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Soldiers' Rations, Food Preparation and Cooking Utensils John U. Rees Soldiers’ rations, vol.

2, 1066-1068 (1250 words), Mark M. Boatner, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History, Harold E. Selesky, ed. (2nd Edition, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006) “Hard Tack,” vol. 1, 589-590. “Historical Overview: The Revolutionary War,” vol. 1, 622-624. “Historical Overview: The Civil War and Reconstruction,” vol. 1, 631-633. (Posted online at http://www.libertyrifles.org/research/cwreconstfoods.html ) “Supawn,” vol. 2, 516. Entries in, Andrew F. Smith, ed., Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America, 2 vols. (New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2004) Artwork Narrative: Pamela Patrick White, “’Victuals well dressed’: Revolutionary Soldiers’ Food and Cooking,” (2004) http://www.whitehistoricart.com “`O carrion sublime …’: Doughboy Odes to Army Food,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 56, no. 4 (Winter 2004), 238. “`Things were fine. Then things weren’t.”: Donuts and Coffee, 1862 to 1968,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 57, no. 2 (Summer 2005), 99. “`Sufficient for the army for fifteen days …’: Continental Army Frozen Meat Ration,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 58, no. 3 (Fall 2006), 163. “`Baked Beans 140 Men’: Earnest Harrison’s 1909 Army Recipe Book,” (submitted to Military Collector & Historian) “`A capital dish …’: Revolutionary Soldiers and Chocolate,” Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXVIII, no. 3 (Autumn 2008), 2-17. “`General Wayne's detachment is almost starving.’: Provisioning Washington’s Army on the March, June 1778,” Appendix N of "’What is this you have been about to day?’: The New Jersey Brigade at the Battle of Monmouth,” http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthToc.htm

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"`The foundation of an army is the belly.' North American Soldiers' Food, 1756-1945," ALHFAM: Proceedings of the 1998 Conference and Annual Meeting, vol. XXI (The Assoc. for Living History, Farm and Agricultural Museums, Bloomfield, Ohio, 1999), 49-64.
Part I. "'I live on raw salt pork ... hard bread and sugar.': The Evolution of Soldiers' Rations" Part II. "Salt Beef to C Rations: A Compendium of North American Soldiers' Rations, 1756-1945" (World Wide Web, http://revwar75.com/library/rees/belly.htm )

"Compendium of Ration Allotments, 1754-1785," The Continental Soldier, vol. IX, no. 2 (Summer 1996), 30-34. "`To subsist an Army well ...': Soldiers' Cooking Equipment, Provisions, and Food Preparation During the American War for Independence”:
"’All the tin Camp-kettles they can procure ...’: Iron Pots, Pans, and LightWeight Military Kettles, 1759-1782” Subheadings: “Tin Kettles, 1759-1771” “British Kettles in the American War, 1776-1781” “Continental Army and States’ Militia, 1775-1780” “American Sheet Iron Kettles, 1781-1782” “Officers’ Cooking Equipment” “Kettle Covers” “’The extreme suffering of the army for want of … kettles …’: Continental Soldiers and Kettle Shortages in 1782” “’A disgusting incumbrance to the troops …’: Linen Bags and Carts for Carrying Kettles” “’The Kettles to be made as formerly …” Kettle Capacity and Weight, and Archaeological Finds” Subheadings: “Kettle Capacity and Sizes, 1759-1782” “Louisbourg Kettle, Cape Breton Island” “Fort Ligonier (Buckets or Kettles?)” “Rogers Island (Bucket or Kettle?)” “1812 Kettles, Fort Meigs, Ohio” “Overview of Cooking Equipment, 1775-1783”

Military Collector & Historian, vol. 53, no. 1 (Spring 2001), 7-23. (Addendum to above): Brass Kettles, Military Collector & Historian, vol. 53, no. 3 (Fall 2001), 118-119.

