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1

1.1

Functions

Denitions

Denition 1 (Function) A function is a rule or set of rules that associates an input a with exactly one output b. Denition 2 (Domain) The domain of a function f is the set of values x for which f (x) is dened. Denition 3 (Range) The range of a function f is the set of all possible outputs f (x). Sums, dierences, etc. of functions are sometimes abbreviated: (f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x) (f g)(x) = f (x) g(x) (f g)(x) = f (x)g(x) (f /g)(x) = f (x) , provided that g(x) = 0 g(x)

(f g)(x) = f (g(x)) Note: (f g)(x) is not necessarily equal to (g f )(x). Denition 4 (Odd function) A function is odd if for all x in the domain of f , f (x) = f (x). An odd function is symmetric about the origin (0, 0). Denition 5 (Even function) A function is even if for all x in the domain of f , f (x) = f (x). An even function is symmetric about the y=axis.

Denition 6 (One-to-one function) A function f is one-to-one if, for any a and b in the domain of f such that a = b, then f (a) = f (b). In other words, each output yields a unique input. A function is one-to-one if any horizontal line cuts the function at one or fewer points. (This is called the horizontal line test.) If a function is one-to-one, then it has an inverse. This inverse function, denoted f 1 , is dened as follows: f 1 (y) = x i f (x) = y. Thus, f 1 (f (x)) = x f 1 is the reection of f across the line y = x. Denition 7 (Zero) A zero of a function f is a number x for which f (x) = 0. Also called the x-intercept of the graph. To nd the zeroes of a function f (x), let f(x) = 0 and solve for x using any methods. Denition 8 (Polynomial) A polynomial is a function consisting only of powers of the variable (usually x) multiplied by constant coecients. Denition 9 (Rational Function) A rational function is of the form f (x) = P (x) , where P (x) and Q(x) are polynomials. Note that Q(x) = 0. Q(x)

1.2

The absolute value function f (x) = |x| produces the positive version of any input. For example, |1| = 1 and | 1| = 1. The absolute value function may be expressed as follows: If x 0, then f (x) = |x| = x. If x < 0, then f (x) = |x| = x. The triangle inequality states that |a + b| |a| + |b|.

1.3

The greatest integer function f (x) = [x] outputs the greatest integer less than or equal to x. For example, [1.4] = 1, [] = 3, and [3.5] = 4. The greatest integer function may be expressed as follows: If x is integral, then f (x) = [x] = x. If x = a + b, where 0 < b < 1, then f (x) = [x] = a. 2

1.4

1.4.1

Trigonometry

Right-Triangle Denitions

Consider right triangle ABC, where C is the right angle. Then: BC opposite sin A = = hypotenuse AB AC adjacent cos A = = hypotenuse AB BC opposite tan(A) = = adjacent AC AB 1 hypotenuse = = opposite csc A = sin A BC 1 AB hypotenuse = = sec A = adjacent cos A AC AC 1 adjacent = = opposite cot A = tan A BC One easy way to remember these denitions is to memorize the word SOHCAHTOA, which stands for: sin = opposite/hypotenuse cos = adjacent/hypotenuse tan = opposite/adjacent 1.4.2 Reduction Formulas

1. sin(x) = sin x 2. cos(x) = cos x 3. sin( x) = cos x 2 4. cos( x) = sin x 2 5. sin( + x) = cos x 2 6. cos( + x) = sin x 2 7. sin( x) = sin x 8. cos( x) = cos x 9. sin( + x) = sin x 10. cos( x) = cos x

1.4.3

Identities

1. sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 2. tan2 x + 1 = sec2 x 3. cot2 x + 1 = csc2 x 1.4.4 Sum and Dierence Formulas

1. sin( + ) = sin cos + sin cos 2. sin( ) = sin cos sin cos 3. cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin 4. cos( ) = cos cos + sin sin 5. tan( + ) = 6. tan( ) = tan + tan 1 tan tan tan tan 1 + tan tan

1.4.5

1. sin 2 = 2 sin cos 2. cos 2 = cos2 x sin2 x = 2 cos2 x 1 = 1 2 sin2 x 3. tan 2 = 4. sin 2 tan 1 tan2

1 cos = (determine whether it is + or - by nding the 2 2 quadrant that lies in) 2 = 2 1 + cos (same as above) 2

5. cos 6. tan

1.4.6

(for formulas 3-6, consider the triangle with sides of length a, b, and c, and opposite angles A, B, and C, respectively) 1. sin2 = 2. cos2 = 3. 1 2 cos(2) 2 1 + 2 cos(2) 2

4. c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos C (Law of Cosines) 5. Area of triangle = 1 ab sin C 2 6. Area of triangle = Formula) 1.4.7 Changes to the Trig Graphs s(s a)(s b)(s c), where s = a+b+c (Herons 2

Denition 10 (Periodic) A function f is periodic if, for some number p, f (x + p) = f (x) for all x in the domain of f . The trigonometric functions are all periodic. sin x, cos x, csc x, and sec x all have periods of 2. tan x and cot x have periods of . If the x in sin x, cos x, etc., is multiplied by a constant b, the period is divided by that constant: sin bx, cos bx, csc bx, and sec bx (b constant) all have periods of tan bx and cot bx have periods of

b. 2 b

Denition 11 (Amplitude) The magnitude of an oscillation (only for functions that oscillate, like the sine and cosine). In the sine and the cosine, the amplitude is half the distance from the minimum to the maximum value. A sin x and A cos x each have amplitude A.

