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Neutral.08

# Neutral.08

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# NEUTRAL GEOMETRY

MATH 410, CSUSM. SPRING 2008. PROFESSOR AITKEN

Date: Spring 2008. Version of April 15, 2008. 1 Neutral Geometry does not cover all geometries. For example, results in Neutral Geometry do not necessarily hold in Elliptic or Spherical Geometry.
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By the deﬁnition of partition (from set theory). It is a member of one of the two sets. and choose a point Z such that Y ∗ C ∗ Z. Exercise 1. Segment congruence is a two place relation of line segments. B-1. If AB and CD are line segments. I-3. C-1. Y ∈ l such that X ∗ C ∗ Y . and borders the other. we need to deﬁne the notion of a Dedekind cut. Primitive Terms. Let Σ1 and Σ2 be a Dedekind cut of a line l. that X ∗ Y ∗ C. Betweenness is a three place relation of points. for instance. Remark. Lines are sets of points. Since the axioms of IBC Geometry are a subset of the axioms of Neutral Geometry. C-4. then AB ∼ CD denotes the statement that the segment = congruence relation holds between AB and CD. 15 axioms. Hint: suppose. is between Σ1 and Σ2 in the following sense: if X ∈ Σ1 and Y ∈ Σ2 are not equal to the cut point C then X ∗ C ∗ Y . A Dedekind cut of a line l is a partition of l into two nonempty convex subsets Σ1 and Σ2 . segment congruence. We now begin the oﬃcial development of Neutral Geometry. R are points. and angle congruence is a two place relation of angles. so terms such as line segment or triangle congruence are ultimately deﬁned in terms of the primitive terms. The Primitive Term Axiom for Neutral Geometry is a preliminary axiom telling us what type of objects all the primitive terms are supposed to represent. Likewise. Before we can prove this axiom. R). C-2. if it exists. We will adopt all the notation and deﬁnitions from IBC Geometry. Let Σ1 and Σ2 be a Dedekind cut of a line l. Q. Deﬁnition 1 (Dedekind Cut). and Dedekind’s Axiom discussed below. B-4. the intersection of Σ1 and Σ2 is the empty set. If P. A cut point is intuitively a point touching both Σ1 and Σ2 . Dedekind’s Axiom basically says lines have no “holes”. If α and β are angles. all the propositions of IBC Geometry will hold in Neutral Geometry. betweenness. if it exists. The basic type of object is the point. then α ∼ β denotes = the statement that the angle congruence relation holds between α and β. B-3. C-6. C-3. Neutral Geometry consists of 5 undeﬁned terms. Q. The ﬁve primitive terms are point. and anything that can be deﬁned or proved from these. Show that Y Z cannot intersect Σ1 . and angle congruence. but the union is all of l. 2 . it cannot be between two points of Σ2 . Remark. Axiom (Primitive Terms). then P ∗ Q ∗ R denotes the statement that the betweenness relation holds for (P. Deﬁnition 2 (Cut Point). I-2. C-5. line. Show that a cut point. Suppose that Σ1 and Σ2 form a Dedekind cut of a line l. The axioms of Neutral Geometry include the above Primitive Term Axiom together with the axioms I-1. A cut point is a point C ∈ l with the following property: for all X. and we will make free use of any previously proved proposition of IBC Geometry. B-2. Exercise 2. cannot be between two points of Σ1 . Show that a cut point. the segment XY intersects both Σ1 and Σ2 .Geometry the required circles can be shown to intersect and so the proof of the existence of equilateral triangles is valid.

