.99% 5.s Performance Measurements Provide an overview of network performance (statistics) ² ² uplink analysis also possible validity depends on sufficient samples blocking rate BTS ID LAC 6 2 5 22 1 4 4 4 4 4 CI 4052 4083 4051 4183 4082 CI 4052 4052 4171 4041 BSIC 2 2 2 2 2 BSIC 2 2 2 2 4 4 6 7 4 2 6 0 1 f1 83 76 79 77 84 f1 f2 69 67 66 80 f2 f3 f4 f3 f4 Busy hour 16:00:00 16:00:00 16:00:00 12:00:00 13:00:00 TCH Blocking Rate 66.96% 3.

s Performance Measurements ² Call setup success rate BTS ID 25 29 15 5 26 11 LAC 4 4 4 4 4 4 CI 4152 4131 4032 4051 4171 4071 Busy Hour 15:00:00 15:00:00 18:00:00 16:00:00 13:00:00 12:00:00 Call Set-up Success Rate 28.1% 94.3% 92.4% 68.1% 94.7% ² Dropped call rate BTS ID LAC 37 15 22 25 7 26 29 27 19 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 CI 4192 4032 4183 4152 4011 4171 4131 4172 4212 TCH RF Loss Inter Cell HO Connections Loss 19730 12740 10993 24748 8849 15922 5712 10421 9192 1526 723 485 755 240 219 77 156 130 23 6 18 12 16 28 8 4 9 Intra Cell HO Loss 153 58 13 29 23 12 6 4 5 Call Drop Rate 9% 6% 5% 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 2% ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .0% 81.

s Concept for Optimisation Alternatives • Status of the Network • Decide further Analysis Program Network Snapshot Analyzing Programs Coverage Dropped Calls Call Setup Success Handover Perf. Speech Quality Quick Check ICN PLM CA NP pr im to w rk? Ho two ne e ov the General Check © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

outdoor. areas. in-car.. Analysis for Resource Allocation Procedures Analysis for Efficient Handover Performance Analysis for Interference Dropped Call: Call Setup: Handover: Speech Quality: ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 . SW/HW failures. Transmission Network Failures Analysis for Blocking and Capacity Limitations. rural ..s Analysis Programs Coverage: Analysis for Fulfilment of Coverage Requirements (Urban. indoor) Analysis for Dropped Calls due to Interference.

SSS Network element failure Transmission network failure Other networks Mobile Phone ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .s Problem Symptoms No service High call drop rate No coverage RF Network No System Availability No coverage Network Element Failures Interference Transmission Network Failures Handover failure Fixed Network BSS. SSS RF Network Blocking No coverage Overload Interference Other Poor handover performance Fixed Network BSS. SSS Network Element Failure Low call setup success rate Transmission Failures RF Network Other networks No coverage Mobile terminal Interference Blocking Poor speech quality Fixed Network BSS.

s Coverage Analysis Test mobile measurements Antenna configuration check Verification of RF network design DTM check Propagation model verification Link budget analysis ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Test Mobile Measurements Collect RxLev measurements together with GPS co-ordinates Analyse on planning tool Reasons for poor coverage: ² serving cell not best server E handover problems check site / network design ² best server signal low E Analyse in terms of relevant thresholds: ² ² ² indoor level in-car level outdoor level © SIEMENS Limited 1999 ICN PLM CA NP .

s Test Mobile Measurements Consequences of poor RxLev: ² low RxQual ² vulnerable to interference Limitation with drive tests: ² downlink only Another method: ² statistical analysis ² OMC or drive tests ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Possible Problem Areas Downlink ² ² ² ² Uplink ² ² Output power low Obstruction of Tx antenna Antennae not aligned properly Broken / wrongly connected cables Database parameters controlling output power ² ² ² ² Receive sensitivity degraded due to hardware problems Obstruction of Rx antennae Antennae not aligned properly Broken / wrongly connected cables Lack of diversity gain ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

90 or 120 degrees electrical downtilt cross-polarised coverage targets electrical + mechanical e. e. polarisation diversity © SIEMENS Limited 1999 ² antenna azimuth angle (for directional antennae) E ² antenna tilt angle E ² diversity & isolation E E ICN PLM CA NP .s Antenna Configuration General points to check ² antenna type. space diversity.g.g. E E E E omni directional 60.

