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net> Date: 2010/12/27 Subject: In the 1930s: Chapter 19 of Alexandr Solzhenitsyn's "200 Years Together " To: In the 1930s: Chapter 19 of Alexandr Solzhenitsyn's "200 Years Together" (1) Kevin MacDonald's commentary on Solzhenitsyn Ch. 19 - In the 1930s (2) In the 1930s: Chapter 19 of Alexandr Solzhenitsyn's "200 Years Together" (1) Kevin MacDonald's commentary on Solzhenitsyn Ch. 19 - In the 1930s From: PM ReporterNotebook <RePorterNoteBook@Gmail.com> Date: 14.12.2010 07:29
In the 1930s: Chapter 19 of Solzhenitsyn's "200 Years Together" December 12, 2010 Kevin MacDonald http://www.theoccidentalobserver.net/2010/12/in-the-1930s-chapter-19-of-alexandr -solzhenitsyns-200-years-together/ The project of translating Alexandr Solzhenitisyn's 200 Years Together into Engl ish continues apace. The 18,000-word Chapter 19, "In the 1930s" is now available (see here). The decade of the 1930s was tragic almost beyond description. The m ain idea advanced by Solzhenitsyn is that all segments of Soviet society suffere d, including Jews who had been members of the elite. However, the suffering of J ews pales in comparison to the suffering of the Ukrainian and Russian farmers un dergoing forced collectivization. Moreover, Jews were never targeted as Jews, an d in general Jews remained vastly overrepresented in elite positions throughout the period, even after the purges. Solzhenitsyn emphasizes the culpability of the West. The brutal process of indus trialization was carried out with the cooperation of Western merchants and banke rs eager to do business with the Soviet Union. Such commercial cooperation had b een prohibited under the Czars because Jewish activist organizations had pressur ed governments not to do business with Russia because of its treatment of Jews — m uch as there are now sanctions against trading with Iran because of the concerns of the Israel Lobby. As we also see today, financial and commercial interests w ere not concerned with ideological commitment to capitalism or with human rights but simply sought to expand their profits. Trade was allowed because there was the perception in the West that "Soviet power would not oppress the Jews, but on the contrary, that many of them would remain at the levers of power." And indeed, many Jews did remain in positions of power. As usual, Solzhenitsyn i s at his trenchant best when he skewers the historical blind spots of Jewish apo logists. This one is particularly precious: "In the 1980s we see assertions like this: in the Soviet times, the Jews in the USSR were 'practically destroyed as a people; they had been turned into a social group, which was settled in the lar ge cities as a social stratum to serve the ruling class.'" The outrageous claim that Jews were mere pawns being manipulated by a nefarious ruling class is ridiculous because, as Solzhenitsyn notes, in fact "Jews were to the large extent members of the 'ruling class.'" While the rest of the country suffered from mass murder, starvation, and political oppression, the government'
s efforts were directed at "improved provisioning, furnishing and maintenance" o f the urban areas where Jews predominated. This reminds me of an example from my chapter on self-deception in Separation an d Its Discontents. The problem for the apologist is how to depict Jews as oppres sed when they are obviously vastly overrepresented in terms of wealth and other positions of influence: This self-deception of Jews as oppressed can be seen in a recent work by Tikkun editor Michael Lerner (Lerner & West 1995) in which he argues that for Jews in c ontemporary America "there is a level of spiritual and psychological oppression that is as real and as fundamental as any other form of oppression. ... It's the oppression and pain that comes from denying our human capacity" (p. 237). Jews are outsiders in American society because American white society as a whole does not conform to a specifically Jewish ethical ideal despite the fact that Jews a re highly overrepresented among all the indices of economic and cultural success in American society, including ownership of large corporations. In Lerner's per spective, this high-income economic profile of the Jews occurs because Jews are passive victims of the non-Jewish "ruling elite" that uses them as helpless serv ants to further its own interests just as it did in traditional societies: "Jews have been put into an intermediate position, in between the ruling elite who ow n the major economic institutions and the American majority, which has little re al economic power. Jews become the middlemen—the lawyers, doctors, government bure aucrats, social workers, school teachers, and college professors. They appear to the vast majority of the population as the public face of the ruling elite" (p. 232) No matter how obvious this sort of self-deception is to any impartial observer, it resonates with other Jews. Quite simply, such examples appeal to the Jewish s elf-image that their behavior cannot be other than exemplary. Any putative excep tions are interpreted as due to the machinations of the "non-Jewish ruling elite ." It's the same problem now with images of Israeli brutality, oppression, ethno centrism, and ethnic cleansing. Activist Jews easily dismiss such images as anti -Semitism or self-hate. Dialog is impossible. Solzhenitsyn shows that there were fewer Jews in the party elite after the purge of Trotsky and his predominantly Jewish followers. However, the purge was "abso lutely not anti-Jewish." There remained very powerful Jews, notably Lazar Kagano vich who played such an important role in the mass murders of the period. While comprising less than 1% of the population, Jews were around one-sixth of the Com munist Party membership and around 33%–40% of top party positions. Stalin assigned a Jew, Yakovlev-Epshtein, to the top administrative position in charge of colle ctivization (labeled by Solzhenitsyn "the destruction of the way of life of the people"), and notes several other Jews who worked under him. After listing dozen s of Jews with high-level positions throughout the economy, Solzhenitsyn conclud es that "Soviet Jews obtained a weighty share of state, industrial, and economic power at all levels of government in the USSR." Similarly, in diplomacy, "Just as in the 1920s diplomacy attracted a cadre of Jews, so it did through the early and mid-1930s." Indeed, even after the purges, when Molotov took over the Peopl e's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs in1939, he publicly announced during a meeti ng with diplomatic personnel that he "will deal with the synagogue here," and th at he began firing Jews on the very same day. Jews had a substantial representation in the secret police. Solzhenitsyn refers to the increasing presence of Jews in the state security apparatus in the mid-30 s. "On the eve of the most massive repressions" Jews comprised nearly 14% of the senior positions and were well-represented at the highest levels, including Gen rikh Yagoda who headed the NKVD from 1934–1936. In December of 1936, 7 of the 10 h eads of the sections of the NKVD were Jews. Similarly in the GUlag. Solzhenitsyn recalls the outrage that greeted his simply including a photo with the (predomi
nantly Jewish) names of the heads of the camps in his Gulag Archipelago. However, presumably because of their elite status, Jews suffered disproportionat ely in the purges of 1937–1938. Solzhenitsyn cites figures indicating that Jews co mprised "50% of the main structural units of the central apparatus of the [NKVD] , but by 1 January 1939 they headed only 6%." Although Solzhenitsyn rejects the idea that the purge was specifically anti-Jewish, the displaced Jews were not re placed by other Jews, indicating a decline in Jewish power. Solzhenitsyn provides long lists of Jewish victims of the purges and again rejec ts apologetic interpretations by Jewish writers. For example: A Jewish apologist argued that Jews "were used by [the Soviet government] and then mercilessly dis carded when their services became redundant." Solzhenitsyn responds: "What a gre at argument! So for twenty years these powerful Jews were really used? Yet weren 't they themselves the zealous cogs in the mechanism of that very dictatorship r ight up to the very time when their 'services became redundant'? Did not they ma ke the great contribution to the destruction of religion and culture, the intell igentsia, and millions among the peasantry?" What's amazing is that the Jewish author is only able to see Jewish suffering. N ever mind that the purged Jews had been pillars of the most murderous regime in history. The only injustices that matter were directed against Jews. Another apologetic account by an author who was well aware of the horrors of col lectivization wrote that "awkward attempts to establish 'socialism' in Russia to ok the heaviest toll from the Jews"; "the scorpions of Bolshevism did not attack any other people with such brutal force as they attacked Jews." Solzhenitsyn's reply is the emotional centerpiece of the chapter: Yet during the Great Plague of de-kulakization, it was not thousands but million s of peasants who lost both their 'right of living' and the 'right to live'. And yet all the Soviet pens (with so many Jews among them) kept complete silence ab out this cold-blooded destruction of the Russian peasantry. In unison with them, the entire West was silent. Could it be really out of the lack of knowledge? Or was it for the sake of protecting the Soviet regime? Or was it simply because o f indifference? Why, this is almost inconceivable: 15 million peasants were not simply deprived of entering the institutes of higher learning or of the right to submit a dissertation, or to occupy nice posts — no! They were dispossessed and d riven like cattle out of their homes and sent to certain death in the taiga and tundra. And the Jews, among other passionate urban activists, enthusiastically t ook the reins of collectivization into their hands, leaving behind them an endur ing memory of evil. Who had raised their voices in defense of the peasants then? And now, in 1932–33, in Russia and Ukraine —on the very outskirts of Europe, five t o six million people died from hunger! And the free press of the free world main tained utter silence… And even if we take into account the extreme Leftist bias of the contemporary Western press and its devotion to the socialist "experiment" i n the USSR, it is still impossible not to be amazed at the degree to which they could go to be blind and insensitive to the sufferings of even tens of millions of fellow humans. If you don't see it, your heart doesn't cry. For Jewish apologists, the victimization of a few thousand Jews (not even target ed because they were Jews) merits deep concern while millions of non-Jews were b eing murdered. Jewish involvement with Bolshevism is perhaps the most egregious example of Jewish moral particularism in history. The horrific consequences of B olshevism for millions of non-Jewish Soviet citizens were not an issue for Jewis h leftists not only in the USSR but also in the US. In America during the 1930s, the CPUSA was promoting specific Jewish interests including opposing anti-Semit ism, supporting Zionism, and advocating the importance of maintaining Jewish cul
tural traditions (see here, p. 36 ff). American radicals glorified the developme nt of Jewish life in the Soviet Union as "good for Jews." American radical Jews —a substantial percentage of the entire Jewish community at that time — saw the worl d through Jewish lenses. An important aspect of the suppression of this information in the West was the " utter silence" of the media. As discussed here (p. 38), the New York Times was o wned by a Jewish family and was much on the mind of American patriots like Charl es Lindbergh concerned about Jewish media influence. During the 1930s, while it was highlighting German persecution of Jews and pushing for intervention into Wo rld War II against Germany, the Times whitewashed the horrors of Soviet rule, in cluding the Ukrainian famine, even though the story was covered extensively by t he Hearst newspapers and even though the leadership of the Times had been inform ed on numerous occasions that its correspondent was painting a false picture of Stalin's actions. The Times has never renounced the Pulitzer Prize given to it r eporter, Walter Duranty, for his coverage of Stalin's Five-Year Plan. Solzhenitsyn notes that foreign Jewish groups continued to see the USSR as good for Jews and that Soviet Jews saw the government as a bulwark against popular an ti-Jewish attitudes. A Jewish author claimed that "If the Bolshevik dictatorship falls, no doubt there will be wild anti-Semitic ravages and violence. …The fall o f the Soviet regime would be a catastrophe for the Jews, and any friend of the J ewish people should reject such a prospect with horror." Feelings were particula rly deep in the Ukraine where Jews were seen as implementing the starvation of t he farmers as revenge for centuries of anti-Jewish attitudes. Jews were concerned about any possible revival of Russian patriotism: Alarm abou t Russian patriotism "did not leave the minds of Jewish publicists for the next half century" despite the fact that the war "saved Soviet Jewry." Solzhenitsyn i s struck by the lack of gratitude: "Looking back at that war of 1941–1945, let's a dmit that this is a highly ungrateful judgment." As indicated by these comments, anti-Semitism continued to be an issue. Jews wer e often the public face of hated government policy. Solzhenitsyn scoffs at a Jew ish author who wrote that Jews had no choice but to work for the government: "Th is is so shameful to read. What oppression and despair! See, they had almost no other sources of livelihood, only privileged ones. And the rest of population wa s absolutely free to toil on [the collective farms], to dig pits, and to roll ba rrows at the great construction projects of the 5-year plans." Finally, Solzhenitsyn is concerned to show that even after the purges Jews were overrepresented among the elites, taking issue with a Jewish author who claimed that "without exaggeration, after Ezhov's purges, not a single prominent Jewish figure remained at liberty in Soviet Jewish society, journalism, culture, or eve n in the sciences." Solzhenitsyn shows the abundance of Jewish names in all area s of culture: performing arts, propaganda, the movie industry, science and techn ology. For example, Jews were a majority of filmmakers, while the real victims w ere the audience: "So, who was really the victim – deceived viewers, whose souls w ere steamrolled with lies and rude didactics, or the filmmakers, who 'forged doc umentaries, biographies and produced pseudo-historical and essentially unimporta nt propaganda films,' characterized by 'phony monumentality and inner emptiness' ?" Solzhenitsyn concludes, "No, the official Soviet atmosphere of 1930s was absolut ely free of ill will toward Jews. And until the war, the overwhelming majority o f Soviet Jewry sympathized with the Soviet ideology and sided with the Soviet re gime." Indeed, he cites a Jewish source noting that "At the end of 1930s, the ro le of the Jews in the various spheres of the Soviet life reached its apogee for the entire history of the Soviet regime."
All this flowed plentifully from the capitalist West. researched the recently-opened diplom atic and financial archives and followed the connections of Wall Street with the Bolsheviks. were we not thoroughly taught by Marx that capitalists are th e fierce enemies of proletarian socialism and that we should not expect help fro m them. Isai Davidovich Berg. and despite the many absurdities of the Soviet organizational system. From as early as the "Marburg" plan at the beginning of the 20th century. and the Jewish yout h in particular. such as in the NKVD. Mere existence demanded adaptat ion and development of new skills. Such deals flowed with the help and approval of internationa l financial magnates. in general Jews retained their elite status on the eve of WWII. which crushed the peasa ntry and altered the life of the entire country.Chapter 19." American unions came o ut against such an expansion (defending their markets from the products of cheap and even slave Soviet labor). It demanded many technical prov isions. a modern American scholar. in 1937 while working for the NKVD. it's not that simple: despit e the official diplomatic non-recognition. The Soviet communists paid for all of this abundantly with Russia's mineral wealth and timber. and with plundered goods from the E mpire of the tsars. trade links were completely out in th e open.The bottom line is that although Jewish power declined in some areas. But wait a second. Finally. The "Russian-American Chamber of Commerce. and most of all from the United States. of course. a fascinating tidbit: The method of gassing victims by piping exhaust f umes into passenger areas of trucks was invented not by the Germans but by a Sov iet Jew. simply did not want to hear about any political opposition to c ommunism. the horrible epic som ehow led to the creation of an industrialized power." Anthony Sutton. (Late r chapters chart the decline of Jews in the post-World War II era. which was based on the vast capital of Carnegie. The new partnership was strengthened by shiploads of tsarist gold and treasures from the Hermitage. Yet the first and second five-year plans came into existence and were carried ou t not through the miracle of spontaneous generation.com/2010/12/11/chapter-19-in-the-1930s/ The 1930s were years of an intense industrialized spurt. with concessions for raw materials mar kets. but rather a destructive. with trade areas promised to the West. But through crippling sacrifices.wordpress. he pointed to the amoral logic of this long and consistent relation ship. the idea was to strengthen the . in a persistent continua tion of the first commercial ties that the Soviet communists developed on the Am erican stock exchanges as early as during the Civil War. 2010 http://200yearstogether. and not in the form of generous help. and even written about in Izvestiya: "American merchants are interested in broadening of economic ties with the Soviet Union. In the 1930s by Alexander Solzhenitsyn Posted on December 11.) The reputati on of the USSR as good for the Jews meant that "Polish Jews. advanced equipment. bloody war? Well. nor as a result of the simp le violent round-up of large masses of laborers." creat ed at that time. or "to mix politics with business relations. not in the form of a gift. met the advancing Red Army with exulting enthusiasm" (as they h ad during the Soviet invasion of 1919) — a phenomenon that certainly angered Polis h patriots and became a major aspect of Polish anti-Jewish attitudes in later ye ars. most of all those on Wall Street. and the collaboration of specialists experienced in this technology. (2) In the 1930s: Chapter 19 of Alexandr Solzhenitsyn's "200 Years Together" Two Hundred Years Together .
