You’re probably reading this because you saw this language posted somewhere on the Internet and wanted to learn more about it. If you have a physical copy, return it, because this entire book is available online (unless you really, really, really want to have a physical copy, in which case, congratulations). Before we begin, I’ll explain how Angos came to be. It is an established axiom that the first language one constructs is a clone of their native tongue. My first forray into constructed interlanguages was called Logiano, a language that, at the time, seemed untouchable. I, without any linguistic training, had constructed perfection. Logiano could do no wrong. It was an unstoppable force of creative power that would triumph against all others. But after studying linguistic topics in more detail, I eventually realized that this construct was nothing more than a reflection of my native English with flecks of influence from other constructed languages thrown in, and the language dissipated into Internet oblivion. I had to start from scratch if I were to make this vision a reality. But the process of creation is slow and painful. Angos initially started as a group effort - three members of the online community trying to make the perfect international auxiliary language (in retrospect, this might have been a little ambitious for a high school student, but these crazy ideas tend to get into your head when you’re young). After several weeks, one member dropped out, unwilling to mediate mine and the other’s squabbling about what kind of grammatical elements should be used. The remaining member and I went on for weeks on the forums arguing which kind of systems would be easier for speakers of this or that language, and ultimately, we could not agree

2 on the most basic concepts and abandoned the project. I had gone back to the discussion in the forum archives a year later and read over our proposals. We had created several words for the sake of proving that our systems would work, and one of these words caught my eye: ang, which we had used for “language”. Yet I still had no idea how to proceed. With what we had written, the language was still too close to other constructed languages to be notable; there were no special characteristics that set it apart from the big contenders. This problem stuck with me until I started my university classes. One of my close friends and I would go out to a local coffee shop and study or talk about new music we found. We would do this so often, that “Let’s go the coffee shop” seemed like so much to say for a concept we both understood. So we shortened it to “Let’s coffee”. It was that moment I realized - a verb was not necessary to express the action so long as the subjects and the objects were in context. I had found a simple yet novel concept that would distinguish Ang from other constructed languages: all roots would be nouns. Wanting to add even more flair to the language, I introduced the root aspects - the concepts of natural versus man-made nouns. With this distinction, I only needed a fraction of the roots I had before, with natural/man-made counterparts such as “mouse”: wo me maya de nesumo mate leis-hefo. I bought a mouse as a house pet. wo me maya de nesumos mate no-mekos. I bought a mouse for the computer. wo me maya de nesumos mate mao. I bought a (toy) mouse for the cat.


Or “satellite”: de nehaso, tae ayn yino. The Earth has one (natural) satellite. de nehaso, tae fali yinos. The Earth has many (man-made) satellites. Because these meanings are intuitive from the root in context, it makes learning vocabulary less burdensome on the memory. With these concepts established, there was only the matter of building a base of roots. To draw influence from just a few languages would make Angos seem exclusive to those speakers. To create words from scratch would be truly neutral, but would also be completely alien to anyone who would want to learn (so you’re screwed either way). The only solution was to draw from a multitude of languages across different language families. Some examples include: na (male) unole (tornado) yefe (future) ikan (fish) nenok (bear) leis (house) afik (whale) Mandarin “男” (nán) Cherokee “!"#” (unole) Hungarian “jöv!” Indonesian “ikan” Greenlandic “nanoq” Basque “leize” Inuktitut “!"#$” (arvik)

But enough of my rambling. Let’s get down to business.

a#] (English: cow) [ew. Aa [a] father Bb [b] boy Cc [t"] Ee [e] play.4 I. Orthography and Pronunciation Angos uses the Latin script with no diacritics. ew ou (final). a%] (English: tie) [ej. oy [aw. Phonology 1. The chart below shows the majuscule and minuscule letters with their corresponding IPA symbol and an example sound in English (for optional/alternate pronunciations of sounds. In Angos. toy Kk [k] cat Ll [l] lock Mm [m] mother Nn [n] no Oo [o] oval Pp [p] pen Ss [s] say Tt [t] toy Uu [u] food Ww [w] wait. but they may be used for distinction or emphasis if needed. ay ei (final). ey oi/oe (final). see IPA for Angos in the back of the book). ow ai/ae (final). The use of majuscule letters is not obligatory at the beginning of a sentence or for proper nouns. Diphthongs Diphthongs are two vowel sounds that merge into one syllable. cow chop Dd [d] dog 2. diphthongs can occur as follows: au (word-final). $#] (no English equivalent) [ow. o#] (English: slow) [aj. egg Ff [f] fun Gg [g] good Hh [h] hat Ii [i] see Yy [j] yes. aw eu (final). $%] (English: day) [oj. o%] (English: boy) .

Thus a compound word will have more than one stress point. C = consonant V = vowel S = semivowel (w or y) (C)(S)V(S)(C) Each syllable requires a vowel nucleus. ‘wya’) would not be allowable structures.g. • The consonant [l] should not be adjacent to another consonant. • Stress is on the last syllable of the root (the penultimate syllable of an inflected word). Phonaesthetics Phonaesthetics is the study of how languages sound. a semivowel or vowel should precede/follow it. whether they are euphonic (pleasant) or cacaphonic (unpleasant). A syllable combination of CV or CSV is preferred in multi-syllabic roots (e.g. You may have VSC (as in ayn) or SV (as in wo). The following are some guidelines for keeping Angos euphonic. moswo “moose” would be spoken as mo-swo instead of mos-wo). but clusters such as VCS (e. aksalo aksal-omo . ‘adw’) or SSV (e. Syllable Structures The following is a schematic of the possible syllable structures in Angos.5 3.g. 4.

Note that the stress in this word still falls on the penultimate written vowel. letter” Root-initial vowels will always have [&]: omo – [`&o.`&o.no] “Summer” aksal-ipo – [&ak. If they do not belong in any of the allowable syllable structures. Similarly.no].`&o.6 • Root-initial vowels have an unmarked [&] at the syllable onset ([&] being the stopping sound in English “uh-oh”).mo] “person” mek-omo – [`mek.ge.fo] “author” yang-sesono – [`jan.pu. Examples of [e] usage: aksal-pulofo – [&ak.mo] “engineer. then an [e] is placed at the syllable boundary. “this sock”). the roots must be looked at individually.le.se. For compound words. . including English.`lo.`&o. This can be seen in English at the boundaries of two words with the same consonant sound (ex.le.mo] “doctor” boka-omo – [bo.po] “note. the sound may be elongated: bisaa – [bi. • Assimilation (the combining of adjacent sounds) does not occur at word boundaries. but it’s important to be aware of when putting roots together.`sa:].`sa.`ka. if two vowels are beside each other.`sa. This sound is treated as a consonant.`wa.`&i. director” dawa-omo – [da.mo] “actor/actress” • Consonant gemination (elongation) may occur if the boundaries are identical: ays-sesono – [`ays:e`so.`so. This is a natural occurence in many languages.

there is still a noun vowel classifier for the purpose of euphony. and signifies that the root is man-made. every root is based on a noun. Parts of Speech and Morphology 1. The constructed aspect is marked with –s after the initial vowel classifier. most languages have the same concept of “dog” (the friendly. set fire to oti – hot. For example. compared to a verb like “to be” (which doesn’t even exist in some languages). flame-like otu – hotly. in a flame-like way 2. oto – fire ota – burn. Note that even though roots are already based on nouns. The natural aspect is unmarked. Natuli and Om-sanati Words are split into two aspects: natuli (natural) and omsanati (constructed). barking mammal). Part of Speech Classifiers In Angos.7 II. The use . Angos uses a system of letter classifiers affixed to the root to designate a word’s part of speech in a sentence. Nouns end in o Verbs end in a Adjectives end in i Adverbs end in u Here is an example of the root ot with all vowel classifiers and various meanings. This is to regulate derivations and is based on the idea that nouns are the most stable concepts cross-linguistically compared to verbs or adjectives.

bunker) fao (tree) vs. any. us le to – you all le lo – they. number. shaved ice) 3. Instead. her le wo – we. them . they do not change for definitiveness. plastic tree) ayso (ice) vs. leisos (house. etc.8 of this distinction is to show a shared characteristic between the words. leiso (cave. him. leisos a/the house le leisos houses (where le signals plurality) de leisos to a/the house As shown above. The meaning of the constructed aspects depends on context in which it is used. canopy) vs. the) are not present in Angos. faos (branched diagram. determiners (this. Nouns Nouns in Angos are static. that. 4. Pronouns Following the use of the noun ending –o and the plural particle le. me to – you lo – he/she/it.) are used to indicate definitiveness. or grammatical case. aysos (ice cube. some. pronouns have the following configuration: wo – I. articles (a/an. such as look or function.

fao ota The tree is burning wo ota momos I light the candle (in this sense. It is instead any action related to the use of "fire" in context. wi – my.meaning "fire". the following roots can be compounded with pronouns to denote gender: na – male ni – female kwi – other na-omo – man ni-omo – woman kwi-omo – genderqueer The generic pronoun is expressed with the word omo “person”: omo bisaa finda lo ine buk-oyos One can find him in the library Possessive pronouns are formed be replacing the noun classifier o with the adjective classifier i. hers. yours le li – their.9 Although there is no obligatory gender assignment. ours le ti – your. from the root ot. theirs 5. mine ti – your. For example. yours li – his. does not inherently mean "burn". ota. the meaning of a word with the verb ending is dependent on the context of the noun root used. applying fire to something) . Verbs Because there are no inherent verb roots in Angos. its le wi – our.

tense. but the action is not directed back to the subject (see Reflexivity below). wo ala I eat / I am eating. number. All verbs in Angos are ambitransitive. If an object is present. wo ansa I am talking wo ansa angos I speak Angos wo sona I sleep wo sona lo I cause it to sleep (also see Modality for causatives) Reflexivity (when an action is directed back to the subject) can be expressed or emphasized with the adverb idu: wo iska I collide (with something) wo idu iska I hit myself .10 Verbs do not conjugate for person. their meanings can change depending on the presence of an object. wo ala tofao I eat/I am eating an apple. aspect. or mood. the verb will act transitively. If there is no object. the verb is intransitive.

some adverbs.11 6. making whatever they modify understood in context: to desa ki? Which [thing] do you want? wo desa lafi I want the small [one] Adverbs describe the manner is which something is done. adjectives. For example. depending on context. Adjectives and Adverbs Adjectives describe a shared quality or possession. or even “quick-spreading”. 7. All these words end in -e and. and interjections. if applicable. . Adjectives may take the function of nouns. Particles "Particles" is a catch-all category that includes prepositions. oti (from the root ot “fire”) could mean “hot”. determiners. or other adverbs. “red-orange”. conjunctions. but may only modify verbs. They are derived in the same way as adjectives. The shared qualities may vary depending on context. precede whatever they modify. “flame-like”.


Tense Particles
The present tense is unmarked. The general past is indicated by the particle me. The general future is indicated by ke. These particles are adverbial, preceding the verb. wo ala I eat wo me ala I ate wo ke ala I will eat

The particle se is used to denote positivity or affirmation, while nae signals negation. se, wo me ine leisos Yes, I was in the house se, wo se me ine leisos Yes, I was in the house nae, wo nae me ine leisos No, I was not in the house

Existential Particle
The existential particle tae is a special case, as it functions like a verb. The closest English translation is “there is” or “there are”. It may be accompanied by tense particles. tae tin tofao There are three apples


me tae tin tofao There were three apples ke tae tin tofao There will be three apples This particle is also used to express possession. de wo, tae mao At me, there is a cat (I have a cat)

Conjunctions link together two clauses and are split into two sub-groups: coordinating and subordinating. Coordinating conjunctions may be used to link words or clauses. Between the contents of lists, the conjunction ye is still obligatory if the contents are three or more. to maya de tofao ye nesteos You buy an apple and a drink de to, tae mao ye tesemo ye ikano You have a cat, a dog, and a fish The coordinating conjunction oe is also obligatory between each listed item. to bisaa maya de tofao oe nesteos oe nano You can buy an apple, a drink, or bread Subordinating conjunctions require that the following clause be dependent on another clause. Note that the duplication of the verb in the subordinate clause is not required.

14 wo ke ala isue wo talua (ala) I will eat because I must (eat) wo ke ala be wo talua (ala) I will eat if I must (eat) The option also exists to front the dependent clause and include the adverb sayu (therefore) in the following independent clause: isue wo talua, wo sayu ke ala Because I have to, I will therefore eat be wo talua, wo sayu ke ala If I have to, I will therefore eat

Prepositions link words in a sentence with a spatial or temporal relationship. Prepositions are unique in that they may be inflected with a vowel classifier to denote a part of speech related to the preposition: nife – near nifeo – the near one nifea – go near, put near nifei – nearby nifeu – nearly, almost

the only one ayna .kan 5 .ayn 2 .sen 7 .nun 1 . but may also be inflected further with part-of-speech classifiers.15 Temporal prepositions are distinguished from spatial prepositions with the prefix hi-: fe – from hife – since ante – in front of hiante – until. wo gia mwe wi akio I walk with my friend wo aksala tongwe ink-olos I write with a pen 8. only 0 .do something singularly/one at a time ayni/aynu .keyn 6 . while tongwe is used for instrumental purposes. Numbers All numbers in Angos end in -n. ayn .sun .lone.don 3 . before The prepositions mwe and tongwe both mean “with”.tin 4 . but mwe is used strictly with association.one (of something) ayno .

nowan 10 .don-den 21 .okon 9 .(ayn) syen 121 .ohanen quadrillion – lanun infinity .ayn-syen-don-den-ayn 1000 .ikwin Ordinality is expressed with the root sol (series) compounded to the number.000 – (ayn) syen-syon million .den-syon 100.16 8 . then with the number being inflected.000 .don-den-ayn 100 .den 11 .eseon billion .(ayn) syon 1121 .ayn-syon-ayn-syen-don-den-ayn 10.ospen trillion .den-don 20 . These may be abbreviated in the format: s + # + (classifier) wo sol-tino I am the third one wo sol-doni omo I am the second person wo ke s1u ala I will eat first wo s2o I am the second one .den-ayn 12 .