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"`To the hungry soul every bitter thing is sweet.’: Soldiers' Food and Cooking in the War for Independence” Part 1.
"The manner of messing and living together": Continental Army Mess Groups “Who shall have this?”: Food Distribution "A hard game ...": Continental Army Cooks

Military Collector & Historian, vol. 62, no. 4 (Winter 2010), 288-298. Part 2.
“On with Kittle, to make some hasty Pudding …”: How a "Continental Devil" Broke His Fast 1. The Army Ration and Cooking Methods. 2. Eating Utensils. 3. The Morning Meal. 4. Other Likely Breakfast Fare.

Military Collector & Historian, vol. 63, no. 1 (Spring 2011), 12-25. “`Six of our regt lived together …’: Mess Groups, Carrying Food … (and a Little Bit of Tongue) in the Armies of the Revolution” Mess Groups Food Distribution Carrying Food The Burden of Rations And … Tongue http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/tongue.pdf “`Iron pots,’ ‘Spiders,’ and Tea Kettles: Cooking and Eating Utensils in Sullivan’s Brigade, 1776,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 62, no. 2 (Summer 2010), 100. “`Our wants of the common conveniences were sometimes curiously supplied …’: A Revolutionary Soldier’s Wooden Bowl,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 61, no. 3 (Fall 2009), 210-214. Revised and published in Solebury Chronicle (Newsletter of the Solebury Township Historical Society), vol. 12, no. 1 (Winter 2010), 4-5. http://www.soleburyhistory.org/pdf/newsletterwinter2010.pdf Brigade Dispatch series on Continental soldiers' utensils, food and cooking during the War for Independence: 1. "`We had our cooking utensils  to carry in our hands.’: Light-Weight Military Kettles, 1775-1782,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXI, no. 1 (Spring 2001), 2-11. 2. “`The Kettles to be made as formerly ’: Kettle Capacity and Weight, and Excavated Artifacts,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXI, no. 1 (Spring 2001), 5-8. 3. “`They were made of cast iron and consequently heavy.’: Less Commonly Used Utensils, Eating Implements, and Officers’ Cooking Equipment,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXXI, no. 2 (Summer 2001), 2-7.

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"`Sufficient ... to strip a soldier to the skin.': Sutlers in the Continental Army, 1777-1782," The Continental Soldier, vol. X, no. 2 (Summer 1997), 27-28. "`A disgusting incumbrance to the troops': More on Kettle Bags and Carts in the Continental Army, 1781," The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXVIII, no. 3 (Autumn 1998), 12-13. http://revwar75.com/library/rees/encumberance.htm “`Properly fixed upon the Men’: Linen Bags for Camp Kettles,” The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXVII, no. 3 (Autumn 1997), 2-5. http://revwar75.com/library/rees/kettlebags.htm “`As many fireplaces as you have tents': Earthen Camp Kitchens”:
Part I. "`Cooking Excavations': Their History and Use by Soldiers in North America"; Part II. "Matt and I Dig a Kitchen."

The Continental Soldier, vol. XI, no. 3 (Summer 1998), 26-32. First published in Fall 1997 Food History News (see below). Also published as "Earthen Camp Kitchens,” Muzzleloader, vol. XXX, no. 4 (September/October 2003), 59-64. RevWar75 online version titled: "`As many fireplaces as you have tents ...': Earthen Camp Kitchens”:
Part I. "`Kitchens sunk ... for the soldiers to Cook in.': The History of Cooking Excavations and Their Use in North America" Part II. Complete 1762 Kitchen Description and Winter Covering for Field Kitchens Part III. "`Ordered to begin work ...': Digging a Field Kitchen"