through global "socialization. then now. after the shock of the Civil War. That's just the point: for the West. at least until 1937-38.authority of international finance. Not only far from "serving". Certain pictures of the past have the ability to conveniently rearrange in our m ind in order to soothe our consciousness. if they were prepared to sacrifice profits at that time. which was settled in the large cities "as a social stratum to serve the ruling class." "Revolution and intern ational finance do not quite contradict each other. centralized and totalitarian regime. furnishing and maintenance. the Jews in the USSR were "practically de stroyed as a people. like America. In 1936. nor its extraordinary ability to co ntrol people. working them to the very bone. while the rest of the country languished f rom oppression and poverty. therefore. they rightly believed that with s uch an obviously uncompetitive. brought forth countless prominent scientists. American financiers completely refused loans to pre-revolutionary Russia due to the infr ingement of the rights of Jews there. and a rtists [that undoubtedly had already manifested itself in the Soviet 1930s." "for control … and for the forced appeasement. the subsequent support of "collective enterprises and the mass de struction of individual rights by Morgan-Rockefeller" was not surprising. if misshapen. on orders from Stalin (perhaps to differ from Hitler in the eyes of the West) delivered th is tirade: "Our brotherly feelings toward the Jewish people are determined by th e fact that they begat the genius and the creator of the ideas of the communist liberation of Mankind. they claimed in Senate hearings: "Why should a great industrial country. were the very thing the authorities bought off through improved prov isioning. "that the Jewish people. engineers. In jus tification of this support. But how does this tie in with our basic theme? Because as we have seen. desire the creation and subsequent competitio n of another great industrial rival?" Well. but on the contrary. Another thing is that Wall Street could not predict further development of the Bolshevik system. even though Russia was always a profitable financial prospect. the Jews were to the large extent members of th e "ruling class. in which the role of the Jews was quite conspicuous. In the 1980s we see asse rtions like this: in the Soviet times. if the result of revolution should be to establish a more centralized authority. despite all their counting on the Soviet markets. after the War Communism. Soviet Russ ia could not rival America. they had been turned into a social group. and gave many glorious heroes to the revolutionary struggle … and in our country they gave and are still giving . to make th e markets of these countries manageable. The banking community least o f all wants a free economy and de-centralized authority. Molotov. that many of them would remain at the levers of power. And clearly. " In that light. at the 8th Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union." And the "large cities. the "Morg an-Rockefeller Empire" would not assist the Bolsheviks if the persecution of the Jews was looming on horizon in the USSR at the start of the 1930s." the capitals of the constituent Soviet republics. and will be even more manifest in the post-war years]." and. And there was a second line of agreemen t: "Bolsheviks and bankers shared an essential common platform — internationalism. the previously described Soviet oppression of the traditional Jewish culture and of Zionists easily disappeared under the c ontemporary general impression that the Soviet power would not oppress the Jews. And today a perception has formed that in the 1930s the Jews were already forced out of the Soviet ruling elite and ha d nothing to do with the administration of the country. it was the peace-tim e life of the country that was increasingly managed by the government apparatus. And now." Karl Marx. industry. after the NEP and the first five-year plan." No." Sutton concluded that: "International financie rs prefer to do business with central governments. alongside the most d eveloped nations. which eventually led to the creatio n of a powerful.
(Neve rtheless. later publicat ions. From 1934 Lazar Kaganovich took the reins of the Ce ntral Control Commission). The willing participation of so many Jews in these organs contin ued in the early and mid-1930s. that is. And the "defense of the Cause of Socialism" duri ng all those years was in the hands of the GPU. For five years filled with upheava . it was said for propaganda purposes. The purge of 1930-1933 dealt with the Russian elements in the par ty. But that purge of the supreme party apparatus was absolutely not anti-Jewish. Jews remained at 1/6 of the membership of the Cent ral Committee. where one Vooz Oshmyanskiy tried to place his brother Lazar in a pro fitable post). and A. Here we will briefly review – according to contemporary newspapers. were destroye d by Stalin in the beginning of the 1930s with support of the Jewish Bolsheviks — he drew necessary replacements from their ranks." the Jewish representation in the party apparatus became noticeably reduced. Jews made up the same proportion (1/3) of the members of the Commission of the Soviet Control. until 1937-38. and talented leaders and managers in all areas of development and defense of the Cause of Socialism. he was an ominously merciless indiv idual and. from 1937 he w as narkom (narodny komissar. After the destruction of the "Trotskyite opposition. complicated by the fact that we know nothing about how our characters identified themselves in regard t o nationality. and simultaneously a member of the Organizational Bureau of the Central Committee — on ly Stalin himself held both these positions at the same time). and modern Jewish encyclopedias – the most important posts and names that ha d emerged mainly in the 1930s. But Molotov 's declaration was appropriate. became deputy narkom of the foreign trade. Jews comprised around 1/6 of the membership. and the ide ological front. pass ing through the leading party posts in Nizhniy Novgorod (as all the brothers did ). from the mid-1930s he was the Secretary of the Central Committee." The italics are mine.P. Mikhail Kaganovich was deputy chair of the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy beginning in 1931. Solts. (Another. If one compares the compos ition of the party's Central Committee in the 1920s with that in the early 1930s . A. Roizenman. was a "big gun" in Rostov-on-Don. diplomacy. such a review. Ryutin. the Gener al Prosecutor of the USSR ). Vladimirsky. Goltsman (who supported Trotsky in the debate on trade unions ). later he simultaneously headed the aviation industry. absolutely untalented brother. the surviving assistant of Trotsky. the army. "people's commissar") of the defense indus try. ferocious Rozaliya Zemlyachka (Zalkind). the "militant atheist" Yaroslavsky. 10 were Jews: A. And he placed thr ee of his brothers in quite important posts. However. that of Ryk ov. In the upper echelons of the communist party after the 17th Congress ("the congr ess of the victors") in 1934. Lazar Kaganovich retained his ex tremely prominent position in the Politburo. the Chekist Trilisser. he would find that it was almost unchanged — both in 1925 as well as after the 1 6th Party Congress. remarkable. B.new. "the conscience of the Party" (in the bloodiest years from 1934 to 1938 was assistant to Vyshinsky. both the ethnic Russian opposition factions. Yuli Kaganovich. in the Party Control Commission — around 1/3. Bukharin and Tomsky. and that of Syrtsov. Out of 25 members in the Presidium of the Central Control Commission after the 1 6th Party Congress (1930). a man of notoriously low proffessional level. and Uglanov. Kaganovich was the principal an d the most reliable of Stalin's supporters in the Politburo: he demanded the exe cution of Ryutin (October 1932-January 1933) but even Stalin wasn't able to mana ge it then. may contain mistakes in individual cases and can in no way be con sidered comprehensive. No doubt. Rozengolts. another of the brothe rs. M. at the same time. (It was headed for quit e a while by M. Of course. Z. Belenky (one of the three above-mentioned Bel enky brothers). It reminds me of a story by Saltykov -Shchedrin. Kaganovich. and a similar proport ion in the Revision Commission of the Central Committee.
and Turkmenia. t he Tatar. Kaminskiy was narkom of healthcare. Lyubimov was narkom of light industry.E. and Voronezh oblasts and in many others. Kalmanovich. Yakov Chubin was secretary of the Chernigov and Akmolinsk obkoms and of the Shakhtinsk district party committee. and drawings by I. And there was no concern that they lacked knowledge of each new locality of which they took charge. Tal. Tatar. Mendel Khatayevich (a member of the Central Committee from 1930) was co nsequently secretary of Gomel. but only within the limits of the USSR. and second secretary of the Communist Party of U kraine. Brodsky. but let's not overlook the real contribution of these secretaries into the Bolshevik cause. Kalinin. and at this decisive mome nt Stalin assigned Yakovlev-Epshtein as its sinister principal executive. Yet much more power was in the hands of the narkoms. Ya kovlev reported on the progress of collectivization – about the development of sov khozes and kolkhozes (that is. and Dnepropetrovsk obkoms.[ 17] The famous "Great Turning Point" took place place from the end of 1929 to the be ginning of 1931. Gurevich ("he made a significant contrib ution to the creation of the metallurgical industry in the country"). Kursk. the department was headed by Lev Mekhlis. he was deputy narkom of heavy industry.l (1934-1939) the deputy General Prosecutor of the USSR was Grigory Leplevsky. Semyon Ginzburg. also note their striking geographical mob ility. he was a member of the very top Soviet of Labor and Defense (there was hardly anyone apart from Stalin. communications. Kalmanovich was in charge of sovkhozes [state owned farms that paid wages] (he was the foods-commissar from the end of 1917). from 1937 Mekhlis became deputy narkom of defense and the head of Political Administration of the Red Army. at the 6th Session of Soviets. A. later he served in several commissions of the Party Control in Moscow. Weitser was in charge of domestic trade. For example. foreign trade was headed by A. Rozengolts (before that we saw him in th e Central Control Commission). secreta ry of the Middle Volga kraikom. Mikoyan. he was portrayed as a knight of peace with a spear and shield taking a stand against foreign filth). justice. His po rtraits and photos. There is no ne ed to list all such names. the timber industry . In March of 1931. For ins tance. Tomsk.Ya. as in the 1920s. In 1936 we see nine Jewish narkoms in the Government. Odessa. Fainberg. The Department of the Press and Pub lishing of the Central Committee – the key ideological establishment – was managed b y B.[1 2] Occupants of many crucial party posts were not even announced in Pravda. and the above-mentioned Z. agriculture. Gamarnik (defense). railroad transport. education. from year to year. G. Murderous collectivization lay ahead. Ordzhonikidze. Crimea. and from 1937 he w as the first secretary of the Central Committee of Turkmenia. in the posts of first secret aries of the obkoms [party committee of oblasts] of the Volga German Republic. Bashkir. no less rem arkable. Belenky was the head of the Commission of the Soviet Control. Lazar Kag anovich. the ascending and all-glorious "Iron Narkom" of railroads. was the narkom of internal affa irs Yagoda. Among the most important deputy n arkoms were: Ya. were prominently reproduced in n ewspapers then and later. In the same Government we can find ma ny Jewish names among the deputy narkoms in various people's commissariats: fina nce. in autumn 1936 the Secretary of the Central Committee of Komsomol (the Un ion of Communist Youth) was E. water. Vo roshilov in that organ). I. the Eastern Siberia Krai Party Committee (kraikom). Molotov. the foodstuffs industry. I. Together with the already menti oned M. and even later minister of construction of military enterprises. We see many Jews in the command posts in provinces: in the Central Asia Bureau. Take the worldwide-famous narkom of foreign affairs L itvinov (in the friendly cartoons in Izvestiya. and later he became narkom of construction. his instructive articles were often published in Izvestiya. M. Reliable cadres were still in much demand and indispensa ble. the destruction of the way of life of the people) . who had by then shifted to managing Pravda full-time. Previously.
Mikoyan at the helm. in 1934-1936 he became the Soviet trade repr esentative in France.G. the Gosplan [state planning ministry] gathered strength. railroads were managed by M. Kalmanovich at the helm w as separated from the people's commissariat of agriculture. s oon he himself became the narkom. In 1931. man with the surname "Belenky" encountered here. Rukhimovich (his portraits could be found in the major newspapers of the time[27 ]).G. whom we met e arlier as a member of the board of the people's commissariat of foodstuffs. we can see deputy narkom V. Lev Maryasin became chairman of the boar d of the Gosbank. Deych was assigned to replace him. his portraits appeared in Izvestiy a. T he chairman of the Commission of Purveyance was I. on its board we see M.G. and then by Ordzhonikidze . among Yakovlev's colla borators. Kaganovich. under the chairmanship of Kuibyshev. In November 1930 the People's Commissariat of Foreign Trade was created. But at the end of 1930 he was transferred into the People's Commissariat of Finance as deputy narkom. and other 'experts'. Belenky — that is another. with Jews comprising the majority of its board.P . members of the Board of the peop le's commissariat of agriculture M. and Stalin himself sent him a telegram of encouragement. Schwartz was removed from the board and M . Kleiner (who was awarded the Order of Lenin). At the end of 1930 the People's Commissariat of Supply was created with A. who simultaneously served in the Central Commissions on Concessions. Among them was Sh. M. Th e important organization.. Rozengolts served for seven years as its head.A. Rozenoer managed Grozneft [Grozny Oi l]. replacing Mikoyan. After Unshlikht. and the hell of the Kuznetsk industrial complex with its 200.000 hungry and r agged workers was supervised by S. while the command over railroads was given to L. Let's look at transport and communications. all the above-mentioned people occupied their posts only fo r a while. it was headed by A. and A. Volf. Let me point it out once more: all these examples are for illustrative purposes only. The Supreme Soviet of the National Economy still existed. At that time. he was replaced in that post by Solomon Krutikov in 1936. Kaganovich as his deputy ). was attached to the people's commissa riat of agriculture to pump out grain from peasants for the state. Yakov Gugel headed the construction of the Magnitogorsk metallurgical giant. In general. Rozengolts. On this 'glorious' path to the ruination of Russia. in the People's Commisariats of Trade and Supply.M. Zelensky. G. later he became narkom of defense industry (with M. Dvoylatsky. Kalmano vich was deputy narkom of agriculture. During the most terrible months of collectivization. Yakov Vesnik was the director of the Krivoy Rog Metallurgical industrial comple x. Gerchikov. Jews comprised more than half of its 18-mem ber board. Still let's not overlook the Tsent rosoyuz (the bureaucratic center of Soviet pseudo-cooperation). the chairman of the board of directors was M. T. but its significance w aned. of course t here were. Moreover. In 1936. and after him by I. There were i mportant changes in the Coal Trust: I. Frankfurt. the Grain Trust. he also became chai rman of the board of the Gosbank [The State Bank]. From 1932 the Pe ople's Commissariat of Sovkhozes and Kolkhozes with M. for in monetary matters a str ong will was also much needed. Feigin. Roshal. Let's now examine the top posts in economy during the "last burgeoning year" of . From 1934 the ch airman of the national Soviet of Kolkhozes was the same Yakovlev-Epshtein. First. Epshtein (the latter was arrested in 1938 but landed on his feet because he was sent to take c ommand over the construction of the Norilsk industrial complex). they were routinely transferred between various important positions. They should not be taken to create the impression that there were no membe rs of other nationalities on all those boards and in the presidiums. the Jewish component was higher than in the u pper party echelons — from a quarter to a half. it was managed from 1931 to 1937 by I. actually the fifth. Jews comprised one-third of its board members. After Lev Khichu k in the 1920s.
the head of Gastronom No. the swamps. he claimed credit for the creation of the Bri tish Communist Party). inscrutable to us. Ya. in spring of 1930. several trade inspectors. returned from vacation and resumed his duties. Izvestiya reported on page 1 and under a separate heading that " F. and taiga …. In the 1930s. Um ansky. Jews comprised almost 40% of this list. See for yourself: h e received the Order of Lenin "in recognition of his exceptional services" in th e adjustment of the state apparatus "to the objectives of the large-scale offens ive for Socialism. Moisei F rumkin was relieved of his post at the board of the People's Commissariat of Ddo mestic Trade (we saw him in the 1920s as a deputy of the Narkom of Foreign Trade ). food supplies and storage. restaurant trusts. and of course. at the peak of Litvinov's power. building up the industrial potential of the USSR. could be hidden behind this "offensive"? We can glance into some of them from the more direct wording: for carrying out "special missions of top state importance on the clean-up of state apparatus in the Soviet diplomatic missions abroad. the deserts. heads of train dining cars and railroad b uffets. Soon after that. B. industrial. they mainly spent time in offices enjoying their special provision services ("the bronze foremen"). heads of consumer unions. the board member of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affair s. neither Ordzhonikidze. all this facilitated smooth running of the industry in th ose far from prosperous years. that it was "their country.Stalin's era. A present-day author thus writes about those people: by the 1930s "the children of the déclassé Jewish petty bourgeois succeeded … in becoming the 'commanders' of the "great construction projects. and economic power at all levels of government in the USSR." (Well. The Jewish Encyclopedia writes: "there was a notion of 'the Lit vinov school of diplomacy'" that included the outstanding personalities of K. But undoubtedl y.A. the author is wrong: it was the blackened hard-workers and yesterday's pea sants. Those 135 individuals had e ssentially ruled over the entire domestic trade in the USSR (and they were hardl y disinterested men). in July 193 0. In the pages of Izvestiya one could read headlines like this: "The management of the Union's Fishing Trust made major political mistakes. who had no respite from toiling in foundation pits and swamps. In 1936 Izvestiya published the complete roster of the b oard of the people's commissariat of domestic trade. cafeterias. With the designation of Litvinov as narkom. Those wishing to can del ve into it as well." And so it appeared to those who. Shtein (he was already successful by the beginning of the . Now we encounter other important people. *** The personality of B. we may remember. numerous heads of food and manufac tured goods trades in the oblasts. never leaving the foundatio n pits. Izvestiya published an addendum to the roster of the People 's Commissariat of Heavy Industry with 215 names in it. putting in 16 hours a day for weeks and months. while the directors only occasionally promenaded there. The 1920s were examined in the preceding chapter. Thus the Soviet Jews obtained a weighty share of state. Naturally. Roizenman merits particular attention." What secrets. didn't they only w rite this way about Stalin? To the best of my knowledge. 1936." As a result. Surits. For example. nor Mikoyan – other very top functionaries – was honored in such a way?) Yet very so on Rotshtein made a slip and his career ended just two months later. their harsh and strong-willed decisions helped to bring these construction pr ojects to completion." Now let's look at the state of affairs in diplomacy. and comrade Nepryakhin was expelled from the party." How ever. including two depu ties to the narkom. Rotshtein was removed from the bo ard (even though. a new gene ration appeared. comrade Kl eiman suffered the same punishment. Rotshtein. Comrade Frumkin was punished with a stern reprimand and a warning.1 in Moscow ("Eliseyevsky") was also a Jew.