Prove that Σ1 in the proof is indeed convex. the above axiom says that lines have no holes. a cut point is in some sense between Σ1 and Σ2 . 3. notion of a cut was originally formulated by Dedekind for Q and R in order to build a foundation for the real numbers that is independent of geometry. Exercise 3. The real numbers R. satisfy the axiom. Let D be a point of Σ2 . but the cut point C must be in the subset). One step of the above proof. Interestingly. If E ∈ Σ1 we contradict the previous exercise. consider ﬁrst the rational number line Q. Remark.Lemma 1. 3The 2Also. (Note: the above exercises and lemma are valid in IBC geometry since they do not use the following axiom. lines are “complete”. is that Σ1 and Σ2 are convex. A similar situation occurs between line segments and circles that the above exercises and lemma are valid for Dedekind cuts of segments and rays. As we saw above. Let Σ2 be the union of Σ2 ← → with {X | A ∗ B ∗ X}. Proof. Its later use in geometry is motivated by the concept that a traditional geometric line should be related to the real number line R. and that C ∈ AB. Now we give Dedekind’s Axiom. AB ⊆ Σ1 by convexity. Proof. So. Dedekind constructed the real numbers out of cuts of Q. Thus there is a cut point C by Dedekind’s Axiom. In other words. Every Dedekind cut of a line segment has a cut point. There is a Dedekind Principle for segments and rays: Proposition 2. This gives a Dedekind cut with no cut point in Q. √ √ To see how it applies to Q and R. If E ∈ Σ2 a similiar contradiction occurs. Either way. on the other hand. say. Every Dedekind cut of a line has a cut point. Σ2 . Every Dedekind cut of a ray has a cut point. but 2 ∈ Q. − → A similar argument shows that any Dedekind cut of a ray AB has a cut point. If a Dedekind cut did not have a cut point. 3 . One can show that Σ1 and Σ2 form a Dedekind cut of AB. This shows that the rational numbers fail the axiom. If there were a cut point it would √ be 2. By the previous exercise C1 ∗ C2 ∗ D and C2 ∗ C1 ∗ D. Circles: some basics In IBC geometry one cannot in general prove that circles that one expects to intersect will actually intersect. a contradiction to Axiom B-3 Consider the case where the cut points are in diﬀerent sets: C1 ∈ Σ1 and C2 ∈ Σ2 . informally speaking. Σ1 say. Let E be a point between C1 and C2 . (Sketch) Suppose C1 and C2 are distinct cut points.3 We can deﬁne Dedekind cuts for subsets of a line in a similar way. First assume C1 and C2 are in the same set of the Dedekind cut. Let Σ1 be the union of Σ1 with {X | X ∗ A ∗ B}. we get a contradiction. It has a “hole” at 2 since √ √2 is irrational. if it exists. then there would be a “hole” between Σ1 and Σ2 . One can show that C is a cut point for Σ1 . skipped in the sketch.2) Axiom (Dedekind’s Axiom). Y ∈ l in the deﬁnition are not required to be in the subset. is unique. The rational numbers less than 2 forms one set Σ1 and the rational number greater than 2√ form another Σ2 . Thus Dedekind’s Axiom is sometimes called the completeness axiom. the ﬁnal axiom of Neutral Geometry. but Σ2 is not empty). and we can deﬁne a cut point for such cuts (the points X. suppose A ∈ Σ1 . (Sketch) Let Σ1 and Σ2 be a Dedekind cut of a segment AB. Without loss of generality. It follows that B ∈ Σ2 (otherwise. A cut point for a Dedekind cut.

Proposition 3. In other words. furthermore. The next section will. The interior of a circle is convex. The case where A. By the trichotomy law for segments. we must show that AB is a subset of the interior. Lemma 4. Then the interior of γ is deﬁned to be the set {X | AX < AB} ∪ {A}. A tangent to a circle γ is a line that intersects γ in exactly one point. O are not collinear.one expects to intersect. If AY is another radius of γ. Then we can use the following lemma to show that AB is contained in the interior. every point is either (i) in the interior. (ii) in the circle itself. This is easily proved using the fact that ∼ is an equivalence relation. Let A. Closed disks are convex. Deﬁnition 5 (Disk). We will need the following lemma later. Proposition 5. we describe some preliminaries. B be points in the interior of γ such that O. B are non-collinear. If C. Let AB be a segment. exactly one of these possibilities occurs. Before describing these results. A chord that contains the center of γ is called a diameter. then CD is called a chord. Exercise 4. So suppose that A. O are colinear is easier. Let O be the center of the circle. B. Prove the above lemma. A. If A ∗ D ∗ B then D is also in the interior of γ. then γ can also be described as the circle with center A and radius AY . Let γ a circle with center A and radius AB. The union of a circle γ with its interior is called a closed disk. D are distinct points on a circle γ. it is the set = {X | AX ∼ AB}. B be in the interior. depend on Dedekind’s Axiom. None of the deﬁnitions and results in this preliminary section require Dedekind’s Axiom or its consequences. = If AX ∼ AB then AX is called a radius. The interior is sometimes called an open disk. Proof. and so they can be thought of as part of IBC geometry. = Remark. Deﬁnition 6 (Tangent). and is left to the reader. 4 . (sketch) Let A. Deﬁnition 3 (Circle). Exercise 5. Then the circle with center A and radius AB is deﬁned to be the set of all points X such that AX ∼ AB. B. Neutral Geometry corrects this problem. or (iii) in the exterior. The following can be proved in a similar manner. Hint: use a result from the IBC handout concerning the triangle OAB (look in the section on inequalities involving triangles). Show that the exterior of a circle is not convex. Suppose that γ is a circle with center O. Let γ be the circle with center A and radius AB. The exterior of γ is deﬁned to be the set {X | AX > AB}. however. = Deﬁnition 4 (Interior and Exterior of a Circle).