17 III. with 2. mao ala nesumo [The] cat eats [the] mouse bali mao gatiu ala lafi nesumo [The] big cat quickly eats [the] small mouse For modal verbs such as bisaa "can" or desa "want". the secondary verb (if there is one). Syntax 1. lo bisaa gatiu aksala He/She can write quickly order. Indirect Objects Indirect object phrases are formed with the preposition de. is placed after the modal. Word Order Angos uses Subject-Verb-Object word modifiers preceding what they modify. and are placed after the direct object if applicable. lo bisaa aksala He/She can write Descriptors will still precede each of the verbs. wo fema de le lo I teach them (something) wo fema espan-ango de le lo I teach them Spanish .

Passive Voice The passive voice in Angos is formed with the particle te. wo naefe cahai I am the least tall . wo sele cahai I am taller wo naele cahai de to I am not as tall as you wi cahao balansi de ti I am as tall as you (lit. kalimo te aksala dafe ipos [The] word is written on [the] paper windawgos me te tayla fe wo [The] window was broken by me 4. Comparative and Superlative The comparative particles in Angos are sele for augmentative and naele for diminutive. respectively. my height is equal to yours) wo kala naele alo I want less food The superlative particles are sefe and naefe. placed immediately in front of the verb.18 3. with the particle de linking the comparison to another noun. rendered in the same manner as above. These particles may also be used to mean “more of” or “less of” something.

This is to prevent confusion with the plural possessive pronouns (le wi. le li): wi sang-ami bukos my red book .19 wo sefe cahai de le to I am the tallest (out of you all) wo kala sefe alo I want the most food 6. li. etc. in that the possessive pronoun (although an adjective) will precede all other modifiers. le ti. the order changes slightly. Multiple Modifiers This is a list of priorities in case there is more than one modifier: Noun Modifiers: le + demonstrative + adjective + noun Examples: fi ni-omo this woman seyni ni-omo old woman fi seyni ni-omo this old woman le fi seyni ni-omo these old women When using possessive pronouns (wi.). ti.

. Prepositional Phrases Prepositional phrases are formed with a preposition. then the object(s) of the preposition. the prepositional phrase may be separated from the main clause by a comma. If placed at the beginning. modifiers of the object. Prepositional phrases may only begin or end a sentence. nae) + adverbs + (me. ke) + te + verb kalimo te aksala The word is written kalimo me te aksala The word was written kalimo gatiu me te aksala The word was written quickly kalimo nae gatiu me te aksala The word was not written quickly 7.20 wi le sang-ami bukos my red books le wi sang-ami bukos our red book le wi le sang-ami bukos our red books Verb Modifiers: (se.

Instead. Angos does not use pronouns to introduce a relative clause. the cat eats the mouse mao ala nesumo ine leisos The cat eats the mouse in the house The presence of a preposition can influence the meaning of the verb if context is unclear. mao ala nesumo In the house. Relative Clauses Unlike some languages. wo ansa mwe to I talk to you/I talk with you wo ansa de to I tell you 8. na-omo lae wo me wia The man who I saw oyo lae me cea The place where it happened leisos lae (lis) windawgos tayli The house whose (its) windows are broken . the particle lae is used.21 ine leisos.

etc. what.22 9. lo ki omo? Who is it? ("It [is] what person") lo bali omo It is a big person to gia de semyao hie ki ceo? When are you going home? wo gia de semyao hie post-hio I'm going home tomorrow . Ce demands a yes/no answer: ce lo hefo? Is it an animal? ce to kala gi-gola? Do you like to play soccer? An interrogative determiner demands an answer that matches its function in the sentence. Forming Questions Questions can be formed with the polar question particle ce or an interrogative determiner (who. when.).

Determiner Radicals Angos uses a series of radicals to construct determiners by pairing them with vowel classifiers. person. place. ku.23 IV. and reason. Radical kwhat fthis dthat msome yany fetfew falmany osevery neno Noun Classifier ko what fo this do that mo something yo anything feto few things falo many things oso everything neo nothing Adjectve Classifier ki which fi this [X] di that [X] mi some [X] yi any [X] feti few [X] fali many [X] osi every [X] nei no [X] Verb Classifier ka do what fa do this da do that ma do something ya do anything feta do a few things fala do many things osa do everything nea do nothing Adverb Classifier ku how fu in this way du in that way mu in some way yu in any way fetu in a few ways falu in many ways osu in every way neu in no way These determiners are syntactically bound to their classifiers (e. can be formed with adjective radicals. like other adverbs.g. such as time. . can only be placed before a verb or adjective). Other determiners.

In this context. Compounding Angos employs heavy use of endocentric compounding. yel-hay-oyos airport yel (sky) + hay (vessel) + oy (place) + os. it is a man-made shelter for a dog. and air vessel describes the place. This gives rise to several category roots: oyo – a place where one finds something fa-oyo = tree place = forest kon-oyos = study place = school buk-oyos = book place = library . Compound words may have as many roots necessary to form the idea. leis is the focus of the compound. Air describes vessel (airplane). and tesem describes the purpose or quality of the following root. though the majority of compounds are between two and three roots in length. and is the one that inflects for partof-speech. tesem-leisos dog house With the root tesem (dog) + leis (shelter) + constructed noun ending os. in which the head of the compound modifies the following root. Compounds are formed by root junction. with a dash (-) separating each root. The root at the end of the compound is the focus.24 V.

`haj]. Thus yel-hay (airplane) in the previous example would be rendered phonetically as [`je.25 omo – a person who works with something mek-omo = system person = engineer lag-omo = law person = lawyer kon-omo = study person = student amo – the color of something kafe-amo = coffee color = brown fa-amo = tree color = brown yel-amo = sky color = light blue eyfo – an area or region of something bal-eyfo = mountain region = mountain range lahol-eyfo = drought region = desert aluk-eyfo = hierarchy region = state If two compounded roots break a phonological rule. as the consonant l should be succeeded by a vowel or semivowel.le. an unmarked vowel sound [e] or [$] should be placed between the roots to maintain phonaesthetics. .

you know that lo has to be receiving the action of sona. but some verbs indicate different modal aspects.26 VI. to ala I want you to eat Ability and Permission: wo bisaa gia I can/may go Hope: wo hopa gia I hope to go wo hopa. Necessity: wo talua gia I must go wo talua alo I need food wo talua. to maya de fo I need you to buy this Desire: wo desa gia I want to go wo desa. it is a causative action. fo istini I believe that this is true Knowledge: wo noa. to gia I cause/allow you to go Because of the strict word order rules in Angos. When using a subordinate noun clause. cause can be expressed in a normal sentence (without koda) by the presence of an object. a comma is placed after the verb. or needs) in Angos is unmarked. . wo sona “I sleep” can change to wo sona lo “I cause him/her to sleep”. Modality Grammatical mood (how one expresses opinions. lo me gia I know that he/she left Cause: wo koda. to gia I hope that you go Belief: wo eska. In this context. Because of the word order. assertions.

lo bewisu me gatia He/she obviously ran lo bisau me gatia He/she probably ran Commands are simply the verb form without a subject. possibly). Negative commands will have nae before them. and bisau (uncertainly. obviously). ala! Eat! nae ala! Don’t eat! The deontic adverbial particles sefame or naefame indicate how the world should or should not be. respectively. le wo sefame ala We should eat to naefame ala You should not eat sefame gia Let’s go .27 Evidentiality may be expressed with the adverbs bewisu (evidently.

Names Proper nouns. Nippon over Japan) Any sound that does not occur in Angos should be given the closest approximation.do something associated with John coni .like Beijing does The use of these inflections is mostly stylistic. like Beijing beycingu .Beijing’s. It is recommended that context be clear if these inflections are used. The name in its language of origin is preferred (ex. wo gia de londono ' wo londona I go to London For transcribing names. to replace prepositions or to adjust rhyme and meter.John cona . names of people or places. .28 VII. They can be fully inflected as shown below: cono . they should be within the acceptable phonological structures for Angos.John’s. like John conu .do something associated with Beijing beycingi . are treated like any other roots.Beijing beycinga .like John does beycingo .

.... – I speak a little.....? pasua – Stop helea – Help Hello and Goodbye anya – Hello/Goodbye (literally.29 Phrasebook Essential Phrases se – Yes nae – No sese – Of course/Absolutely naenae – Of course not/No way bisau – Maybe/Possibly lotane – Please/Excuse me milo – Thanks wo mila to – I thank you wo ye mila to – I also thank you nae mila – Don’t thank/No problem ilemo – Apologies wo ilema – I apologize/I’m sorry nae ilema – Don’t apologize/No problem .de ki oyo? – Where is..? – Do you speak.? wo nae ansa.... lotane sipota – Please slow down lotane aksala – Please write it down .. wo lafu ansa. – I don’t speak.. “peace”) hey – Hi/Hey kali sabaho – Good morning kali hio – Good day kali osko – Good evening ke kali sabaho – Have a nice morning ke kali hio – Have a nice day ke kali osko – Have a nice night Making yourself understood ce to ansa...

.. taho – I am .... – I am originally from. wo me bebea ine...30 lotane ceu ansa – Please say it again wo no-ba – I understand wo nae no-ba – I don’t understand omo ku isala.. – I was born in. wo fe.. years old fi omo wi akio – This is my friend fi omo wi soyuso – This is my husband/wife/partner fi omo wi anako – This is my son/daughter le to ku me oma? – How did you meet? Question Words ki omo – who/which person ko – what ki samino – how long/which period of time ki caso – when/which time ki oyo – where/which place . – My name is...? – How does one say.? tongwe angos – in Angos/using Angos tongwe engul-ango – in English/using English How are you? to ku? – How are you? wo kalu – I'm good/I'm doing well wo nae kalu – I'm not so good/ I'm not doing well wo dimesu – I’m bad/I’m doing poorly wo nae dimesu – Not bad oke – Okay/It's okay ye to ku? – And how are you? wo ye – Me too somi – Same Introductions wi namo. – I am from..... wi eleteo . wo leisa ine – I live in... wo laywenu fe..........

. – Let’s not.. naefame....? – Do you like...? – Do you know...? ko koda.... – Let’s.? (a fact) ce to kala..Come in/Enter wesea .? – Do you know..... – Don’t....Go out/Go away/Exit idu esa – Sit down/Get comfortable idu anya – Calm yourself down .. (noun) (verb) – what causes (noun) to (verb) ku – how Learning about someone ti namo ko? – What is your name? to fe ki oyo? – Where are you from? to laywenu fe ki oyo – Where are you from originally? to leisa ine ki oyo? – Where do you live? ti eleteo ki tah-meno? – How old are you? ti kamo ko? – What do you do? ce to me oma..31 ki kodo – why/which reason ko koda. fea – Come here dea – Go there inea ...? (a person) ce to noa. sefame. to de fi oyo? – Why are you here? to de fi oyo hife ki samino? – How long have you been here? to ke wesea hie ki samino? – When will you leave? to ke wesea hie ki caso? – What time will you leave? Contact Information ti ans-mek-lakamos ko? – What is your phone number? ti ladis namos ko? – What is your email address? ce to kinoa samac-ipos? – Do you use social media? ti web-namos ko? – What is your username? Commands and Instructions nae.

. wo nae kala.. wo nae sopia – I do not agree/I do not agree with......... wo sefe kala.... – I am against.. wo naefe kala.ela musikos – to listen to music . wo icaa.. ki kodo? – Why?/What cause? isue.. wo sopia – I agree/I agree with....laksa ine laks-oyos – to dance in a dance club .? – What do you think of..32 syota – Be quiet Needs and Emotions to sensa ko? – How are you feeling? wo desa ala – I’m hungry wo desa nestea – I’m thirsty wo desa sona – I’m tired wo balaki – I’m happy wo gadabi – I’m angry Opinions to ku eska kwe./My least favorite is..mag-ten-eyfa – gardening ....... Hobbies and Interests to ka hie ti wakali samino? – What do you do in your free time? wo kala..wia wi-mekos – to watch television . – I like.... – Because..gemas – play games/sports .. – I don’t like..wia gemos – to watch games/sports .wia le bukos – read books ........ – I think... – I most like... – I least like... .../My favorite is...? wo eska.....

33 Are you free? ce to ya? – Are you doing anything?/Are you free? wo ma – I'm doing something/I'm busy to ka? – What are you doing? wo nae ya – I’m not doing anything/I’m free se.. . I can do something ilemo. wo bisaa ma – Yes.. de ki oyo? – Where can one buy.? tongwe webos – online de tofal-oyos – at a store los dali – It’s free los istinu wedi – It’s expensive los nae wedi – It’s cheap More useful phrases ne – so/then/well ce istini? – Really?/Is it true? kali meno – That’s enough/That’s a good amount nae wedi – It’s not important/It doesn’t matter/I don’t care ki caso? – What time is it? ce yi ando? – Anything else? wo bisaa (verb) – I know how to... I can’t do anything wo kama – I’m working wo kona – I’m studying to nae ya hie ki ceo? – When are you free? Making a purchase wedo ko? – How much does it cost? (lit. wo nae bisaa ya – Sorry. what is the value) omo bisaa emaso ...

said by sun [pl] [1st] [fut] challenge(v). each line of the fable will be broken up into four parts. there were warm ice-season-clothes at [3rd]. The fourth part is a grammatical gloss of the Angos translation. [exst] power(n) using tact(n) “We shall have a contest. Third is a direct translation from Angos back to English. te ansa fe yango “we will have a challenge”. male-human(n) journey(v) across snake(adj) path(n)(art) He was wearing a warm Winter coat de lo. detailing each aspect used. [pass] speech(v) from sun(n) Far below. tae makto tongwe kulameo sun conflicted that there is power using tact sun(n) [past] conflict(v). Second is the Angos translation. lo sefe makti left-direction-wind boasted that he most powerful left-direction-wind(n) [past] pride(v). The North Wind boasted of great strength has-ku-bafelo me aolana. na-omo safala dafale ofidi hodos below them. [past] [exst] heat(adj) ice-season-wool(n)(art) . The first is the original translation in English. male-human travels across snake-like road below [pl] [3rd]. me tae tepuli ays-seson-wolos at him.34 has-ku-bafelo mwe yango The North Wind and the Sun In this section. a man traveled a winding road ake le lo. [3rd] most power(adj) The Sun argued that there was great power in gentleness yango me sukoba.” said the Sun “le wo ke tahada”.