and as a union activist. Skvirsky served in Afghanistan. It was these people who represented Soviet Russia at that forum of nat ions. Norway. Alth ough we have no data on Jewish representation in the lower ranks. brigades. In the early and m id-1930s. In the 1930s. and later the deputy director of th e Political Administration of the Leningrad district. in addition to those named in the previous chapter. th e head of military aviation from 1932 (we already saw him in the Central Control Commission. Concerning the Red Army. and Svanidze (a Georgian) as the senior members of the Soviet de legation. "There were many of them.S. in Germany (and later in France)—Ya. B. corps. who was the trade representative in Italy from 1934 to 1937) . in the previou s chapter he was identified as the chief of staff of the Moscow military distric t). a s . Bo ris Feldman – the head of the Central Personnel Administration. Fr om 1929 through to 1937. the above-mentioned Surits represented the Soviet Union in Afghanistan as early as the Russian Civi l War. Shtein. Among the commanders of the branches of the military we find A. Gnedin (son of Parvus). The already-mentioned Mi khail Landa from 1930 to 1937 was the chief editor of Krasnaya Zvezda (The Red S tar. Romania. For example. and at lower levels – in the military districts. (Here we find another Belenky. Ehrenburg added here the name of E. in the general staff. we encounter the following individuals: Abram Volp (the head of the Administrative Mobilization Administration. and later. and Lev Gordon (Turkestan district). in the armies . Lazar Aronshtam headed the political administration of the Belorussian military district. the official newspaper of the Soviet military). and also Brenner. then of the Special Far Eastern Army. already the sixth individual of that name. B. in the central administrations of the people's commissariat of defense. and all military units. among the heads of the central administrations of the Red Army. in Italy—B. for many years he wa s was the unofficial Soviet representative in Washington. Latvia. Shtein (after Kame nev). the chairman of the Revolutionary Mi litary Soviet until 1934 (when the organization was disbanded). Stashevsky. and in Asia. in particular in the Revolutionary Military So viet.1920s) and E. There were Soviet plenipotentiaries in Europe of Jewish origin: in England — Maisky. we also see Jewish plenipotentiaries in Spain. Boris Ippo (he participate d in the pacification of Central Asia during the Civil War as the head of the Po litical Administration of the Turkestan Front and later of the Central-Asian dis trict) was the head of the political administration of the Caucasus Red Army. Greece. From the moment the USSR was accepted into the Leagu e of Nations. and l ater the important Kiev District). Gamarnik remained the deputy to Voroshilov. writes that in the 1930s "a significant number of Jewish officers served" in th e army. Isaak Grinberg was the Senior Inspector of t he Political Administration of the Red Army. we see Litvinov. Among the comma nders of the military districts we again see Iona Yakir (Crimean district. Surits. Rozenberg. Mar cus. Gnedin.Naum Rozovsky was a military prosecutor since the Civil War. Goltsman. so it did throu gh the early and mid-1930s. L ithuania." The entire Central Political Administ ration of the Red Army came under command of the trustworthy Mekhlis after the s uicide of the trustworthy Gamarnik. Semyon Uritsky (of the Military Intelligence Administration. the aforementioned Israeli researcher.Belenky. there is littl e doubt that when a structure (be it a political administration of the army. The Jews still played a pr ominent role in the political organs. Belgium. he was in charge of the Political Administration of the Kiev military district. divisions. later. an d later the director of the Military Political Academy. Aron Abramovich. Just as in the 1920s diplomacy attracted a cadre of Jews. a great number of Jews successfully continued to work in Soviet trade delegations. by 1936 he was the chief military prosecutor of the Red Army. and lat er – of the Moscow military district. he died in a plane crash). from 1936. Here are several names from the cream of the Political Administration: Mordukh Khorosh was the deputy director of the Politi cal Administration of the Red Army in the 1930s. until his arrest. Ru binin. Austria. and Leontiy Kotlya r — the head of the Central Military Engineering Administration in the pre-war yea rs. until 1937).
The list of 407 senior officials published in the central press contained 56 Jews (13. Z. Aleksandr Radzivilovsk . Pillya r. S." And "on the eve of the most massive repr essions … the ethnic composition of the supreme command of the NKVD … [can be unders tood with the help of] the list of decorated Chekists on the occasion of the 20t h anniversary of the Cheka-OGPU-NKVD. he supervised all foreign trade of the USSR. In this way. Of course . nor were they forced out of the NKVD. M. Of course. and R. that is.A.A.D." When the GPU was reformed into the NKVD (1934) with Yagoda at the head. or a party or a commissariat apparatus) was headed by a Jew. of those who were instructed in the shroud of full secrecy on how "t o extract false confessions [from the victims]. Mikhail Litvin. it w as accompanied.B. S. who took part in some of the major GPU adventures. he was in charge of the Kremlin securit y and later became the head of the operations section of the NKVD.B. Lep levsky. 1936. for instance.N. Katsnelson. Slutsky. M.A.M. L.V. He was a tru sted agent. b ecame the director of the personnel department of the NKVD. So.G.M.E. who connected with the communists while he was a Russian POW in 1916.I. I. he was in charge of espionage abroad. In the same section. he deserted to Japan in 1938 and was then killed by a Japanese bullet in 1945 – by the end of the war the Japanese did not want to give him back and had no option but shoot him. Shanin. Or take Lev Feldbin (he used a catchy pseudonym of 'Aleksandr Orlov'). Prokovev. And along with Ezhov. Still.A. they twi ce published the names of the supreme commissars of the NKVD (what a rare chance to peek behind a usually impenetrable wall!): commissars of State Security of the 1st Rank Ya. the same NKVD which was devouring the country after the death of Kirov. A promine nt and long-serving Chekist. Redens.8%).7%). it can be quite constructive. In 1931-36. not all of them were Jews but a good half were. who orchestrated the murder of Trotsky and was the organizer of the "Cam bridge Five" espionage ring and who oversaw the nuclear espionage after the war — a true ace of espionage. Zakovsky. and 7 Latvians (1. L. Belski y. So what abo ut our good old GPU-NKVD? A modern researcher. Henrikh Lyushkov was the de puty director of that section. Pauker (they were already decorated in 1927 on the decennial of the Chek a)." And yet he was completely hidden from the public and became famous only later. when he defected to the West. Zalin. Berman was assigned as deputy to the Narkom of Internal Affairs Ezhov within three days after the latter was installed on September 27. Molchanov. K.upply service. K.F. by May 1937 he rose to the unmatched rank of director of the Secret Political section of the Main Di rectorate of State Security of the NKVD. Deribas.M. Yet service in the army is not a vice. T. Agranov (the first deputy to Yagoda).S.A. due to secrecy and the non-approachability of these highly placed individuals. G. Take. Mironov.M.A. G. A. A. it is difficult to judge them conclusively. A. he headed the economic section of the foreign depar tment of GPU. we can extensively d escribe the careers of each of them. that is. Goglidze. came his handymen. "His deputies were Boris Berman and Sergey Shpigelgl as." Pauker was a barber from Budapest. relying on archives. as a rule. they didn't leave." "Many [of the NKVD investigator s] ended up being subordinate to him. And how many such posts were there? Or take Mikhail Koltsov-Fridlyand ("the political advisor" to the Republican gov ernment of Spain). V. his long-time associate in the Central Committee of the party. Karlson. of the 2nd Rank: L. Slutsky was the director of the NKVD's foreign section. L. Berman r emained the director of the GULag. writes: "The first half of the 1930s was characterized by the increasingly important role of Jews in the state security apparatus. Initially. Balitsky. Naum (Leonid) E tingon. by a quite noticeable Jewish presence among its staff . and whi ch later devoured itself. Gay. the Jewish Che kists were still there.
Isaak Shapiro. between diffe rent provinces. And in all of the 1930s. In December 1936. But I did not select them. Yes. in the Western Oblast – I. L. Foreign section (7) — A. Veinshtok. we know only their last names. According to the recently published data. while only initials remain from others. Blat. I named the leadership of the GULag in my book. Izrail Pliner was the head of t he GULag from 1936. Slutsky. Leplevsky. We see D. which I reproduced from the Soviet co mmemorative corpus of 1936. Prisons (10)—Ya. whom I did not know then. there were 1. we already saw him i n the Cheka. caused outrage: they claimed that I have selected th e Jews only on purpose. Now he was the deputy h ead of the GULag. M. later. masters of the life and death of any inhabit ant. It can't be denied that History elevated many Soviet Jews into the ranks of the arbiters of the fate of all Russians. O ver the course of the meat-grinding year of 1937 several other Jews occupied pos ts of directors of those sections: A. G. he worked in a senior post in the GPU as a Commissar of Stat e Security of 2nd Rank. G. Miro nov. Before the B elBaltlag. who were th e supreme masters of their oblasts. Sokolinsky first In Donets k Oblast and later in Vinnitsa Oblast. Records and Registration (8)—V. The full names of some of them are known. Transport (6)—A. many Jews remained a mong those provincial lords.G. *** Never publicized information about events of different times flows from differen t sources: about the regional Plenipotentiaries of GPU-NKVD in the 1930s (before 1937). Raev-Kaminsky and Purnis – in Azerbaijan. Counter-Intelligence (3) — L. there wa s a large proportion of Jews among its command. Agranov .Sh. Livshits – in Tambov Oblast. in 1937 he was replaced by Leplevsky. Special section (5)—I. Faivilovich and Fridberg – in the Nor thern Caucasus. we saw him in the Civil War all ar ound the country.Y . The names of their offices fully deserved to be written in capital lette rs.M. Katsnelson. in the re gional organs of State Security. Shanin. A Minaev-Tsikanovsky—Counter-I ntelligence (3). and still of ot hers. Shapiro – Special section (9). and now we see him as the Narkom of Internal Affairs of Belorussia from 1934 to 1936). Rappoport – in Sta lingrad Oblast. was Ezhov's personal assistant from 1934. A few Jewish plenipotentiaries are listed here: in Belorussia – Izrail Leplevsky ( brother of the deputy General Prosecutor Grigory Leplevsky. I've just reproduced the phot ographs of all the High Directors of the BelBaltlag [White Sea . Tsesarsky. in the Ukraine – Z. and then he became the direct or of the NKVD Secretariat. all this was done in secret). P. Zinovy Katsnelson wa s the deputy head of the GULag from 1934 onward. he later worked in Chelyabinsk. for it was precisely them and not the secretaries of the obkoms.4% of the total members serving).M. who reported directly only to the central NKVD in Moscow. from the Caspian Sea to the White Sea. (If we could only find the dates and details of their service! A las. Simanovsky – in Orlov Oblast. Am I guilty that they had turned out to be Jews? Who had selected them for those posts? Who is guilty?) I will now a dd information about three prominent men. GULag Archipelago. Litvin—Secret Political section (4). Zalpeter—Operations section (2). Ya. we see seven J ews: the Security section (section #1)—K.Baltic Canal ca mp administration] from that immortal book.776 Jews (7. one Lazar Kogan worked as the head of the GULag.y was an "agent for special missions. and later he oversaw the completion of construction of the M oscow-Volga Canal (1937). (Portraits of the directors of c onstruction of the White Sea-Baltic Canal. They moved from post to post. followed by M." Another long-time Ezhov colleague. and I. among the heads of ten sections (for secrecy. and later was the director of the infamous Special S ection of the Main Directorate of State Security of the NKVD.Ya. not counting the Main Directorate of State Secu rity. later we see him as Deputy Narkom of Internal Affairs of Ukrai ne. Pauker. designated only by number) of the Main Directorate of State Security of the NKVD.
there was an explosion of public outrage against the Je ws. G. Shiyron. Yakovlev (the action is set during Khrushchev's regime). t he closer it was to 1937-38. Vladimi r Tsesarsky: was plenipotentiary of the GPU-NKVD in Odessa. Vitkovsky. when the Soviets occupied the Baltic states of Lithuania. at least. the head of the Dvinsk NKVD was one Kaplan. not amenable to methodical anal Moreover. in 1937 he wa s in charge of the Western Siberian NKVD. we see L. the re were special sections in each provincial office of the NKVD. Belsky (after ser ving in Central Asia). later. Here is another isolated bit of information: Yakov Broverman was the head of Secretariat of the Special Section of the NKVD in Kiev. for instance. and he apparently did n ot forget the time when a Russian investigator was a less frequent sight than a Jewish or a Latvian one. Trotsky – in Easte rn Siberia. Shklyar – in Sverdlov sk Oblast. He dealt so harshly w ith the people there. Kiev and in the Far East. Half-life. it must have seemed to them like the collapse of the universe. A. Later. Vul as the head of Moscow and later of Saratov Police.P. when the Red Army had hardly left and before the arrival of Germans. Gershuni was right in implying that all these outstanding and not so outstanding posts were fraught with death for their occupants. who by the end of the 1960s were alre ady on the way of breaking away from communism and in their new political orient ation developed sympathy to any camp memoirs. l ike the end of the world. and Abram Flikser headed the personnel section of the GULag. Abramson headed the finance department of the GUL ag. Krukovsky – in Central Asia. Vitovsky might not have encountered many Jewish inv estigators during his last thirty years. All these are d isconnected pieces of information.Z. In the novel by D. L.I. N. Meerson was the head of the Economic Planning section of the NKVD . Take. I. the more so. The plenipotentiary in Moscow was L. supervising the round-up of the d ispossessed kulaks – in Arkhangel Oblast. Gershuni asked me how many other Jewish investigato rs did Vitovsky come across during his 30-year-long ordeal? What an astonishing forgetfulness betrayed by that rather innocent slip! Would n ot it have been more appropriate to mention not the "30 years" but 50 years. Yet Vitovsky was persecuted by t he Organs for forty years. and Rutkovsky – in the Northern Krai.B. 40 years? Indeed. Zalin – in Kazakhstan. Wasn't there anyone among them before the onslaught wh o reflected on the usual fate of revolutionaries? . Ressin – in the German Volga Republic . he later worked in the same capacity in the central NKVD apparatus. he also served in the central apparatu s of the GPU-NKVD. he had risen to the head of the Internal Service T roops of the NKVD. that in 1941. Nevertheless. All these high placed NKVD officials were tossed from one oblast to another in e xactly the same manner as the secretaries of obkoms. there is a phrase about the Jewish lo oks of investigator. I remember V. Raysky – in Orenburg Oblast. he survived the Solovki camp. Mironov -Korol: in 1933-36 he was the head of the Dnepropetrovsk GPU-NKVD. Or look at S.M. Vi tovsky put it rather harshly so that Jews. *** Our arbiters confidently ruled from their heights and when they were suddenly de livered a blow. from the end of the 1930s (though they could still be found around even in the 1960s). and Estonia. Berenzon and later L. Zelikman – in Bashkiriya.I. In the 1930s we see many others: Foshan was in charge of the border troops. or. In the mid-1930s. L. in 1940.a. By 1937 he had risen to the head of the Special section of the Main Direct orate of State Security of the NKVD (just before Shapiro). were nonetheless repulsed by such a description. Latvia .S. Abrampolsky – in Gorkov Oblast.
