Practical Guide TO Good EARTHING
The current path passes into the first sheath immediately adjacent to the earth rod and then into the second sheath which is of a larger cross-section with a greater area for current flow. it is this resistance at the interface where the current leaves the earth rod and flows into the main body of the earth that is important and explains why soil resistivity tests are very necessary in order to secure lowest overall resistance. rock. In view of all the above factors. 2. Factors chiefly affecting soil resistivity are 1. sand. In many locations soil can be quite homogenous. by the resistivity of the soil surrounding the earth rod. And so on into a succession of sheaths or shells of ever increasing area. soil temperatures below freezing greatly increase soil resistivity. and it is the resistance of the varying strata. loam. To convert Ohm metres to Ohm centimetres. See Table 2 for variations of soil resistivity with moisture content. 3. However. etc. silt. moisture. shale. Other factors Other soil properties conducive to low resistivity are chemical composition.clay. and an increase of only a few percent of moisture content in a normally dry soil will markedly decrease soil resistivity. and because of this. 2. To maintain the proper function of the electrical system. and 3. that is important in securing a good electrical earth. the area of current dissipation becomes so large. it passes from a low resistance metal into an immediate area of high resistance soil. The earthing of an electrical installation has two purposes 1. requiring earth rods to be driven to even greater depths. one Ohm metre being the resistivity the soil has when it has a resistance of one Ohm between the opposite faces of a cube of soil having one metre sides. For example. Type of soil Soil composition can be . 1
Principal factors affecting soil resistivity
Fig. of ever decreasing resistance. and therefore.5 Ohm metres. Soil resistivity usually decreases with depth. especially at sub-soil level and lower where the moisture content is not subject to drying out. Measurements show that 90% of the total resistance around an earth rod is within a radius of three metres. Soil resistivity (specific resistance of the soil) is usually measured in Ohm metres. In the other extreme. Reference to Figures 1 and 2 depict what happens when a current flows from an earth rod into the surrounding earth. Refer Table 1 for typical soil resistivity values.Section 1 The Basics of Earthing
What is “Earthing”? Earthing may be described as a system of electrical connections to the general mass of earth. multiply by 100. dry sand in elevated areas can have values as high as 10. Climate Obviously arid and good rainfall climates are at opposite extremes for conditions of soil resistivity. by the resistance of the earth rod and connecting conductors. Eventually at a distance of three or four metres. Conversely. When an electrical current passes into the soil from a buried earth rod. The characteristic primarily determining the effectiveness of an earth electrode is the resistance which it provides between the earthing system and the general mass of earth. 4.
Purpose of Earthing
Chief requirement of good Earthing is low soil resistivity
The Earth Path
Fig. as well as providing good conditions for a closely packed soil in good contact with the earth rod. while other locations may be mixtures of these soil types in varying proportions. All have much to do with retention of soil moisture. Very often soil composition is in layers or strata. The areas of resistance can be described as being that of a number of sheaths of ever increasing diameters. gravel.000 Ohm metres. of lower resistance than the first sheath. by its contact resistance between the earth rod and the surrounding soil. and the current density so small. The resistance of the earth path is determined 1. and Table 3 for variations of soil resistivity with temperature. Soil resistivity varies greatly from one location to another. Seasonal conditions The effects of heat. 2. 2
. stones. drought and frost can introduce wide variations in “normal” soil resistivity. soil around the banks of a river have a resistivity in the order of 1. To provide protection for persons or animals against the danger of electric shock. The other unit commonly used is the Ohm centimetre. there is a large variation of soil resistivity between different soil types and moisture contents. grain distribution and homogeneous grain size. the resistance at this point is negligible. soil ionisation.
000 25. sandstones.000 to 50.5 5 10 15 20 30 10.000 to 30.000 to 100.000 10. resistance measurements are taken at increasing spacings (e. Best results are achieved when the spacing of the parallel earth rods is greater than their depth. 6 Typical curve of apparent soil resistivity for 3 layer soils
. Measuring soil resistivity Figure 4 illustrates the simple test setup for measuring soil resistivity. 4m.000 40 to 10. depth must be less than 100mm. a soil resistivity versus depth profile can be drawn as shown in Figures 5 and 6.000 50. As a general rule. i. Refer to the instrument manufacturer’s manual on how to carry out the test. they can be generally categorised as three-terminal or four-terminal test instruments.
