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: a b c d e f g h i And we decide to multiply it by a column vector j k l What we get is another column vector: a b c j aj+bk+cl d e f * k = dj+ek+fl g h i l gj+hk+il
Where, if this column vector equals some constant times the initial column vector, the initial column vector is an eigenvector of the matrix: aj+bk+cl j dj+ek+fl = Z * k gj+hk+il l
Now, we will use the EXACT same principle for the material in problem 3.4: Instead of the matrix in the above example, we will have an 'Operator': I'll do the example with g and N N = x d•dx giHxL - from 3.3 - is x^i N * g = Hx d•dxL * Hx^iL = x * d•dx Hx^iL = x * i * x^Hi-1L = i * x^i So, what we have is: So that we have the N operator being the MATRIX, The giHxL function being the EIGENVECTOR, And the i value for a given giHxL being the eigenvalue
In essense, you are doing the same old procedure here as well, multiplying functions and if they have derivatives, carrying those derivatives over to the 'next' piece, like you did with the momentum operator in finding out the expectation value for momentum <p>