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सप्तभोऽध्माम्

अथात् शयीयसंख्माशायीयं व्माख्मास्माभ् ॥१॥ Now (I) shall expound the adhyAya giving the enumeration of bodily parts. [1]

इतत ह स्भाह बगवानात्रेम् ॥२॥ As propounded by the Venerable Atreya. [2]

शयीयसंख्माभवमवश् क त्सस्नं शयीयं प्रववबज्म

सववशयीयसंख्मानप्रभाणऻानहेतोबवगवन्तभात्रेमभग्ननवेश् ऩप्रच्छ

॥३॥ agnivesha submitted to the Venerable Atreya for providing knowledge of the entire body by dividing the enitre body into parts and then enumerating the same. [3]

तभुवाच बगवानअत्रमे ् श णुभत्सतोऽग्ननवेश सवशव यीयभाचऺाणस्म

मथाप्रश्नभेकभना मथावत्। शयीयेषट् त्सवच् तद्मथा उदकधया

त्सवनफाह्मा द्ववतीमा त्सवस नधया त तीमा ससध्भककराससंबवाधधष्ठाना

चतुथी दद्रकूु ष्ठसंबवाधधष्ठाना ऩञ्चभी त्सवरजीववद्रधधसंबवाधधष्ठाना

षष्ठी तुमस्मां तछन्नामां ताम्मत्समन्ध इव च तभ् प्रववशतत मां

चाप्मधधष्ठामारंवष जामन्ते ऩवसव ष्णयक्तातन स्थूरभरूातन

दग्ुश्चककत्सस्मतभातन च इतत षट् त्सवच् । एता् षडङ्गं

शयीयभवतत्सम ततष्ठग्न्त ॥४॥

The Venerable Atreya replied - listen to me O agnivesha! attentively according to your queries.There are six layers of skin (tvak) in the body such as - the outermost layer of skin is known as udakadharA (that which holds up water). The second one is that which holds up blood, the third one is the seat of the origin of sidhma and kilAsa (leuederma), the fourth one is the seat of the origin of ring worm and leprosy; the fifth one is the seat of the origin of alaji (a type of boil) and vidradhi (abscess). The sixth layer is that which, if cut, causes loss of consciousness and is the seat of the origin of boils being manifested as blackish red and eep rooted on joints and are hardly curable. Thus are the six layers of skin which cover the entire body with six parts. [4]

तत्रामं शयीयस्माङ्गववबाग्

सशयोग्रीवभ्अन्तयाधध इतत षडङ्गभङ्गभ्॥५॥ The body is divided into six parts - two upper extremities, two lower extremities, head - neck and trunk (chest and abdomen). [5] त्रीणण सषष्टीतन शतान्मस्थनां सह दन्तोरखू रनखने । तद्मथा

द्वात्त्रशं द्दन्ता् द्वात्त्रशं द्दन्तोरूखरातन ववशं ततनखव ा् षग्ष्ट्

ऩाणणऩादाङ्गुल्मस्थीतन ववशं तत ऩाणणऩादशराका् चत्सवारय

ऩाणणऩादशराकाधधष्ठानातन द्वेऩाष््मोयग्स्थनी चत्सवाय्

ऩादमोगुल्व पा् द्वौ भणणकौ हस्तमो् चत्सवामवयत्सन्मोयस्थीतन चत्सवारय

जङ्घमो् द्वे जानुनी द्वे जानकु ऩासरके द्वावूरुनरकौ द्वौ

फाह नरकौ द्वावंसौ द्वेअंसपरके द्वावऺकौ एकं जत्रुद्वे

तद्मथा द्वौ फाह द्वेसग्क्थनी

तारुके द्वेश्रोणणपरके एकं बगाग्स्थ ऩञ्चचत्सवारयशं त्

ऩ ष्ठगतान्मस्थीतन ऩञ्चदश ग्रीवामांचतुदवशोयसस द्वमो्

ऩाश्वमव ोश्चतुववशिं तत् ऩशकुव ा् तावग्न्त स्थारकातन तावग्न्त चैव

स्थारकाफुदव ातन एकं हन्वग्स्थ द्वेहनुभूरफन्धनेएकाग्स्थ

नाससकाग्डक टरराटं द्वौ शङ्खौ चत्सवारय सशय्कऩारानीतत् एवं

त्रीणण सषष्टीतन शतान्मस्थनां सह दन्तोरूखरनखेनेतत ॥६॥ There are three hundred and sixty (360) bones including teeth, sockets and nails. Such as:

Teeth - 32 Teeth sockets - 32 Nails - 20 Phalangeal bones of hand and feet - 60 Metaphalangeal bones of hand and feet - 20 Metaphalangeal support of hands and feet - 4 Calcaneum - 2 Ankles(in feet) - 4 Wrist bones (in hands) - 2 Fore Arms - 4 Legs - 4 Knee - 2 jAnukapAla (knee caps) - 2 Thighs - 2 Arms - 2 Shoulders - 2 Shoulder blades - 2 Clavicles - 2 Xiphisternum - 1 Palate bones - 2

Hip bones - 2 Pubis - 1 Back - 45 Neck - 15 Chest - 14 Ribs (both sides) - 24 Rib sockets (both sides) - 24 Tubercles in rib sockets(both sides) - 24 Mandible - 1 Extremities of the mandible - 2 Nose, zygomatic process and forehead - 1 Temporals - 2 Skull bones - 4 TOTAL 360 Thus are the three hundred and sixty bones including teeth, sockets and nails. [6] See yAjJNavalkyadharmashAstra 3.84 - 110.

ऩञ्चेग्न्द्रमाधधष्ठानातन तद्मथा

कणौ च । ऩञ्च फुद्धीग्न्द्रमाणण तद्मथा स्ऩशनव ं यसनं घ्राणं दशनव ं

श्रोत्रसभतत । ऩञ्च कभेग्न्द्रमाणण् तद्मथा हस्तौ ऩादौ ऩामु्

उऩस्थ् ग्जह्वा चेतत ॥७॥

हृदमं चेतनाधधष्ठानभेकभ्॥८॥ Five seats of the senses are such as - skin, tongue, nose, eyes and ears. Five sense organs such as - tactile, gustatory, olfactory, visual and auditory. Five motor organs such as - hands, feet, anus, genital and speech organ. One heart which is the seat of consciousness. [7 - 8]

त्सवग ग्ह् नाससका अक्षऺणी

दश प्राणामतनातन तद्मथा भधूावक्ठ् हृदमं नासब् गुदं फग्स्त्

ओज् शुक्रं शोणणतं भासं सभतत । तेषुषट् ऩूवावणण भभसव ख्ं मातातन

॥९॥ Ten seats of the vital breath such as - head, throat, heart, navel, anus, bladder, ojas, semen, blood and muscular tissue. Of them, the first six are known as marmas (vital organs). [9]

ऩञ्चदश कोष्ठाङ्गातन तद्मथा नासबश्च हृदमं च क्रोभ च

मक च्चप्रीहा च व क्कौ च फग्स्तश्च ऩुयीषाधायश्च आभाशमश्च

ऩक्वाशमश्च उत्सतयगुदं च अधयगुदंच ऺुद्रान्त्रं च स्थरूान्त्रं च

स्थूरान्त्रं च वऩावहनं चेतत ॥१०॥ Fifteen are the visceral organs such as - navel, heart, kloman(lungs), liver, spleen, kidneys, urinary bladder, caecum, stomach, jejunum, rectum, anus, small intestines, large intestines and omentum. [10]

षट्ऩञ्चाशत्प्रत्समङ्गातन षट्स्वङ्गषेूऩतनफद्धातन

मान्मऩरयसं््ख्मातातन ऩूवभव ङ्गेषुऩरयसंख्माभानेषुतान्मन्मै्

ऩमावमैरयह प्रकाश्मातन बवग्न्त । तद्मथा द्वैजङ्घावऩग््डके द्वे

उत्सतयवऩग््डके द्वौ ग्स्पचौ द्वौ व षणौ एकं शोप् द्वैउखेद्वौ

वङ्घणौ द्वौ क न्दयौ एकं फग्स्तशीषभव द्वौ स्तनौ द्वौ

द्वौ

दन्तवेष्टकौ एकं तारुएका गरशुग््डका द्वेउऩग्जग्ह्वके एका

बुजौ द्वेफाह वऩग््डके धचफुकभेकं द्वावोष्ठौ द्वेस क्क्मौ

ु क ु

गोग्जग्ह्वका द्वौ ग्डौ द्वे कणशव ष्क सरके द्वौ कणऩव त्र द्वे

अक्षऺक टेचत्सवामक्षवऺवत्सभावतन द्वेअक्षऺकनीतनके द्वेभ्रुवौ एकाऽवटु्

चत्सवारय ऩाणणऩादहृदमातन ॥११॥ There are fifty - six sub - parts associated with the six major parts (of the body). These were not enumerated earlier in the context of the major parts and as such are mentioned here such as - Calves - 2 Thighs - 2 Buttocks - 2 Testicles - 2 Penis - 1 ukhA (axilla) - 2 Groin (sides of the scrotum) - 2 Ischeal tuberosities - 2 Pubis - 1 Abdomen - 1 Breast - 2 Arms - 2 Forearms - 2 Chin - 1 Lips - 2 Corners of the mouth - 2 Gums - 2 Palate - 1 Uvula - 1 upajihvikA (tonsils) - 2 gojihvikA (tongue) - 1 Cheeks - 2