[pl] bird(n) [past] wing(v) to [pl] tree(n) The world was filled with dust and leaves me tae hauco mwe ipo lae me mena ealo there was dust and leaf which filled air [past] [exst] dust(n) with leaf(n) [rel] [past] quantity(v) air(n) But the harder the wind blew down the road mice hie ceo lae lo maktu me bafela de hodos but at moment which he strongly blew to road but at(time) instance(n) [rel] [3rd] power(adv) [past] wind(v) to path(n)(art) . te ansa fe yango “for power-challenge”.35 “As a test of strength.” said the Sun “mate makt-tahado”. [pass] speech(v) from sun(n) “Let us see which of us can take the coat off that man” “le wo sefame atempa wesea wolos fe di na-omo” “we ought try move away clothes from that male-human” [pl] [1st] [suggst] attempt(v) away(v) wool(n)(art) from that(adj) malehuman(n) "It will be quite simple for me to force him to remove his coat. wo maktu koda. le cilo me panha de le fao wind most strongly blew. birds fly to trees wind(n) most power(adv) [past] wind(v). te aolana fe bafelo “I will easily do that. lo wesea li le wolos". I strongly cause him move away his clothes” bragged by wind [1st] [fut] nothingness(adv) that(v). [pass] pride(v) from wind(n) The Wind blew so hard. [1st] power(adv) action(v) away(v) [3rd](adj) [pl] wool(n)(art)." bragged the Wind "wo ke wakalu da. the birds clung to the trees bafelo sefe maktu me bafela. said by sun for power-challenge(n).

at that moment. hie di ceo. na-omo lae dafe hodos me wes-botaa li le wolos.36 The tighter the shivering man clung to his coat. sun(n) self(adv) away(v) from cloud(n) Sun warmed the air and the frosty ground lo me tepula ealo mwe aysi nehaso he warmed air and cold earth [3rd] [past] heat(v) air(n) with ice(adj) earth(n) The man on the road unbuttoned his coat. sun itself moved away from cloud at(time) that(adj) instance(n). male-human which on road away-buttoned his clothes male-human(n) [rel] on path(n)(art) [past] away-button(v) [3rd](adj) [pl] wool(n)(art) The sun grew slowly brighter and brighter yango sipotu sele otu me lusa sun slowly more fire-like shone sun(n) snail(adv) more fire(adv) [past] light(v) Soon the man felt so hot na-omo gatiu me sensa tepulo male-human quickly sensed heat male-human(n) speed(adv) sense(v) heat(n) He took off his coat and sat in a shady spot lo sayu me wesea li le wolos ye idu esa ake fao he therefore moved away his clothes and sat below tree [3rd] result(adv) [past] away(v) [3rd](adj) [pl] wool(n)(art) and self(adv) position(v) below tree(n) . the Sun came out from behind a cloud. yango idu me wesea fe mego. na-omo he sele muskolu me ba li wolos male-human just more strongly grasped his clothes male-human(n) just more muscle(adv) [past] grasp(v) [3rd](adj) wool(n)(art) Then.

37 “How did you do that?” asked the wind “to ku me da?”, te cimuna fe bafelo “you how did that”, asked by wind

[2nd] what(adv) [past] that(v), [pass] question(v) from wind(n)

“It was easy,” said the Sun. “I lit the day” “wo wakalu me da”, te ansa fe yango. “wo me lusa hio” “I easily did that”, said by sun. “I lit day”

[1st] nothingness(adv) [past] that(v), [pass] speech(v) from sun(n). [1st] [past] light(v) day(n)

“Through gentleness I got my way” “tongwe kulameo, wo me liana” “using tact, I succeeded”
using tact(n) [1st] [past] success(v)


alisei wentulo lae ine diwi-kalayo Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland
In this section, lines are provided so that you may translate the first chapter of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland into your preferred language. s1i buk-taylos: ake usagi-holo aliseo me begina sensa soni hibye idu esa nife li ni-siso dafe yoke-ondo. aliseo nae me ya, lo solu aynu oe donu me wia ine bukos lae tae li ni-siso, mice nae tae wegos oe fomos oe anso lae ine los, “ye kinoo ko fe bukos” te eska fe aliseo “lae ede wegos oe fomos oe anso?” ne lo me eska (mwe sefe kali bisao, isue oti pogodo koda, lo sensa soni ye no-wakali), be hawsko lae fe kasa nas kofios balansa atempo ye ba le naso. hie di ceo, lus-ami

39 usagio lae tae mey-ami wio me gia nife lo. nae tae yo lae ISTINU otali kwe fo, ye aliseo nae me eska, ISTINU otali ela usagio ansa “nae, nae, wo ke yefei!” (hie ceo lae aliseo hiposteu eska kwe fo, lo sefame me diwia kwe fo, mice hie hiantei ceo, me besela natuli). mice hie ceo lae usagio ME BA CASOS FE LI WOL-BAGOS ye me wia los ye solu me gatia, aliseo idu dafea, isue lo nae hianteu me wia usagio lae tae wol-bagos oe casos. de aliseo me tae cimuno ye lo me eskola usagio dafale palano ye bahatu me wia lo gatia inale bali usagi-holo lae ake le teno. aliseo me eskola lo inale holo ede noa kwe hodo lae koda,

mice los seynu wakali. usagi-holo me kye lokao ye solu kaela akei hie sefe lafi ceo ye aliseo nae me bisaa idu pasua hiante begina gelaa ake istinu okopi holo. holo istinu me okopi oe aliseo sipotu me gelaa isue me tae bali samino mate wia nife lo ye diwia solu ka. aliseo nae me desa gelaa yulios isue . aliseo me ba yulios lae dafe lefelos hibye gelaa ye lae te namas ‘OLANG-GELYOS’. ne lo me wia wal-ondo ye me finda. mice sefe oski mate wia. aliseo solaynu akeu wia ye finda do lae fea. lo me wia le eyf-ipos mwe le wegos lae te gulua tongwe lafi opolo.40 lo twea. me tae fali kup-lefelo mwe buk-lefelo.

wi semyao ke eska. di kyolio nifeu kan-syon maylo – (isue. ake.41 felo fe katila mi omo. sefame oletaa: wo eska. to sefame noa. elike fi . “ne!” aliseo idu me eska “hiposte fi gela-kodo. lo sayu me esa los ine lefelos hibye lo gelaa. wo gelaa hibye ki mayl-meno?” te ansa fe aliseo. ake. aliseo me kona feti fiomb-tipo kye fo ine li le femos lae ine fem-oyos. gelao ke pasua hie nei ceo! “wo koponaa. elike wo gelaa fe leis patyanos!” (kodo lae tae bali nafaso). ake. “wo bisau nifea nehas-selao. wo nae ke eska kwe gelaa ake gi-lefelos. wo makti! wo nae ke ansa kwe fi kodo.

mice fi kalimo kali mate ansa.42 ceo nae ISTINU kali nafaso mate bokaa li no-bo. ansa lo kali cinpoo) – se.) aliseo solu me begina. isue nae me tae omo mate ela lo. lotane. le lo ‘antipatiso’ –“ (lo me balaki. ce wo ke gelaa INALE nehaso?!” ke hawski be le omo lae dafe andi nehas ondo wia wo! wo eska. ce fi kalayo otali selando oe awstulalyo?” (ye aliseo me atempa patifa de koponai omo – eska kwe PATIFA . wo de ki nehas-eso?” (aliseo nae me noa lendo mate finda fo. nae me tae yi omo lae ela de lo hie di ceo isue nae me istini kalimo) “ – mice wo ke talua yocena kalay-namo de le lo. “wo koponaa. di kyolio istini – mice wo sayu koponaa.

ake. “wo eska. to mwe wo de fi oyo! nae tae nesumo lae ine ealo.) wo hopa. ake. to bisaa da?) “ye lo ke eska. ye sawyo istinu kye nesumo. mice. le lo ke yada dinai molok-kupos hie cay ceo. lo sayu ceu me begina idu ansa. mice to bisau peta sawyo.43 hibye to gelaa! Ce to eska. ye yumeu idu me ansa “ce mao ala sawyo? ce mao ala sawyo?” ye hie mi ceo “ce . naefame yocena. aliseo me begina sensa soni. wo wakali omo isue wo yocena namo! nae. aliseo bisaa nea. ce mao ala sawyo?” ye hie fi ceo. dinao istinu ke desa wo hie fi osko!” (dinao mao. dinao wi haleti! wo desa. namo bisau te aksala de mi oyo.” ake.

ye aliseo pasua gelaa. ke oski!” lo me nifea usagio hie ceo lae aliseo dea soba-doto. lo dafeu me wia. ye olose bisaa wia lus-ami usagio lae weseu gatia. ce to me ala sawyo?” hie di ceo. mice he osko. ye istinu me ansa de lo “dinao. nae me tae kipuo. lo gia mwe dinao. aliseo nae me bisaa maftea fi le cimuno. ye lo igela ye esa hie lafi ceo. istinu ansa de wo. aliseo me sensa. aliseo nae me bisaa sahana. mice hie di . lo nifea sono ye me begina yumea. dum! dum! aliseo akea de balo lae tae fimbo mwe laholi ipo. Ante lo.44 sawyo ala mao?” isue. mate to no-ba. lo bafelu me gatia ye me ela usagio ansa “o wi le elo mwe gal-keyo. de aliseo. lendo lae cimuno te cimuna nae wedi. tae andi kyolii lokao.

lo seynu me gia de selao ye diwia. aliseo ilatu me finda lafi masaos lae tae tin opolos lae te kasa tongwe yulios. hie ceo lae aliseo me gia dafale lokaos hibye atempa hesa osi dolos. me tae fali dolos lae ine lokaos.45 ceo usagio me hanta. mice nae! le talaos me sefe bali oe mafteos me sefe lafi. lo ku twea. nae me tae yo salie lafi emas ami mafteos. mice los neu me maftea yi dolos. aliseo sol-aynu me eska. aliseo me ine kyolii akei lokaos lae te lusas fe solo lae me tae le ot-lus-olos lae te funda de patyanos. mice osi dolos me te talaa. los maftea mi dolos lae ine lokaos. mice hie sol . Dafe los.

poste lo. mice nae me bisaa he esa li hedo inale dolos ‘ye be wi hedo se inalea’. lo me desa twea oski lokaos ye gia bene le lusi naso mwe aysi isumio. aliseo me finda akei wolos lae lo nae hianteu me wia. ‘nae kinoi ede wi le ketefo.46 doni atempo. feti . aliseo me akea ye me wia sefe sabi mag-ten-eyfo lae dafale lokaos. tae lafi dolos. mate to no-ba. aliseo me atempa kinoa mafteo ye balaku me liana! aliseo me hesa dolos lae netana de lafi lokaos lae nae sele bali de nesum-holo. te eska fe aliseo.’ isue. fali otali ceo me cea hie fi samino ye aliseo me begina eska. o wo desa bisaa idu esa kye wi-kyoli-olos! wo eska. wo bisaa da be wo he noa lendo lae begina.

elike de dohios. aliseo sayu me gia de masaos ye me hopa. isue aliseo me wia mi . nae tae kinoo mate sahana nife lafi dolos. te ansa fe lo. me tae ‘nestea wos’. me tae ipos lae mwe kalimo ‘NESTEA WOS’ lae sabu me aksalas tongwe bali aksalos. wo ke sol-aynu wia’. Mice hie fi ceo. lo me finda lafi dohios (‘lae bewisu nae hianteu de fi oyo’. ‘nae.47 kodo nae bisai. me tae andi mafteos oe lag bukos lae fema lendo lae idu esa kye wi-kyoli-olos. te ansa fe aliseo). aliseo no-bi aliseo nae me gatiu DA. ye dafe galonos. ‘ye wia be te isala kye “poyso” oe nae’.

mate bokaa. lo sayu ke yefeu ica-sopia kwe to. istinu kali (me tae. ye be to ISTINU opoli bicaka ti dakto. sawe-halato lae me tae kelasi mwe molok-sugos mwe ananaso mwe pakito mwe oti woyi nanos). istinu. aliseo me finda. aliseo yada.48 lafi le sagos lae kwe le anako lae me te ota oe lae me te ala fe bali hefo oe andi dimesi ceo isue le lo nae me yada le wakali lago lae le li akio me fema de le lo. be to nestea mo lae fe te isala ‘poyso’. mice fi dohios nae me te isala mwe ‘poyso’. ye hie osi ceo. oti metal-fimbos ke ota to be to ba los hibye bali samino. dakto ke sanga. aliseo . aliseo sayu me wentula sawea lo.

lo kali kibo mate inalea dolos lae dea sabi mag ten-eyfo. te ansa fe aliseo. ‘wo koneca kye ot momos. ‘tae otali senso!’. mate to no-ba’. aliseo awkela gatiu . be lo sele lafas. lo tekani ‘isue bisau koneca. idu te ansa fe aliseo. mice aliseo sol-aynu me sahana hibye feti minuto mate finda. ‘wo bewisu idu esa kye wi-kyoli-olos.’ ye me istini. hiposte lafi samino lae nei kodo me cea. wo diwia. wo ke besela ko?’ ye aliseo me oletaa kwe oto lae koneca ine momos isue lo nae me bisaa yada hianteu wia fi kodo. aliseo me lafi ye li kao me lusa isue lo me eska. hie fi ceo.49 gatiu me ala lo.

lo tola. lo me atempa patyana li le elo isue idu yalana hibye gemos lae lo aynu . lo nae me yada lafi emas-ami mafteos. ‘to sefame wesea hie fi minuto!’ lo kuwiu idu dala kali anso (mice lo idu sopia hie feti ceo). mice ica-bahati aliseo! hie ceo lae lo me gia de dolos. lo sefe lafi mate bisaa ba los. ye lo me atempa dafea masaos. hie ceo lae kaela soni. idu te ansa (lafu macalu) fe aliseo. mice sefe panii. ica-bahati aliseo me akea ye tola. aliseo me bisaa wia los inale yulios. ye hie ceo lae lo me gia de masaos. aliseo me finda. ye hie mi ceo aliseo dimesu idu ekaba.50 gia de mag-ten-eyfo. ‘ne. nae tae kinoo mate tola!’. lo me yada.

isue fi otali anako me kala koponaa. te ansa fe aliseo. te eska fe ica-bahati aliseo. ‘ki kuo? ki . ‘ye be los koda. ‘mate koponaa.51 gema. wo kaela cahai. lo don omo. lo me ica-patyana los ye me finda istinu lafi sug-nanos lae me tae kalimo ‘ALA WOS’ tongwe hwao. be los koda. ‘mice hie fi ceo. wo don omo! nae tae kali meno fe wo mate kasa AYN patifi omo!’ aliseo solu me wia lafi yulii dohios lae me ake masaos. ‘ne. nae tae kinoo’. wo sayu bisaa akea dolos. ye nei sayo wedi de wo!’ aliseo me ala feti meno ye tekanu idu me ansa. wo ke ala los’. wo kaela lafi. wo osu bisaa gia de mag-ten-eyfo. wo sayu bisaa ba mafteos.

lo me esa li mano dafe li hedo mate sensa kuo lae kaela. mice lo ilatu me somi kibo. istinu. aliseo sayu gatiu me begina koneca ala sug-nanos. fi kodo nae otali hie ceo lae omo ala sug-nanos. . mi otali kodo cea. ye besela istinu wakali mate li eleteo ica otalu cea.52 kuo?’. mice aliseo me oletaa.