Typical Beam Patterns Directional antenna ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .s Antenna Types .

Typical Beam Patterns Omni antenna with electrical downtilt ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .s Antenna Types .

s Antenna Fine Tuning Horizontal Plane: ² ² ² Possible coverage weakness between sectors Interference reduction Traffic load distribution Interference reduction Possible coverage weakness in the short to medium distance range Traffic load distribution Vertical Plane: ² ² ² ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

Sectorised OMNI cells .more difficult to optimise ² Electrical downtilt possible.s Omni vs. however E same for entire cell ² Parameters same for entire cell narrower beam ¡ easier to control interference tilting less efficient with wider beams Sectorised cell site with different downtilt angles Directional antennae ² ² ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

25 ° City 400 m Solution: Add mechanical downtilt ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 . Effective height In practice: For cluttered environments reflections often compensate arctan 60 m (60/4 00) = 8. 5° 2° electrical d owntilt 3 dB-po int: 5.s Vertical Antenna Beam High gain antennae with sharp vertical lobe ² shadow under antenna 0° Ant.

s Tilting Antenna downtilt often used to minimise interference ² Minimum: Vertical mail lobe pointing at cell edge h BS ² Maximum: First null angle pointing at cell edge ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Tilting Electrical vs. Mechanical downtilt 0° Electrical ² 0° Mechanical Advantages: E E Better back lobe characteristics Better lower side lobe characteristics ² Disadvantages: E A combination of mechanical / electrical downtilt may be used Antennas are more expensive ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Tilting No Tilt Down Tilted 4 degrees ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Antenna Diversity Type Space diversity Rx ant. 2 Dual polarisation Rx ant. 1 Rx ant. Typical > 10 Horisontal / vertical ² ² ² ² Cross polarised vertical polarisation in general good performance requires extra antenna for diversity ² ² mobile antenna normally not held vertically when signals are reflected polarisation change (vertical normally dominates) cross polarised preferred E good performance in urban areas easier installation ² save one antenna E ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Verification of RF Network Design Site check Site physical configuration evaluation Site-to-site distances and distribution Special features for improving coverage Site database configuration evaluation ² ² ² Tx power power control settings etc. BTS ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

isolation) antennae in one sector are installed in the same plane antennae alignment omni antenna installation cable installation Horisontal spacing Rx Rx Tx Omni k1 k2 Tx k2 Rx Rxd Vertical spacing Antennas mounted in different planes Alignment of antennas k Tx d a= max 15 ° a a Rx d Tx d Rxd d ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .g. ² ² ² ² ² antenna spacing (diversity.s Site Check Verify that site is implemented according to plan Check installation e.

. 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 A Horizontal Vertical Isolation /dB Horizontal A Spacing A/ mm Source: Kathrein Vertical © SIEMENS Limited 1999 ICN PLM CA NP .s Antenna Isolation Isolation by vertical or horizontal separation between two antennas K73316.

s Antenna Isolation Isolation by vertical or horizontal separation between two antennas K73416.. Is olation /dB 60 40 20 0 400 500 650 750 900 1000 1150 1250 Horizontal Vertical A Horizontal A Spacing A/mm Source: Kathrein Vertical © SIEMENS Limited 1999 ICN PLM CA NP .

s Site Physical Configuration Antenna height ² ² ideally sites within a given area classification should have similar heights if traffic distribution is uniform evaluate site height in terms of objective E E E macrocell / minicell / microcell limitation of interference clear obstructions Antenna tilt / directions ² ² ² avoid coverage gaps target priority areas limit interference sectorise omni cells? © SIEMENS Limited 1999 Appropriate antenna types ² ICN PLM CA NP .