Then there are points X ∗ Z ∗ Y on AB such that X and Y are in the exterior of γ. the circles intersect. so we get a triangle ABC. we know that AB is convex. Here is an application of a theorem that can be proved in Neutral Geometry: Proposition 9 (Euclid’s First Proposition). a contradiction. By the Circle-Circle Intersection Principle. Suppose not. Since A and Z are in the closed disk. we must have AC ∼ AB. and that AB is a segment such that A is in the interior of γ and B is in the exterior of γ. which in turn implies that A ∗ X ∗ Z. no point of Σ2 can be a cut point. Let D be a point such that D ∗ A ∗ B and AB ∼ AD (Axiom B-2 and C-2). This implies A-X-Z-Y . Therefore. Observe that B ∈ γ. But DB > AB so = D is in the exterior of δ. there is a point C in the intersection of γ and δ. Then the intersection of AB and the interior of γ is convex. However. In other words. In the above proof.Lemma 6. Intersections with Circles In Neutral Geometry we have the following intersection principle: Theorem 7 (Circle-Segment Intersection Principle). the intersection is convex. By Proposition 3 the interior of γ is convex. (sketch) Suppose AB does not intersect γ. The cut point must be in Σ1 or Σ2 . Since C ∈ γ. Switching the labels X and Y if necessary. By Proposition 2 there is a cut point C ∈ AB. and let Σ2 be the set of points of AB in the exterior of γ. Proof. Since C ∈ δ we must have BC ∼ BA. then there is a point C such that ABC is an equilateral triangle. Now we show that the intersection of AB and the exterior of γ is convex. C are non-collinear. This gives a contradiction. we have X is in the closed disk. Theorem 8 (Circle-Circle Intersection Principle). In other words. Suppose that γ and δ are two circles. and the intersection of AB with the exterior of γ is convex. From Incidence-Betweenness geometry. If γ contains both a point in the interior of δ and a point in the exterior of δ. Z is in the closed disk. So ABC is an equilateral triangle. By Lemma 6. Let Σ1 be the set of points of AB in the interior of γ. Let γ be the circle with center A and radius AB. By the following lemma. and that AB is a line segment with A interior to γ and B exterior to γ. If AB is a segment. Proof. we can assume A ∗ X ∗ Y .4 Similarly. Proof. Thus all three sides of = = ABC are congruent. 4. Suppose γ is a circle. then gamma contains a point of δ. and the closed disk is convex. A. this gives a Dedekind cut of the segment AB. Details are left to the reader. but Z is not. can be shown using the version of the triangle inequality presented in the IBC handout. Let δ be the circle with center B and radius BA. C ∈ AB. one can show that no point of Σ1 can be a cut point. 5 4This . Suppose that γ is a circle. Then the segment must intersect the circle. The proof of the following will be discussed in an appendix. so γ has a point in the interior of δ. Then D ∈ γ. B. ← → Lemma 10.