Remember that in order to use these roots. Even though some roots already end in vowels (such as aki). be sure to check the list of particles placed after the glossary. character v: spell. If you can not find a word. -a. akii.53 Angos-English Glossary In this glossary. -u). this is part of the original root and a vowel classifier is still required (akio. A aelod afik afodity ag aki aksal akul al alegi alis alugon aluk alumin am am-bog ama amisk amit amit-am anak and ang branch whale Venus chin friend letter shark food allergy Mars argon hierarchy aluminum color rainbow soul beaver amethyst purple child other language limb the planet and mythological figure ally of an alphabet. only the unchanged roots are given. akia. write v: eat. to have allergies the planet and mythological figure government spectrum comp:(color+arc) v: love comp:(amethyst+color) adj: young adj: another . -i. cook v: to be allergic to. akiu). they must be given a vowel classifier (-o.

tote. equalize. brag. equal chemical base . answer of an insect or a device v: hello/goodbye arrogance v: boast. speak. elect bison comp:(primary+sound) adj: cold comp:(ice+season) B b bafel bag bahat bal balak balans bali ban banan basad grasp wind bag fortune mountain bliss balance barium half banana base v: get. suitcase adj: lucky adj: big. reindeer v: choose. grand happiness adj: happy v: match. neutralize adj: even. gather purse. show off adj: sharp effort v: try testicle (vulgar) antelope.54 angul ans anten any aolan asot astel atemp awakat awas awi awkel awl ayan ayn-awas ayn-hi ays ays-seson grape conversation antenna peace pride nitrogen thorn attempt avocado sound deer choice owl buffalo vowel Monday ice Winter v: talk. sack.

clothing button . toddler v: expect a child. frighten obstacle problem v: block adj: difficult baby infant. solid comp:(rock+area) bayt bebe begin begin-ku bel belan belil besel bewis bi bicak bil bimil bisa biyal bog bota monster adj: scary. seem adj: similar proof evidence v: prove. verify adv: evidently bee insect blade knife. disturbing v: scare. give birth adj: young beginning v: start east comp:(beginning+direction) in reference to the position of the sun berry mouth beryllium similarity v: resemble. carve adj: sharp joke secret adj: safe. key (of a keyboard). secure ability v: can adj: possible beer arc bow v: curve button that which activates a mechanism.55 basin bat bat-eyf bati bawco baysu basin rock continent eggplant reward horror sink adj: tough. saw v: cut.

develop adj: sly. toe . glossary v: read a book comp:(borax+element) bladder. '3 times'). an elastic case that holds air or liquid v: smell unit of time C cas cawb cay ce hour magic tea instance clock cel ceng caha cil cili cimun cinpo cubak cula cun goal structure height bird chili pepper question progress saliva fox horn time (e. occurence.g. occur adv: again objective building adj: tall the fruit of the genus Capsicum v: ask improvement. cunning tusk D da dail dakt rice circle digit wheel adj: round finger. development v: move forward. practice. passage. improve. event v: happen. rep.56 buk bulak bulak-elem bulan bule bulokol bulun by book borax boron storm balloon broccoli nose second text.

adversary drum. bin gateway. hear . opening. box. can. hateful opponent.000+foot+bug) v: want. portal v: steal comp:(secondary+sound) disman diwi dohi dol dolob don-awas don-hi dot duma dusi dwan enemy wonder canister door thief consonant Tuesday dot cheetah particle kidney linguistic and subatomic E eal eal-eskel ebw efel eg ekab ekol ekun el air atmosphere ivory ash egg punishment garlic group ear comp:(air+shell) penalty v: punish adv: together adj: listen. would like the planet and mythological figure contempt v: hate adj: bad.57 dal dawa dawa-om den-syen-gi-lude des dias dimand dimes gift medicine doctor millipede desire Jupiter diamond disdain v: give adj: free (costs nothing) comp:(medicine+person) comp:(1.

move opinion cocoon v: follow v: absorb tree trunk undefined things eruption. sit. bomb sentient region. put. surface F fa fa-am fam fanad feke fel fem femom fesey fey fimb tree brown farm vanadium squid fear lesson teacher danger lung stick wood. area. timber. threat v: breathe twig . log comp:(tree+color) terror v: teach comp:(lesson+person) risk.58 elem elete elete-kon emas emas-am enegi entay es esk eskand eskel eskin eskol espony estam estel estof estulont etam eyak eyf element life biology gold gold (color) energy whole position belief scandium shell skin tail sponge stem solid stuff strontium explosion being environment v: live (be alive) comp:(life+study) money comp:(gold+color) adj: healthy v: stand.

data. of a path. biological): tel-geno (human. or the utensil fom form shape v: mould. discover. resource. gelatin v: play (human. material fisel spice fit fetus unborn child foluk fork split. information.59 fin fin of a sea creature find discovery v: look for. draw fosfol phosphorus fulol fluorine fund knot v: tie G gadab gake gal galaki gali galon gamal gas gati geg gela gely gem gen gesal gi gil gil-elem gilaf gilen anger cliff cheek galaxy gallium throat camel gas speed quake gravity gel game gender carrot foot chalk calcium giraffe valley neck vapor adj: fast v: shake v: fall jelly. social): samac-geno v: walk. run limestone comp:(chalk+element) . find fiomb means something used to attain an end.

goge gol golin gom gomi gost gulu experience ball clay rubber waste meat glue v: test, experiment, taste sphere brick garbage, trash flesh adhesive v: attach, join together adj: sticky, stuck descriptor, modifier



hala halat halet hanit hans hansil hant hanyas has has-ku hauc hauc-am hawas hawsk state mix heart spear cough pig spirit vomit left north dust grey noise amusement state of being

boar ghost v: follow, haunt, possess v: reject (biological) v: turn, head ~ comp:(left+direction) powder comp:(dust+color) fun, enjoyment, pleasure v: entertain, amuse, have fun adj: funny craft, vehicle skull the time period

hay hed hede hef hele helec

vessel head present animal help dirt


helemis hes Mercury indent the planet and mythological figure pit, depression v: pull in, inhale adj: concave comp:(day+cycle) town, settlement lotus

hi hi-mek hili hilit himal hip hiyal hod hod-hay hol homal hop hub hulakan hundun hwa hyo

day week city lily donkey horse cucumber road car hole lobster hope lip hurricane disorder fruit hail

path comp:(road+vessel) v: drive, go by road v: dig crawfish v: kiss chaos, confusion, commotion

ica id ide ide-kas igel igne ikal ikan ikwin opposite self idea creation frog proboscis principle fish eternity v: reverse, be opposed to personality adv: (reflexive), to oneself concept, topic, subject comp:(idea+product) v: jump, leap of an insect, needle foundation adj: basic v: swim infinity adj: endless, infinite, eternal

adv: forever adj: unexpected, sudden adv: suddenly, out of nowhere v: apologize, to say sorry

ilat ilem ilid ilon iluk indi ink ink-ol iod ip ip-seson isal isk ispanah istin isumi isun itik

surprise apology iridium iron dolphin indium ink pen iodine leaf Autumn sign impact spinach truth fountain ferret duck

comp:(ink+tool) marker page, paper comp:(leaf+season) v: signal, signify v: hit adv: truly, very spring weasel

yad yalan yamul yang yang-am yang-bayt yang-elem yang-seson yas yaw yefe memory lie rain sun yellow shade helium Summer tongue scream future v: remember adj: false

comp:(sun+color) comp:(sun+block) umbrella comp:(sun+element) comp:(sun+season) yell

63 yel yel-hay yem yin yin-mek yocen yoke yokus yom sky airplane extra moon month request river bath outdent comp:(sky+vessel) v: pilot. favor adj: good. raised area v: push out. abundance adj: additional satellite comp:(moon+cycle) v: ask for v: soak. circumscribed object comp:(star+vessel) yulani yuli yume yusk yutus yutus-hay uranium glass dream ring star spaceship K ka kabid kacin kad kadal kadm kael kafe kal kalay kalim kalis kalium face liver armadillo card lizard cadmium change coffee favor land word crystal potassium force. exhale adj: convex adj: radioactive adj: fragile. transparent. go by air surplus. compelling action v: trade. favorable country adj: clear. translucent . exchange v: like. wash hill. clear torus.

assassination. launch. produce v: erupt adj: hot mistake murder. extermination v: kill crocodile algae (edible or inedible) v: shoot. modest. track v: revolve around rhinoceros organ of a body worm . construct. career. something you do comp:(work+place) adj: young. graphite comp:(carbon+tool) job. teenage comp:(4+side) of liquid v: make.64 kalogi kalom kalub kalub-ol kam kam-oy kamas kan-hi kan-ond kangal kap kas kasan kasek kasol katil kayman kays ke kelas kele kemson kes keseg ketef key keyn-hi kib kibok kid kifal kikan kila butterfly paint carbon pencil work office adolescent Thursday square kangaroo drop product volcano spoon error killing alligator seaweed smoke cherry projectile humility coal. embarass cheese planet shoulder hair Friday scale size hippopotamus orbit course. unassuming v: humble. throw adj: humble.

enact. meaning. observe comp:(study+person) scholar v: finish adj: finished comp:(end+direction) copy creativity v: imagine. affect. duration of learning v: radiate adj: free . allow comp:(action+picture) v: watch a movie. exercise. discipline.g. significance v: use kod-weg kofi kokol koloni kolwat kon kon-om konec konec-ku kopi kopona kos kosen kosmos kost kotay ku kuhul movie hat chocolate colony substitute study student end west clone imagination course ray universe bone individual direction alcohol verb. behavior v: cause. subject v: learn. enable. highest point.65 kima kimis kimis-am kimis-neste kino kinok kinu kipu kiwi kobalut kod top silver silver (color) mercury function mushroom silk pain kiwi cobalt action zenith. record (e. go to a movie any head covering cocoa area of study. world record) comp:(silver+color) comp:(silver+liquid) purpose. reason. pretend curriculum.

gentleness. electricity adj: small rule adj: dry comp:(drought+environment) v: count v: ring (as a bell) v: confuse. diplomatic kulipton kulol kulom kulonos kulop kulos kup kusa kusa-am kusenon kutun kuwi kwi kyoli krypton chlorine chromium Saturn crop cross cup grass green xenon cotton pattern genderqueer distance the planet and mythological figure v: harvest. confound . cultivate intersection v: interact comp:(grass+color) habit adj: common.66 kuhul-oy kulab kulame bar crab tact comp:(alcohol+place) consideration. usual non-binary adj: long. diplomacy. far L lad laf lag lah lahan lahol lahol-eyf lakam laks lam lang lasel lightning ant law smile cabbage drought desert number dance llama bell puzzle thunder. soft power adj: passive.

root rogue floor (of a building). house. shelf cave. aisle family member lure v: tempt. enclose bug spine comp:(light+color) comp:(light+gold) M ma macal cat friction adj: rough . scratch (wound) hall. process v: align barnacle achievement v: achieve. entice. lake origin. split. canopy. building. bunker v: live (reside) method.67 lasim lat laut laywen lebel lefel leis lend lepas ley liada lian lik lis liti logik loka lokona lowkw lubid lude lug lumi lus lus-am lus-emas chemical fly sea source rebel level shelter order limpet stingray mathematics success growl crevice lithium logic corridor relative trap rubidium insect back snow light white platinum adj: caustic the insect ocean. win. passage. succeed snarl crack.

amount. strength. fix v: plant. mechanism comp:(system+person) capacity. volume adj: beautiful comp:(rose+color) . table.sell adj: long fog renown adj: famous machine. sow comp:(seed+berry) v: attract lava influence. solve. desk material v: ~ de . courage mag mag-bel magunes magunis maguma mais makt mal malak malul mame man manati mangan manok masa matel mawt may mayl mayun medus meg meise mek mek-om melos men metal mey mey-am seed strawberry magnet magnesium magma corn power honey angel lettuce bean hand manatee manganese chicken platform matter death monetary exchange mile monkey jellyfish cloud fame system engineer member quantity metal rose pink any edible bean v: touch. contact dugong the animal as well as the food mesa.buy ~ fe .68 mafte key index. solution (to a problem) v: unlock.

yarn.69 migon mil milaf milal mili mili-sukob minut mis mok molok molu mom mon mosk most mosw musik muskol maze gratitude coil mirror military war minute copper beak milk clam wax monarch gnat bridge moose music muscle labyrinth adj: complex v: thank spring. spiral v: reflect. mimic adj: strict comp:(military+conflict) battle 60 seconds v: peck oyster. traverse adj: strong v: exercise. copy. bivalve mollusk v: reign. rope v: tie . train N na na-sis nafas naga nalang nalang-am nalu nam nan nas male brother chance dragon orange orange (color) string name bread flower luck. probability v: gamble the fruit comp:(orange+color) thread. pester v: cross. rule mosquito v: annoy.

whisper adj: deep tool hypothesis v: guess. lead v: think (as in 'concentrate') comp:(brain+sense) adj: rough. rat.70 nas-seson nasake natal natul nayis neft nehas nem nenok neon neste nesum netan ni ni-sis nikel no no-sens noy nus Spring mercy Christmas nature squash oil world dwarf bear neon liquid rodent leader female sister nickel brain conscience sand nut comp:(flower+season) v: pity. heavy person v: meet. know someone . Earth adj: short v: drink adj: fluid. coarse O odwolan ofid ofosy okop ol oleta olom om appeal snake vegetable trench thing conjecture lead human v: summon v: hiss. fluent (in a language) mouse. computer mouse v: click (with -as) alpha v: direct. organic also pumpkin crude as well as refined globe. suppose adj: dense. show mercy adj: natural.

