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Schema Theory

Schema Theory

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Published by: daniela1956 on Feb 17, 2009
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01/15/2012

CHAPTER 3 PROTOTYPE THEORY, SCHEMA THEORY, SOCIAL SCHEMATA AND STEREOTYPES 3. 0.

Introduction Men in Trunks’ prototypeMen in Trunks’ Zest, schemaschemata schema-reinforcement’schema-refreshment’ 3.1. The importance of concepts and categories 3.2. Against classical categorization: the ‘prototype’ approach degree of membershiprank of typicality prototypical features Men inTrunkstypicalinternal structurerepresentativeness appealingdisgusting 3.2.1. Variants of Rosch’s prototype theory typical properties specific exemplars ‘a cue validity’Men in Trunks’narcissisticblue-eyed’narcissisticblue-eyed ‘Men in Trunks’ Men in Trunks’ 3.2.2. Context-dependence and goal-directed categories ‘Men in Trunks’ goal-directed categories Men in Trunks’

3.2.3. Concluding remarks on categorisation vague‘fuzzy’ Men in Trunks’Bashful Boxers’fuzzy’ attractivedisgusting experientially-grounded Men in Trunks’ anchored in conceptually salient prototypes. Men in Trunks’ goodness-of-fittypicality gradient

3.3. Schema theory complex spatio-temporal structures 3.3.1. Adopted definitions and terms designating germane concepts schemaschemata schemaframescriptFrameScript encyclopaedic entries’blueprints 3.3.1.2. Schemata as higher-order cognitive structures: Rumelhart’s “building blocks of cognition” variablesvariable constraints default variables constraintsdefault values’ 3.3.1.3. Rumelhart’s Parallel Distributed Processing 3.3.1.4. Schank and Abelson’s scripts , Plans, Goals and UnderstandingscriptscriptheadersHeaderstriggers ‘header’ 3.3.2. Relevance of schema theory for my own research: linguistic input, background knowledge and schema activation Zest When Romanian undergraduate female readers are presented with a multimodal text on the male body published in the British magazine Zest, is there any evidence that the textual input either (a) reinforces or (b) clashes with the readers’ schematic representations of masculinity? Men in Trunks’ Men in Trunks’ E2: Do readers’ responses contain linguistic clues indicating that textual representations of different types of masculinities are consistent or inconsistent with the readers’ existing schemata? M2: Does the designed tasksheet elicit readers’ responses which indicate the respective readers' accommodation of schema-inconsistent masculinities? M3: Do readers’ acknowledged changes in attitudes during their interaction with the text constitute evidence as to their (lack of) accommodation of schema-inconsistent masculinities? 3.3.3. Suspending schemata, building expectations and drawing inferences values realise variable

inference drawing’gap filling’ suspends 3.3.4. ‘Schema-refreshment’ versus ‘schema-reinforcement’ consistent ‘ because ofschematic expectations’ automatic cognitiondeliberative cognition Men in Trunks’ 3.3.5. Schemata and affect M3: Do readers’ acknowledged changes in attitudes during their interaction with the text constitute evidence as to their (lack of) accommodation of schema-inconsistent masculinities? 3.3.6. Attitudes and schemata E3: What are the implications of the multimodality of the text on the types of schemata activated by readers when gradually exposed to visual, written and combined visual and written input? M3: Do readers’ acknowledged changes in attitudes during their interaction with the text constitute evidence as to their (lack of) accommodation of schema-inconsistent masculinities? 3.3.7. Operationalising the concept of ‘schema-refreshment’ in my own research. Zest E1: Do readers’ responses to comprehension tasks suggest potential schema-refreshment in relation to their likely schematic representations of masculinity? Zest Men in TrunksZest 3.3.8. Anticipated limitations of operationalising the concept of ‘schema-refreshment’ Men in Trunks’hypothesise 3.4. Social cognition: on the interaction of intrapersonal cognition and extrapersonal culturally shared knowledge

3.4.1. Schematic representation, socially shared knowledge and ideology falsedistorted needare intrapersonal extrapersonal 3.4.2. The role of social schemata expectationshypotheses 3.4.2.2. A typology of social schemata Men in Trunks’ Men in Trunks’ 3.4.3. Category-based versus person-based processings of social information category-basedpiecemeal approaches Category-based Person-basedattribute-based appealingdisgusting 3.5. Stereotypes et al role schemata et alknowledge, beliefs and expectations Men in Trunks’

3.5.1. Mechanisms of stereotype formation et al Cognitive mechanismscategorisation self-categorisationet al correspondence bias’et al correspondence bias’ ‘Illusory correlation’et alet al affective mechanismset al et alcultural mechanisms et al et al et al 3.5.2. Stereotypes in relation to schema-reinforcement and schema-refreshment et al 3.6. Schema theory and gender 3.6.1. Bem’s Gender schema theory and gender-schemating processing: a critical review Signsgender schema theory gender schema theory contentsocial context a)b) 3.6.1.1. Some critical remarks on Bem’s gender schema theory Signs. Defending <The Lenses of Gender> 3.6.1.2. Gender-schematic processing and ‘the lenses of gender’ lenses of gender’ gender polarisation androcentrism biological essentialism 3.7. Concluding remarks

Men in Trunks’

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