http://revwar75.com/library/rees/kitchen.htm Book Review: Agostino von Hassell, Herm Dillon, Leslie Jean-Bart, Military High Life: Elegant Food Histories and Recipes (New Orleans: University Press of the South, 2006), 162 pp., Illustrations. $34.95 (cloth), Gastronomica: The Journal of Food and Culture, vol. 7, no. 4 (Fall 2007), 106-107. Book Review: “`We Were Marching on Christmas Day’: History, Food, and Civilian and Soldiers’ Celebrations,” Food History News, vol. XIII, no. 2 (50), 2, 7. Review of Kevin Rawlings, We Were Marching on Christmas Day: A History and Chronicle of Christmas During the Civil War (Baltimore, Md.: Toomey Press, 1996). 170 pages, index, illustrations. $24.95. Toomey Press, P.O. Box 122, Linthicum, Md., 21090; phone, (410) 850-0831. (http://www.libertyrifles.org/research/christmasday.html) Dual Book Review: Andrew F. Smith, Starving the South: How the North Won the Civil War (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2011), 304 pp., $27.99 (paper), and William C. Davis, A Taste for War: The Culinary History of the Blue and the Gray (Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 2003), 233 pp., Illustrations. $26.95 (hardback), Gastronomica: The Journal of Food and Culture, vol. 12, no. 1 (Spring 2012), 103-105.
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“‘It was my turn to cook for the mess’: Provisions of the Common Soldier in the Continental Army, 1775-1783" (entire article, 39 pages) First conceived as a lecture for the Historic Foodways Society of the Delaware Valley, given 15 January 1995. Reworked as a feature column in Food History News beginning with vol. VII, no. 1 (Fall 1995). Below are the column titles: FHN, vol. VII, no. 1 (Fall 1995), 2, 8. "It was my turn to cook for the Mess" Provisions of the Common Soldier in the Continental Army 1775-1783 FHN, vol. VII, no. 3 (Winter 1995), 2-3. "Sometimes we drew two days rations at a time." The Soldiers' Daily Issue FHN, vol. VIII, no. 1 (Summer 1996), 2-3. "Drew 2 pound of Shugar and 1 pound of Coffee" Extraordinary Foodstuffs Issued the Troops FHN, vol. VII, no. 4 (Spring 1996), 2-3. "The unreasonable prices extorted ... by the market People": Camp Markets and the Impact of the Economy FHN, vol. VIII, no. 2 (Fall 1996), 1-2, 7. "Complaint has been made by many of the Inhabitants" Soldiers' Efforts to Supplement the Ration Issue FHN, vol. VIII, no. 3 (Winter 1996), 2, 6-7. "Whilst in this country" Sullivan's Expedition and the Carolina Campaigns FHN, vol. VIII, no. 4 (Spring 1997), 2, 3-5, 6-7. "Hard enough to break the teeth of a rat." Biscuit and Hard Bread in the Armies of the Revolution (Also in the same issue, information on cooking with biscuit and hardtack during the American Civil War and the War for Independence in "Joy of Historical Cooking: Using Hardtack & Crackers.") FHN, vol. IX, no. 1 (Summer 1997), 2, 6. "The essential service he rendered to the army" Christopher Ludwick, Superintendent of Bakers FHN, vol. XVII, no. 1 (Summer 2005) (65), 2. “The Gingerbread Man” More on Washington’s Baking Superintendent, Then and Now
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FHN, vol. IX, no. 2 (Fall 1997), 2, 8-9. "As many fireplaces as you have tents" Earthen Camp Kitchens FHN, vol. IX, no. 3 (Winter 1998), 2. Matt and I Dig a Kitchen Recreating an 18th-Century Cooking Excavation FHN, vol. IX, no. 4 (Spring 1998), 2, 7-8. "Our pie-loving ... stomachs ... ache to even look." Durable Foods for Armies, 1775-1865 FHN, vol. X, no. 1 (37), 2, 8-9. "Tell them never to throw away their ... haversacks or canteens" Finding Water and Carrying Food During the War for Independence and the American Civil War FHN, vol. X, no. 2 (38), 2, 6-7. "The victuals became putrid by sweat & heat" Equipment Shortages, the Burden of Rations and Spoilage During the War for Independence and the War Between the States FHN, vol. X, no. 3 (39), 2, 7. (1775-1945) An "unrational predicament." Soldiers, Food, and Humor FHN, vol. XI, no. 1 (41), 2, 9. (1775-1945) "This is the way they live" Soldiers' Observations of Other Regions, Other Cultures FHN, vol. XI, no. 2 (42), 2, 12-13. (1775-1945) "Happy New Year, you guys." A Soldier's Holiday FHN, vol. XI, no. 3 (43), 2. Extreme Cuisine: Doughnuts and Coffee "The Zouave Doughnuts" (1862) "A Cup of Coffee in the Tet Offensive" (1968) FHN, vol. XI, no. 4 (44), 2, 5. (1775-1945) From Firecake to K Rations: Books on the American Soldier's Diet.
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FHN, vol. XII, no. 1 (45), 2. Extreme Cuisine: Alligator Soup, Louisiana, 1864 (Captain John DeForest, 12th Connecticut Volunteers) FHN, vol. XII, no. 2 (46), 2. Extreme Cuisine: The Indispensable Frying Pan and Coffee Pot, (Civil War mess groups and utensils; contents of a Confederate Haversack) FHN, vol. XII, no. 3 (47), 2, 9-10. "False hopes and temporary devices" Organizing Food Supply in the Continental Army Part I. “To subsist an Army well” An Organizational Overview FHN, vol. XII, no. 4 (48), 2, 9-10. "False hopes and temporary devices" Organizing Food Supply in the Continental Army Part II. “Owing to this variety of waste …” Producing, Storing, and Transporting Bread FHN, vol. XII, no. 4 (48), 2, 8-9. "False hopes and temporary devices" Organizing Food Supply in the Continental Army Part III. “We now have 500 head of fat cattle” Procuring, Transporting, and Processing Livestock FHN, vol. XIII, no. 2 (50), 2, 7. “We Were Marching on Christmas Day” History, Food, and Civilian and Soldiers’ Celebrations: A Book Review (Also posted online at http://www.libertyrifles.org/research/christmasday.html ) FHN, vol. XIII, no. 4 (52), 2. “The new process of cooking” Robert Beecham’s 1862 Birthday Meal FHN, vol. XIV, no. 1 (53), 2, 7. “A perfect nutriment for heroes!” Apples and North American Soldiers, 1757-1918 FHN, vol. XIV, no. 2 (54), 2. “The oficers are Drunk and Dancing on the table …” U.S Soldiers and Alcoholic Beverages FHN, vol. XIV, no. 3 (55), 2. “The repast was in the English fashion …” Washington’s Campaign for Refined Dining in the War for Independence
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FHN, vol. XIV, no. 4 (56), 2-3. “We'll eat as we ne'er ate before …” The Immutable Army Bean Part I. “The proof of the pudding is in the eating.”: U.S. Army Baked Bean How-to and Recipe FHN, vol. XV, no. 1 (57), 2, 9-10. “We'll eat as we ne'er ate before …” The Immutable Army Bean Part II. Eating Beans, 1775 to 1945 FHN, vol. XV, no. 2 (58), 2, 7. “We'll eat as we ne'er ate before …” The Immutable Army Bean Part III. Beans in Song and Verse FHN, vol. XV, no. 3 (59), 2, 8. “Indolence is the mother of invention.” Private Post’s 1898 Culinary Campaign FHN, vol. XV, no. 4 (60), 2, 9-10. "Give us Our Bread Day by Day." Continental Army Bread, Bakers, and Ovens Part I. “Waste and bad management …” Regulating Baking FHN, vol. XVI, no. 1 (61), 2, 9-10. "Give us Our Bread Day by Day." Continental Army Bread, Bakers, and Ovens Part II. “A bake-house was built in eleven days …” Contemporary Baking Operations and Army Masonry Ovens FHN, vol. XVI, no. 3 (63), 2, 8-9. "Give us Our Bread Day by Day." Continental Army Bread, Bakers, and Ovens Part III. “Seeing that the Ovens may be done right …” Bake Oven Designs