1.4.8

If f (x) = sin x, then f 1 (x) = sin1 x = arcsin x, with 1 x 1 If f (x) = cos x, then f 1 (x) = cos1 x = arccos x, with 1 x 1 If f (x) = tan x, then f 1 (x) = tan1 x = arctan x, with x 2

2

1.5

1.5.1

Laws of Exponents

Logarithms

Denition 12 (Logarithm (log)) The logarithm base a of a number is the power to which a should be raised in order to obtain that number. That is, y = loga x i ay = x Denition 13 (Natural Logarithm (ln)) y = ln x i ey = x Laws of Logarithms (compare to Laws of Exponents) 1. loga 1 = 0 2. loga a = 1 3. loga mn = loga m + loga n 4. loga m = loga m loga n n 1 logx a 6

1.6

Parametric Functions

Denition 14 (Parametric Equations) A set of equations that dene several variables (usually two) in terms of another variable. Parametric equations are often of the form x = f (t) and y = g(t). To eliminate the parameter (in this case, t), we often use the identity sin2 t + cos2 t = 1.

Dierentiation

Denition 15 (Dierence quotient) The fraction f (a+h)f (a) is the dierh ence quotient for f at a. It represents the average rate of change from x = a to x = a + h. As h goes to 0, the average rate of change approaches the instantaneous rate of change, which we will dene as f (x): f (a) = lim f (a + h) f (a) h0 h

If f(a) exists, then from the above equation, we know that limxc = f (c). So if a function is dierentiable, the it is continuous. (However, the reverse is not necessarily true; a function may be continuous at a point but not be dierentiable at that point. A function is not dierentiable at x = a if . . . 1. The graph has a hole (removable discontinuity) at x = a. 2. The graph jumps from one y-value to another (jump discontinuity) at x = a. 3. x=c is a vertical asymptote (limxc = ) 4. The graph has a vertical tangent at x = a (f (c) = ) 5. There is a corner at x = a, so there are innitely many tangents passing through (x, f (x)) 6. There is a cusp at x = a, so there are innitely many tangents passing through (x, f (x)).

2.1

Theorem 1 (The Chain Rule) To dierentiate a compositite function, we take the derivative of the outside function (treating the insides as a single mass), and multiply this by the derivative of the inside function: 7

(f (g(x))) = f (g(x))g (x) Alternate form: Let y = f (u) and u = g(x). Then dy dy du = + . dx du dx

2.2

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

da dx

=0 =a = nxn1

d dx ax d n dx x

d d g(x) dx f (x) f (x) dx g(x) d f (x) = dx g(x) (g(x))2

2.3

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx

sin x = cos x cos x = sin x tan x = sec2 x csc x = csc x cot x sec x = sec x tan x cot x = csc2 x

12.

d 1 cot1 x = dx 1 + x2

2.4

1. 2. 3.

1 d ln x = dx x

d x dx e d x dx a

= ex = ax ln a

Logarithmic Dierentiation (for derivatives of exponential functions): y = f (x) ln y = ln f (x) d d ln y = ln f (x) dx dx 1 dy 1 d = f (x) y dx f (x) dx dy 1 d =y f (x) dx f (x) dx

2.5

Implicit Dierentiation

When we do not have an explicit form (y = f (x)) for y, it may be easiest to dierentiate implicitly. This is done by dierentiating both sides with respect dy to x, and then solving for dx .

2.6

Formula 1 (Derivatives of Parametric Functions) Suppose that x = f (t) and y = g(t) are dierentiable functions of t. Then dy/dt dy = dx dx/dt (you can remember this by imagining each d2 y d dy dt =( ) dx2 dt dx dx

1 dt

cancelling)

Formula 2 (Derivative of an Inverse Function) Suppose that f (x) is a oneto-one function (that is, it has an inverse). Then if f(x) passes through the point (a, b), its inverse f 1 (x) will pass through the point (b, a). So 1 (f 1 ) (b) = . f (a)

Theorem 2 (The Mean Value Theorem (MVT)) If the function f (x) is continuous on the interval [a, b] and dierentiable on the interval (a, b), then f (b) f (a) there exists at least one number c such that = f (c). (That is, the ba instantaneous rate of change is equal to the average rate of change at some point on the interval.) The following is a specic case of the MVT: Theorem 3 (Rolles Theorem) If f (a) = f (b) = 0, then for some c in [a, b], f (c) = 0. Theorem 4 (LHopitals Rule) If one of the four is true: lim f (x) = lim g(x) = 0,

xa xa

x x

xa xa

x x

then the limit in question is equal to f (x) f (x) or lim , depending on whether x was approaching a or . lim x g (x) xa g (x) LHopitals rule can be applied to certain other indeterminate forms, namely 1 0 0 and 00 . To apply it to the former, rewrite it as 0 0 = 0 . To apply it to 0 the latter, rewrite it as eln(0 ) and apply the laws of logarithms.

2.7

Estimating

It is possible to estimate the value of a derivative at x = a by nding the dierence quotient f (a+h)f (a) for small values of h. h Alternatively, it may be desirable to use the symmetric dierence quotient f (a + h) f (a h) to estimate f (a). 2h

3

3.1

Applications of Dierentiation

Slope

The value of the derivative of a curve at x = a is the slope of the curve at that point. 10

Denition 16 (Critical Point) A critical point is a point at x = c such that f (c) = 0 or f (c) is undened. To determine the critical points of a function, nd its derivative, determine which values of x make it undened, and solve for f (x) = 0 for the remaining values.

11

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