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PHYSICS

PROJECT REPORT
ON

Full Wave Rectifier

SUBMITTED TO: MR.JASWANT REDHU

SUBMITTED BY: SUMIT SAPRA XII-B

ST. THERESAS CONVENT SCHOOL

INDEX
1. AIM 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 3. CERTIFICATE 4. INTRODUCTION 5. MATERIALS REQUIRED 6. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 7. WORKING 8. BIBLOGRAPHY

AIM

To construct a full wave rectifier and show that that Alternating Current is rectified into a Direct Current.

Acknowledgement
The project could have never been possible without the support of various sources. It is extremely impossible to thank every individual who has helped me in completing this project. Some people have helped in the basic formularization and there were sources that helped me in giving the ideas a physical form/shape. I am extremely grateful to my mentor,

Mr. Jaswant Redhu , for his invaluable guidance in the project right from
the beginning. His vital support helped the project to take a logical and suitable shape. I take this opportunity to thank the School authorities, for extending their full support and cooperation in the project. Last but not the least; I would like to thank everyone who has offered a helping hand when required.

Sumit Sapra XII-B Roll No.-....

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Sumit Sapra(Roll No:..) student of Class XII, St. Theresa's Convent Sr. Sec. School has completed the project titled. Full Wave Rectifier during the academic year 2012-13 towards partial fulfillment of credit for the Physics Project evaluation of AISSCE 2013, and submitted working model and satisfactory report , as compiled in the following pages, under my supervision.

Mr.Jaswant Redhu (Teachers Signature)

Introduction
A full wave rectifier is a device which is used to rectify all the alternating current components in an alternating supply and make it purely a direct current. The two alternating halves of an alternation current are rectified in a full wave rectifier which is an advantage over a half wave rectifier. Most electronic devices cannot withstand very high voltage or alternating current due to its intense high power. The use of batteries in all devices is not practical as their replacement and durability is a huge problem as the device has to be dismantled each time for such a replacement. So these rectifiers are used in most of the electronic devices like TVs, Radios, Chargers, and Lightings etc.

Materials required in the construction


Connecting wires A plug Single lead wire - 2m 3 nuts & Bolts 2 to 3c m l e n g t h Circuit board A Transformer A capacitor A R e s i s t o r ( 1 K ) P-N junction diodes A LED Insulation tape, Blades, soldering wax, soldering lead, soldering iron & sand paper.

Circuit Diagram

Connection details:
Connections are done as in the circuit. The A.C. supply is given to b o t h t h e i n p u t w i r e s o f t h e t r a n s f o r m e r a n d t h e t w o e n d s o f t h e secondary coil is given to the P side of the two diodes and the N sideo f t h e d i o d e s a r e t w i n e d a n d t h e n c o n n e c t e d t o o n e e n d o f t h e capacitor and the other end to the center tap lead and to the resistor.F u r t h e r , t h e o t h e r e n d o f c a p a c i t o r w i t h t h e d i o d e c o n n e c t i o n i s connected to the other end of the resistor. Connect 2 leads on both the ends of the resistor to measure the output and this is connected to the +ve & -ve terminals of the bulb.

Working
1st when the it A.C. steps is supplied the to the transformer, down 230V main supply to 6 volts. It has a capability of delivering a current of 500mA. The 6 volts A.C. appearing across the secondary is the RMS value and the peak value is 8.4 volts. During the 1 st half cycle of the A.C. input Diode D1 is forward biased and a current I flows in the circuit in the direction S 1 D 1 ABEOS 1 . reverse biased. During So it this does time not diode conduct D 2 is any

electric current. During the next half cycle the diode D2 is forward and D1 is reversed. Hence D 2 conducts In current half in cycles of the the A.C direction current S 2 D 2 ABEOS 2 and D1 does not conduct any current. subsequent the above processes are repeated. In both the half cycles it is clear that current flows through the resistor in only one direction ABE. Even though the voltage across RL is unidirectional it will still contain a few A.C components. This is filtered

and

made

smooth

using

capacitor,

which

filters 99% of the A.C current. A resistor is t h e n u s e d t o a d j u s t t h e o u t p u t v o l t a g e . Capacitor also nearly filters all A.C components from the supply and resistance is adjusted for the required output. As this is a simple circuit, only one capacitor and a resistance are being used. But there will be slight factor of A.C. current still left in the output but it is negligible. The output Direct Current and voltage light up the LED.

RECTIFIED D.C. VOLTAGE

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Physics Textbook for Class XII; NCERT Moderns abc of PHYSICS LABORATORY MANUAL OF PHYSICS(Universal Publications) Encyclopedias

Websites: www.google.com www.wikipedia.org www.ncert.nic.in