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FHN, vol. XVI, no. 4 (64), 2. "Give us Our Bread Day by Day." Continental Army Bread, Bakers, and Ovens Part IV. “The mask is being raised!!” Denouement: Early-War Iron Ovens, and a Yorktown Campaign Bakery (See above for issue 65 column, Christopher Ludwick: Reprise ) FHN, vol. XVII, no. 2 (66), 2, 8. “Invited to dine with Genl Wayne; an excellent dinner …” Revolutionary Commanders’ Culinary Equipage in Camp and on Campaign (Part 1) “Plates, once tin but now Iron …” General Washington’s Mess Equipment FHN, vol. XVII, no. 3 (67), 2, 8. “Invited to dine with Genl Wayne; an excellent dinner …” Revolutionary Commanders’ Culinary Equipage in Camp and on Campaign (Part 2) “40 Dozens Lemons, in a Box” British Generals’ Provisions and Mess Equipage FHN, vol. XVII, no. 4 (68),2. “Invited to dine with Genl Wayne; an excellent dinner …” Revolutionary Commanders’ Culinary Equipage in Camp and on Campaign (Part 3) “A Major General & family” Nathanael Greene’s Food Ware FHN, vol. XVIII, no. 1 (69), 2-3. “Invited to dine with Genl Wayne; an excellent dinner …” Revolutionary Commanders’ Culinary Equipage in Camp and on Campaign (Part 4) “My poor cook is almost always sick …” General Riedesel Goes to America FHN, vol. XVIII, no. 2 (70), 2. “Sufficient for the army for fifteen days …” Continental Army Frozen Rations