In IBC Geometry we proved that every segment has a unique midpoint. ﬁx an ordering of the endpoints. however.) 6. D is the only point of γ on AD and B is the − → ← → only point of γ on AB.− − → Proof. There is a unique way to assign to each segment AB a positive real number AB ∈ R (called its length) in such a way that (i) A ∗ B ∗ C if and only if AC = AB + BC . Let OI be a ﬁxed segment (called the unit). Now C = B and C = D since B is interior ← → ← → to δ. D}. and C ∈ δ. We continue recursively. They can also be used to measure areas and volumes. By uniqueness assertion of Axiom C-2. (This holds no matter how small EF is or how big AB is) Remark. 5. The following is a theorem of Neutral Geometry since its proof requires the Archimedean Principle. Suppose AB and EF are line segments. Remark. A n consequence of the Archimedean Principle is the following principle: Suppose AB and EF are line segments. and some basic properties of R are all that is needed for most of the proof. They measure segments and angles. Archimedean Principle. which is not a theorem of IBC geometry. Then there is an integer n such that 21 EF < AB. so we can deﬁne 21 EF for all n ≥ 0 (something like this is done to prove Theorem 12). IBC Geometry. This principle. Part (v). The Archimedean Principle Deﬁnition 7. Let Fk+1 be a point such that E ∗ Fk ∗ Fk+1 and Fk Fk+1 ∼ EF . to do geometry in a modern way. real numbers are useful. is the key to introducing real valued measures of segments and angles. Let EF be a line segment.6 Theorem 12 (Segment Measure). So AB ∩ γ = {B. Then there is an integer n such that n · EF > AB. We have only used R for models of geometry. In this way we deﬁne n · EF for all positive integers n. Theorem 11 (Archimedean Principle). (This holds no matter n how large EF is or how small AB is. Deﬁne 2 · EF to be = EF2 . Thus C ∈ γ ∩ AB. However. Here is an important principle of Neutral Geometry that cannot be proved in IBC Geometry. Its proof will be discussed in an appendix. Let F2 be a point such that E ∗ F ∗ F2 and F F2 ∼ EF (Axioms B-2 and C-2). Segment Measure Up to this point we have not really needed the real numbers R. C ∈ AB since C ∈ γ. D is exterior to δ. = Deﬁne (k + 1) · EF to be the segment EFk+1 . requires more than just the Archimedean Principle. Hence. but this is beyond the scope of these notes. This is in the spirit of Euclid who did not assume the existence of such a system of numbers. but not in the theoretic development of geometry itself. For example. It requires a direct appeal to Dedekind’s Axiom. 6The 5And 6 .5 Then 1 · EF is deﬁned to be EF . Suppose we have deﬁned k · EF to be a segment EFk where ← → Fk = E is on the line EF .

(Sketch) Let I1 be the midpoint of OI. OIk should be 1/2k . = 7 . i→∞ Since mi > 0 for suﬃciently large i. Note that < has two meanings: one meaning was established for line segments in IBC geometry. When we divide by 2i and take the limit we ﬁnd that the length is additive. If A ∗ B ∗ C then the integer ni used for AC is approximately the sum of the integers needed for AB and BC. Finally. Then AC < AD by the IBC form of the triangle inequality (See IBC handout). Let AB be a given segment. This means that the length (the limit) is 1. and (v) for each positve x ∈ R. In fact. Proof. The other is its meaning for real numbers. Let ABC be a triangle. we can show that the limit is positive. Remark. let Ik+1 be the midpoint of OIk . We skip the proof of the rest of the details (see an Appendix for more information). and Axiom C-2 tells us that there is a point D on the ray BX such that BD ∼ BC). Proof. Deﬁne the ith approximation to the length as follows: def ni mi = i . 2 One can also show that mi is bounded below by m0 and bounded above by m0 + 1. = So AC < AD (Theorem 12 part iv). 1 mi ≤ mi+1 ≤ mi+1 + i+1 . There is a property of the real numbers R that guarantees that the limit exists. = (iii) OI = 1. Theorem 13 (Triangle Inequality). Furthermore (iv) AB < CD if and only if AB < CD. The above shows that these two are compatible. and so mi = 1 for all i. In particular. Deﬁne the length as AB def = lim mi . 2 One can show that ni+1 = 2ni or ni+1 = 2ni + 1. (Observe that the approximation m0 gives the integral part of the length). the diﬀerence is at most two. Let I2 be the midpoint of OI1 . This means that the sequence (mi ) is monotonic and bounded. The Archimedean Principle guarantees that such ni exists for each i. Then AC < AB + BC . BD = BC since BD ∼ BC (Theorem 12 part ii). Let D be a point such that A∗B ∗D and BD ∼ BC (Axiom B-2 tells us that there is a = −→ − point with A∗B ∗X. Thus AC < AB + BD . In general. Intuitively. there exists a segment AB such that AB = x. that ni > 0 for suﬃciently large i. by the Archimdean Principle.(ii) AB = BC if and only if AB ∼ BC. Since A ∗ B ∗ D we have AD = AB + BD (Theorem 12 part i). For each integer i ≥ 0 let ni be the maximum natural number such that ni · OIi is not greater than AB. In the special case that AB = OI we see that ni = 2i . One can also show.