Ya. Mayranovsky was arrested only in 1 951. then by 1 January 1939 they headed only 6%. and by the time the van arrived to the burial dit . not by Hitler during the World War II. 1938. but he organized the whole business). thanks to the still unbridled glasnost that began in the beginning of the 1990s. 1939. But only accidentally. Leonid Vul. Lev Mironov-Kagan. 1939. Benjamin Gerson. 1940. containing lists of the highest officials of the Ce ntral Apparatus of the Main Directorate of State Security of the NKVD who fell d uring the Ezhov's period of executions and repressions. Abrampolsky. we are able to trace to some degree the fates of those outstanding and powerful Chekists. 1939. 1938. 1940. Zinovy Katsnelson. 1937. Abramson. A. Isaak Shapiro. diplomats.D. Among the Chekists the destruction was particularly overwhelming (the names of t hose executed are italicized): G. 1 940. Mikhail Koltsov-Fridlyand. 1939. A bram Slutsky. mouths plugged. Zalpeter.Ya. 19 38. 1938. and thrown into a closed truck. Rutkovsky. Georg Krukovsky. he was not alone i n that enterprise. Izrail Leplevsky. Aleksandr Radzivilovsky. we learn about several mysterious biographies formerly s hrouded in secrecy. 1939. Mikhail Raev-K aminsky. 1939. 1937." And fro m the astonishing disclosure in 1990 we learned that the famous mobile gas chamb ers were invented. a spe cialist in poisons. outwardly dis guised as a bread truck. Naum Raysky-Lekhtman. 1937. Nowadays entire directories. 1940. 1940. 1941. Semyon Gendin. David Sokolinsky. the executions were performed in a special prisoner cell at "Laboratory X" as we ll as abroad even in the 1960s and 1970s. an d the biographical tomes of the modern Russian Jewish Encyclopedia. It turns out. Veinshtok. Karl Pauker. from his cell he wrote to Beria: "Dozens of sworn enemies of the Soviet Uni on. 1938. 1940. 1941. died in prison in 1939. professor Grigory Mayranovsky. On the road the exhaust fumes were redirected into the prisoner-carrying compartment. 1939. Mikhail Trilisser. Lev Zalin-Levin.M. whom we mentioned i n the previous chapters of this book. 1940. Ilya Ressin. Boris Berma n. 1937. Soviet party officials. a modern historian writes that if "from 1 January 1935 to 1 January 1938 the members of this nationality headed more tha n 50% of the main structural units of the central apparatus of the people's comm issariat of internal affairs. But when three "troikas" began to work simultaneously in the Moscow Oblast. 1939. 1936. Grigoriy Shklyar. which carried out death sentences through injections with poisons by "the direct decision of the government in 1937-47 and in 1950". Re d commanders. Lev Belsky-Levin. as it turns out. Genrikh Yagoda. Iosif Blat. A. the Jews compri se an enormous percentage. 1939. Natan Margolin. Grigor iy Rappoport. are published. There we see many more Jewish names. Matvey Berman. 1937. but i n the Soviet NKVD in 1937 by Isai Davidovich Berg. Lev Zadov-Zinkovsky. Then they invented a time-saving method: the victims were str ipped naked. Mark Gai-Shtok lyand. the executioners became unable to cope with the sheer num ber of executions. including all kinds of nationalists. headed the "Laboratory X" in the Special Section of Operatio ns Technology of the NKVD. 1938. Aleksandr Ioselevich. 1938. were destroyed by my hand. Vladimir Tsesarsky. 1939 . that I. and others. poisoned in 1938. For example. 1937. 1938.[5 9] Abram Belenky. Lazar Kogan. Se rgey Mironov-Korol. 1941.Zelikm an. from 1937.Among the major communist functionaries who perished in 1937-38. N." Using numerous "execution lists" that were published over the recent decades. 1940. Izrail Pliner. 1938. Lev Zakharov-Meyer. 1938. he dutifully performed his mission. 1940. 1940. Sergey Shpigelglas. Leoni d Fayvilovich. For example. tied. 1938 . Pinkhus Simanovsky. the head of the administrativ e and maintenance section of the NKVD of Moscow Oblast (sure. This is why it is also important to know who occupied middle-level posts. A. Berg was entrusted with carrying out the sentences of the "troika" of the NKVD of Mos cow Oblast. Shanin. Minaev-Tsikanovsky. A. Yakov Agranov. L. Evsey Shirvindt. 1937. which involved shuttling prisone rs to the execution place.
death claimed all 17 army commissars." What a great argument! So for twent y years these powerful Jews were really used? Yet weren't they themselves the ze alous cogs in the mechanism of that very dictatorship right up to the very time when their "services became redundant"? Did not they make the great contribution to the destruction of religion and culture. af ter the suicide of Gamarnik. Of the highest political officers of the Red Army. not for th ose evil deeds. and divisional levels. though the story of his murderous invention w as kept preserved and protected in the records of his case and only recently dis covered by journalists) There are so many individuals with outstanding lives and careers in the list abo ve! Bela Kun. The main personage behind collectivization.ch. the intelligentsia. (Notwithstanding. (Lazar Kaganovich was spared although. the same happened to his comrades-in-arms. 25 out of 28 corps commissars. In 1923-25 he was the head of all special detac hments in the Khorezm [a short-lived republic after the Bolshevik revolution] tr oops during the suppression of rebellions in Central Asia. However. but for "the anti-Soviet conspiracy". this wouldn't have spared many of them death. ha d met his bullet. and 34 out of 36 brigade (divisional) commissars. Kalmanovich and Ruk himovich. and with him the lives of twelve Commissars of the communist government of Budapest ended. not to mention Kamenev and Zinovyev. In 1956 he was rehabilitated without any problem. t hey should have left the NKVD and not have waited until they were kicked out. Berg himself was shot in 1939. Grigory Shtern had a very special military career. such as the long-retired Ryazanov or the organizer of the murder of the Tsar Goloshchekin. himself fell at that time. at the end of the 1930s the Jews were one of t he few national minorities. for example. and many others. he advanced along the politic al officer's path. We see a significant percentage of Je ws in the now-published lists of military chiefs executed in 1937-38. the prisoners were "ready. There was no anti-Jewish motif in those events. but surely it would have spar ed them the stigma?) The notion of purposeful anti-Jewish purge doesn't hold wat er: "according to available data. it would be inappropriate to consider the expulsion of Jews from the pu nitive organs as a form of persecution." ) They offer us the following interpretation: "This is a question about the victim s of the Soviet dictatorship. they were used by it and then mercilessly discarde d when their services became redundant." The Political Administration of the Red Ar my "suffered the highest losses from the terror" during the massacre of 1937. brigade. he was th . he himself was the "iron broom" in several purges during 1937-38. Until 1926. "By the summer of 1938 with out exception all… commanders of military districts … who occupied these posts by Ju ne 1937 disappeared without a trace. and the multi-m illion peasantry? A great many Red Army commanders fell under the axe. that if Stalin's praetorians valued not only their pre sent benefits and power but also the opinion of the people whom they governed. of course. The meat-grinder devoured many old "honored" Bolshevi ks. There were still no regulations on national and personnel poli cy in the state security agencies that was enforced … from the end of the 1940s to the early 1950s" *** Many Party activists fell under the destructive wave of 1937-1938. the Butcher of Crimea. During the Civil War he was military commissar at regimental." (Well. From 1936-37 the composition of the Soviet of People's Commissars began to change noticeably as the purges during the pre-war years ran through the prominent figures in the people's commissariats. they called his swift purge of the city of Ivanov the "Black Tornado. belonging to which did not constitute a "crime" for an NKVD official. Yakovlev. St ill.
1937. 19 37. 1937. Yakov Smushkevich. 1938. he made thi s speech: "Together we have destroyed a bunch of good-for-nothings— the Tukhachevs kys. 1937. 1937. Mikhail Landa. Gr igory Belenky. Zakhar Belenky. and was known as "Gene ral Douglas". Boris Ippo. Uborevichs [former Soviet Marshalls[ and similar others. Semyon Dimanshtein. at the same time conspiring against Marshall Blücher. Nikolay S ukhanov-Gimmer. 1937. 1938. Oskar Ryvkin. Akhiy Shilman. 1937. he himself was shot later. Abram Kamensky. 1938. Moisey L isovsky. Boris Skvirs ky. 19 38. 1937. 1938. Mikhail Kaganovich. Moisey Frumkin. Solomon Kruglikov. Mark Belenky. Vladimir Feigin. Naum Rozovsky. 1937. Gamarniks. 193 7. Mendel Khataevich. 1937. diplomatic. 1942. died in camp in 1955. nor diplomats. arrested in 1938. Boris Royzenman. Yakov Livshits. 1938. who also distinguished himsel f among the Red Spaniards under the alias of "General Kleber"). 1937. Lazar Shatskin. 1938. Ruvim Levin.1940. N. military. 1939. whom he ruined and whose post of the front commander he took over after the arrest of the latter. 19 38. 1938. also had a head-spinning career. 1938. G oldin. German Bitker. Tikhon Khvesin. Shtern's comrade-in-arms in aviat ion. 1940. Aron Vainshtein. Nadezhda Ostrovskay a. Naum Sokrin. Lev Maryasin. Leon Khaikis. In March 1939. Zorin-Gomber g. 1937. In 1936-37 he had also fought in Spain. Ya. 1943. Boris Tal. Isaak Solts. Moisey Rukhimovich. Evgeny Gnedin.M. Later he was the Chief of Staff of the Far Eastern Front and conducted bloody battles at Lake Kh asan in 1938 together with Mekhlis. David Ryazanov. Grigory Zinovyev. in autumn 1941. Marsel Rozenberg . 1938.e head of the political administration division. 1938. E. S. Lev Pechersky. Maria Frumkina-Ester. arrested in 1937. 1938. 1938. 1936. 1937. Lev Kritsman. died in camp . 1938. 1938. Yakov Chubin. 1937. Semyon Uritsky. Aleksandr Krasnoshchyoko v-Tobinson. arrested in 1939. Lev Kamenev. 1937. 1938. Yury Steklov-Nakhamkis. almost all of t he diplomats mentioned above were executed. in aviation. site of Soviet-Japanese battles won by the Rus sians]. 19 37. Ilya Kit-Viytenko. 1937. arrested in 1937. 1937. 1937. arrested in 1937 and spent 20 ye ars in camps. He too began as a polit ical officer (until the mid-1930s). Efim Tsetlin. Iosif Pyatnitsky-Tarshis. Sholom Dvoilatsky. 1938. 1938. Semyon Zhukovsky. 1937. at the 18th Party Congress. 1937. Lev Sosnovsky. 1942. 1938. spent 15 years in camps. Izrail Veits er. died in camp. Yakov Rubinov. committed suicide in expectation of arrest. 1937. Veniamin Sverdlov. Grigory Roginsky. Grigoriy Kaminsky. Samuil Zaks. 1936. 1938. Aleksandr Minkin-Menson. arrested in 1938. 1938. 1938. In 1939 he was commander of the aviation group at Khalkhin Gol [on the Manchurian-Mongolian border. Lev Gordon. Vladimir Lazarevi ch. 1939. Grigoriy Sokolnikov-Brilliant. Moisey Rafes. Evgeniya Kogan." Well. Boris Belenky. The wave of terror spared neither administrators. 1936. Later he studied at the militar y academy for senior military officers [and thus became eligible for proper mili tary posts]. 1938. Lazar Aronshtam. 1936. After that he rose to the commander of all air forces of the Red Army – th e General Inspector of the Air Force. 1937. 1936. Frid Markus. Yakov Vesnik. died in confinement in 1940. Evgeny Fainberg. 1941. and managerial figures whom we men tioned before on these pages who now were persecuted (the names of the executed are italicized): Samuil Agursky. Avenir Khanukaev. Pinson. Iosif Slavin. 1941. 1938. Mor dukh Khorosh. Semyon Turovsky. 1937. committed suicide in 1937. 1940. 1938. Isay Tsalkovich. Chuzhak-Nasimovich. Abram Volpe. Zinovy Zangvil. Grigory Melnic hansky. 1 939. Isaak Zelensky. 1937. 1938. 1937. 1937. then he studied at the academy for top offic ers. 1938. I. 1937. Philip Goloshchekin. 1938. arrested in 1939. Rubinin. Let's name those party. Arkady Rozengolts. Moisey Kalmanovich. 1 948. 1937. Mikhail Ge rchikov. Maks Deych. Kleiner. 1938. Ierok . Artur Stashevsky-Girshfeld. I zrail Razgon. in 1929-34 he was a "military advisor to the Republican government in Spain" (not to be confused with Manfred Shtern. Yan Gamarnik. Moisey Kharitonov. Yakov Gugel. 1941. Isaak Grinberg. 1938. 1937. he was arrested in May 1941 and executed i n the same year. Aleksandr Gurevich. 1941. 1937. Yakov Fis hman. 1937. I. Iosif Khodorovsky. Boris Feldman. 1938. killed in prison. 1938. Efim Dreitser. Moris Belotsky.
After the failed rebellion of the Soc . he was a member of the Socialist Revolutionary Party. his sentences were repeatedly extended by three years. That was the begin ning of many years of unceasing arrests and sentences. urging sailors to join Odessa's labor strike. And all that was just for being a Menshevik in the past an d for having Menshevik convictions even though by that time he no longer engaged in politics and during brief respites simply worked on economic posts and just wanted a quiet life. Exiled in 1905 to the Turukhan Krai. He was a participant in the Zimmerwald [Switzerland] Confe rence of socialists (1915). to Solvychegodsk and to Vologda. exiles and camps. Before the war." In 1922 h e requested permission to emigrate. he escaped. He avoided punishment by departing for St. he was the first civilia n who got on board the mutinous battleship. He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies of Petrograd. Below are the fates of some prominent Russian Jewish socialists. he was suspected of economic "sabotage. he entered the elite of the Menshevik movement. he graduated from the Heidelberg Univ ersity School of Law. After the February Revolution he returned to Russia. imprisoned in the Omsk jail (together with already-imprisoned comm unists). He was one of the founders of the Left Socialist Revolutionary Party. In 1956 he was rehabilitated. After the October coup. he experienced solitary confinement in the Suzdal camp and was repeatedly exiled. Grigory Shtern. He graduated from the best commerce school in Odessa. in June he already urg ed "a revolutionary uprising against them. he died in 1 960. Yakov Yakovlev-Epshtein. Abroad. This is indeed a commemoration roster of many top-placed Jews. After the failed Bolshevik rebellion in July 1917 he accepted the surrender of the squad of sailors besieged in the Petropavlovsk Fortress. at any time of the day or night (there were three shifts of investigators). Boris Osipovich Bogdanov (born 1884) was an Odessan. First he was sent to the Solovki prison camp and later exiled to the Pechor a camp [in the Urals]. From a dolescence. In 1915 he became the secretary of the Labor Group at the Milita ry Industrial Committee. and regularly chaired its noisy sessions w hich attracted thousands of people. After the Civil War he tried to restart the Menshevik political a ctivity. he worked legally on l abor questions. Potemkin. he delivered letters with appeals to consulates of the European powers i n Russia. a worn-out old man. however. where he survived non-stop interrogations which sometimes continued wit hout a pause for weeks.him Epshtein. In June 1905. the grandson and son of lum ber suppliers. was arrested in January 1917 and freed by the February Revolution. in 1948 he was agai n sentenced and exiled to Kazakhstan. Yet he was hauled in a gain in 1937. In 1931 they attempted to incriminate him in the case of the "All-Soviet Bureau of Mensheviks. one after another. but at the end of 1920 he was arrested for one year. who did not joi n the Bolsheviks or who even struggled against them. he joined Social Democrat societies. He took part in the dispersal of the Russian Constituent Assembly in January 1918. 1938. From April he urged breaking the alliance with the Bolsheviks. He was sentenced to tw o 2-year-long exiles. During the Civil War he li ved in Odessa. he was a Menshevik. at the ti me of the October coup he entered into a coalition with the Bolsheviks. later he was exiled to Syktyvkar. 1937." but he was lucky and they left him alone. Boris Davidovich Kamkov-Kats (born 1885) was the son of a country doctor. he served out 7 years in the Kargopol camp (several other Me nsheviks were shot there). and num erous transfers between different camps — the so-called "Great Road" of so many so cialists in the USSR. when she entered the port of Odessa. but shortly before departure was arrested ag ain. arrested in 1938. 1941. Iona Yakir. While study ing. he gave a speech for her crew. Petersburg where he worked in the Social Democratic underground. in 1918 he was one of the organi zers of anti-Bolshevik workers movement in Petrograd. From June 1917 he was a member of the Bureau of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and persistently opposed ongoing attempts of the Bolsheviks to seize power.