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FHN, vol. XVIII, no. 3 (71), 2, 9. Condensed Milk, “Corned Willie,” and K Rations Canned Foods for American Troops
Part I “Manufactories sprung up everywhere …” Early Use of Tinned Goods, and Their Proliferation During the American Civil War

(Column No. 43) FHN, vol. XVIII, no. 3 (72), 2, 5. Condensed Milk, “Corned Willie,” and K Rations Canned Foods for American Troops
Part II

“Pat and I ate a can of salmon and some hard tack.”2
The Incorporation of Canned Foods into U.S. Army Rations

(Column No. 44) FHN, vol. XVIV, no. 1 (73), 2, 5. Condensed Milk, “Corned Willie,” and K Rations Canned Foods for American Troops
Part III

“We hated them until we ran out and started to starve.”
U.S. Military Tinned Field Rations, 1940 to 1981

(Column No. 45) FHN, vol. XVIV, no. 2 (74), 2, 5. "The manner of messing and living together" Continental Army Mess Groups (Column No. 46) FHN, vol. XVIV, no. 3 (75), 2, 9. “On with Kittle, to make some hasty Pudding …” How a "Continental Devil" Broke His Fast (Column No. 47) FHN, vol. XVIV, no. 4 (76)), 2, 9. "A hard game" Cooks in the Continental Army (Column No. 48) FHN, vol. XX, no. 1 (77)), 2, 7, 10. "We had our cooking utensils ... to carry in our hands." Light-Weight Military Kettles, 1775-1782 Included in the endnotes:
“Tin Kettles, 1759-1771” “British and German Kettles” “Kettle Capacity and Weight, and Excavated Artifacts, Circa 1750-1815”

(Column No. 49)
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FHN, vol. XX, no. 2 (78)), 2, 4-5. "They were made of cast iron and consequently heavy." Eating Utensils and Less Commonly Used Cooking Implements, 1775-1783 (Column No. 50) FHN, vol. XX, no. 3 (79)), 2, 9, 12. “A capital dish …" Revolutionary Soldiers and Chocolate (Column No. 51) FHN, vol. XX, no. 4 (79), 2-3. "A better repast" Continental Army Field and Company Officers’ Fare (Column No. 52) “Who shall have this?” Distributing Food to Continental Soldiers (Completed but never published in FHN) "To keep the Army from Starving" Food Impressment in the War for Independence (manuscript) _____________________ "Give us day by day our daily bread." Continental Army Bread, Ovens, and Bakers Compiled and updated for: “Their best wheaten bread, pies, and puddings…,” An Historic Baking Symposium, Fort Lee Historic Park, N.J., 28 August 2010 (Hosted by Deborah's Pantry)
Contents
“Waste and bad management …” Regulating Baking "Hard enough to break the teeth of a rat." Biscuit in the Armies of the Revolution “A bake–house was built in eleven days …” Contemporary Baking Operations and Army Masonry Ovens “Seeing that the Ovens may be done right …” Bake Oven Designs “The mask is being raised!!” Early–War Iron Ovens, and a Yorktown Campaign Bakery 11

“Hands are most wanted to bake bread for the Soldiers …" The Superintendent's Bakers "The essential service he rendered to the army ..." Christopher Ludwick, Superintendent of Bakers Addendum: Hard Biscuit Recipes

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