71 om-sanat ond oniks opol osk osk-am osk-fom osk-oy osm ot otal oy oys artifice side claw support dark black shadow nightclub osmium fire foreign object place sheep comp:(person+art) border. hoof v: scratch foundation. strange location P pad pakit pal palan palasm pana panh pani pani-am pani-am-bel pani-elem pani-fa-eyf pani-hay pani-hwa papa wave turkey steam plain plasma leg wing water blue blueberry hydrogen marsh boat watermelon potato the bird water vapor adj: flat v: kick v: fly adj: fluid. steer. edge nail. footing night comp:(night+color) comp:(dark+form) comp:(night+place) v: burn adj: hot v: act foreign. wet comp:(blue+color) comp:(water+color+berry) comp:(water+element) comp:(water+tree+environment) swamp. stick out adj: new. go by water comp:(water+fruit) . wetland comp:(water+vessel) v: sail.

holiday v: celebrate scheme. clean adj: slippery v: travel story. modus operandi v: prepare adj: lazy tortoise v: hunt a right v: show police v: enforce the planet and mythological figure venom master oath S sab sabah sabon safal sag beauty morning soap journey history adj: handsome. legend . pretty v: wash.72 pase pasu patif paty patyan pawm pel pelan peles pengwin peny pet pilaf pili pogod pokas polis poseyd potok poys pul pulastik pulof pulomes past pause honor party cover bubble pear plan sloth penguin turtle predator entitlement hyena weather display authority Neptune current poison island plastic expert promise stop respect celebration. myth. beautiful. fable.

nucleus. core. state of mind v: feel (abstract) frown adj: sad . guilt zebra adj: monochromatic coitus sex flood middle center. focus. fault v: take care of family home Saturday arsenic sense emotion. effect adv: therefore shame dishonor. an art (as opposed to tiede) blood red comp:(blood+color) cow sauce smell odor taste the sense salt bat the winged mammal reaction result. public. tolerance v: wait.73 v: to recount. communal time time period acid adj: sour oxygen comp:(acid+element) art immeasurable technique. regret. gist. tell a story sahal sahan sal salif salis samac samin san san-elem sanat sang sang-am sapi sas saug sawe sawt sawy say saym sebul seks sel sela selen semya sen-hi senik sens seny caterpillar patience endurance. chest duty responsibility. endure fat bay the landform prey society community adj: social. skill.

joined adv: together any foot covering (boot. sickness slug adj: slow of a building or house soda collection. etc. link v: marry. set adj: next adv: then adj: identical sleep v: sing agreement. join adj: united. consent spouse. sandal.74 seol sep sep-web sesi seson seyn si sif sih sik silik simbe singibel sink sipot sis sital soba sod sok sol seal cell tissue caesium season senior chair hemp weapon disease silicon lion ginger zinc snail sibling lemon room sodium juice series walrus organism of an organ comp:(cell+web) adj: old seat any part of the plant cannibis sativa v: fire. attack illness. slipper. chord v: agree. harmony.) som son song sop sopi soy soyus same rest song soup accord soybean bond su shoe . union.

depend on contest v: protest. separate ted manner teholi thorium tekan pressure acting force. direct v: turn. isolate. must adj: required tameng shield v: protect. warm tesem dog . argue v: need. care for tapy loss v: lose tawak custom ritual. guard. stress tel body ten plant v: grow tenad fever tepul heat adj: hot. parasite v: rely on. tradition tawali emergency natural disaster tayl piece section. division v: break.75 sub suful sug sukob sun-hi suol sus sus-ku syen-gi-lude syot bottom sulfur sugar conflict Sunday line right south centipede silence adj: sweet v: fight adj: straight. head ~ comp:(right+direction) comp:(100+foot+bug) adj: quiet T tafil tah tahad tala talek talu dependent year challenge lock arm necessity anything that relies on something else.

enlist. simple barrier wal wan wall parent . a science (as opposed to sanat) comp:(3+side) classification v: bite. suffocate adj: empty. skill.76 tesma teyk tiede tihan timb tin-hi tin-ond tip tis titan tofa tofal tol toli tomat band resistance science sneeze elephant Wednesday triangle type tooth titanium apple goods tear feather tomato accoutrement v: repel. easy. court. extinguish. recruit. chew merchandise v: cry pen (European) U ulan advertisement courtship v: woo. gain favor the planet and mythological figure funnel hare ulanos ulin unole usagi usem usna Uranus urine tornado rabbit laugh onion W wakal vacuum nothingness v: create a vacuum. date. resist measurable techinque.

wrist. look at. hook journey. important arrow. barley) wily-hauc flour comp:(grain+dust) windawg window wisin neighbor wistal detail description. quest v: see. ankle.77 wanil wasna wasp wati wati-esk way wayask wayn weag web wed weg weken wentul wey wi wi-mek vanilla weight wasp deity religion wolf adult wine tiger web value picture barb adventure stomach eye television v: weigh adj: heavy v: sting god v: pray comp:(deity +belief) v: howl adj: old. knee. mature spider web. internet v: cost adj: valuable. anchor . differ wol wool clothing woy butter wusi joint elbow. watch comp:(eye+system) v: watch TV wi-mek-gem video game comp:(eye+system+game) wilus virus wily grain any type of grain (wheat. difference (as opposed to a similarity) v: distinguish.

on. among throughout yes/no question marker across on. on top of. resembling. for the purpose of past marker but. from. notwithstanding of (possessive). in terms of like. by (authorship) just. only. however with. although. accompanying. on (temporal) since after (temporal) through in. to. not . in case between. no more than before (temporal) meanwhile while. as relative clause marker plural marker please in order to. than without nevertheless. so that. down before (spaital) if. despite. over. into. alongside no. rather.78 Angos Particles ake ante be bene bye ce dafale dafe de ede elike fe he hiante hibene hibye hie hife hiposte inale ine isue ke kwe kye lae le lotane mate me mice mwe nae under. up at. for (duration) in. for. during. below. about. inside because future marker concerning.

there are te passive marker tongwe using. except se yes sefame should. away ye and . outside wese off. kind of oe or oke okay. behind (spatial) salie unless. by way of twe out. let’s sefe most sele more tae there is.79 naefame should not. about. out of. by. yet pahe instead of. via. then. let’s not naefe least naele less ne so. somewhat. rather than poste after. well nife near. alright olose already. besides.

80 English-Angos Glossary Parts of Speech n v adj adv part prep conj phr num noun verb adjective adverb particle preposition conjunction phrase number Etymology A priori Not from any natural language Multilingual Shares a form with another language in the same family International Shares a form cross-linguistically Onomatopoeic Resembles the sound the object makes Compound A combination of two or more roots .

Hopi) Athabaskan (Navajo) Basque Eskaleut (Kalaallisut. German. Korean) Sinitic (Chinese) Uralic (Finnish. Polish) Celtic (Welsh. French. Swedish) Armenian Slavic (Russian. Estonian. Maori) Uto-Aztecan (Nahuatl. Malay. Italian) Indic (Hindi) Iranian (Persian) Greek Germanic (English. Inuktitut) Iroquoian (Cherokee.81 Natural Language Sources (with several example languages from that family) Indo-European: Latin (Spanish. Gaelic) Altaic (Turkish. Seneca) Muskogean (Choctaw. Japanese. Creek) . Hebrew) Egyptian Austronesian (Indonesian. Hungarian) Niger-Congo (Bantu. Swahili) Afroasiatic Semitic (Arabic.

82 A ability about about above absorb accord achieve bisao kwe nife dafe esponya sopia cela n prep prep prep v n v v n adj prep n n n adj n adj n n n n v n n prep prep adv n n v n n n n A priori A priori A priori A priori Greek Uralic Uralic Sinitic Sinitic Sinitic A priori Sinitic Latin Indic Uralic Uralic Indic Indic Latin Sinitic Semitic Sinitic International International Latin Latin A priori Austronesian Niger-Congo Uralic Germanic Compound Sinitic Semitic near achieve liana acid sano acidic sani across dafale action kodo adhesive guluo adjective gunamo adolescent kamasi adolescent kamaso adult wayaski adult wayasko adventure wentulo adverb tedo advertisement ulanos affect koda Afghanistan afganistano Africa afulikao after poste after hiposte again ceu age taho agent fiombo agree sopia air ealo airplane yel-hayo aisle lokao alcohol kuhulo accomplish a goal have success in 2-dimensional spatial temporal means to an end air + vessel .

83 align allergic allergy alligator allow already alright although aluminum always amethyst among amount amuse amusement and Andorra angel anger angry animal annoy another answer ant antenna anything anytime anywhere apologize apology appeal appeal apple April arc area Argentina lenda alegii alegio kaymano koda olose oke mice alumino osi ceo amito bene meno hawska hawsko ye andolo malako gadabo gadabi hefo moska andi ansa lafo anteno yo yi ceo yi oyo ilema ilemo odwolana odwolano tofao kan-yino bogo eyfo alahentino v adj n n v prep part conj n phr n prep n v n conj n n n adj n v adj v n n n phr phr v n v n n n n n n Uralic International International International Sinitic A priori International A priori International A priori Greek A priori Germanic Uralic Uralic A priori International Semitic Semitic Semitic Iranian Latin Germanic Germanic Slavic Latin A priori A priori A priori A priori A priori Slavic Slavic Semitic Compound Germanic A priori International four + moon .

such air + shell eight + moon parent + female + sibling leaf + season B baby baby back bad bag Bahrain balance ball balloon bebei bebeo lugo dimesi bago bahelayno balanso golo buleos adj n n adj n n n n n Germanic Germanic Germanic Celtic Germanic International Latin Indic Altaic .84 arm armadillo Armenia arrange arrow art artifice as ash Asia ask assassinate at atmosphere attempt attempt August aunt Australia Austria Autumn avocado away Azerbaijan taleko kacino hayastano lenda wekeno sanato om-sanato kye efelo asyao cimuna katila de eal-eskelo atempa atempo okon-yino wan-ni-siso awstulalyo ostelo ip-sesono awakato wese aselabaysano n n n v n n n prep n n v v prep n v n n n n n n n prep n Eskaleut Athabaskan Armenian Uralic Uralic Altaic Compound A priori Semitic International Sinitic Semitic A priori Compound Latin Latin Compound Compound International International Compound Uto-Aztecan A priori International human + art like.

85 banana banano band tesmao Bangladesh banguladeso bank emas-oyos bar kuhul-oyos barb wekeno barnacle lepaso base basado basic ikali basin basino bat sawyo bath yokuso bathe yokusa bay salifo beak moko bean mameo bear nenoko beauty cantigo beaver amisko because isue become kaela become liana bee beer before before begin beginning behavior behind being Belarus belief believe Belize bell bio biyalos ante hiante begina begino kodo poste eyako belaluso esko eska beliso lango n n n n n n n n adj n n n v n n n n n n conj v v n n prep prep v n n prep n n n v n n Niger-Congo Slavic Interntional Compound Compound Uralic Greek Greek Semitic Latin Uto-Aztecan Sinitic Sinitic Slavic Basque Altaic Eskaleut Austronesian Algonquin A priori Altaic Sinitic Germanic Germanic Latin Latin Germanic Germanic Sinitic Latin Armenian International Uralic Uralic International Onomatopoeic accoutrement gold + place alcohol + place winged mammal physical change with humans. in reference to aspirations spatial temporal .

86 below berry besides between beverage Bhutan billion bin biology bird bite black bladder blade bliss block blood blow blue blueberry boat body Bolivia bond bone book borax boron both bottom boulder bow box brain branch Brazil bread ake belo salie bene nesteo butano ospen dohio elete-kono cilo tisa osk-amo buleo bicako balako bayta sango bafela pani-amo pani-ambelo pani-hayos telo bolifio soyuso kosto buko bulako bulak-elemo donu subo bato bogo dohio noo aelodo bulasilo nano prep n part prep n n num n n n v n n n n v n v n n n n n n n n n n adv n n n n n n n n Muskogean Germanic A priori A priori Uralic International A priori Greek Compound Uto-Aztecan Altaic Compound Altaic Altaic Semitic Uralic Latin Semitic Compound Compound Compound Slavic Latin Slavic Slavic Germanic Iranian Compound Multilingual Latin Austronesian Germanic Greek Sinitic Celtic Latin Iranian life + study dark + color water + color water + color + berry water + vessel borax + element .

close to authorship C cabbage cafe cake calcium lahano kafe-oyos sug-nanos gil-elemo n n n n coffee + place sugar + bread limestone + element Latin Compound Compound Compound .87 break breakfast breathe brick bridge bright bring broccoli brother brown Brunei bubble buffalo bug build building bullet bump burn but butter butterfly button buy buy by by by way of tayla sabah-alo feya golinos mosto luso ba bulokolo na-siso fa-amo buluneyo pawmo ayano ludeo kasa cengo metalkeleos yomo ota mice woyo kalogio botao emasa maya de nife fe tongwe v n v n n n v n n n n n n n v n n n v conj n n n v v prep prep prep Germanic Compound Sinitic Slavic Slavic Latin A priori Latin Compound Compound International Sinitic Latin Germanic A priori Niger-Congo Compound A priori Altaic A priori Uralic Athabaskan Latin Indic Sinitic A priori A priori Sinitic morning + food male + sibling tree + color metal + projectile near.