s Site-to-Site Distances and Distribution For an area of uniform structure / terrain / traffic ² site-to-site distance should be uniform (assuming uniform site design) coverage characteristics / requirements capacity requirements Downtown: High site density Suburban area: less dense Roads: Sites located along a line Site distribution should reflect ² ² Typical case ² ² ² ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

e.g.s Special Features for Improving Coverage Microcell ² ² Other indoor coverage solutions ² ² ² for indoor coverage outdoor coverage in high capacity areas alternative to microcell where the traffic needs are low indoor outdoor road coverage “coverage hole fill solution” cro Ma distributed anteanne fibre optic repeater leaky cable large cells for car-coverage small cells for pedestrians Micro .5 Km ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 S tr e et Building Outlines ing ild s Bu tline u O . ² ² ² ² ² ² Building Outlines Str eet Ce ll B ord er Scale = 0.Cell Site -Location Macro .Cell Site -Location ce Pla Repeaters ² HCS.

Sectorisation Change from large cells to small cells Difficult .s Cell splitting. Expensive Mainly driven by capacity requirements Result: Improved indoor coverage ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

50 m for small cities. 20 . down to building level) vertical .s DTM Check DTM resolution ² horisontal E E ² macrocell (typical 50-100 m for roads.40 m for large cities) microcell (very high resolution.should be high Source data ² ² heights and clutter derived from paper maps clutter and / or vector updates by satellite photographs / aerial photos for metropolitan areas ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s

Propagation Model Verification
Wrong model wrong coverage prediction In general, standard models have high performance Highly specialised model may only be valid for a small area Model performance depends on accuracy of DTM To tune the model
² ² ²

field strength measurements check existing model against measurements modify model parameters

ICN PLM CA NP

© SIEMENS Limited 1999

s

Link Budget Analysis
Check for link budget imbalance
downlink

uplink

Uplink Power Budget - Downlink Power Budget = 0! Link Power Budget is balanced!
downlink
PA output pow er com biner loss cable loss dow nlink Rx Sensitivity M S

BTS

B

ced la n a

Po

w

Bu er

et dg

Rx Sensitivity BS

cable loss uplink

antenna diversity gain

uplink
M S Peak Pow er

ICN PLM CA NP

© SIEMENS Limited 1999

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Link Budget Analysis

Uplink Power Budget - Downlink Power Budget Link Power Budget is unbalanced!
RxLev/dBm -55,00

0!

35% Coverage Loss @ 3dB!
-65,00 RxLev for Indoor Coverage(90%) Links balanced -75,00 3dB unbalanced

55% Coverage Loss @ 6 dB!
-85,00 0,20 0,40 0,60 Distance from BTS in km

6dB unbalanced

Caused by wrong assumption for Receiver Sensitivity Diversity Gain Propagation Environment Link Balancing via Optimization of Diversity Tower mounted amplifier High power amplifier

0,80

ICN PLM CA NP

© SIEMENS Limited 1999

s Link Budget Analysis Increasing BS Output? ² Unbalanced link budget Must be matched by higher BS TX power for balanced link budget -110 dBm Uplink -107 Downlink Better BS Rx sensitivity or pre-amplifier ² dBm 40 dBm 37 dBm ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Dropped Call Analysis How to measure ² drive tests E E repeated call setups (preferred) continuous calls ² OMC measurements lack of coverage interference problems handover problems lack of synchronisation in network problems with other parts of the network Reasons for dropped calls ² ² ² ² ² ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

RACHBT.g. – RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN.s Call Setup Analysis How to measure ² drive tests E repeated call setups ² OMC measurements lack of coverage database problems E E Reasons for failed call setups ² ² database inconsistencies parameter settings. e. RACH_MAX_RETRANS – cell reselection related parameters ² network congestion © SIEMENS Limited 1999 ICN PLM CA NP .

s

MAXRETR
Slotted ALOHA mechanism: Several users may attempt to access channel simultaneously
² ²

in case of collision new attempts are made MAXRETR: Maximum no. of retries allowed