Ear pinnae - 2 Lower portion of the ear pinnae - 2 Eye orbit - 2 Eye lids - 4 Pupils of the eyes - 2 Eye brows - 2 Thyroid - 1 Soles of hands and feet - 4 TOTAL - 56

नव भहग्न्त तछद्राणण सप्त सशयसस द्वे चाध् ॥१२॥ Nine major orifices - seven in the head and two below.

एतावद्दृश्मं शक्मभवऩ तनदेष्टुभ This much is visible and can also be demonstrated.

अतनदेश्मभत् ऩयं तक्मभव ेव । तद्मथा नव स्नामुशतातन सप्त

ससयाशतातन द्वे धभनीशते चत्सवारय ऩेशीशतातन सप्तोत्सतयं भभवशतं

द्वे सग्न्धशतेएकोनत्त्रंशत्ससहस्राणण नव च शतातन

षट्ऩञ्चाशत्सकातन ससयाधभनीनाभणशु् प्रववबज्मभानानां

भुखाग्रऩरयभाणं तावग्न्त चैव केशश्भुश्रुरोभानीतत ।

एतद्मथावत्ससंख्मातं त्सवक्प्रब ततदृश्मं तक्मभव त् ऩयभ्।

एतदबुमभवऩ न ववकल्ऩतेप्रक ततबावाच्छयीयस्म ॥१४॥ Beyond this they cannot be demonstrated and as such can only be inferred such as:

snAyu (ligaments) - 900

sirA (veins) - 700 dhamanI (arteries) - 200 mAMsa (Muscles) - 400 marma(vital organs) - 107 sandhi(joints) - 200 sirAdhamanyaNusha (the end portion of minute branches of bloodvessels (capillaries) - 29956 keshashmashrulomAni (hair on the scalp, beard and mustaches plus skin hairs) - 29956 Thus the skin, etc., which are visible are enumerated properly. Others are known by inference only. Substances of both categories have no variations due to the normal constitution of the body.[14]

मत्सत्सवञ्जसरसंख्मेमं तदऩुदेक्ष्माभ् तत प्रभाणभसबऻेमं तच्च

व वद्धह्रासमोधग तक्मभव ेव । तद्मथा दशोदकस्माञ्जरम् शयीये

स्वेनाञ्जसरप्रभाणेन मत्सतुप्रच्मवभानं ऩुयीषभनुफध्नात्समततमोगेन

तथा भूत्रंरुधधयभन्मांश्च शयीयधातनू त्स यीयचयं फाह्मा

त्सवग्नफबततव मत्सतुत्सवगन्तयेव्रनगतं रसीकाशब्दं रबते

मच्चोष्भणाऽनुफद्धं रोभक ऩेभ्मो तनष्ऩतत ्स्वेदशब्दभवाप्नोतत

तददुकं दशाञ्जसरप्रभाणं नवाञ्जरम्ऩूवस्व माहायऩरयणाभधातो् मं

यस इत्समाचऺते अष्टौ शोणणतस्म सप्त ऩुयीषस्म षट् श्रेष्भण्

ऩञ्च वऩत्सतस्म चत्सवायो भूत्रस्म त्रमो वसामा् द्वौ भेदस् एको

भज्जामा् भग्स्तष्कस्माधावञ्जसर् शुक्रस्म तावदेव प्रभाणं तावदेव

श्रैग्ष्भकस्मौजस इतत । एतच्छयीयतत्सत्सवभुक्तभ

Now the substances measurable in the unit of number of aJNjali * are mentioned. These figures indicate the mean standard and as such there is a scope of increase or decrease. This is also known by inference. Such as, there are ten aJNjalis by the standard of the individual's own aJNjali, of fluid which if discharged accompanies faeces, urine, blood or other dhAtus, circulating in the entire body and is held up by the outermost layer of the skin; beneath the skin exists as lymph exuding through wounds; under influence of heat goes out of the hair follicles as sweat. Nine aJNjalis of the first dhAtu being a product of food and which is known as rasa; eight aJNjalis of blood, seven of feaces, six of kapha, five of pitta, four of urine, three of muscle - fat, two of fat, one of bone marrow, a half - aJNjali each of brain substance, semen and ojas which is of the nature of kapha. Thus in essence the body is described. [15]