88 calendar Cambodia camel can Canada canister canopy capacity car carbon card career carrot cat catch category caterpillar cause cave celebrate cell center centipede certainly chair chalk challenge chance change change chaos character cheek cheese cheetah chemical tah-bukos kampusio gamalo bisaa kanadao dohio fa-leiso meno hod-hayos bat-elemo kado kamo gesalo mao ba tipo sahalo koda bat-leiso patya sepo selao syen-giludeo bewisu sio gilo tahado ciwo kaela kaelo hunduno aksalo galo keso dumao lasimo n n n v n n n n n n n n n n v n n v n v n n n adv n n n n v n n n n n n n Compound International Semitic to be ablel to A priori International Greek tree + shelter Compound Germanic path + vessel Compound rock + element International International Indic Iranian Onomatopoeic A priori Greek Semitic Sinitic rock + shelter Compound International of an organism Sinitic Slavic 100 + foot + bug Compound Germanic Latin Semitic Semitic Sinitic Altaic Altaic Sinitic Indic Indic Latin Niger-Congo Indic year + book written glyph. letter .

89 cherry kelaso chest selao chew tisa chicken manoko chief netano child anako Chile cileo chili pepper tilio chin ago China congo chirp cila chocolate kokolo choice awkelo choose awkela Christmas natalo church wati-oyos cigar ke-olos cigarette ke-olos circle dailo city hilio clam moluo claw onikso clay golino clear kalisi cliff gakeo clock casos clone kopio close patyana close clothing cloud cobalt coffee coil coitus cold collection ica-samaca wolos mego kobaluto kafeo lolobo sekso aysi solo n n v n n n n n n n v n n v n n n n n n n n n adj n n n v v n n n n n n adj n Greek Slavic Slavic Austronesian Athabaskan Austronesian International Uto-Aztecan Altaic Sinitic Uto-Aztecan Uto-Aztecan Basque Basque Latin Compound Compound Compound Semitic Basque Latin Greek Slavic Greek Altaic Slavic International Armenian A priori Germanic Indic International International Semitic Latin Germanic Uralic diety + place smoke + tool smoke + tool to cover something open of a shop .

90 colony color Columbia communal community compare complex computer kolonio amo kolombio samaci samaco wistala migoni liadamekos concentrate noa concerning kwe conflict sukobo confuse laseli conscience no-senso consonant don-awaso construct kasa container dohio contempt dimeso continent bat-kalayo control makta conversation anso copper miso copy kopia core selao corn maiso corner soba-doto correct istini corridor lokao cost weda Costa Rica kostalikao cotton kutuno cough hansa cough hanso count lakama country kalayo course koso court ulana n n n adj n v adj n v prep n adj n n v n n n v n n v n n n adj n v n n v n v n n v Latin A priori International Indic Indic Indic Sinitic Compound Sinitic A priori Slavic Germanic Compound Compound A priori Greek Celtic Compound Germanic Germanic Altaic International Slavic Arawakian Compound Slavic Sinitic Germanic International Semitic Indic Indic Semitic Slavic Latin Semitic math + system brain + sense two + sound rock + land room + point .

91 courtship cousin cover cover cow crab create creation creativity crevice crocodile crop cross cry crystal Cuba cucumber cultivate cunning cup current curve curved custom cut Cyprus Czech Republic ulano wan-sisanako patyana patyano sapio kulabo kasa ide-kaso koponao liso kaymano kulopo kuloso tola kaliso kubao hiyalo kulopa culai kupo potoko boga bogi tawako bicaka kipuliso cesko n n v n n n v n n n n n n v n n n v adj n n v adj n v n n Semitic Compound Armenian Armenian Austronesian Germanic A priori Compound Indic Germanic International Germanic Germanic Slavic Greek International Iranian Germanic Muskogean Multilingual Slavic Germanic Germanic Uralic Altaic International International parent + sibling + child idea + product D dance dance danger dangerous dark laksa lakso feseyo feseyi oski v n n adj adj Semitic Semitic Uralic Uralic Latin .

92 darkness data date day death December osko fiombo ulana hio mawto den-don-yino n n v n n n v adj n n v n v n v n n part n v n n n v v v adj n n n adj adj n n adj v n Latin Niger-Congo Semitic Altaic Semitic Compound Basque Slavic Iroquoian A priori Slavic Germanic Semitic Semitic Sinitic Compound Latin A priori Indic Sinitic Sinitic Greek Compound Semitic Indic Indic Uralic Greek Compound A priori A priori Uralic A priori Athabaskan Athabaskan Germanic Germanic ten + two + moon decide awkela deep okopi deer awio deity watio demonstrate bokaa Denmark dano depend talua dependent talua derive laywena desert lahol-eyfo desire deso despite elike detail wistalo develop cinpoa development cinpoo diamond dimando dictionary kalim-bukos die mawta differ wistala differentiate wistala difficult bayti digit dakto dinner osk-alo diplomacy kulameo diplomatic kulamei direct suoli direction kuo dirt heleco dirty heleci discover finda discovery findo drought + area word + book dark + food .

93 disdain disease dishonor dishonor disorder display distance divide division doctor dog dolphin Dominican Republic donkey door dot down dragon draw dream dream drink drink drip drive drop drought drum dry duck during dust duty dwarf dimeso siko sayma saymo hunduno bokao kyolio tayla taylo dawa-omo tesemo iluko dominikano himalo dolo doto ake nagao foma yumea yumeo nestea nesteo kapa hod-hayas kapo laholo dohio laholi itiko hibye hawco seleno nemo n n v n n n n v n n n n n n n n prep n v v n v n v v n n n adj n prep n n n Celtic Germanic Multilingual Multilingual Sinitic Slavic Sinitic Germanic Germanic Compound Egyptian Altaic Latin Semitic Germanic Germanic Muskogean Indic Latin Altaic Altaic Uralic Uralic Slavic Compound Slavic Basque Greek Basque Austronesian A priori Basque Sinitic Egyptian medicine + person path + vessel .

94 E each osi ear elo earn emasa earth nehaso earthquake nehas-gego east begin-kuo eat Ecuador edge edifice effect effort egg eggplant eight eighth El Salvador elastic elbow elect election electric electricity element elephant e-mail embarrass emergency empty enable enact enclose encounter ala ekwadolo ondo cengo sayo atempo ego batio okon sol-okoni salwadolo gomi gelenko awkela awkelo lad-enegii lad-enegio elemo timbo imelos kemsona tawalio wakali koda koda lowkwa kulosa adj n v n n n v n n n n n n n num adj n adj n v n adj n n n n v n adj v v v v A priori Germanic Indic Athabaskan Compound Compound a priori Latin Basque Niger-Congo Sinitic Latin Germanic Indic Multilingual Multilingual Latin Greek Germanic Basque Basque Compound Compound Latin Niger-Congo International Sinitic Semitic Latin Sinitic Sinitic Uralic Germanic earth + quake beginning + direction lightning + energy lightning + energy .

95 end endless endurance endure enemy energy engine koneco ikwini sahano sahana dismano enegio maktmekos engineer mek-omo England engulo enjoy kala enjoyment hawsko enlist ulana entice lowkwa entire entayi entitlement pilafo environment eyfo equal balansi equalize balansa error kasolo Estonia estio eternity ikwino Europe ewlopao even balansi everything osi olo everywhere osi oyo evidence bewiso evidently bewisu example bokao except salie exercise muskola exhale yoma expand bulea experience gogeo expert pulofo explode etama explosion etamo eye wio n adj n v n n n n n v n v v adj n n adj v n n n n adj phr phr n adv n part v v v n n v n n Slavic Uralic Indic Indic Altaic International A priori Compound Germanic Greek Uralic Semitic Uralic Germanic Slavic A priori Latin Latin Semitic Uralic Uralic International Latin A priori A priori Germanic Germanic Slavic A priori Latin A priori Altaic Uralic Latin A priori A priori Latin power + system system + person .

96 F face fact fall family fame famous fan far farm fast fat fat father favor favor fear fear feather February feel female ferret fetus fever fifth fight Fiji fin find finger finish finished Finland fire first kao istino gelaa semyao meiseo meisei bafel-olos kyolii famo dumai sali salo na-wano kala kalo fela felo tolio don-yino sensa nio feleto fito tendo sol-keyni sukoba ficio fino finda dakto koneca koneci suomy oto sol-ayni n n v n n adj n adj n adj adj n n v n v n n n v n n n n adj v n n v n v adj n n adj Altaic Slavic Latin Slavic Sinitic Sinitic Compound Sinitic Germanic Niger-Congo Slavic Slavic Compound Greek Greek Germanic Germanic Uralic Compound Latin Sinitic Latin Latin Armenian Multilingual Slavic International Germanic Germanic Greek Slavic Slavic Uralic Altaic Compound wind + tool male + parent two + moon series + one .

97 fish ikano five keyn fix maftea flat palani flood sela flood selo floor lefelo flour wily-hauco flower huko fly lato fly panha fly yel-hayas fog mego follow eskola food alo foot gio for hibye for de for mate force yalio foreign otali foreign otalo object forest fa-oyo forever ikwinu fork foluko form fomo fortune bahato forum ans-eyfos foundation ikalo fountain isumio four kan fourth sol-kani fox culao fragile yulii France fulanso free dali free kotayi n num v adj v n n n n n v v n v n n prep prep conj n adj n n adv n n n n n n num adj n adj n adj adj Austronesian Multilingual Semitic Latin Altaic Altaic Latin Compound A priori Austronesian Indic Compound Indic Austronesian A priori Athabaskan A priori A priori A priori Sinitic Armenain Armenian Compound Uralic Germanic Latin Iranian Compound Semitic Altaic Multilingual Multilingual Muskogean Sinitic Latin Latin Sinitic of a building grain + dust the bug air + vessel duration in order to tree + place speech + area no cost independent .

98 freeze friction Friday friend friendly frighten frog from in front of frown frozen fruit fry fun fun function funny future aysa macao keyn-hio akio akii baysua igelo fe ante seny aysi hwao neft-kasalas hawski hawsko kinoo hawski yefeo v n n n adj v n prep prep n adj n v adj n n adj n Germanic Sinitic Compound Athabaskan Athabaskan Uralic Basque A priori Latin Latin Germanic Austronesian Compound Uralic Uralic Sinitic Uralic Uralic five + day oil + product + food G gain favor galaxy game garden ulana galakio gemo mag-teneyfo garlic lasuno gas gaso gasoline neftos gel gelyo gender geno genderqueer kwii genre tipo gentle kulamei gentleness kulameo Georgia sakalwelo v n n n n n n n n adj n adj n n Semitic International Germanic Compound Indic International Iranian International Latin Germanic Greek A priori A priori Georgian seed + plant + area non-binary .

large grass + color dust + color .99 Germany doyco get ba ghost hanto gift dalo ginger ginyelo giraffe gilafo gist selao give dala glass yulio glow lusa glue guluo gnat mosko goal celo god watio gold emas-amo gold emaso goodbye anya government alukos grab ba grain wilyo grandfather na-seynwano grandmother ni-seynwano grape angulo grasp bo grass kusao gratitude milo gravity gelao great bali Greece eladao green kusa-amo Greenland kalalito greeting anyo grey hauc-amo ground nehaso group ekuno growl lika n v n n n n n v n v n n n n n n v n v n n n n n n n n adj n n n n n n n v Germanic A priori Austronesian Multilingual International Semitic Slavic Multilingual Sinitic Latin Latin Latin Uralic A priori Compound Indic A priori Greek A priori Uralic Compound Compound Iranian A priori Altaic A priori Latin Germanic International Compound Eskaleut A priori Compound Athabaskan Niger-Congo Slavic gold + color male + senior + parent female + senior + parent grand.

“there is” sun + element .100 growl liko guard tamenga Guatemala gwatemalao guilt saymo Guyana giyanao n v n n n Slavic Austronesian International Multilingual International H hail hail hair Haiti half hall halve hand happy harmony harvest harvest hat hate have he head healthy hear heart heat heaven heavy height helium hello help help hyoa hyoo keyo haitio bano lokao bana mano balaki sopio kulopa kulopo kofio dimesa tae lo hedo entayi ela haleto tepulo yelo wasnai cahao yangelemo anya helea heleo v n n n n n v n adj n v n n v part n n adj v n n n adj n n v v n Altaic Altaic Indic International Sintic Sinitic Sinitic Latin Semitic Uralic Germanic Germanic Niger-Congo Celtic A priori A priori Germanic Germanic Germanic Germanic Slavic Latin Semitic Muskogean Compound A priori Germanic Germanic lit.

101 hemp her her here herself hide hierarchy high him himself hippopotamus his history hit hold hole home Honduras honey honor hoof hook hop hope hope horn horror horse hot hour house however human humble humility hundred Hungary hunt sifo li lo fi oyo idu bimila aluko cahai lo idu kiboko li sago iska ba holo semyao hondulaso malo patifo onikso wekeno igela hopa hopo cuno baysuo hipo oti caso leisos mice omo kemsoni kemsono syen moyolo peta n adj n phr adv v n adj n adv n adj n v v n n n n n n n v v n n n n adj n n conj n adj n num n v A priori A priori A priori A priori Latin Sinitic Greek Muskogean A priori Latin Niger-Congo A priori Germanic Uralic A priori Germanic Slavic International Multilingual Armenian Greek Uralic Basque Germanic Germanic Altaic Uralic Greek Altaic Slavic Basque A priori Latin Sinitic Sinitic Multilingual Uralic Uralic .