His "Great Road" arrests and exiles began i n1923. fled soon thereafter and emigrated again. and exiled in 1923. he taught the history of music and aesthetics and wrote a number of books. a member of the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committ ee.ialist Revolutionaries. From 1907-1915 he was in hard labor camps. In 1920 he was arrested. Between exiles he spent two years in prison and experienced the same "Great Road. Later in Samara he participated in the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assemby. Visotsky. and a member of the Central Committee of the Socialist Revolutionary Party. From 1906. Poland and Russia in Emigration. He was arr ested in 1921. He participated in the r evolution of 1905-06. In 1939 he was sentenced to 25 years in the camps an d died in one a year later. Mikhail Isaakovich Liber-Goldman (born 1880) was one of the founders of the Bund (1897). he was a member of the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet of Soldi ers' and Workers' Deputies. a member of the Central Committee of the [General Jewish Labor] Bund of Lithuania. After numerous prison terms and e xiles. He was arrested again and executed in Alma-Ata in 1937. Later he experienced the "Great Road" of endless n ew prison terms and exiles. He participated in the February Revolution in Moscow. he died i . (He left the latter post after the Octobe r coup). He was a steady and uncompromising op ponent of Lenin. he wa s arrested again in 1921. he spent some time sitt ing in the infamous Aleksandrovsky Central. right up to the climax of 1937-38.Ya. he was arrested again in 1937 and executed in 1938. Mikhail Yakovlevich Gendelman (born 1881) was an attorney-at-law and a Socialist Revolutionary from 1902. at the t rial of the Socialist Revolutionaries in 1922 he was sentenced to death. in 1922 he was sentenced to death at the trial of the Socialist R evolutionaries. he left the meeting of the 2nd All-Russian Congress of the S oviets in protest against the Bolsheviks. On 25 October 1917. He was elected to the Constituent Asse mbly and participated in its only session. people who had nothing to do with polit ics or authority. was a member of the Executive Committee of the Soviet of Soldiers' and Workers' Deputies. and joined the Socialist "Def ender" movement ("Defense of the Motherland in War"). He was a participant of the February Revolution in Irkutsk and later in Petrograd." In 1933 he was exiled to Archan gel. with repeated sentences and exiles. In 1910 he was exiled for three years to Vologda Province. he went underground. he was shot in 1938. he was in the the Socialist Revolutionary movement from the very creation of the SR party in 1901 (his brother Mikhail wa s the party leader). For many. commuted to 5 years in prison. he represented the Bund at the cong resses of the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party. From the age of 14. Then he briefly participated in the Social Democratic Workers' Party of the Mensheviks. a member of the militant win g of the SRs. After a brief arrest in 1920. From 25 October 1917 he headed the anti-Bolshevik Co mmittee for the Salvation of the Motherland and Revolution. He was a member of the executive committees of the Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies of Petrograd and of the Soviet Peasant's Deputies and a member of the Presidium of the All-Russian C entral Executive Committee. He worked on economic positions andwas one of the leaders of th e Menshevik underground in the USSR. commute d to 5 years of imprisonment. He returned to Russia after 1914. and later he was a member of the Presidium of the Al l-Russian Central Executive Committee. After the February revolut ion. arrested in 1937. including Jews. V. Abram Rafailovich Gots (born 1882) was the grandson of a millionaire tea merchan t. he was a terrorist. Here are some of the Jews who perished: Nathan Bernshtein (born 1876) a music scholar and critic. During the Civil War he continued his struggle against Bolsheviks. Yet in those years purges swept all over the country. there was a similar fate. on 5 January 1918. destroying the lives of co untless ordinary people.
chairman of the National Association of Microbiologists. Sergey Ginter (born 1870) an architect and engineer. In 192123 he taught Hebrew and wrote poetry in Hebrew. he was arrested in 1937 and later died in prison. Sinologist and historian. protection of water resources. he performed extensive psychological analysis of professio ns and optimization of working environment. a psychiatrist. *** Despite the overwhelming percentage of high-placed. A close friend to A. correspondin g member of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Ilya Krichevsky (born 1885) a microbiologist. one of the authors of t he monetary reform of 1922-24. He was persecuted and died in 1937. he laid the foundation for semi-conductor science. persecuted in 1937. Arrested in 1937. immunologist (also trained in phys ics and mathematics). then a rrested again in 1937 and executed. Accused of creating a Zionis t organization. In 1927 he became the head of the All-Russian Society of Psychotechnology and Appl ied Psychophysiology. exiled to Siberia. Doctor of Scienc e. studied Jewish psychology. Arrested in 1 938 and executed. he studied environmen tal hygiene.n prison. geneticist. He was the husband of Lyudmila K. Isaak (born 1891) was a psychologist. Kondrate v [prominent Russian scientists]. he studied the role of heredity and envir onment in pathology. he was arrested in 1937 and died in prison. a chemical physicist. arrested again in 1937 and executed. Vladimir Finkelshtein (born 1896). He was shot in 1937. Solomon Levit (born 1894). Emil (born 1899) was a biologist. he was executed in 1938. Mikhail Kokin (born 1906) an Orientalist. arrested in 1937 and executed. He was arrested in 1935 and later ex ecuted. the dean of the Biology Department of Rostov University.V. "aristocratic" Jews. Here are the fates of the three brothers Shpilrein from Rostov-on-Don. he applied mathematical methods in electrical and he at engineering. Chayanov and N. Nakhum Schwartz (born 1888). Chukovs kaya. he was arrested in 1930. Judaist. Accused of Zionist activity. professor. Iokhiel Ravrebe (born 1883). he was persecute d in 1938. Ilya Khetsrov (born 1887). Doctor of Philosophy. Veniamin Zilbermints (born 1887) a mineralogist and geochemist. who achieved extraordinary results. Doctor of Medical Sciences. one of the founders of the reestablished Jewish Ethnographic Society in 1920. and community hygiene. arrested in 1938 and died in 1943.D. Jan (born 1887) was a mathematician. arrested in 1934. he was professor at the Bauman Moscow State Technical University and later the dean of its Electrical Engineering Department. freed in 1935. founder of a scientific school . Matvei Bronshtein (born 1906) a talented theoretical physicist. Leonid Yurovsky (born 1884) Doctor of Political Economy. who fel . an Orientalist. a hygienist and epidemiologist. he had many works in applied elec trical chemistry. Arrested in 1938 and died in prison. specialist on ra re elements.
Garmanik. admitte d: "Under the Tsars. your heart doesn't cry. such a union in cultural circles could not soften the attitudes of the w ider Ukrainian population toward Jews. "Some Ukrainians are convinced that 1933 wa . However. the free Western press did not perceive the events as spec ifically the persecution of Jews: the Jews were massacred simply because of thei r abundance in the top tiers of the Soviet hierarchy. Could it be really out of the lack of knowledge? Or was it for the sake of protecting the Soviet regime? Or was it simply because of indifference? Why. which they did not have before the revolution. ministers." Nevert heless.l under Stalin's axe. the Jews were indeed restricted in their 'right of living'. And the Jews. because of the absence of such rights. we read such a sti pulation in the collection of works Evreysky Mir [The Jewish World] (1939): "No doubt that the Jews in the USSR have numerous opportunities. Portugeis). They can become generals." Yet during the Great Plague of dekulakization. " We can find such a conclusion: the destruction of Ukrainian-language cultu re in 1937 was in part aimed against Jews. leaving behind them pe rsistent evil memory. that "the scorpions of Bolshevism did not attack any other people with such brutal force as they attacked Jews. it was all about the ability to cling to power. And who had raised their voices in defense of the peasants then? And now. And although the famine was a direct result of Stalin's policy. enthusiastically took the reins of the collectivization into their hands. yet their 'right to live' was incomparably greater then than under Bolshevism. professors. the entire West was silent." Indeed. In unison with them. And yet all the Soviet pens (with so many Jews among them) kept complete silence abo ut this cold-blooded destruction of the Russian peasantry." Opportunities but "in no way rights". the su spicion widely arose among Ukrainians that the entire Ukrainian famine was the w ork of the Jews. Such an interpretation has long existed (and the Ukrainian émigré p ress adhered to it until the 1980s). Zinovy ev. emigrant S. The long-time devoted socialist."[ 76] This placed a new scar on Ukrainian-Jewish relations. despite being perfectly aware of collectiviz ation. or to occupy nice posts — no! They were dispossessed and driven like cattle out of their homes and sent to certain death in the taiga an d tundra. If you don't see it. Yagoda. Trotsky" and the rest fell from their heights and lost their very liv es.O. and by the end of the 1920s "the Jews are among Ukrainian chau vinists and separatists. in Russia and Ukraine – on the very outskirts of Europ e. who formed "a genuine union" with Ukr ainians "for the development of local culture in Ukrainian language. During the 1920s. and not o nly in Ukraine (it brutally swept across the Volga Region and the Urals). this is almost inconceivable: 15 million peasants were not s imply deprived of entering the institutes of higher learning or of the right to study in graduate school. among other passionate urban activists. Ivanovich (S. in 1932-33. Radek. no nationality enjoyed such a right under the communist dictator ship. five to six million people died from hunger! And the free press of the free w orld maintained utter silence… And even if we take into account the extreme Leftis t bias of the contemporary Western press and its devotion to the socialist "expe riment" in the USSR. the mo st high-ranking and the most servile aristocrats. and which they do not have even now in some democrat ic countries. at the same time. "Yakir. it is still impossible not to be amazed at the degree to wh ich they could go to be blind and insensitive to the sufferings of even tens of millions of fellow humans. Indeed. already tense for cent uries." Still. he writes that the "awkward attempts to establish 'socialism' in Russia t ook the heaviest toll from the Jews". We have already seen in the previous chap ter how in the course of collectivization "a considerable number of Jewish commu nists functioned in rural locales as commanders and lords over life and death. the Ukrainian Jews departed from their pro-Russian-statehood m ood of 1917-1920. it was not thousands but millions of peasants who lost both their 'right of living' and the 'right to live'. wielding enormous influence there—but only in the cities. diplomats.
" was of much help. But characteristically." Well. Solomon Schwartz writes: "From the start of the 1930s. erroneously interpreting Molotov's speech. "forced industrialization and lightning-fast collectivization. Schwartz soundly notes that the authorities were "persistently silent ab out anti-Semitism". (People whisp ered that before the revolution the authorities did not punish as harshly even f or libels against the Tsar. and they began to spread exaggerated notions about the role of Jews in the middle and top ranks of government. In addition he considers that in those y ears the ruling communist circles began to struggle with Great-Russian "chauvini sm. Feelings! No. they just continued the policy of Lenin's intole rance). whether or not it was really a legend. anti-Semitism in t he Soviet Union quickly abated". he addressed the democratic West and did not mind specif ying the punishment. suggesting the same old excuse that the Jewish intelligentsia and se mi-intelligentsia simply had almost no other source of livelihood under Soviet c onditions except the government service. The supreme authority of so many Jews along with only a small number of Jews being touched by the grievances which afflicted the rest of population could lead to all sorts of interpretatio ns. Don't expect to reap wheat where the weed was sewn. however. suggest s that speaking on behalf of the government he threatened to punish "anti-Semiti c feelings" with death. these s entiments [people's hostility toward Jews] became much more prevalent … particular ly in the major centers. as the result of the end of the NEP (the New Economic Policy) and the reby the disappearance of Jewish businessmen and petty Jewish merchants." (Well. anti-Semitism i s strictly prosecuted by law as a phenomenon deeply hostile to the Soviet order." He explains this ." . though in a quite naïve manner. Later. he immediately attempted to explain it." [A 17th century Cos sack leader who conducted bloody anti-Jewish pogroms in Ukraine]. where the Jewish intelligentsia and semi-intelligentsia were concentrated…. but people were sentenced for it according to the Penal Code. he did not depart from Stalin's policy of persecuting "active anti-Semites ." See. Then Stalin sent Molotov to make a similar announcement at the Congress of Soviets. and made rather optimistic conclusions. in the USSR it was only printed at the end of 1936.s the revenge of the Jews for the times of Khmelnitsky. For ins tance. in part. Schwartz observes a change: "In the second half of the 1930s.) But now S. i. Active anti-Semites are punished. In the USSR.." which he favorab ly compares with a kind of "shock therapy. it was produced for export and he hid this position from his own citizens." In January 1931.e. first the New York Times. the announcement by the Leader was not printed in the So viet press (because of his cunning reservations). A contemporary Jewish author. they did not begin. cannot help but be an irreconcilable and sworn enemy of anti-Semitism. and "in the mid-1930s it lost the character of a mass phenomenon …anti-Semitism reached the all-time low point. Jewish authors who nervously kept an eye on anti-Semitism in the USSR did not no tice this trampled ash. Molotov did not mention anything like that. and later the entire world press published a sudden and ostentatious announcement by Stalin to the Jewish Telegra ph Agency: "The Communists. And world opinion was completely satisfi ed with that. And it was only one nationality in the USSR that was set ap art by being granted such a protection. according to the laws of the USSR. as consistent internationalists. treatment of mental disorders w ith electric shocks." We are not aware of any instance of death penalty in the 1930s for anti-Semit ism. with the d eath penalty. "in order to avoid the impression that the struggle against Great-Russian chauvinism is a struggle for the Jews. Here again the legend about "Jewish domination" gradually beg an to come back to life.
" The author sympa thizes with such an opinion. Looking back at that war of 1941-1945. Ivanovich claimed to notice a trend "of thi s dictatorship returning to some national traditions of Moscovite Russ and Imper ial Russia"." for "Stalin protects them from pogroms and hopefully would protect them in future. And the foreign Jewish circles did not and could not sense any oppression of the Jews in the USSR. only privileged ones. although he considers it flawed: "If the Bolshevik dictatorship falls. which blossomed later. nothing had changed in the 1930s in the Jewish Question from the time of the revolution. and any frie nd of the Jewish people should reject such a prospect with horror". and primarily against the Great Russian chauvinism." However." The resolution on Stalin's report at the 16th Party Congress provided the genera l political direction for the 1930s. Then they have already started to sound the alarm about the danger of any rebirt h of Russian patriotism. So in 1988 we read in an Israeli magazine: "Vivi d traditions of the Black Hundreds … were the foundation of 'vivifying Soviet patr iotism'. even the purest and most immaculate Russian patriotism has no right to exist – not now. this is where the mortal danger for Russia lurked then. even when they looked back at that war. no official hostility toward Jews existed. when mass patriotism blazed up. and on that basis they are favorably disposed toward the Soviet authorities. calling for an energetic struggle against c hauvinism. So. And for several more years this struggle was ent husiastically carried on. not ever? Why is it so? And why it is that Russian patriotism is thus singled out? *** .This is so shameful to read. no doubt there will be wild anti-Semitic ravages and violenc e …The fall of the Soviet regime would be a catastrophe for the Jews. to dig pits. yet at the s ame time he remarks that "the Soviet dictatorship is already embarrassed by the Judeophilia and Jewish dominance attributed to it."[ 85] See. Yet what kind of Stalinist madness was it? By that tim e there was no trace left of the Great Russian chauvinism. many believe that there is no anti-Semitism in Russia. they had almost n o other sources of livelihood. and to roll barrows at the great construction projects of the 5-year plans… In official policy. Indeed. Stalin was not able t o envision the immediate future [of WWII] – when only Russian patriotism would sav e him from imminent doom. What oppression and despair! See. And the rest of population was absolutely free to toil on kolkhoz fields. S. But in Russia they know that this is not true. In the article The Jews and the Soviet Dictatorship. he caustically cited several stamps that entered popular discourse around that time such as the "'love for the Motherland'. immediately before Hitler's assault – in that ugly Russian patriotism! This alarm did not leave the minds of Jewish publicists for the next half centur y. they used to dream and proclaim about the impending end of all national conflict s. The Party languag e was easily understood by all. In 1939. Jews "pray for the long-life o f the Soviet regime … and are strongly afraid of its demise. at th e war which saved Soviet Jewry. S. let's admit that this is a highly ungrate ful judgment. 'national pride' etc. Ivano vich wrote: "Abroad. during the Great Patriotic War" [the officia l Russian designation for the Eastern front in WWII].
