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# Math 432-2: Assignment # 2

**due Wednesday, February 1
**

1. Let P and Q be two statements. (a) What is the negation of [P or Q]? (b) What is the negation of [P & ∼ Q]? (c) Using the rules of logic given in the text, show that P =⇒ Q means the same as [∼ P or Q]. (Hint: Show that they are both negations of the same thing.) 2. (a) Negate Euclid’s fourth postulate. (b) Negate the Euclidean Parallel Postulate. 3. Using the Incidence Axioms, prove Proposition 2.5 from the text: For every point P there exist at least two lines through P . 4. For each pair of axioms of incidence geometry (there are three pairs), construct an interpretation in which those two axioms are satisﬁed but the third axiom is not. (This will show that the three axioms are independent, in the sense that it is impossible to prove any one of them from the other two.) 5. In each of the following interpretations of the undeﬁned terms, which of the axioms of incidence geometry are satisﬁed and which are not? State whether each interpretation has the elliptic, Euclidean, or hyperbolic parallel property. (a) “Points” are lines in Euclidean 3-space which pass through the origin. “Lines” are planes in Euclidean 3-space which pass through the origin. “Incidence” is the usual relation of a line lying in a plane. (b) Fix a circle in the Euclidean plane. Interpret “point” to mean an ordinary Euclidean point inside the circle. Interpret “line” to mean a chord of the circle. Let “incidence” mean that the point lies on the chord in the usual sense. (A chord of a circle is a segment whose endpoints lie on the circle.) (c) Fix a sphere in Euclidean 3-space. Two points on the sphere are called antipodal if they lie on a diameter of the sphere (for example the north and south poles are antipodal.) Interpret a “point” to be a set {P, P } consisting of two antipodal points on the sphere. Interpret a “line” to be a great circle C on the sphere. Interpret a “point” {P, P } to “lie on” a “line” C if one of the points P, P lies on the great circle C (then the other point also lies on C.) Is there a diﬀerence between a) and c) above? Can you ﬁnd an isomorphism of these two geometries? 6. Let M be a projective plane. Deﬁne a new interpretation M by taking as “points” of M the lines of M and as “lines” of M the points of M, with the same incidence relation. Prove that M is also a projective plane (called the dual plane of M.)

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