H(1) RAC 2) CH ( RA H AGC

RA CH

BTS

MS
E
ICN PLM CA NP

E.g: MAXRETR = 2
© SIEMENS Limited 1999

s

Handover Performance Analysis
When moving from one cell to another (neighbour cells) handovers are necessary
Too many neighbours
SIEMENS AG MON MAR15 15:18:41 SCALE 1:2500

Inaccurate handover decision

Handover Failure & Dropped Call

EqualPowerBoundary Mutual Neighbour Non-Mutual Neighbour Missing Neighbour Too many Neighbours

Missing Neighbour definition

Handover Failure

Dropped Call

ICN PLM CA NP

© SIEMENS Limited 1999

s

Handover Parameters
Objectives:
²

²

mobile should be connected to the “best”cell avoid unnecessary handovers good speech quality less dropped calls

Consequence
² ²

ICN PLM CA NP

© SIEMENS Limited 1999

s Consequence of Missing Neighbours Defined neighbours Server Missing neighbour Interferer f1 f1 Cell dragging Missing neighbour cells Congestion Cell dragging Poor RxQual Poor RxLev Interference Exceeded distance Poor PBGT Dropped Calls ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Consequence of Many Neighbour Definitions Only about 100 measurement samples are possible during one measurement period for all defined neighbour cells Number of BCCH carriers In BCCH Allocation 32 16 10 8 : Number of samples per Carrier in SACCH multiframe 3-4 6-7 10-11 12-13 : (Rec. GSM 0508) Too many neighbour cells Inaccurate signal level measurement False handover decisions Dropped Calls ICN PLM CA NP Problem: Sites with too large coverage area © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Handover Measurements Handover due to a better cell (RxLev_1 > RxLev_Full) Handover due to bad quality Can also be analysed by statistics ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Handover Parameters Fine-tuning of handover parameters ² Moving cell boundaries in order to E E E Enhance success rate for critical handovers Minimise local interference at the cell edge Traffic load sharing between cells ² ² Compared to other opimisation measures improvement potential is limited Affected by E E Measurement averaging Power control parameters PS! Neighbours should in general be mutual ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Radio Link Measurements BTS measurements (Uplink): ² ² ² ² Signal level Quality BS-MS distance (Interference levels in idle time slots) BSC UL DL Neighbour MS BTS ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Radio Link Measurements MS measurements (Downlink) ² ² ² Signal Level Quality Signal levels of neighbouring cells (BCCH) E BSC Strongest 6 are reported to the Network UL DL Neighbour ICN PLM CA NP MS © SIEMENS Limited 1999 BTS .

BTS makes HO decisions UL DL Neighbour ICN PLM CA NP MS © SIEMENS Limited 1999 BTS .s Radio Link Measurements BSC (In general) ² Collects all data E E BTS and MS send measurement reports every 480 ms Makes handover decisions BSC Siemens Network.

s Radio Link Measurements Radio link measurements averaging ² BTS (BSC) receives measurement samples from BTS + MS E every SACCH-Multiframe (480ms.31) Window is cleared after call setup or handover ² “Gliding Window” E E 32 27 23 29 29 21 19 22 23 21 Average value = 24 ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .104 TDMA frames) averaging Window size (max.

s Radio Link Measurements F F S S F F F S S F Measurement Values each SACCH Multiframe (0.48s) 32 27 23 29 29 21 19 22 23 21 32 32 27 27 23 29 29 29 21 21 Average value = 27 – W_Lev_Full = 2 – W_Lev_SUB = 1 – Gliding Window = 5 ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Handover Algorithm Handover Handover Decision Decision IRQUAL no LEV no DIST no yes Inter-cell HO due to Quality yes PBGT no yes IAQUAL no Inter-cell HO Power Budget yes Inter-cell HO due to Level Intra-cell HO due to Quality yes Inter-cell HO due to Distance No handover action ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Handover Criteria Handover Region (due to quality and level) Rx_Qual 7 Intercell HO due to quality Intracell HO due to Quality L_Rx_Lev_XX_IH L_Rx_Qual_XX_H Intercell HO due to level No handover action due to quality or level 0 ICN PLM CA NP L_Rx_Lev_XX_H © SIEMENS Limited 1999 63 Rx_Lev .