Zelik Akselrod. "in the service of the authorities carried out the greatest pogrom against Jewish culture. all of which were crippled under the Soviet regime. as mentioned above. in Kiev 'The Institute of Jewish Prole tarian Culture' fell into desolation. this act blocked any separate develop ment of a Jewish society having "national. T hough in accord with the Soviet blueprint. in accordance with the unshakable principles of 'socialist reali sm. Was there anyone. writer Gertsl Bazov . Dunets were persecuted also.An important event in Jewish life in the USSR was the closing of the YevSek at t he Central Committee of the All-Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks in 1930. who in the 1930s headed the Jewish Section of the Public Library. During open public meetings they began to accuse a nd expose prominent Jewish communists. was persecuted in 1938. After 1936-37 "the number of Jewish schools began to decline quic kly even in Ukraine and Belorussia". But some of them. "oc cupying governing positions in the central and local departments of the Society for Settling Toiling Jews on the Land (OZET) and in the Jewish community. and individual Jewish auton omy." And soon after this arrests followed (Mik hail Kokin of the Leningrad Institute of Philosophy.'" Literature in Yiddish "from the 1930s up to June 1941 … was marked by th e cult of Stalin." Yet what kind of li terature was it? In the 1930s "the overwhelming majority of works were written s tereotypically. Aleksandr Chemerissky – who. and Minsk. Margolina. Still. the desire of parents to send their childre n to such schools had diminished." From now on Jewish cultural development lay within the Soviet mainstream. the majority of them were persecuted. Frumkina-Ester and their a ssociates Motl Kiper. These monstrous sayings are ascribed to his pen: 'You betrayed your fat her — this is great!'. and 'I say 'Stalin' but envision the sun. had already drawn this lot. Persecutions spread to writers in Yiddish: Moyshe Kulbak was persecuted in 1937. Jewish cultural and educational structures. were arrested ten years later." also fell under the juggernaut. In 1937-38 the leading Yevseks – Dimanshtein. whose past the Bo lsheviks did not try to criminalize? "Who have you been before…?" In 1938 Der Emes was closed also. from the second half of the 1930s the number of institutions of higher education lecturing in Yiddish began to decline rapidly". What about education? "Right up to 1933 the number of Jewish schools and Jewish students in them increased despite the early (1920s) critique "of nationalistic over-zealousness"' in the actions of the Yevseks on the 'forced transition of Je wish education into Yiddish." At the start of 1930s the Jewish scientific institutes at the academies of scien ce of Ukraine and Belorussia were closed. formerly of the Petrograd Institute of Higher Jewish Studies." Also. in 19 37. was s entenced to 8 years and died in the transit camp). Itskhok Sudarsky. who zealously tried to please Stalin.'" Most of the se writers. Abram Abchuk. Many Yevseks. "almost all Je wish institutions of higher education and technical schools were closed by 193738. Kharik and critic Kh . in 1940. in words of Y u. Unbridled flattery for Stalin flowed from the bosom of Jewish poetry…" Itsik Feder "managed to light up even official propaganda with lyrica l notes. Litvakov. "Education in Yiddish was seen as less and les s prestigious. Jewish publishers were working in Moscow. Writer I." The poisonous atmosphere of 1930s now reached these levels too. who at some time before were members eith er of the Bund or of the Zionist Socialist Party. a teacher of Yiddish and a critic." were arrested and soon executed. Kiev. cultural. or even of Poale-Zion. . In 1936-3 9.'" From 1936 to 1939 a "period of accelerated de cline and even more accelerated inner impoverishment" of the schools in Yiddish was noted. literature and History was executed. Iokhiel Rabrebe. "literature in Yiddish was actively published until the end of the 1930s. there was an effort to give children an education in the Russian language.
"the ideological press of official communist doctrine signified for m any Jewish artists and sculptors a complete break up. the closure of synagogues accelerated. The move toward "settling the toiling Jews on the land" gradually became irrelev ant for Soviet Jews. and circles. emigrated but later returned into the USSR. B y the end of 1933. Boris Iofan was in charge of that "reconstr uction. that is." . Vo lf Averbukh. what culture in the USSR was not touched by this?) So it comes as little surprise that "the overwhelming majority … of Jew ish theaters devoted much attention to propaganda performances. Mo ishe Medalia." In 1930. OKG. The overwhelming majority of remaining associates of these organizations. 57% of all existing in the first years of Soviet authority … In the mid-1930s." In 1930-32. and Ladovsky. There were no rabbis in the majority of still-functioning synagogues. "The percentage of Jewish settlers abandoning lands given t o them remained high. had noticeably decre ased." In 1937-38 "the majority of clergy of the Jewish religious cult were p ersecuted. the activity of foreign Jewish philanthropic organizations such as Agro-Joint. he was sent back to the USSR. "the authorities began to impose excessive tax on matzo baking. "Most of the semi-legal cheder schools and yeshivas were shut down" around that time. Bronshtein. Particularly interesting among them are the works of architec ts Fridman. "the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine decided to li quidate …'the artificially' created national Jewish districts and boroughs. B.Similarly." From 1929. Ios if Bogatin." (Still. Izvestiya reports: "So far. In 1937. and EKO in the USSR. was arrested." Later. Pinkhas Krasny was not a Zionist but was listed as such in his death sentence. the arrests reached the architects as well. " "In 1938 a 'hostile rabbinical nest' was discovered in the Moscow Central Synagogue. w here he was arrested. but still many othe rs were accused of "the Zionist conspiracy. In the early 1930s. first the OZET and then the Committee for Settling the Toiling Jews on the Land (KomZET) were dissolved. a Poale-Zionist from his youth. It has already been mentioned that the Zionist underground was crushed by the be ginning of the 1930s. "237 synagogues were closed. was arrested at the same time). quite often tragic." This included a ll 19 aforementioned professional Yiddish theaters and "numerous independent col lectives. Arrests rolled on from the late 1920s in the Hasidic underground. was arrested and executed in 1938." In that bitter and hungry year of devastating breakdown of the country. with t he national Jewish traditions. Iofan. Yakov-Za kharia Maskalik was arrested in 1937." By 1939." Concerning Hebrew culture which preserved the national traditions: it was by now conclusively banished and went underground." The Rabbi of Moscow. Abrom-Levik Slavin was arrested in 1939. the Rabbi of Saratov. were persecuted. when the Jewish religion was restricted in the USSR. "in 1938 the activity ceased completely. Many Zionists were already rounded up. They especially hurried to "libe rate" Soviet Moscow from the church. "the Commission on the Questions of Religions at the Central Executive Committee of the USSR prohibited baking matzo in Jewish religious comm unities. He was executed in 1939." Take Pinkhas Dashevsky (from Chapte r – in 1933 he was arrested as a Zionist. they promoted projects for a grand Palace of Soviets in place of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior. who were still at liberty. the clo sing of thousands of Orthodox Christian temples and the destruction of many of t hem rolled along throughout the entire country. He was former Minister of Petliura's Dire ctorate. studios." In 1937. left for Israel in 1922. (His son. where "he collaborated with the communist press. Shmuel-Leib Medalia. eleven projects are presented at the exhibition. the rabbis and a number of parishioners were arrested." And although in 1933-38 it had still continued within the frameworks of n ew restrictive agreements." "In the fir st half of 1938.
the train station of Birobidzhan wa s constructed in this manner).000.000 to eight or nine thousand Jews were added to those already living there.000 Jews among them. Yet non-Jewish colonization of the region we nt faster than Jewish colonization. in May 1934. after which it would be possible to declare it the Jewish Autonomous Republic.000 with only 5.000. after six years of colonization.") Thus. that is. and by the end of 1 933. because of dissatisfaction with the KomZ . The ardent Yevsek Dimanshtein wrote that "we do not aim to create a Jewish majority in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast as soon as possible. a library named after Sholem Aleichem. … this would contradict to the principles of internati onalism. still.000 Jews should be settle d in Birobidzhan during the next two years." He was arrested in 1933 and li kely died in prison). In order to put spirit into the masses. a museum of Jewish culture. The oblast could not even provide enough agricultur al products for its own needs. in the following years the n umber of Jews who left exceeded the number of Jews arriving.500 lived in rural areas. when the non-Jewish population had already reached 50 . "there are no declassé individuals among the Jews. i. Yet the central authorities believed that that the colonization should be stimul ated even further. there was no "national enthusiasm among the Jewish masses.e. (It still did not qualify for the status of a "republic.Nonetheless. worked in kolkhozes." Culture in Yiddish had certainly developed in the autonomous oblast – there were J ewish newspapers. of them only 1. However. the number of settled Jews amounted only t o 8. His position was that "the policy of recruitment of poor urban Jews in order to settle them in rural areas should end". A People Reborn. So. schools. and from 1934 they began a near compulsory recruitment among Jewish artisans and workers in the western regions. Yet as we know. Nevertheless. In order to set matters right. radio. in autumn of 1931 the Presidium of the Central Ex ecutive Committee of the RSFSR decreed that another 25. in the central press. a theater named after Kaganovich (its director was the future author E. let's note the fate of the demographer Ilya Veitsblit. although whole villages wit h homes were built for their settlement and access roads were laid (sometimes by inmates from the camps nearby. which would eas e the overcoming of the enormous difficulties inherent in such colonization. most of newcomers preferred to stay in the oblast capital closer to its railroad station and looked for opportunities to escape). the authorities staged the Second All-Union Congress of the OZET in Moscow in December 1930. for example. Kazakevich). who could be suitable for Birobidzhan." Th ere was no industry in Birobidzhan. The slogan rang out: "The entire USSR builds the Jewish Autonomous Oblast!" – meaning that recruitment of no n-Jewish cadres is needed for quicker development. By the end of 1931. and public reading facilities. (There is al so information that the land in the Jewish kolkhozes was fairly often tilled by hired Cossacks and Koreans). especial ly considering "the increased role of the Jews in the local administrative appar atus. and "the economic and social structure" of t he settlers "resembled that of contemporary Jewish towns and shtetls in Ukraine and Belorussia" This was particularly true for the city of Birobidzhan." (In con nection with Birobidzhan. Birobidzhan was loudly declared a Jewish Autonomous Oblast. the idea of a Jewish colony in Birobidzhan was not abandoned in the 1930s and was even actively advanced by government. Perets Markish had publ ished the exultant article. the Bolsheviks may not be defeated or dispirited. during the next three years only another 11." But despite all these measures. that is. the general population of tha t oblast was 45. the Jews comprised less than 1/5 of all kolkhoz workers there. among the urban pop ulation without a slightest knowledge of agriculture.
000 Belorussians there were 2. the year 1938 approached. "the numbe r of Jews there remained secret … the Jewish population of Birobidzhan was still l ow. Looking back at it. their ardent desire to have their own ho meland has been realized and their own national statehood has been established. and also the sharp increase of the educational level. and by 1935 "the percentage of Jewish students exceeded the percentage of Jews in the gener al population of the country by almost seven times. and the main Yevseks in Moscow and the administrators of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast were arrested. KomZET was closed.7% Jews o r 200. and in 1939. of 40-50 families each . According to the 1939 Census. Those Birobidzhan Jews who could left for the cities of t he Far East or for Moscow. "The flow of Jews int o the ranks of office workers grew constantly. but in those kolkhozes … they conversed and corresponded with the authoriti es in Russian. they studied devotedly." G. eighteen Jewish kolkhozes still existed. thus preparing masses of technical cadres for the Soviet future. that among the industrial workers there were only 2. the Soviet efforts to convert the Jews to agriculture suffer ed the same defeat as the Tsarist efforts a century before. there were 250. Kostirchenko. Larin provid es another figure." In the Book on the Russian Jewry (1968 ). there were 226. we find that in the 1930s up to a half-million Jews "were counted among gover nment workers. d id not experience artificial social restrictions. so familiar to their Russian p eers. and. or New Jersey!…" This sense of connection. 3% of all students.0".ET.000 people. thus standing out from all o ther peoples of the Soviet Union.2%. In the meantime. in 1936 the "Central Executive Committee of the USSR decided to partially de legate the overseeing of Jewish resettlement in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast to the resettlement department of the NKVD. OZET was disbanded . Yet what could Birobidzhan have become for Jews? Just forty-five years later. The reason for this was the mass migration to cities.000 of the Jewish population rose from 8. there were 131. their share a mong Moscow Jewry increased to 80%." On the other hand.5 times less than the first estimate). The Je wish Encyclopedia reports that." Presumably. in 1936—13.000 more Jews to Birobidzh an." The Jews predominantly lived in the major cities. sometimes occupying prominent posts. "As a result of the massive resettlement of Ukrainian Jews.5% of all stu dents in the higher educational institutions in the USSR.500. it needs to be said. and 18% of graduate students" (with their share of the total population being only 1.000 Jews. however. and per 1. Let's glance into statistical data: "in 1929 the Jews comprised 13." In August of 1936."  And now they began planning resettlement of 150. who researched Stalin . th e Israeli General Beni Peled emphatically explained why neither Birobidzhan nor Uganda could give the Jewish people a sense of connection with the land: "I simp ly feel that I am not ready to die for a piece of land in Russia. mainly in manual labor. that in the 1930s "up to a half-million Jews becam e involved in industry.V.4 to 20. "the number of Jewish stud ents per 1. in 1933."[1 15] (The author also reports.000 or 2. Uganda. espec ially of Jewish youth. the general population of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast consisted of 108. 000 Jews in Moscow.4 [while] per 1.8%). from 1928 to 1935. according to the Census of 1926. was restored by Israel. after thousands of years of estrangement. *** The migration of Jews to the major cities did not slow down in the 1930s. in 1933—12.4 students. primarily in the economy. the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR proclaimed that "for the first ti me in the history of the Jewish people.000 Ukrainians – 2.
1933. 81 and 6 per 1. He was heavily decorated for hi s service: he was the first of all composers to be awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labour and elected to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in the notorious year 1937. 1936. Emil Gilels. 268 had a high school education. Krein's brother and nephew flourished also. that incorruptible prophet of our Truth. a Stalin's speech set to music.000 had higher education" ( among Russians the figures were. Gnesin's sisters successfully ran the music school. Igor Shaferan. Sta lin could not disregard the fact that at the start of 1939 out of every 1. "composed easily digestible songs … rou tinely glorifying the Soviet way of life (The March of Merry Lads. Solovyev-Sedoy . "a founder of genres o f operetta and mass song in Soviet music". the main host of the radio s tation of the Comintern and a favorite of Stalin. li stening to his voice: he read Stalin's speeches and summaries of Sovinformburo [ the Soviet Information Bureau]. who d ares to name those celebrities among the oppressed? And after all. et c. Rhapsody." Dunaevsky's tunes were used as the identifying melody of Moscow Radio." The voice of Moscow was that of the People's Artist. Entire generations grew up. Krein distinguished himself by his symphony. and "there were quite a few Jews … in the diplomatic corps. Lev Ob orin. and the famous announcements about the beginning and the end of the war. Examining the culture of the 1930s. theatre and literary critics. and it is indeed a gross exaggeration. 1936. how much blaring Soviet propaganda did they churn out . alongside the skillfully written songs. Grigory Aronson. (Still. that "the Jews were not deprived of general civil rights … th ey continued to occupy posts in the state and party apparatus". 1935. comments on the results of the 1939 census: "After all. and among the professors in the institutions of higher learning…Thus we enter into the year 1939.000 Je ws. Matvey Blanter and the brothers Daniil and Dmitry Pokrass were famous for their complacent hit song If War Strikes Tomorrow ("we will instantly crush the enemy" ) and for their earlier hit the Budyonny March. They enjoyed copy numbers in the millions. Many established theatre dire ctors. in the general staff of the army. in the same book. Isaak Dunaevsky. or even in the science. Yakov Flier and many others. David Oistrakh. Ilya Frenkel. Mikhail Gnesin continued to produce music "in th e style of modern European music and in the style of the so-called 'New Jewish m usic'"." Well. in The Book on Russian Jewry we find that "without exaggeration. In 1936 Samuil Samosud became the main conductor of the Bolshoi Theatre and serv ed on that post for many years. that is. The ballet of Aleksandr Krein was performed in the Mariinsky and Bolshoi theatres. and music scholars continued to work withou t hindrance. journalism. it w as absolutely not like that. which developed into the outstanding Musical Institute. after Ezhov's purges. royalties — come on. etc. The Song about Homeland. the same author. Later he was also awarded the Order of Lenin. Mikhail Tanich. Yakov Zak. It is n o secret that "highly successful completion of higher education or doctoral stud ies allowed individuals to occupy socially-prestigious positions in the robustly developing Soviet economy of the 1930s. Official propaganda on the arts declared these songs … the embodiment of the thoughts and feelings of millions of Soviet people. culture. He used to preach to co mposers that the Soviet people do not need symphonies.'s policies on Jews. Well. Yury Levitan – "the voice of the USSR". fame. There were many other famous Jew ish songwriters and composers in 1930s and later: Oskar Feltsman.). respectively. The Son g of Kakhovka. it is impossible to miss the extraordinary a chievements of the songwriter composers. Yan Frenkel and Vladimir Shainsky ." However. The Song of Stalin. only two pages later says summar ily about the 1930s. not a single prominent Jewish figure remained at liberty in Sovi et Jewish society.000). and 57 out of 1. A number of brilliant musicians rose to national a nd later to international fame: Grigory Ginzburg.