Table 1 Resistivity Values for Several Types of Soils and Water Typical Resistivity Ωm 2 40 50 100 120 150 250 2.300
Spacing (m) (Depth)
Fig. etc Peat.000 Lower layer more conductive Apparent soil resistivity (Ohm/m)
Spacing (m) (Depth)
Fig. slates.000 Type of Soil or Water Sea Water Clay Ground well and spring water Clay and sand mixtures Shale. 3
‘a’ ‘a’ centre ‘a’
Depth ‘a’ 20
C1 P1 P2 C2
Fig. etc).A Practical Guide to Good Earthing
Every earth is an individual and the only way to know that an earthing installation meets code requirements is to carry out proper resistance measurements on site. Always ensure that the spacing between individual test probes are identical.000 3. 4
The use of the resistivity at probe spacing “a” metres as the average resistivity to a depth of “a” metes is a good enough approximation for most circumstances.500 430 185 105 63 42 --3.000. 5 Typical curve of apparent soil resistivity for 2 layer soils
Middle layer less conductive Lower layer more conductive Apparent soil resistivity (Ohm/m)
Table 2 Variations of Soil Resistivity with Moisture Content Typical Value of Resistivity Ωm Moisture Content Clay mixed with sand Sand % of Weight 0 2. earth rods should be installed in parallel to obtain a lower resistance reading. loam and mud Lake and brook water Sand Morane gravel Ridge gravel Solid granite Ice Usual Limit Ωm 0.000 100. The test results give a resistivity profile of the earth beneath the surface.000. A four-terminal instrument is required for soil resistivity.000 15. a = 2m. However. 2. the distance between the earth rod under test and the current probe “C” is not less than 15 metres. keeping the centre position the same.000 3. Now. From the calculation. 1. The profile can be used to identify where low resistivity soil occurs so that appropriate installation techniques can be used. 3m.e. There are a variety of test instruments available.000 1.100 630 290 ---
Table 3 Variation of Resistivity with Temperature in a Mix of Sand and Clay with a Moisture Content of about 15% by Weight Temperature Typical Value of Resistivity oC Ωm 20 10 0 (Water) o (Ice) -5 -15 72 99 138 300 790 3.000 2.000 5 to 250 100 to 400 200 to 3. The soil resistivity can be obtained from the following formula: where ρ = 2π a R (Ohm metres) ρ = apparent soil resistivity a = spacing of probes in metres R = resistance value in Ohms (as indicated on the tester)
Site Testing Essential
Potential (P) Probe Current (C) Probe Depth 300 to 500mm Earth rod under test
C1 P1 P2 C2
Fig. As the soil resistivity decreases with depth.g.000 10. Measuring resistance Figure 3 illustrates the test setup for measuring the resistance in Ohms between the installed earth rod and the general mass of earth.1 to 10 8 to 70 10 to 150 4 to 300 10 to 1. The probes are installed in a straight line with an equal spacing of “a” metres and inserted to a depth of no more than a/20 metres. If the soil resistivity increases with depth. for spacing of 2 metres. deep driving earth rods are recommended.
Mechanically. proven in laboratory testing and experience in service. it can be seen from the curve. While the the A key feature of Dulmison’s extendable rods rods low low profile of the couplings. its physical properties should exhibit strength. Extendable Earth Rod Coupling Systems A key feature of PLP’s extendable earthearth is theis theprofile of the couplings.Section 2 About Earth Rods
Types of Earth Rods At one time or another. corrosion resistant material. This is because it is not the actual area of contact with the soil that counts. PLP has had wide experience in the design design and production of a of copper and Dulmison has had wide experience in the and production of a variety variety of copper and stainless steel clad earth rods for domestic. The elimination of coupling “bulges” enables close soil contact throughout the entire length of the electrode. the current trend proven itself with years of reliable service. Close soil contact will allow true earth resistance readings and may eliminate the need to drive deeper in order to obtain the desired result. Additionally.1 ) Ohms d 2πL
Shell area ‘A’ 1. industrial and substation applications. 8
Note that if the diameter of the earth rod is halved (or doubled). Large diameter rods may be more difficult to drive than smaller diameter rods. tubes.5 6. Steel core Earth Rods have the best attributes Electrically. its connection to the earthing system is easily made. 7
20 Resistance in Ohms 15 10 5
R = resistance of earth rod in Ohms ρ = soil resistivity in Ohm metres L = length of earth rod in metres d = diameter of earth rod in metres
The curve shown in Fig.0 Length of electrode in metres
Fig. metallic rod. wire and water pipe.24 m2 2. the current trend to a tapered coupling.) The resistance of an earthing installation by an earth rod is calculated according to the following formula: R= Where ρ ( ln ( 8L ) . copper strip. The range stainless steel clad earth rods for domestic.5% increase
Shell area ‘C’ 2.
1. so much as the total resistance area of the sheath or shell surrounding the earth rod. with the use of deep driving techniques. ease and economy of installation and overall reliability. extendable earth rods have been developed to reach underlying strata of low permanent resistivity unaffected by seasonal drying. into the deeper levels of moist soil. The usual practice is to select a diameter of earth rod which will have enough strength to enable it to be driven into the particular soil conditions without bending or splitting. a good earth rod should have a low intrinsic resistance and be of sufficient section to carry high currents without damage when called upon. This is an important consideration in dry/arid countries (such as Australia). the resistance is changed by some 121/2%.21 m2
Shell area ‘B’ 1. the steel rod clad with either copper or stainless steel has proven its superiority over all others. These materials range from cast iron plates.5 3. industrial and substation applications. The range includes the specially designed extendable earth rods which may be joined end to end to reach includes the specially designed extendable earth rods which may be joined end to end to reach into the deeper levels of moist soil.