PBGT(n) > HO_MARGIN(n) Intracell HO 1.P) HO due to Level 1. RXQUAL_XX > L_RXQUAL_XX_H due to Quality 2. RXLEV_XX > L_RXLEV_XX_H 2. XX_TXPWR = Min(XX_TXPWR_Max. RXLEV_XX > L_RXLEV_XX_IH ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .P) HO due to Distance 1. RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RXLEV_MIN(n) Power Budget + Max (0.s Handover Decision Handover Types Intercell HO due to Quality Decision Criteria 1. RXLEV_XX < L_RXLEV_XX_IH 3. RXQUAL_XX > L_RXQUAL_XX_H 2. MS_BS_DIST > MS_Range_Max HO due to 1. XX_TXPWR = Min (XX_TXPWR_Max.MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-P) 2.

s Intracell Handover Stay within cell. change frequency / time slot situation ² ² in general interference different on different timeslots change to a different cell may be unnecessary 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Interferer: f1 Sever: f1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ² ² higher traffic load higher likelihood on other timeslots not effective with frequency hopping E parameter settings for intracell handover should be set to reduce such handovers © SIEMENS Limited 1999 ICN PLM CA NP .

s Intracell Handover Check for simultaneous occurrence of: ² ² Poor quality (high Rx_Qual) Sufficient signal level E L_Rx_Lev_XX_IH Rx_Qual L_Rx_Lev_XX_IH Intracell HO due to Quality L_Rx_Qual_XX_H L_Rx_Lev_XX_H Rx_Lev ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Level Handovers Adjacent cell not stronger than current cell + HO margin Serving cell has insufficient coverage ² “emergency handover” to cell with better coverage Rx_Lev Server HOMARGIN HO_Threshold_Lev neighbour MinHOReqInt Driven route ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Level Handovers Receiver limit sensitivity L_RXLEV_XX_H (outgoing level HO) L_RXLEV_XX_IH (inter HO / intracell quality HO) RXLEV_MIN (incoming HO) BTS RXLEV_MIN threshold for cell to accept incoming handover L_RXLEV_XX_H threshold for initiating outgoing handover due to signal level relation with RXLEV_MIN will determine hysteresis L_RXLEV_XX_IH threshold for initiating inter / intracell quality HO © SIEMENS Limited 1999 ICN PLM CA NP .

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 . e.s Distance Handover Maximum allowable BS-MS distance ² Default: MS_Range_Max=61 (bits Timing Advance. E E cross-water propagation. corresponding to 35 km G S M : ma x 35 km Enhanced by “Extended Cell” ² Normally used in combination with other criteria.TA) E Maximum value: 63. elevated bridges etc.g.

P) > HO_MARGIN(n) ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .P)-Min(MS_TXPWR_MAX(n). RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RXLEV_MIN(n) + Max(0. PBGT(n) = RXLEV_NCELL(n)-(RXLEV_DL+PWR_C_D) +Min(MS_TWPWR_MAX(n).s Power Budget Handover Select cell with better signal level at given location HO margin ² ² Large enough to avoid “ping-pong HO” small enough to allow fast HO BTS1 BTS2 Ping-Pong HO 1.MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-P) 2.

-RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN .MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH-P) E MS takes 5 samples of the received level on each RF carrier which are averaged AV_RXLEV = 1/5 * (RXLEV1+RXLEV2+…+RXLEV5) ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .-MAX(0.MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH-P) >>00 C1 = AV_RXLEV RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN MAX(0.s Cell Reselection C1-criterion for cell access: C1 = AV_RXLEV .