conservative in form and obsessively didactic. take. or the filmmakers. in GlavLit. did it regularly without scr uples. Ionov (Bernshtein). of producing art in accordance with directives from above. For example. the famous Mikhail Romm (Lenin in October. then the "open ant i-Semites were not yet in charge of newspapers and journals … they did not control personnel departments" (quite the opposite – many such positions were occupi ed by Jews). And until the war. and deceiving the public and crippling good taste and feelings? What about movie industry? The modern Israeli Jewish Encyclopedia states that in the 1930s "the main role of movies was to glorify the successes of socialism. brainwashing. he wa s a recipient of three USSR State Prizes (the Stalin Prize) and the Lenin Prize. educational. the organ of official censorship. a movie's entertainment value was minimal. he held the titles of the People's Artist of the USSR and the Hero of the Socia list Labor). two high-ranking bosses of the central management of the cinema indus try. Marcus Wolf. No. L." i. S. Kheifits (Hot Days. Volin-Fradkin at the he ad of the Main Administration for Literary and Publishing Affairs (GlavLit). where adroit editing helped to produce a "genuine d ocumentary" out of a fraud. for example. Numerous Jewish filmmakers participate d in the development of standards of a unified and openly ideological film indus try. from 1932 to 1941 w e see A. Karmen. Sure. A. Many of the GlavLit personnel were Jewish. who was re ally the victim – deceived viewers. the overwhelming majority of Soviet Jewry sympathize d with the Soviet ideology and sided with the Soviet regime.. Let's not forget filmmaker Konrad Wolf. Here are a fe w of the then-celebrated names: F. Zarkhi and I. Vietnam." (He was a glorified Soviet director. B. in the most official sphere o f the Soviet cinematography. Berite. producer of many documentaries about the civil war in Spain and the Nuremberg Trials. Feldma n. he made "the anniversary -glorifying film The Great Patriotic War". Alyansky." characteriz ed by "phony monumentality and inner emptiness"? The Jewish Encyclopedia adds st ernly: "Huge numbers of Jewish operators and directors were engaged in making po pular science. Am bassador of the Baltic). In the 1930s. released immediately after the Industrial Party Trial. R. Obviously. and documentary films.. directing the development of the culture. B.I. Arnshtam (Girlfriends. Unfortunately. confusing. So. the brother of the fam ous Soviet spy. A. whose souls were steamrolled with lies and rud e didactics. were even shot." Aft er private publishers were abolished. For example. Vertov's Symphony of the Don bass. and many others. In the early 1930s we see B. M. Lenin in 1918). Volfson. The Year 1919). The Great Citizen. I. Virgin Soil Upturned). Many of them were already li sted in the previous chapter. Jews clearly comprised a majority among filmmakers. "There was no Jewis h Question indeed in the USSR before the war – or almost none". filmmakers were not persecuted in the 1 930s. D. Bendik. who "forged documentaries. biographies and produ ced pseudo-historical and essentially unimportant propaganda films. B. Kantorovich. 1931. Malkin. production and film distribution managers were arrested. I. I. Shumyatsky and S. Traube rg (The Son of Mongolia. The Miners).M. the official Soviet atmosphere of 1930s was absolutely free of ill will towa rd Jews. who would become the Director of the Book Palace during the w ar. . Dukelsky. then Soviet "culture" consisted of "Soviet patriotism." Soon all book publishing was centralized in the State Publishing House and there was no other place for an author to get his work publ ished.e. though many cinematography. many Jews were eng aged in that pseudo-cultural sphere and some of them even rose to supervise the Russian language culture. Friends). "a significant contribution to the organiz ation and management of Soviet government publishers was made by S. the spouse of Chekist Pavel Sudoplatov was "trusted to m anage the activities of informants among the Ukrainian intelligentsia. Yutkevich (The Coming. Ermler (The Coming. and a film about Cuba. Emma Kaganova.
"fifteen affiliated scientific centers were created"." In physics.6%". Flipping through t he pages of biographical tomes of the Russian Jewish Encyclopedia. sketches of other dirty satirists. Ioffe nurtured a highly successful schoo l. Shubnikov. a seventh—Rueman—was exil ed." yet there were surely others.7% Jewish scientists and l ecturers in the institutions of higher learning. As early as 1918. the son of Parvus. (How much did we hear about that destruction?) Third and fourth-rate Russian historians then surged in to occupy the vacant posts an d brainwash us for the next half a century. Jews comprised 13. "His former students worked in many other institutes. repressions did not bypass them. Socialist Labor in the Forests of the Soviet North. and Ya. Sure. he had portrayed Nicholas II in a crown carrying a rifle. Names of ma ny other personalities in military industry were kept secret as well.6% of all scientists in the country. For instance. and prominent Russian historians were sent to rot in camps. by 1937 their share increased to 17. science and its applications prove that the flower of several Jewish generations went into these fields. Jews played a prominent role in Soviet science. in many ways determining the scientific and technological potential of the Soviet Union . the adroit Radek. in 1939 there were more than 15. six out of eight heads of departments were arrested: Vaisberg. L ater. the Library of the Academy of Scienc es were all abolished. in the Kharkov Physi cs-Technological Institute. Perelman. Every tw o to three days." (However. Shkud "oversaw development of powerf ul radio stations. Obreimov. Already in the 1930s. Karmen. there existed a whole sea of ignoble mass propaganda brochur es saturated with lies. Izakson knocked it out under the title: "Crush the viper of i ntervention!" Diplomat E. When in the 1950s Gnedin returned from a camp after a long term (th ough. which only li sts the Jews who were born or lived in Russia. like G. Gorsky. Kassil wrote essays for Izvestiya. Zaslavsky. Landau. Even now w e do not know all of them. B . and their role w as bound to become even more important in the future. Leipunsky. appeared in press. it appears. Pushkin House. Tess. In 1929-31 Russian historical science was destroyed. In addition. In 1938. member of the Academy A. A future writer L. they were headed by Ioffe's disciples. the Archaeological Commissi on. The name of Semyon Aisikovich.) Numerous Jewish names in technology. quite a few Russian slackers m ade their careers then. not having experienced tree felling himself). Rappoport. we see an abundance of successful and gifted people with real accomplishments (which also means the absence of ob stacles to career entry and advancement in general). trampling corpses). . D. "By the end of 1920s. These names I found in Izvestiya only . the Northern Commission. Gnedin.in res ponse to Western "slanders" about the allegedly forced labor of camp inmates fel ling timber. the piercing ly caustic D. Kantorovich. Levin. but Jewish ones did not miss their chance. the persistent Sheinin and the brothe rs Tur. F. Riklin. Chernomordikov. There were many others: R. wrote lying articles about the "incurable wounds of Europe" and the imminent death of the West. M. whom we do not know. he founded the Physical-Technical Institute in Petrograd. work ing on the development of no less powerful jammers. When they urgently needed a mass propaganda brochure dev oted to the Industrial Party Trial (such things were in acute demand for all of the 1930s). for instance. the constructor of Lavochkin fighter aircraft. one B. A. only Slutskin remained). Kh. was long unknown to the public. T. he was accepted as a venerable sufferer and no one reminded him of his lies in the past. traditions were smashed.000 or 15. especially in the most important and technologically-demanding frontiers.The Jewish presence was also apparent in all branches of the printed propaganda Works of the clumsy caricaturist Boris Efimov could be found in the press everyd ay (he produced extremely filthy images of Western leaders. He also wro te a rebuttal article. and there were two dozen more major newspapers feeding the public with blatant lies.
the percentage of Jews was noticeably higher than in the party on average." According to the 1939 census.G. such impressive representation by a national minority." and that each scientist should study Lenin's Materialism and Empirico -criticism. more than 5. and editors.000 lawyers. Schwartz lamented about anti-revolutionary transformation of the party as the "unprecedented 'purge' of the ruling party. 40% of all economically active Jews were state employees. for example. and S. or slightly l ess than 27% of all doctors. or more than 3% of all teachers. in 1939. Stalin often allied with Jewish leaders of the comm unist party and relied on many Jewish back-benchers. the faithfu l communist Zemlyachka was made the deputy head of the Soviet of People's Commis sars. he perhaps was also grasping that "proletarian internationalism" alone wo uld not be sufficient and that the notion of the "homeland. he. struggling against the Trotskyites. And. Still.000 teachers. Yet he likely harbored hostility toward them (his daughter's memoirs sup port this).500 writers. Dridzo-Lozovsky was assigned the position of Deputy to the Narkom o f Foreign Affairs." and even the "Homel and".000 actors and fi lmmakers. And yet. 7% of all administrators in the USSR.000 were categorized among the inte lligentsia. Of them. However. in y ounger generations. 38. "Militant philosopher" E. " more than 6. representing 14% o f all professionals of this category country-wide. after all the massacres. in the wider picture.000 were managers at vari ous levels.000 doctors. realized this aspect as well –– h is need to further get rid of the Jewish influence in the party." "Among the old Bolsheviks who were involved in the activity before the party came to power and especially among those with the pre-revolutionary involvement. socialist competition. Goldman (Ukraine) enthusiastically chimed in: "The academy now became the leading force in the struggle for the Marxist dialectic i n science!" The Jewish Encyclopedia summarizes: "At the end of 1930s. of course. S. even in the context of official internationalism and brotherhood of t he peoples of the USSR. "39. Academician A. Around 364. 106.000 musicians. journalists." He praised the leadership of the proletariat in science and said that science can be free only under Soviet stewardship. which has "transfo rmed the once barbaric and backward Russia into the Socialist Union of Republics . "the First National Conference for the Planning of Science" in 1931. adopt collective methods. a little less than 3. more than 6. the role of the Jews i n the various spheres of the Soviet life reached its apogee for the entire histo ry of the Soviet regime. and more than 5. created the prerequisites for the backlash by the state. he fulminated agains t the Moscow school of mathematics) asserted that "we should … introduce labor dis cipline in the sciences. Take. though even his closest circle was probably unaware of it. Schwartz's observations a . Kolman ("one of main ideologists of Soviet science in the 1930s".000 artists and sculpt ors. " *** During his political career.000 were engineers or technologists. he said that science advances "thanks to the proletarian dict atorship. Academician Ioff e stated that "modern capitalism is no longer capable of a technological revolut ion. would be much needed. almost all important Jewish communists left the scene." it is only possible as a result of a social revolution. scientists had to pay political tribute too. the Jewish representation became even smaller… As a result of the purge. the virtual destruction of the old party and the establishment of a new communist party under the same name in its place – new in social composition and ideology. 139." Lazar Ka ganovich was the exception. sensing th e war.Of course." In the opinion of the Encyclopedia." From 1937 he also noted a "gradua l displacement of Jews from the positions of power in all spheres of public life . Ya. and sh ock labor methods. By the mid-1930s he saw in the example of Hitler all the disadvantages of being a self-declared enemy of th e Jews.
In the 1990s they even wrote that Molotov. the pac t that dealt a mortal blow to the East European Jewry! "In September 1939." With the start of war in Poland. "The mutual non-Aggression Pact of 23 August 1939 betwe en the Third Reich and the Soviet Union evoked serious fear about the future of Soviet Jewry. they became the fourth largest people of the USSR. Trotsky explained it in 1937 on his way to Mexico: "The Jewish intelligen tsia … turns to the Comintern not because they are interested in Marxism or Commun ism. and later the Soviets evacuated them deeper into t he USSR.000 Jews lived in the USSR. aft er occupation of the Baltics." The famous defector from the USSR." Y et it was this same Comintern that approved the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. (Yet in the eyes of the Soviet regime they thereby immediately fell under t he category of "suspected of espionage. Overall. hundreds of thousands of Polish Jews fled from the advancing German armies. Schwartz adds that in the second half of 1930s Jews were gradually barred fro m entering "institutions of higher learning." But "at the end of November the Soviet government closed th e border. approximately two million more Jews were added. overall. it is believed that around 300. giving a total of a round 5 million. the wa r would soon be over. 3.S. Russian. after the three Slavic peoples. Jewish sympathies finally crystallized and Poli . For the first two months they succeeded because o f the favorable attitude of the Soviet authorities. or go to America. I. Ukr ainian. though the policy of the Soviet Union toward its Jewish citizens w as not changed. they thought. Still. and they would return home. annexation of a part of Poland.020. Now. S. which were preparing specialists fo r foreign relations and foreign trade. in 1943 he even dared to pass a personal letter to Roo sevelt suggesting that Stalin had unleashed an anti-Semitic campaign in the USSR ). now.S." and tha t he began firing Jews on the very same day. or to Palest ine.S.000 Jews managed to migrate from the Western to the Eastern Poland in the first months of the war. (Still. and taking in Jewi sh refugees. after annexation of all Western areas. th e Soviets would not admit Jewish refugees at all." And although there were some reverse deportations. we read in the Chicago Sentinel that the Soviet Union gave refuge to 90% of all European Jewish refugees fleeing from Hit ler. but in search of support against aggressive [German] anti-Semitism.re reasonable as was demonstrated above. the Jews were the seventh largest people in t he USSR number-wise." In different areas of the front things took shape differently: in some areas. and Belorussian. shared rum ors about a secret percentage quota on Jewish admissions to the institutions of higher learning which was enforced from 1939." According to the January 1939 census. publicly announced during the general meeting with the personnel that he "will deal with the synagogue here. Before 1939. They say that upon hi s departure from the U. By the mid-1930s the sympathy of European Jewry toward the USSR had further incr eased. but many of them did not rush to accept Soviet citizenship: after all. "th e legal status of Jewish population remained unchanged during the 20 months of t he Soviet-German collaboration. in other places they were welc omed but later sometimes sent back to the Germans. fleeing further and further east and trying to head for the terr itory occupied by the Red Army…. and were barred from military educational institutions." especially if they tried to correspond with relatives in Poland). They demanded that Polish Jews register as Soviet citizens. The Germans quite often enco uraged this flight. Guzenko. Litvinov was quite useful d uring the war in his role as Soviet ambassador to the U. taking over the People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs in the spring of 1939.
for example: Izvestiya. (50). p. And so the Soviet welcome appeared to them to embody certain salvation. Political and Literary Journal o f the Jewish Intelligentsia from the USSR in Israel (henceforth – "22")]. 1930. 1. 3. p. 1998.  Izvestiya. 163. V. p. 394.  RJE.  RJE. March 14. 1. 1928. Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution. 73. January 26.  RJE. 313. 2nd Ed. p. Voronel // "22": Obshchestvenno-politicheskiy i literaturniy zhurnal evre yskoy intelligentsii iz SSSR v Izraile [Social. 1 and February 6. supporting it tooth and nail. p. p. p.  Rossiyskaya Evreiskaya Entsiklopediya [The Russian Jewish Encyclopedia (henc eforth— RJE)]. p. 1-2. be came the main pillar of the Soviet regime. May 30. Yet how much did these East European Jews know about what was going on in the US SR? They unerringly sensed that a catastrophe was rolling at them from Germany. Agursky's on e).  Izvestiya. June 12. 1931. January 10 and February 21.  Ibid. 210. 2 12. February 2. 1. January 18. p. p. met the advancing Red Army with exu lting enthusiasm. . Moscow.  A. 95. p. 1936. 283. 4. 1930.sh Jews.  Izvestiya. 2.  Ibid. 1936.  A. November 30. December 25. 215. 1934. 1936. p. 3.  Izvestiya. p. 1931. 3. Polish Jews. 214. and the Jewish youth in particular. 160.  RJE. 70. p. 527-528. 344. Bolshoy Terror [The Great Terror]. 3. p. July 14. p. 1. Firenze: Edizioni Aurora . like their co-ethnics in Bessarabia. but undoubtedly a catastrophe.  Robert Conquest. Sutton. thou gh still not fully or clearly recognized. 1934.. February 11. according to many testimonies (including M. p. 1-2.  Izvestiya. v. Moscow.. p. 1974.  See. v. Thus. v. 1. Tel-Aviv .  Izvestiya. January 6. v. p. 1930. Bukovina and Lithuania. 1928. p.  Izvestiya. 1986. 2. p. 1931. 3-4. p.  Ibid.1. p. January 22.  Izvestiya. March 17. 1936.  Izvestiya. 189. March 14 and 17. 1994.