102 hurricane hurt hydrogen hyena hulakano kipua pani-elemo pilio n v n n International Slavic Compound Niger-Congo water + element I I ice Iceland idea identical identical identity if ill imagination imagine impact improve improvement in in in case in order to in terms of indent index India indicate individual Indonesia infant infinity influence influence information wo ayso iselano ideo kopii somi ido be siki koponao koponaa isko cinpoa cinpoo hie ine be mate kwe heso mafteo balato isala kotayo indonesio bebeo ikwin makta makto fiombo n n n n adj adj n conj adj n v n v n prep prep conj conj prep n n n v n n n num v n n personal pronoun Sinitic Germanic International Greek International Multilingual Latin A priori Germanic Indic Indic Uralic Sinitic Sinitic Altaic Multilingual A priori A priori A priori A priori Semitic Indic Semitic Sinitic International Multilingual Uralic Germanic Germanic Niger-Congo a copy the same one temporal spatial .

103 inhale ink insect inside instance instead of interrogative intersect into iodine Iran Iraq Ireland iron island Israel it Italy its itself ivory hesa inko ludeo ine ceo pahe ce kulosa ine iodo ilano ilako ilulano ilono pulo iselaelo lo italyo li idu ebwo v n n prep n conj part v prep n n n n n n n n n adj adv n A priori Latin Germanic Multilingual A priori A priori A priori Germanic Multilingual Internaitonal International International International Germanic Austronesian International Multilingual International Multilingual Latin Egyptian J Jamaica January Japan jelly jellyfish job join joint joke joke Jordan journey journey camekao ayn-yino nipono gelyo meduso kamo soyusa gelenko bila bilo uluduno safala safalo n n n n n n v n v n n v n one + moon International Compound Altaic International Greek Indic Slavic Germanic Austronesian Austronesian Semitic Semitic Semitic .

104 juice July jump June jungle Jupiter just soko sun-yino igela sen-yino yamul-faoyo diaso he n n v n n n part Multilingual Compound Basque Compound Compound Greek A priori seven + moon six + moon rain + tree + place the planet and god K kangaroo kangalo Kazakhstan kasakestano key mafteo kick gi-iska kidney dwano kill katila killing katilo kind of nife king na-mono kiss huba kiwi kiwio knee gelenko knife bicako knot fundo know oma know noa Korea hanguko n n n v n v n prep n v n n n n v v n International International Semitic Compound Celtic Semitic Semitic A priori Compound Slavic International Germanic Altaic Niger-Congo Latin Sinitic Altaic foot + impact male + monarch know a person know a fact .

105 L lake land language Laos large later Latvia laugh laugh law lawyer lazy lead lead leader leaf least Lebanon left leg lemon less lesson let's let's not letter lettuce level lick lie lie life light lightning lauto kalayo ango lao bali yefeu latwio usema usemo lago lag-omo pelesi netana olomo netano ipo naefe lubnano haso panao sitalo naele femo sefame naefame aksalo malulo lefelo yasa yalana yalano eleteo luso lado n n n n adj adj n v n n n adj v n n n part n n n n part n part part n n n v v n n n n Austronesian Slavic A priori International Germanic Uralic International Altaic Altaic Multilingual Compound Latin Athabaskan Latin Athabaskan Altaic A priori International A priori Multilingual Multilingual A priori A priori A priori A priori Indic Latin Latin Slavic Altaic Altaic Uralic Latin Niger-Congo law + person element direction .

106 like like lily limb lime limestone limpet line lion lip liquid listen Lithuania live live liver lizard llama lobster location lock lock logic look look for lose loss loud love luck lucky lucky lunch lung lure kala kye lilyo aelodo sitalo gilo lepaso suolo simbeo hubo nesteo ela lietuo eletea leisa kabido kadalo lamo homalo oyo talaa talao logiko wia finda tapya tapyo hawasi amaa ciwo bahati ciwi sela-hi-alo feyo lowkwo v prep n n n n n n n n n v n v v n n n n n v n n v v v n adj v n adj adj n n n Greek A priori Egyptian Celtic Multilingual Semitic Greek Uralic Niger-Congo Slavic Uralic Germanic Baltic Uralic Basque Semitic Austronesian International Germanic A priori Indic Indic Greek Multilingual Germanic Uralic Uralic Slavic Latin Sintic Iranian Sinitic Compound Sinitic Uralic be alive reside middle + day + food .

107 M Macedonia machine magic magma magnesium magnet make Malaysia male manatee manganese manner map March Mars marsh match material masedono mekos cawbo magumao maguniso maguneso kasa maleysio nao manatio mangano tedo eyf-ipos tin-yino aliso pani-faeyfo balansa fiombo n n n n n n v n n n n n n n n n v n n n adj n adv n n n prep n n n v n International Greek Germanic International International Multilingual A priori International Sinitic International International Sinitic Compound Compound Greek Compound Latin Niger-Congo Semitic Latin Indic Compound A priori Sinitic Sinitic Niger-Congo A priori Iranian Greek Semitic Latin Greek area + leaf three + moon the planet and god water + tree + area resource ~“reading material” mathematics liadao matter matelo mature wayaski May keyn-yino maybe bisau maze migono me wo means fiombo meanwhile hibene meat gosto mechanism meko medicine dawao meet oma member meloso five + moon means to an end .

108 memory Mercury mercury yado helemiso n n n n n n n n n n num n n adj v n v n adj n n n n n n n part n n n part n v n n n Altaic Greek Compound Altaic Latin Uto-Aztecan Slavic Latin Latin Slavic A priori Latin Latin Germanic Semitic Semitic Semitic Semitic Sinitic Greek Compound International Altaic Compound Sinitic Algonquin A priori Semitic Compound Latin A priori Compound Latin Germanic Altaic Armenian kimisnesteo mercy nasakeo metal metalo Mexico mehiko middle selao mile maylo military milio milk moloko million eseon minute minuto mirror milalo miscellaneous estofi mistake kasola mistake kasolo mix halata mix halato modest kemsoni monarch mono Monday ayn-hio Mongolia mongolo monkey mayuno month yin-meko moon yino moose moswo more sele morning sabaho mosque wati-oyos mosquito mosko most sefe mother ni-wano mould foma mountain balo mouse nesumo mouth belano the planet and god silver + liquid one + day moon + system diety + place female + parent .

109 movie murder murder muscle mushroom music must my Myanmar myself kod-wegos katila katilo muskolo kinoko musiko talua wi myanmao idu n v n n n n v adj n adv action + picture Compound Semitic Semitic Latin Altaic International Semitic Sinitic International Latin N name nation nature near necessity neck need needle negative neighbor neon Nepal nephew Neptune Netherlands neutral neutralize never nevertheless new New Zealand next Nicaragua namo kalayo natulo nife taluo galono talua igneo nae wisino neono nepalo sis-naanako poseydo neydelano balansi balansa nei ceo elike otali otal-selano soli nikalagwao n n n prep n n v n part n n n n n n adj v phr part adj n adj n Multilingual Slavic Latin A priori Semitic Indic Semitic Altaic A priori Latin International International Compound Greek Germanic Latin Latin A priori A priori Armenian International Uralic International sibling + male + child .

110 nickel niece nikelo sis-nianako night osko nightclub osk-laksoyo nine nowan ninth sol-nowani nitrogen asoto no nae no more than he noise hawaso noisy hawasi North has-kuo North America hasamelikao Norway nolugeo nose buluno not nae nothing no nothing wakalo noun olo November den-aynyino now fi ceo nowhere nei oyo number lakamo nut nuso nutrient eyoso n n n n num adj n part part n adj n n n n part n n n n phr phr n n n International Compound Latin Compound Multilingual Multilingual International A priori A priori Slavic Slavic Compound Compound Germanic Altaic A priori A priori Latin A priori Compound A priori A priori Semitic Germanic Sinitic sibling + female + child dark + dance + place left + direction left + America ten + one + moon O oath obscure observe obstacle obviously occurrence pulomeso mega wi-kona bayto bewisu ceo n v v n adv n Latin Indic Compound Uralic Germanic A priori eye + study .

genetive work + place temporal “make a door/opening in” orange + color .111 ocean October octopus odor of off office often oil OK okay old on on on on top of one onion only open opinion oppose opposite opposite or orange orange orbit orbit order organ origin other ourselves out out of lauto den-yino fekeo saugo we wese kam-oyo fali ceo nefto oke oke seyni dafe hie kwe dafe ayn usnao he kasa dolo de esko icaa icai icao oe olang-amo olango kida kido lendo kikano layweno andi idu twe twe n n n n prep prep n phr n part part adj prep prep prep prep num n part phr n v adj n conj n n v n n n n conj adv prep prep Austronesian Compound Austronesian Uralic A priori A priori Compound A priori Iranian International International Latin A priori A priori A priori A priori Multilingual Indic A priori A priori Uralic A priori A priori A priori Multilingual Compound International Sinitic Sinitic Uralic Siniitc Sinitic Germanic Latin A priori A priori ten + moon possessive.

112 outdent outside over owl oxygen yomo twe dafe awlo ot-elemo n prep prep n n A priori A priori A priori Germanic Compound fire + element P page pain painful paint paint Pakistan Panama paper Papua Paraguay parasite parent particle party party passive passive marker past patience patrol pattern pause pause peace pear pen penalty ipos kipuo kipui kaloma kalomo pakistano panamao ipos papuo palagwayo tafilo wano dusio patya patyo kulamei te paseo sahano polisa kuwio pasua pasuo anyo pelo ink-olos ekabo n n adj v n n n n n n n n n v n adj part n n v n v n n n n n Altaic Slavic Slavic Greek Greek International International Altaic International International Semitic Uralic Simitic International International A priori A priori Latin Indic International Uralic Greek Greek Sinitic Latin Compound Semitic subatomic and grammatical ink + tool .

113 pencil penguin perpendicular personality Peru petrol phosphorus pick picture piece pig pineapple pink pipe place place plain plan plan planet plant plasma plastic platform platinum play please pleasure plural marker point poison poison poisonous Poland police portal Portugal baesalos pengwino kulosi ido peluo neftos fosfolo awkela wego taylo hansilo ananaso mey-amo lokao esa oyo palano pelana pelano kesego teno palasmo pulastikos masao lus-emaso gema lotane hawsko le doto poysa poyso poysi polusko poliso dolo polutugao n n adj n n n n v n n n n n n v n n v n n n n n n n v part n part n v n adj n n n n “bat-elem-aksalolos” Abreviation International Germanic Latin International Iranian International Basque Sinitic Germanic Austronesian International Compound Sinitic A priori A priori Latin Latin Latin Uralic Austronesian International International Multilingual Compound Germanic A priori Uralic A priori Germanic Latin Latin Latin International International Germanic International rose + color terrain light + gold politeness marker .

114 position positive possible possibly potassium potato practice practice practice predator prepare present president pressure pretend prey price pride primary principle probably problem proboscis produce product program program progress projectile promise promise proof protect proud prove eso se bisai bisau kaliumo papao cinpoa cinpoo kona peto pelana hedeno netano yalio koponaa saliso wedo aolano ayni ikalo bisau bayto igneo kasa kaso kodaksalas kod-solos cinpoo keleo pulomesa pulomeso bewiso tamenga aolani bewisa n part adj adv n n v n v n v n n n v n n n adj n adv n n v n v n n n v n n v n v A priori A priori A priori A priori International Latin Sinitic Sinitic A priori Uralic Latin Germanic Athabaskan Sinitic Indic Uralic Germanic Sinitic Multilingual Semitic A priori Uralic Altaic A priori A priori Compound Compound Sinitic Semitic Latin Latin Germanic Austronesian Sinitc Germanic of a computer action + writing of events. of a computer action + series .

115 public pull pumpkin punish punishment purple purpose push put put on puzzle samaci hesa nayiso ekaba ekabo amit-amo kinoo yoma esa dafa laselo adj v n v n n n v v v n Indic A priori Athabaskan Semitic Semitic Compound Sinitic A priori A priori A priori Germanic amethyst + color Q Qatar quake quadrillion quality quantity queen question question quick quiet katalo gego lanun gunamo meno ni-mono cimuna cimuno dumai syoto n n num n n n v n adj n International Multilingual A priori Indic Germanic Compound Sinitic Sinitic Niger-Congo Germanic female + monarch R rabbit radiate radiation rain rain rainbow rare rat rather usagio fansa fanso yamula yamulo am-bogo otali nesumo mice n v n v n n adj n conj Altaic Sinitic Sinitic Altaic Altaic Compound Armenian Altaic A priori color + arc .

116 rather than ray reaction rebel rebel recruit red reflect regarding regret relate relative religion remember renown repair repeat repel repetition request request resemble resembling resist resistance resource responsibility responsible rest rest result reverse revolve reward reward rhinoceros rice right pahe fanso sayo lebela lebelo ulana sang-amo milala kwe saymo lokonaa lokonao wati-esko yada meiseo maftea cea teyka ceo yocena yoceno besela kye teyka teyko fiombo seleno seleni sona sono sayo icaa kida bawcoo bawcoa kifalo dao pilafo conj n n v n v n v prep n v n n v n v v v n v n v prep v n n n adj v n n v v n v n n n A priori Sinitic Sinitic Latin Latin Semitic Compound Latin A priori Multilingual Uralic Uralic Compound Altaic Sinitic Semitic A priori Sinitic A priori Altaic Altaic Altaic A priori Sinitic Sinitic Niger-Congo Sinitic Sinitic Multilingual Multilingual Sinitic A priori Sinitic Sinitic Sinitic Niger-Congo Sinitic Slavic blood + color diety + belief legal right .