तत्र मद्ववशेषत् स्थूरं ग्स्थयं भूततभव द्गुरुखयकठठनभङ्गं

नखाग्स्थदन्तभासं चभवव च्वकेशश्भश्ररुोभक्डयाठद तत्ऩाधथवव ं गन्धो

घ्राणं च मद्द्रवसयभन्दग्स्ननधभ दवुऩग्च्छरं

यसरुधधयवसाकपवऩत्सतभूत्रस्वेदाठद तदाप्मं यसो यसनंच मत्

वऩत्सतभूष्भा च मो मा च बा् शयीयेतत्सवभव ाननेमं रऩं दशनव ं च

मदच्ु्वासप्रश्वासोन्भेषतनभेषाक ञ्चनप्रसायणगभनप्रेयणधायणाठद

तद्वामवीमं स्ऩशव् स्ऩशनव ं च मद्वववक्तं मदच्ुमते भहाग्न्त

चाणूतन स्रोतांसस तदान्तयीऺं शब्द्श्रोत्रं च मत्प्रमोक्त तत्

प्रधानं फुवद्धभनव श्च । इतत शयीयावमवसंख्मा

मथास्थूरबेदेनावमवानां तनठदवष्टा ॥१६॥ The body part which is particularly thick, stable, massive, heavy, coarse and hard; and nails, bones, teeth, muscle tissue, skin, faeces, hairs, beards, and mustaches, skin hairs, tendons, etc., along with smell and the olfactory sense are pArthiva (predominant in pR^ithivI mahAbhUta). The liquid, mobile, dull, unctuous, soft and slimy; rasa, blood, muscle - fat, kapha, pitta, urine, sweat, etc., along with taste and the gustatory sense are Apya (predominant in Ap mahAbhUta); pitta, heat, lustre along with vision and the visual sense are Agneya (predominant in agni mahAbhUta); respiration, twinkling of the eys, contraction and relaxation, movement, propulsion and retention along with touch and the tactile sense are vAyavIya (predominant in vAyu mahAbhUta);Vacant space, big and small channels, along with sound and the auditory sense are AntarIxa (predominant in AkAshamahAbhUta). Whatever impels is the principal one (principle of consciousness) along with intellect and mind. Thus the enumeration of the different corporeal body parts is described. [16]

शयीयावमवास्तुऩयभाणुबेदेनाऩरयसख्ं मेमा बवग्न्त

अततफह त्सवादततसौक्ष्भादतीग्न्द्रमत्सवाच्च । तेषां संमोगववबागे

ऩयभाणूनां वामु् कभवस्वबावश्च ॥१७॥ The body components according to the division into the smallest units (cells) are innumerable due to multitude,

minuteness and to being unobservable. The causative agent in conjunction and disjunction of cells is vayu and karmasvabhAva. [17]

तदेतच्छयीयं संख्मातभनेकावमवं दृष्टभेकत्सवेन सङ्ग्

ऩ थक्त्सवेनाऩवग्व । तत्र प्रधानभसक्तं सवसव त्सतातनव त्सवतौ

तनवततव े

इतत ॥१८॥ Thus the body having many parts and enumerated above, if seen synthetically leads to attachment and viewed analytically leads to emancipation. The principal one (consciousness) which is detached, retires after all existant entities cease to be. [18]

तत्र श्रोका

शयीयसंख्मां मो वेद सवाववमवशो सबषक् । तदऻानतनसभत्सतेन स

भोहेन न मुज्मते ॥१९॥

अभूढो भोहभूरैश्च न दोषैयसबबूमते। तनदोषो तन्स्ऩ ह् शान्त्

प्रशाम्मत्समऩुनबवव ् ॥२०॥ Now the summary verses - The wise physician who knows the enumeration of the body parts does not get confused due to ignorance. One who is free from ignorance does not become overcome by the defects caused by it and as such he, devoid of defects and desires, and who is calm, attains everlasting peace because he is not reborn. [19 - 20]

इत्समग्ननवेशक तेतन्त्रेचयकप्रततसंस्क तेशायीयस्थाने

शयीयसंख्माशायीयं नाभ सप्तभोऽध्माम् ॥७॥

Thus ends the Seventh Chapter on the Enumeration of the Body Parts in shArIrasthAna in the Treatise Composed by agnivesha and Redacted by charaka.

* a handful weighing 160 gm.

Altotus333