v.  V. 1. p. 1999. 2.  RJE. See al so Aron Abramovich. 1930. November 29. Tel-Aviv. 387. Evrei v apparate VChK-OGPU v 20-e gody [The Jews in the a pparatus of the Cheka-OGPU in the 1920s] // Evrei i russkaya revolyutsia: Materi ali i issledovaniya [Jews and the Russian Revolution: Materials and Research] Co mpiled by O. 4. p. Krichevsky. 464. v.1. 350. v. V reshayushchey voyne. 1982. 62.  Izvestiya. 879. v. see als o Izvestiya. 1930. (16). 3. 418. 1931.  Izvestiya. p.  RJE. p. June 11. v. v. May 17. v.  RJE. April 24. May 18. 1. November 11. p. 3. 376. p. v. November 27.  L. p. 2. 1. 1. 1.  Izvestiya. 497. 237. p. December 20. p. 343-344. 19 80.  See. 1. 1. 2. p. p. 206-207. 244. p. p. 4.  Izvestiya. November 14. v. Izvestiya. 3. 3..Yu. 61.  RJE. 491. p. for example: Izvestiya. p. 98. p. 174.  Aron Abramovich. 300-301. v.  RJE. v. Jerusalem: Gesharim. p.  RJE. v. p. 1937. 1936. 2. p. p. v. 2. v. 101. Budnitsky.  Izvestiya. 493-494.V. p. V zashchitu Kunyayeva [In Defense of Kunyayev] // "22".1. 120. p. July 7. 222. 1. p. February 20. 1976-2001. v. 1. 2. 3. V reshayushchey voyne: Uchastie i rol evreyev SSSR v voyne protiv natsizma [In the Deciding War: Participation and Role of Soviet Jews in the War against Nazism]. . April 9. 1936. 3. 1931. p.  Izvestiya. p. 1931. 1936. 179.  RJE.  Ibid. p. November 16.  Izvestiya. p. p. 4. 2nd Edition. 78. p. p. Boguslavskiy. 483. 1935. Moscow.  Izvestiya. 515. 2. 1936. February 13. Jerusalem. 58. 2. p.  RJE. p. 256. p. November 5. 3. v. 5.  Kratkaya Evreiskaya Entsiklopediya [The Short Jewish Encyclopedia (hencefor th—SJE)]. [In the Deciding War]. 1930. p. p. 2. 2. 63. December 9.  Izvestiya. 1930.  Izvestiya.
Zhirnov. 1997. Krichevsky.  Robert Conquest. p. Kostirchenko. 2. (6). 2. p. v. Skorkin. 440-441.  L.V.V.  A.Yu. N o. "Protsedura kazni nosila omerzitelniy kharakter" [A Horrible Ex ecution] // Komsomolskaya Pravda. p. kadry [The NKVD: Organiza tion.  RJE. 358. Cadres] // Svobodnaya mysl [Free Thought]. Kto rukovodil NKVD: 1934-1941: S pravochnik [Who Ran the NKVD: 1934-1941. 1999 . 210. 51-52. kadry [The NKVD: Organiza tion. 2001. v. 3. 187. Kokurin. those w ho committed suicide on the eve of arrest and those who died in custody are ment ioned specifically. 3. v. September 30. May 16. Functions. 1936. funktsii. 113-11 6. p. 1982. Kokurin. 1997.  RJE. 218. 432. 3. 62. p. p. v. 1990. See also RJE.67. in other instances the date indicates the year of arrest. 1 .  E. v. N.  RJE. p. Petrov. Petrov. p. 187. p.  G.  RJE. Mosco w: OLMA-Press. 170. (6). p. Functions. 118. 3. v. Petrov. Information Book]. p.  See for example: NV. p.  RJE. From the introduction to the book Taynaya istoriya stalins kikh prestupleniy [The Secret History of Stalin's Crimes] // Vremya i my: Mezhdu narodny zhurnal literatury i obshchestvennykh problem [Epoch and We: Internation al Journal of Literature and Social Problems (henceforth – EW)]. 2. p.  Izvestiya. p. Evrei v apparate VChK-OGPU v 20-e gody [The Jews in the a pparatus of the Cheka-OGPU in the 1920s] // Evrei i russkaya revolyutsia: Materi ali i issledovaniya [Jews and the Russian Revolution]. p.  Izvestiya. 2. Bolshoy Terror [The Great Terror]. p. Spetsoperatsii: Lubyanka i Kreml: 1930s-1950s [Special Op erations: Lubyanka [Prison] and the Kremlin: the 1930s through the 1950s]. 1. 124. Taynaya politika Stalina: Vlast i antisemitizm [Stalin's Secret Policy: Power and Anti-semitism]. v.  Robert Conquest. Bolshoy terror [The Great Terror]. 1992 p. N. . 797-798. funktsii. New York. v. 293. 344. September 27.  The names of those executed and the year of execution are italicized throug hout the text. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnie otnosheniya [In ternational Relations]. p. October 28.  RJE. NKVD: struktura. v. Moscow: Zvenya. p. 1. p. 389. NKVD: struktura. 202. 459. p. 2. 473. 343. 6.  A. Cadres] // Svobodnaya mysl [Free Thought]. Robert Conquest.  Pavel Sudoplatov.  Aleksandr Orlov. Bolshoy Terror [The Great Terror]. K. 1997. p. 22. 311.
(12). 1927] // Novy Mir [New World]. Jahrhunder t. Ivanovich. 202. 160.. p. 66. Petrunkevichu ot 14 Iyunya 1927 [A letter from V. 1. Stalin. p.p. Ukrainsko-evreyskiy dialog [Ukraino-Jewish Dialogue] // "22". Rossiya bez evreyev [Russia without Jews] // "22". Evrei i sovetskaya diktatura [The Jews and the Soviet Dictat orship] // Evreyskiy Mir: Ezhegodnik na 1939 [Jewish World: Yearbook for 1939]. Katuntsev. Suvenirov. Intsident: Podopley ka Khasanskikh sobitiy [The Incident: the Causes of the Lake Khasan Conflict] // Rodina. v. Antisemitizm v Sovetskom Soyuze [Anti-Semitism in the Soviet Union]. 1989. Antisemitizm v Sovetskom Soyuze [Anti-Semitism in the Soviet Union]. 28. v. [The Tragedy of the Red Army: 1937-1938] Moscow. p. 1936. Ivanovich. August 5. p.  Sonja Margolina. New York: Chekov's Publishing House.  New York Times. Uroki proshlogo [Lessons of the Past] // "22". Bolshoy Terror [The Great Terror]. Terra.I. S. p. Das Ende der Lügen: Russland und die Juden im 20. 8. 3. 427-428. 51. See also V.  RJE. Schwartz. Pozner. Tragediya RKKA: 1937-1938. See also Aron Abramovich. p.  RJE. Margolin. p.. p. November 30. Sovetskaya Rossiya [The Soviet Russia] // JW-1. 1952. 9. Tel-Avivskiy bloknot [Tel-Aviv Notebook] // Novoe Russkoe Slo . p. 1. 1988. Vernadskogo I. Tsarinnik. 160. [In the Deciding War] v. 260. 220. 82.  I. Berlin: Siedler Verlag. p. 17. M.: Gospolitizdat. (henceforth — JW-1). p. 1992.  B. 430.M. 107-108. v. [In the Deciding War]. 64-66. p. 84. 3. Sochineniya (v 13 tomakh) [Written Works (in 13 volumes)]. p.  See for example: O. 1946-1951. New York: Chekov's Publishing House. Kots.  Mikhail Kheyfetz. I. p. p. 2. V reshayushchey voyne. (60). 1968. 52. See also Aron Abramovich. (63) . 118. 98-99.  Ibid. 1998. V reshayushchey voyne.  M. 1 989.  Yu.  Pismo V. Paris: Obedinenie russko-evreyskoy intelligentsii [Associatio n of the Russo-Jewish Intelligentsia].M. January 15. p. 50. Evrei i Sovetskaya diktatura [The Jews and the Soviet Dictat orship] // JW-1. 430.  Ibid.  S.  Izvestiya. 51-52. (37).I. 43. Yu. New York. Petrunkevich of June 14. 1931. 44-46.F. Vernadsky to I. Tel-Avivskiy bloknot [Tel-Aviv Notebook] // Novoe Russkoe Slo vo [The New Russian Word].  St.I. 1952. v. 1984.I. 1991.  St. p. 13. (6). Margolin. p.  S. Orlov.  Robert Conquest.V.  S. Schwartz. p.
.  Gershon Svet. 1936. 2. v. 260. p. 173.  S.  Ibid. v. v.M. p. p. Evreiskaya religiya v Sovetskoy Rossii [The Jewish Religion i n Soviet Russia] // BRJ. 216. 173. 179. 58. 181. 179.  Yu. v. p. . 167. p. 1968. 8. 2. Evreyskaya shkola v Sovetskom Soyuze [The Jewish School in the So viet Union] // Kniga o russkom evreystve: 1917-1967 [The Book of Russian Jewry: 1917-1967 (henceforth — BRJ)]. 179. 239 . v.  Yu. p. 190. p. Birobidjan // BRJ.  S. p. p. 178. 214. v. p. p.  SJE.M. 198-199. v. 15. v. 193. 1930. 182-183. July 19. 417.  S. p.. p. 8. 180. p. v.  Izvestiya. 8. 8.  SJE.  S. Mark. (17).  SJE. 145. p. p.  Beni Peled. p. Schwartz. 8.  RJE.vo [The New Russian Word]. 432. 8.  SJE. 170-171.  Ibid.  Ibid. 8.  SJE. p. 2.  Izvestiya. 200. p. 190. p. Mi ne mozhem zhdat eshcho dve tisyachi let! [We Cannot Wait Tw o Thousand Years More!] [Interview] // "22". 1. 209. v. p. Birobidjan // BRJ. v. p. 1968. New York. 176. p. Mark. p.  Izvestiya. 177-78. Schwartz. p. Birobidjan // BRJ. Birobidjan // BRJ.  RJE. v. New York: Association of Russian Jews. 176. 2. 230.  SJE. 3.  Ibid. 1. December 12. p.  SJE. Schwartz. 116. 176. 1981.M.  RJE. 84. 2.. August 5. October 26. p. Schwartz. v. Literatura na idish v Sovetskoy Rossii [Literature in Yiddish in Soviet Russia] // BRJ. 1931. 177. 177. p. 1.  RJE..M.
 SJE. 1929. p. p. p. 198. Moscow.  SJE.  SJE. 138. v.  SJE. Spetsoperatsii: Lubyanka i Kreml: 1930s-1950s [Special O perations: Lubyanka [Prison] and the Kremlin: the 1930s through the 1950s]. 4.  G. 340-345. 1982. p. p.: GIZ. p. L. v. 264. p. Aronson. 477-478. 1995.  Yuriy Elagin. v. Evrei i anti-Semitism v SSSR [The Jews and Anti-Semitism in the USSR]. 277-278. 16. 140-141. p. 190-191.  L. Mosc ow: OLMA-Press.  G. 256-262. p. 8. p. p. v. p. 238-239. 245-246. New York: Khr onika Press. p. 1. Pozner. Mininberg. Evreyskiy vopros v epokhu Stalina [The Jewish Question in the Stalin's Era] // BRJ. v. Taynaya politika Stalina [The Secret Policy of Stalin]. 108. 277. 2.. New York: Ermitazh. Aronson. p. 1997. Sovetskaya Rossiya [The Soviet Russia] // JW-1. 8.  SJE. p. 245. 393-394. 397. v. Kostirchenko.  Pavel Sudoplatov. p. 190.  RJE. 4. 2. p. O pravde i terpimosti [Of Truth and Tolerance]. Ukroshchenie iskusstv [Conquest of the Arts] / Introduction by M.. v.  Ibid.  Ibid. Larin. v.  SJE.  G. 137  Yu. 150.L.  Ibid. p. p. 8. 1988.  Lev Kopelev. SJE.  RJE. p. p .  RJE. 116.. Rostropovich.  S.. v.  Ibid.  Gershon Svet. p. 5. 4. M. v. . Evreyskiy vopros v epokhu Stalina [The Jewish Question in the Stalin's Era] // BRJ. 1.  SJE. 190. 275. p. Sovetskie evrei v nauke i promishlennosti SSSR v period Vt oroi mirovoi voyny (1941-1945) [Soviet Jews in the Soviet Science and Industry d uring the Second World War (1941-1945)]. 56-57. v. Evrei v russkoy muzikalnoy culture v sovetskiy period [The J ews in Russian Musical Culture in the Soviet Period] // BRJ. p. 19.
486. Schwartz. Kulisher. London.  The Sentinel. 381 Goodwood Rd.5. 226. 1946. 2. p. v. Australia ph +61 7 41262296 [in Australia: 07 41262296] http://mailstar. 111-112. 121-122. 8. April 12. 191.M. XXXXIII. Schwartz. 27 June. 33-34. p. New York: Chekov's Publishing House. Pochemu oni kayalis [Why They Repented] // EW. April 11. v. Intelligence agencies may p dissidents (for possessing child pornography. They'd rat revealing some inconvenient t after which he was jailed for . Chicago. 3. 3.  I. 2.  S. Vol. Antisemitizm v Sovetskom Soyuze [Anti-Semitism in the Sovie t Union]. v. 221-222.net/index. Evreyskiy vopros v epokhu Stalina [The Jewish Question in the Stalin's Era] // BRJ. 1985 . Alexander Weissberg. p.  Lev Trotsky.M. p. Conspiracy of Silence. Peter Myers. 401.  Izvestiya. 2.M. 114.  E. my photo") or sex. 4. 196. See also R JE. being incompat ible.  S. April 7. (13). v. 1 944. p. 8. Evrei v Sovetskom Soyuze s nachala Vtoroi mirovoi voyny (19 39-1965) [Jews in the Soviet Union after the Beginning of the Second World War ( 1939-1965)].  SJE. Shekhman. p. p. p.  S. v. 410. 359-360. New York: Publication of the American Jewish Workers Committee. Sheinis. Litvinov. 141. Izgnanie i deportatsiya evreev [The Expulsion and Deportation of the Jews] // Evreiskiy mir [The Jewish World]. 1952. p. 15. 259. p. p. 191. p. or her discredit you that way. p. it cannot run Windows viruses or transmit them to you. than prosecute you for ruth.  RJE. 196 6. p. 1952.  SJE. 1931. p. v. Childers Qld 4660. p. p. 61-62. 660. v. p.M.html I use (by choice) the old Mac OS. Evrei v Sovetskom Soyuze s nachala Vtoroi mirovoi voyny (19 39-1965) [Jews in the Soviet Union after the Beginning of the Second World War ( 1939-1965)]. Moscow. 2 (henceforth—JW-2). (87). 1992. Poslednie dni [The Last Days] // Sovershenno Se kretno [Top Secret].  G. Mordecai Vanunu was lured by a "honey trap".  SJE. Aronson. New Yor k: Soyuz russkikh evreyev v New Yorke [The Union of Russian Jews in New York]. (4). New York. M. New York: Publication of the American Jewish Workers Committee.  RJE. Sovetskoe evreystvo v germano-sovetskoy voyne [Soviet Jewry i n the Russo-German War] // JW-2. p. Schwartz.  Z. Never respond to emails offering pornography ("see k on links they provide. 196 6. 1. p. v. never clic be using them to lure and tra sex with a minor). 4.
re ply with "unsubscribe" in the subject line. Don't try to fight the government with guns . If my b ulletins do not arrive.please ring me: this helps beat sabotage. . Failing that . Filters (ostensibly to trap porn) may be used to censor this newsletter. To unsubscribe. Y our most potent weapon is information . and he never even got the honey. allow 1 day. if not there.that's what Big Brother is really scared of.that just gives them an excuse for getting rid of you. check your Spam. Junk & Trash folders.and if your mail to me keeps bouncing . ask your Internet Provider about their filters.18 years (11 solitary).
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