117 right ring ring ritual river road rob rock rodent Romania room root rope rose rotate rough round rubber rule run Russia suso langa yusko tawako yokeo hodos doloba bato nesumo lomanio sobao layweno naluo meyo daila macai daili gomo lago gatia lasio n v n n n n v n n n n n n n v adj adj n n phr n Basque Onomatopoeic Altaic Uralic Uralic Greek Altaic Austronesian Altaic Latin Germanic Sinitic Uralic Sinitic Semitic Sinitic Semitic Multilingual Multilingual Indic Slavic ring a bell S sad safari safe saliva salt same sand sandwich Saturday Saturn sauce senyi safalo te tamenga cubako sawto somi noyo lefel-nanos sun-hio kulonos saso adj n v n n adj n n n n n Latin Semitic Austronesian Altaic Multilingual Multilingual Iroquoian Compound Compound Greek Latin level + bread seven + day the planet and god .

118 Saudi saudiArabia alabio say ansa scale balansos scale gwemo schedule kod-mekos school fem-oyos science tiedeo Scotland eskotelano scratch oniksa scream yawa scream yawo sea lauto seal seolo season sesono seaweed kayso second byo second sol-doni secret bimilo section taylo see wia seed mago seem besela seldom feti ceo self ido sell maya fe senior seyno sense senso sense sensa sentence ideo separate tayla September nowan-yino Serbia selubio series solo set solo seven sun seventh sol-suni sex sekso n v n n n n n n v v n n n n n n adj n n n n v phr n v n n v n v n n n n num adj n International Germanic Latin Sinitic Compound Compound Uralic Germanic Greek Onomatopoeic Onomatopoeic Austronesian Germanic Latin Altaic Sinitic Multilingual Sinitic Germanic Latin Uralic Altaic A priori Latin Sinitic Latin Latin Latin Greek Germanic Compound International Uralic Uralic Multilingual Multilingual International action + series lesson + place unit of time ordinal number nine + moon .

119 shade yang-bayto shadow osk-fomo shake gega shame sayma shame saymo shape fomo shark hakulo sharp asteli sharp bicaki she lo sheep oyso shell eskelo shelter leiso shield tamenga shield tamengo shine lusa shoe suos shoot kelea shop fiomb-oyos short nemi should sefame should not naefame shoulder ketefo show bokaa show bokao shower yokuso shroud patyano sibling siso sick siki side ondo sign isalo signal isalo signify isala silence syoto silicon siliko silk kinuo silver kimis-amo n n v v n n n adj adj n n n n v n v n v n adj part part n v n n n n adj n n n v n n n n sun + block dark + form Compound Compound Multilingual Multilingual Multilingual Latin Germanic Uralic Altaic A priori Greek Germanic Basque Austronesian Austronesian Latin Germanic Semitic Compound Egyptian A priori A priori Semitic Slavic Slavic Sinitic Armenian Germanic Germanic Basque Semitic Semitic Semitic Germanic International Altaic Compound goods + place silver + color .

120 silver similar similarity simple since sing sister sit six sixth size skin skull sky sleep sleep sloth Slovakia Slovenia sly small smart smell smell smile smile smoke smoke snail snake sneeze sneeze snow so that soap social society sodium kimiso beseli beselo wakali hife songa ni-siso sia sen sol-seni gwemo eskino hedo yelo sona sono peleso sulofakyo sulofenyo culai lafi noi buluna saugo laha laho kea keo sipoto ofido tihana tihano lumio mate sabono samaci samaco sodo n adj n adj prep v n v num adj n n n n v n n n n adj adj adj v n v n v n n n v n n conj n adj n n Altaic Altaic Altaic Latin A priori Germanic Compound Latin Multilingual Multilingual Sinitic Germanic Germanic Latin Multilingual Multilingual Latin International International Muskogean Slavic Sinitic Altaic Uralic Germanic Germanic Basque Basque Austronesian Greek Onomatopoeic Onomatopoeic Uralic A priori International Indic Indic International female + sibling .

121 soil soldier solid solid solution solve something sometimes somewhat somewhere song sort soul sound sound soup sour source South South America sow soy soybean spaceship Spain speak spear spectrum speech speed spell sphere spherical spice spicy spinach spiral heleco mili-omo esteli estelo mafteo maftea mo mi le ceo nife mi oyo songo lenda amao awasa awaso sopo sani layweno sus-kuo susamelikao maga soyo soyo yutus-hayos espano ansa hanitos amo anso gatio aksala golo goli fiselo fiseli ispanaho lolobo n n adj n n v n phr prep phr n v n v n n adj n n n v n n n n v n n n n v n adj n adj n n Athabaskan Compound Greek Greek Semitic Semitic A priori A priori A priori A priori Germanic Uralic Latin Indic Indic International Sinitic Sinitic Compound Compound Uralic Sinitic Sinitic Compound Latin Germanic Semitic A priori Germanic Indic Indic Indic Indic Uralic Uralic Iranian Semitic military + person strong feelings right + direction right + America star + vessel .

122 spirit spit split split sponge spoon sport spring spring Spring square squash squid stairs star start state hanto cubaka foluka lisa esponyo kaseko gemo isumio lolobo nas-sesono kan-ondo nayiso fekeo gi-lefelos yutuso begina aluk-eyfos n v v v n n n n n n n n n n n v n n v n n n v adj n n n v n n n n adj adj n n n Austronesian Altaic Germanic Germanic Greek Altaic Germanic Altaic Semitic Compound Compound Athabaskan Austronesian Compound Altaic Germanic Compound Semitic Altaic Slavic Germanic Niger-Congo Latin Latin Latin Sinitic Austronesian Greek Compound Slavic Latin Germanic Uralic Armenian Compound Latin Sinitic water source metal coil flower + season four + side state halao steal doloba steam palo stem estamo stick fimbo stick gulua sticky gului stingray leyo stomach weyo stone bato stop pasua store fiomb-oyos storm bulano story lefelo story sago straight suoli strange otali strawberry mag-belo strength muskolo stress yalio political state. hierarchy + area state of being goods + place of a building seed + berry physical strength .

123 stressed string strong structure student study study stuff sturdy style substitute succeed success sugar sulfur Summer yalio naluo muskoli cengo kon-omo kona kono estofo esteli tipo kolwato liana liano sugo sufulo yangsesono summon odwolana sun yango Sunday sen-hio support opola support opolo surprise ilato surprise ilata swallow galona swamp pani-faeyfo Sweden swelyo sweet sugi swim ikana Switzerland swiso sword bicako synagogue wati-oyos system meko adj n adj n n v n n adj n n v n n n n v n n v n n v v n n adj v n n n n Sinitic Uralic Latin Niger-Congo Compound A priori A priori Germanic Greek Greek Uralic Sinitic Sinitic Indic Latin Compound Slavic Sinitic Compound Slavic Slavic Uralic Uralic Indic Compound International Indic Austronesian International Altaic Compound Greek physically strong study + person sun + season seven + day water + tree + area diety + place .

124 T tact tail take talk tall taste taste tea teach teacher tear technique teenage teenage telephone television tell temple tempt ten tenthousand tenth terror terrorize test test text Thailand than thank that that there there are kulameo ekola ba ansa cahai sawea saweo cayo fema fem-omo tolo sanato kamasi kamaso ans-mekos wi-meko ansa wati-oyos lowkwa den syon sol-deni baysuo baysua gogea gogeo buko tayo de mila do lae di oyo tae n n v v adj v n n v n n n adj n n n v n v num num adj n v v n n n prep v n part phr part A priori Austronesian A priori Germanic Muskogean Latin Latin Multilingual A priori Compound Slavic Altaic Uralic Uralic Compound Compound Germanic Compound Uralic Multilingual A priori Multilingual Uralic Uralic Uralic Uralic Germanic International A priori A priori A priori A priori A priori A priori lesson + person a result of crying speech + system eye + system diety + place comparison relative clause .

125 there is tae therefore sayu they le lo thief dolobo thing olo think noa third sol-tini this fo thorn astelo thread naluo three tin throat galono through inale throughout bye throw kelea thunder lad-awaso Thursday kan-hio tie funda tie nalua tiger weago time samino tiny lafi tissue sep-webo titanium titano to de tobacco ke-teno toe dakto together ekunu together soyusi together soyusu tolerance sahano tomato tomato tongue yaso tool olos tooth tiso top kimao tornado unoleo touch mana part adv n n n v adj n n n num n prep prep v n n v v n n adj n n prep n n adv adj adv n n n n n n n v A priori Sinitic A priori Altaic A priori Sinitic Multilingual A priori Uralic Uralic Multilingual Indic A priori A priori Semitic Compound Compound Niger-Congo Uralic Indic Indic Slavic Compound International A priori Compound Greek Niger-Congo Slavic Slavic Indic Uto-Aztecan Slavic A priori Slavic Greek Iroquoian Latin 3-dimensional lightning + sound four + day cell + web smoke + plant as a group bonded .

126 trade kaela tradition tawako transgender kwii trap lowkwo travel safala tree fao trench okopo triangle tin-ondo trillion ohanen Trinidad tulinidad ye and Tobago tobago trunk estamo truth istino try atempa try gogea tube lokao Tuesday don-hio tunnel lokao Turkey tulukso turkey pakito turn into kaela turtle penyo twig fimbo two don type tipo v n adj n v n n n num n n n v v n n n n n v n n num n Altaic Uralic Germanic Uralic Arabic A priori Slavic Compound A priori International Germanic Slavic Latin Uralic Sinitic Compound Sinitic Altaic Muskogean Altaic Austronesian Niger-Congo Multilingual Greek three + side of a tree attempt to test something two + day the country the bird U Ukraine umbrella uncle under understand union unite ukulayno yang-baytolos wan-na-siso ake no-ba soyuso soyusa n n n prep v n v sun + block + tool parent + male + sibling brain + grasp International Compound Compound Muskogean Compound Slavic Slavic .

127 United States universe university unless until uranium Uranus urine Uruguay use use using usual amelikasoyusos kosmoso bali femoyos salie hiante yulanio ulanos ulino ulugwayo kinoa kinoo tongwe kuwii n n n part prep n n n n v n prep adj America + union Compound Greek Compound A priori A priori International Greek Multilingual International Sinitic Sinitic Sinitic Uralic big + lesson + place the planet and god V vacuum valley valuable value vanilla vapor vegetable Venezuela venom venomous Venus verb verify very vessel via video game wakalo gileno wedi wedo wanilo palo ofosyo feneswelo poyso poysi afodityo kodo bewisa istinu hayo tongwe wi-mekgemo n n adj n n n n n n adj n n v adv n prep n Latin Celtic Germanic Germanic International Slavic Slavic International Latin Latin Greek Sinitic Germanic Slavic A priori Sinitic Compound the planet and god eye + system + game .

128 Vietnam virus vitamin volcano volume vomit vomit vowel wietnamo wiluso eyoso kasano meno hanyasa hanyaso ayn-awaso n n n n n v n n International International Sinitic Altaic Germanic Uralic Uralic Compound one + sound W wait sahana walk gia wall walo walrus seolo want desa war mili-sukobo warm tepuli wash sabona wasp waspo waste gomio watch wia water panio watermelon pani-hwao wave pado wax momo we le wo weapon siho wear dafa weather pogodo web webo Wednesday tin-hio week hi-meko weigh wasnaa weight wasnao west konec-kuo v v n n v n adj v n n v n n n n n n v n n n n v n n Indic Athabaskan Germanic Germanic Latin Compound Slavic International Germanic Altaic Latin Indic Compound Sinitic Iranian A priori Semitic A priori Slavic International Compound Compound Semitic Semitic Compound military + conflict water + fruit to wear something three + day day + system end + direction .

129 whale what when where which while white whole whole why win wind window wine wing Winter wish wish with without wolf wonder woo wood wool word work work world worm wound write afiko ko ki ceo ki oyo ki hibye lus-amo entayi entayo ki kodo liana bafelo windawgo wayno panho ays-sesono desa deso mwe ede wayo diwio ulana fao wolo kalimo kama kamo nehaso kilao liso aksala n n phr phr adj prep n adj n phr v n n n n n v n prep prep n n v n n n v n n n n v Eskaleut A priori A priori A priori A priori A priori Compound Latin Latin A priori Sinitic Semitic Germanic Multilingual Indic Compound Latin Latin A priori A priori Iroquoian Slavic Semitic A priori Germanic Semitic Indic Indic Athabaskan Indic Germanic Indic light + color ice + season Y yarn year naluo taho n n Uralic Austronesian .

130 yell yellow yes yet you young your your yourself yourselves yawa yang-amo se olose to anaki ti le ti idu idu v n part prep n adj adj adj adv adv Onomatopoeic Compound A priori A priori A priori Austronesian Multilingual A priori Latin Latin sun + color singular plural (you all) Z zebra zenith zinc sebulo kimao sinko n n n Latin Greek International .

131 The International Phonetic Alphabet for Angos IPA Symbol [a] [b] [t"] [d] [e] [$] [f] [g] [h] [x] [i] [j] [k] [l] [m] [n] Example Sound in Angos kaso “product” bogo “bow” ceo “instance” dalo “gift” ego “egg” ego “egg” fi “this” gelao “gravity” hedo “head” hedo “head” di “that” yo “anything” kamo “work” lago “law” mego “cloud” nano “bread” Example Sound in English father boy church dog lake bed frog gold hat Scottish “loch” bee yarn car long mom nut .

but similar to English Received Pronunciation “sew”) go eye hay [p] [s] [t] [u] [w] [&] pado “wave” solu “then” teno “plant” natulo “nature” wo “I” fa-oyo “forest” [a#] [$#] awkela “choose” bisau “maybe” ceu “again” [o#] [a%] [$%] nou “smartly” ayn “one” nae “no” eyfo “area” yefei “futuristic” . English Received Pronunciation (England) button cow (none.132 [o] [(] ko “what” ko “what” oval (but without the rounding of the lips) English Received Pronunciation (England) bog pearl say toy food wing uh-oh.

133 [o%] [:] oyso “sheep” noi “smart” bisaa “to be able to” noo “brain” boy marks an elongated sound .

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