Let ABC be a triangle. ∠ACD > ∠B. and (vii) for each 0 < x < 180 there exists an angle α such that |α| = x. The defect is deﬁned as def δABC = 180 − σABC. 8. In other words. (iv) |α| < |β| if and only if α < β. and let D be such that A ∗ D ∗ C. Thus |∠B| + |∠C| < |∠ACD| + |∠C| = 180. If ABC is a triangle. |∠C| + |∠ACD| = 180 (Theorem 14 part vi). (vi) if α and β are supplementary. Defects of Triangles Deﬁnition 8 (Angle Sum and Defect).7. the result is acute. (v) |α| < 180 for every angle α. Then |∠B| + |∠C| < 180. There is a unique way to assign to each angle α a positive real number |α| ∈ R (called its degree measure) in such a way that (i) if D is interior to ∠BAC then |∠BAC| = |∠BAD| + |∠DAC|. 8 . Theorem 14 (Angle Measure). One reason for using defects instead of simple angle sums is that fact that it adds when a triangle is subdivided: Proposition 16. We deﬁne the ith approximation by ni def mi = 90 i 2 where ni is deﬁned in an analogues manner as in the proof of Theorem 12. Let D be such that B ∗ C ∗ D (Axiom B-2). (ii) |α| = |β| if and only if α ∼ β. Proof. such as the fact that if you subtract a right angle from an obtuse angle. then the angle sum is deﬁned as def σABC = |∠A| + |∠B| + |∠C|. Various lemmas have to be proved. We bisect γk to form γk+1 . Furthermore. except that a ﬁxed right angle γ0 plays the role of OI. Proposition 15. By the Exterior Angle Theorem of IBC Geometry. we can deﬁne angle measure. (sketch) The idea is similar to segment measure. Then δABC = δABD + δDBC. = (iii) α is a right angle if and only if |α| = 90. then |α| + |β| = 180. δABC = 180 − |∠A| − |∠B| − |∠C|. Since ∠C and ∠ACD are supplementary. Let ABC be a triangle. Proof. So |∠ACD| > |∠B| (Theorem 14 part iv). Angle Measure In a similar manner.

If α1 ≤ α/2 then ∠ADC has measure α1 ≤ α/2. Then there is another triangle XY Z such that δABC = δXY Z and such that XY Z has an angle with measure at most α/2k . It says that we can make an angle of a triangle smaller while preserving the angle sum and defect. If α2 ≤ α/2 then ∠DAC has measure α2 ≤ α/2. In either case. Use the above lemma k times. |∠B| = |∠ABD| + |∠DBC|. So ∠CDM has measure α1 . 7It = −δABC. 9. Likewise. = By the Crossbar-Betweenness Proposition. |∠ADB| + |∠BDC| = 180. By the Crossbar-Betweenness Proposition. Let D be such that A ∗ M ∗ D and AM ∼ M D. Then every angle of ABC has cannot be proved in IBC geometry due to a model given by M. so some αi must be less than α/2. Corollary 18. Lemma 19. Dehn. and such that XY Z has an angle with measure at most α/2. This implies that if α1 = |∠BAM | and if α2 = |∠M AC| then α = α1 + α2 . so |∠ACD| = γ +γ where γ is the angle measure of ∠M CA and γ is the angle measure of ∠M CD. In addition. D is interior to ∠B. ACD has an angle of measure αi ≤ α/2. ∠CDM ∼ ∠BAM . since ∠ADB and ∠BDC are supplementary. = Observe that σABC and σACD are both α1 + α2 + β + γ. Proof. By the Crossbar-Betweenness Proposition. AM B ∼ DM C (using the Vertical Angle Theorem). Let k be a positive integer. Let ABC be a triangle where ∠A has measure α. Lemma 17.Proof. Let ABC be a triangle such that ∠A has measure α. So σABC = σACD. By the Angle Measure Theorem. Proof. By SAS. Thus δABD + δDBC = 180 − |∠A| − |∠ABD| − |∠ADB| +180 − |∠DBC| − |∠BDC| − |∠C| = 360 − |∠A| − |∠C| − |∠ABD| + |∠DBC| − |∠ADB| + |∠BDC| = 360 − |∠A| − |∠C| − |∠B| − 180 = 180 − |∠A| − |∠C| − |∠B| = δABC. Let XY Z be ACD.7 The following will be critical to the proof. 9 . This implies δABC = δACD as well. Then there is another triangle XY Z such that σABC = σXY Z and δABC = δXY Z. M is in the interior of ∠A. Let M be the midpoint of BC. The Saccheri-Legendre Theorem The Saccheri-Legendre Theorem is one of the most important theorems of neutral geometry. and let angle measure greater than or equal to . M is in the interior of ∠ACD. So ∠B ∼ ∠M CD = = (where ∠B is the angle in the original triangle). Suppose δABC < 0. Now α = α1 + α2 . Thus γ = β where β is the angle measure of ∠B.