33-29) = -1 ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .(-100) .s Cell Reselection For example: DL BTS MS MS class 5 (GSM900) AV_RXLEV=-97 dBm ² ² RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = -100 dBm MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH = 29 dBm (0.8W) C1 = -97 .Max(0.

Max(0.33-29) = +16 C1 = -90 .(-100) .33-29) = +6  © SIEMENS Limited 1999 # ICN PLM CA NP .Max(0.(-110) .s Cell Reselection For example: DL Operator A BTS E E E MS class 5 (GSM900) DL Operator B BTS RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = -100 dBm MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH = 33 dBm (2W) MS E RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = -110 dBm MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH = 33 dBm (2W) •MS receives signal from Operator A and B = -90 dBm Operator A Operator B C1 = -90 .

s Cell Reselection C1 criteria ² Same Location Area E C1 (neighbour cell) > C1 (serving cell) C1 (neighbour cell) > C1 (serving cell) + Cell_Reselect_Hysteresis High power class MS Low power class MS Cell_Reselect_Hysteresis ² Different Location Area E C1 BTS1 BTS2 ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Speech Quality Analysis Parameters ² ² ² Causes of interference ² ² ² RxQual Frame Erasure Rate (FER) Speech Quality Index (SQI) Drive test E co-channel interference adjacent channel interference intermodulation E Measurements ² ² mainly on one link only multipath interference preferably continuous call ² OMC statistics low signal strength (coverage related interference low signal strength and interference Interfering cell of base station within GSM network Cause for poor quality ² ² ² Base station within GSM – Network ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Downlink Interference Measurement Typical requirement ² ² speech: RxQual 4 data: RxQual 3 BER % 0.4 0.6 1.12.0.6 .2 3.0.8 .4 6.3.4 .0.2 .8 > 12.2 0.1.8 0.0 .4 .8 RxQual 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 With frequency hopping: RxQual not a valid parameter ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .2 .6.

s Frequency Changes Sometimes necessary to minimise interference As network reaches capacity limit this becomes difficult ² Other frequencies may be affected by the change Choice: Whichever happens to be easier to change Can be done at either interfering cell or victim cell ² Existing plan may be entered into planning tool as “constraints” ² search for “optimum” frequency allocation for a given cell At a certain point the whole network e.g. in a city may have to be re-planned ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Frequency Changes BCCH/TCH swapping ² Method sometimes used: Alternate between clusters BCCH: 794 BCCH: 794 TCH:797 BCCH: 794 BCCH: 797 TCH:794 before Effectiveness depends on TCH traffic load BCCH / TCH sub-bands are mixed Could be used as a temporary measure E after ² ² ² while traffic load is low ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s BSIC Optimisation Base Station Identity Codes ² Used by the MS to distinguish between cells using the same frequency E Co-Channel cells must have different BSICs f9 f9 f9 ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Call Setup/Handover Mechanisms 20-25 dB street corner loss: Fast handovers required E E Micro-micro Micro-macro ² ² ² ² Fast measurement averaging Carefully tuned handover thresholds Small handover margins Short penalty timers © SIEMENS Limited 1999 ICN PLM CA NP .

s Location Area Codes Purpose ² ² identify location area in incoming call is paged to all BTS’s within LA advantage: less location updates (reduced SDCCH load) disadvantage: more paging traffic Large location area ² ² Boundaries should not cross high traffic areas Cell reselection across LA boundaries ² Parameter Cell_Reselect_Hysteresis (typ. 4 dB) used to avoid unnecessary signalling due to ping-pong cell reselections ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Interference Reduction Power Control Frequency Hopping Discontinuous Transmission DTX ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

L_RXLEV_XX_P = 25 (-85 dBm) E Triggers a power increase at bad level Triggers a power reduction at good level © SIEMENS Limited 1999 ² e.g. L_RXQUAL_XX_P = 4 E Triggers a power increase at poor quality Triggers a power reduction at good quality Virtually disabled by setting to “highest” RXQUAL value Level criterion is more suitable for power reduction ² e.g.s Power Control Quality-triggered PC ² e. U_RXQUAL_XX_P = 35 (-75 dBm) E ICN PLM CA NP .g. U_RXQUAL_XX_P = 1 E E E Level-triggered PC ² e.g.

s Power Control RXQUAL Power Increase (bad quality) L_RXQUAL_XX_P Power Increase (bad level) L_RXQUAL_XX_P Power Decrease (good quality) RXLEV L_RXLEV_XX_P U_RXLEV_XX_P 2*POW_RED_STEP_SIZE ICN PLM CA NP Power Decrease (Good Level) © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Frequency Hopping Cyclic / Pseudo Random hopping Baseband / Synthesized hopping 0 BCCH 0 1 5 SDCCH Call 1 Call 2 f1 f2 f3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TDMA frame (8 time slots) ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Frequency Hopping Cyclic / Pseudo Random hopping Baseband / Synthesized hopping 0 BCCH 0 SDCCH Call 1 Call 2 f1 f2 f3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TDMA frame (8 time slots) ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

f6.f4.f7 f6 f3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 f7 f4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TDMA frame (8 time slots) ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .f5.f4.f7 f2.f3.f6.f3.f5.s Frequency Hopping Cyclic / Pseudo Random hopping Baseband / Synthesized hopping f1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 BCCH 0 1 5 SDCCH Call 1 Call 2 f2.

s DTX Goal: Reduce speech data rate from 13 kbps (user speaking) to 500 bps (enough to encode background noise) ² ² reduce MS power consumption reduce the interference in a cell DTXUL -> 0 : MS may use DTX (If possible) 1 : MS shall use DTX 2 : MS shall not use DTX FALSE : downlink DTX disabled at BTS TRUE : downlink DTX enabled at BTS SBS parameter for DTX / VAS administration ² ² DTXDL -> PS! No gain for data communications ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

TS0 -> MAINBCCH TRX0. TS2-7 -> TCHFULL TRX1. TS0-7 -> TCHFULL ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .0 – 1TRX : TS0 -> BCBCH TS1-7 -> TCHFULL – 2 TRXs : TRX0. TS1 -> SCBCH TRX0. Note: * in SBS BR 3.s Channel Configuration Channel Type TCHFULL MAINBCCH MBCCHC SDCCH TCHF&HLF* BCBCH* SCBCH* CCCH* E Channel Combination TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/F FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH (AGCH+PCH+RACH) FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + 4 (SDCCH+SACCH) 8 (SDCCH + SACCH) TCH/H(0) + FACCH/H (0) + SACCH/H(0) + TCH/H(1) FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + 3 (SDCCH+SACCH) + CBCH 7 (SDCCH + SACCH) + CBCH BCCH + CCCH For example.

s Capacity Enhancements Easy approach: Add TRX’s Problem: No more frequencies: ² Options E E E E E Traffic load distribution Interference optimisation features: FH. GSM900/DCS1800) Dual mode operation (e.g. DTX Sectorisation: Increasing cell density Cell splitting: Increasing site density HCS – – – – Dual band operation (e.and picocells E E ICN PLM CA NP Half rate coding Migration to 3rd Generation Systems © SIEMENS Limited 1999 . GSM900/DECT) Underlay / Overlay Overlaid micro. PC.g.

43 7.53 9.37 BTS2 2 2 8.21 9.s Adding TRX Congested cells found by OMC measurements Sec TRX GOS 2% Week1 Week2 Week3 Week4 Week5 Week6 Week7 BTS1 1 3 14.33 BTS3 3 3 14.g. new BTS rack needed ² Frequency Spectrum limited © SIEMENS Limited 1999 ICN PLM CA NP .55 8.02 12.12 11. e.g. of full load defined E Sector 3 is near that limit Possible limitations of TRX extensions: ² Need for changed hardware configuration costly E e.2 7.15 ² ² Sector 2 will experience congestion Sometimes percentage limit.02 8.75 12.9 11.66 10.92 11.54 9.97 10. 80%.98 7.88 10.82 11.4 12.59 6.26 7.9 10.