Thus |∠A| + |∠B| + |∠C| < 180 + . This shows Σ1 is convex. Other cases are similar. We discuss the case where AX < AY . that |∠A| < . Appendix: Proof of the Archimedean Principle This appendix gives a sketch of the proof of the Archimedean Principle in Neutral Geometry. Y ∈ Σ1 . Then δABC = 0 if and only if δABD = δDBC = 0. Thus Z ∈ Σ2 . we can conclude the following. If ABC is a triangle. Proof. In other words |∠A| + |∠B| + |∠C| ≤ 180. By Corollary 18. Let Σ1 be the set of elements X ∈ AB with the following property: X = A or the theorem is true concerning AX and EF . there is a triangle XY Z such that δXY Z = δABC = − . 10. For example. Now we can prove the main result. Corollary 21.Proof. Let Σ2 be the set of elements X ∈ AB such that D = A and such that the theorem fails of AX and EF . Now |∠B| + |∠C| < 180 by Proposition 15. Either C ∈ Σ1 or C ∈ Σ2 . Hence Σ2 is also convex. a contradiction. Showing convexity is pretty straightforward. and let D be such that A ∗ D ∗ C. By Dedekind’s Axiom. So − < 180 − |∠A| − |∠B| − |∠C| a contradiction to the assumption that δABC = − . Then δABC = − for some positive . Σ1 contains every point D on AB such that AD < EF (just take n = 1 in this case). Suppose the Archimedean Principle fails for a particular AB and EF . Let ABC be a triangle. Proof. We conclude that XY ⊆ Σ2 . If Z ∈ XY it follows that AZ < AY . The conclusion follows. and such that ∠X (say) has measure at most α/2k . So |∠X| < contradicting the Lemma 19. Suppose. If we show that Σ1 and Σ2 are convex then we can conclude that they form a Dedekind cut. By Proposition 16. suppose that X. If Z ∈ Σ1 then it would follow that X ∈ Σ1 using the same value of n. To show that Σ2 is convex suppose that X. Thus Z ∈ Σ1 . 10 . 0 = δABC = δABD + δDBC. Suppose not. Because of the Saccheri-Legendre Theorem. it is true of AZ and EF for the same value of n. By assumption A ∈ Σ1 and B ∈ Σ2 . Other cases are similar. Theorem 20 (Saccheri-Legendre). Y ∈ Σ2 . We discuss the case where AY > AX. For example. The other direction follows from Proposition 16. Since the sequence α/2i converges to 0. If Z ∈ XY it follows that AX < AZ. Since the theorem of true of AY and EF . Thus Σ1 and Σ2 is a partition of AB into two non-empty subsets. Suppose δABC = 0. then δABC ≥ 0. Let α = |∠A|. So XY ⊆ Σ1 . there is a k such that α/2k < . to the contrary. there is a cut point C. and by the Saccheri-Legendre Theorem all terms are non-negative.

In any case. So there is an integer n such that n · EF > AC. The case C = A is similar (take n = 1). So C ∈ Σ2 . This implies that the theorem is true for AC for n + 1. there must be a point Y ∈ Σ1 in CX. there is a point X with A ∗ C ∗ X such that n · EF ∼ AX.First consider the case where C ∈ Σ1 and C = A. In other words. = Since AX does not intersect Σ2 . contradicting the fact that C is a cut point. we get a contradiction. 11. This means that the theorem is true for AY for some n (take n = 1 if Y = A). a contradiction. Appendix: Additional Details NEXT DRAFT? 11 . Since = C is a cut point. − → Now consider the case where C ∈ Σ2 . Let X be a point of CA such that CX ∼ EF .

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