stable Implementation causes no disturbance of Implementation causes no disturbance of network operation network operation # L ittle or no effect if available spectrum is very # L ittle or no effect if available spectrum is very limited (BCCH limitations) limited (BCCH limitations) ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 . stable Available.s Interference Reduction Features Frequency Hopping (FH) Dynamic Power Control (PC) Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) ² allow tighter frequency re-us (already considered for 40-60 Erl./km2 in macrocell layer with 5 to 10 MHz) No additional sites or frequencies required No additional sites or frequencies required Available.

s Traffic Load Distribution Traffic in a cell related to cell coverage area If sufficient overlap between cells: ² reduce traffic by changing cell boundary E E E antenna downtilt reduce power (PWRRED) alter handover boundaries ² Usually a temporary solution only Default HO boundaries Changed HO boundaries ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Call Setup/handover mechanisms Relieve macrocells from traffic ² ² Umbrella type handover into microcells “Directed retry” E Allows call setup In second-best server. shares traffic resources between layers ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Hierarchical Cell Structures Underlay/Overlay Umbrella cells: Dominant site with large coverage area ² low traffic .e.g.fast mobiles normal traffic cover small high traffic areas P I C O C E L Ls Macrocells: Antenna above average rooftop level ² Microcell: Antenna below average rooftop level ² Picocell: Antenna usually indoors ² Indoor coverage Outdoor Installatio Hotspot n Parking lot coverage to building or parts thereof . Business users Contiguous Microcellular Coverage Subway Coverage Extension ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Concentric cells C/I = 17 dB Signal level C/I = 17 dB C/I = 0 dB level Signal f3 f1 f2 f3 “Inner cell” can use 1 x 3 reuse pattern Special handover mechanisms between layers Limited gains for uniform traffic distribution ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Overlaid Micro.and Picocells The smallest cells should absorb most of the traffic in their coverage area Larger cells for fast moving mobiles / areas not covered by small cells Macrocells Microcells Picocells ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Microcell Frequency Planning Different resolutions required for different layers ² flexibility of planning tool needed Reduce complexity of frequency optimisation task Guard band may be needed to avoid adjacent channel interference reduce macrocell traffic determine mobile speed Fast handovers E Dedicated frequency bands for different layers ² ² Call Setup/handover strategy ² ² ² Serving BTS Loss around street corner: 20 dB! Micro BTS ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

g.s Speed Sensitive Handovers Mechanisms to separate fast from slow mobiles ² mobile class E today mostly same class is used (e. GSM900 class 4) only works for direction away from site try to keep handovers within same layer unless speed change ² measurement of the timing advance delta E ² cell type E ² mean time between handovers ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

s Half Rate Coding / Dual Rate Operation Has potential to double network capacity ² Advantages: E E No additional sites / frequencies required Minimum investment for infrastructure upgrade Speech quality degradation (reduction of speech bit rate from 13 kb/s to 6.5 kb/s) – Especially mobile-to-mobile calls ² Disadvantage: E ² Gain depends on ratio full rate users / half rate users / data traffic ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

² Different parameter standards may be used for E E E Danger ² many parameters E E easy to lose overview inconsistencies deterioration of quality ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .s Cell Parameter Optimisation Default parameter sets: ² ² PS! Standard setting suitable for most cases Starting point for possible optimisation. however E more relevant after other optimisation activities different area types BTS types etc.

Effort ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 . DTX Cost.s Possible Network Optimisation Measures Effect Overlaid microcells Dual band Underlay/ Overlay HR Cell parameter setting Sectorisation Frequency Changes Fine tuning of antenna orientation and tilt Adding TRX Repeaters Preamps Cell spiltting Dual mode FH. PC.

s Increasing Network Capacity The relationship between quality and capacity ² In a congested network. quality can deteriorate very quickly: Congestion Extended call setup times Interference/ Noise Unavailability of service Dropped call Poor speech quality – Violation of all 4 basic quality criteria ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999 .

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