. Earth Rod length more important than Rod diameter
510mm 250mm 520mm 250mm 510mm 250mm
Apart from considerations of mechanical strength. have a rigid core for easy driving and be of durable. Taking into account conductivity. galvanised steel stakes. The clad steel rod is simple to install. This single piece taper coupling quick and easy to fit to the earth is to a tapered coupling. a much more dramatic effect is obtained by increasing the length of the earth rod. and the installation is readily accessible for inspection and test. 8 is based upon this formula where the earth resistance using a 25mm diameter earth rod is plotted against its length for soil having a resistivity of 10 Ohm metres. While flush (pin and sleeve) coupling has proven itself with years of reliable service. Both the flush and taper coupling designs provide excellent electrical connection rod. there is little advantage to be gained from increasing the earth rod diameter with the object in mind of increasing surface area in contact with the soil. This single piece taper coupling isis quick and easy to fit to the earth rod. (Refer paragraph “The Earth Path”. By comparison. where it may take some time for the soil to close back about the electrode. Both the flush and taper coupling designs provide excellent electrical connection as as proven in laboratory testing and experience in service.0 4. The depth to which an earth rod is driven has much more influence on its electrical resistance characteristics than has its diameter.01 m2 66% increase
Fig. high resistance to atmospheric corrosion and soil attack. all manner of conductor materials and shapes have been installed in the ground to provide an electrical earth.
brings it into widespread use throughout the electrical industry in Australia and around the world. for examination. NSW for 10 years.
. e. the cladding operation imparts an extra toughness to the stainless steel through work hardening. rod separation. at magnification after 10 years in in salt-laden soil. at 4x 4x magnification after 10 years salt-laden soil. was submitted to Metal Manufacturers Limited. Where the earthed item needs to be protected against galvanic attack and corrosion. The report read in part: “As you can see. do not follow the law of resistance in parallel as their earth conducting paths overlap . reproduced here at 4x magnification shows no circumferential irregularities indicating sheath corrosion. 2. there are certain soils where it is inadvisable to use copper. the installation of multiple earth rods at sufficient distances apart takes up a large area. fewer rods coupled together for deep driving will achieve a lower resistance than the same number in parallel. configuration of earth rods and soil resistivity. and its inherent low resistance. such as in tidal lands. swamps and land filled with ashes. The permanence of copper in most soils. rod length. section of copper sheathed Dulmison earth rod described above. NSW for 10 years. was submitted to Metal Manufacturers Limited. near Sydney. However. PLP stainless steel earth rods have a high resistance to both atmospheric and soil and soil Dulmison stainless steel earth rods have a high resistance to both atmospheric clad with an austenitic grade stainless steel having a chromium content corrosion. etc. PLP copper clad earth rod which had been installed installed on the shores of Botany Bay at A Dulmison copper clad earth rod which had been on the shores of Botany Bay at Sans Souci.see explanation under “Earth Path”. The earth rod spacing should not be less than the earth rod length to avoid overlap of resistance areas. labour and equipment. involves long cabling and many connections.g. salt marshes. Etching and examination at 100x magnification confirmed this. its resistance to chemical attack and corrosion. Port Kembla. coke breeze and like materials.A Practical Guide to Good Earthing
The combined resistance of parallel rods is a complex function of the number of rods. Typical of the applications where PLP stainless steel clad earth rods are favoured over over Typical of the applications where Dulmison stainless steel clad earth rods are favoured copper clad are 1.as per conditions described above. being clad with an austenitic grade stainless steel having a chromium content of of approximately 17%. Sans Souci. Test shows no “detectable corrosion” (after 10 years in salty soil) Copper vs Stainless Steel Earth Rod length more important than number of rods in parallel
CrossCross section of copper sheathed PLP earth rod described above. unless spaced well apart. 3. lead sheathed cables. Where the chemical composition of the soil reacts more unfavourably than copper . NSW. This is because multiple earth rods. there has not been any detectable corrosion of the copper sheathing. In most cases. all adding up to higher costs in time. Where the tougher sheathing of stainless steel will provide for a more durable and rigid earth rod better suited to hard driving conditions than its copper counterpart. near Sydney. rod diameter.” The cross section. steel poles. Moreover. Accordingly.
carried over into into PLP’s range of philosophy has been Dulmison’s range of earthing connectors. Numbers Pack/Bulk Qty 13 1440 SNE1314 10/500 13 1800 SNE1318 5/500
DHT15 5/25 MDH15K Each MDH15A Each MDH15AC Each
STE Series Stainless Steel Clad Rods Rod Length 1200 1440 1800 2400 3000 Coupling Point Star Point 13mm Dia. Numbers Pack/Bulk Qty 1440 CNE1314 10/500 13 1800 CNE1318 5/500 13 1800 CNE1518 5/500 15 2400 CNE1524 5/500 15 Type LGR SNE Series Stainless Steel Clad Rods Rod Diameter Rod Length Cat. Example: D-CNE 13 14. ThisThis of construction austenitic stainless steel.Types CTE and STE The simplest of all extendable earth rods to install is the taperlock earth rod. They are not prone to de-alloying or stress corrosion which can compatible with the earth rod core and sheath. Each rod incorporates an integral driving point.Section 3 Everything for Earthing
Earth Rods . in Earthing Handbook This design philosophy has been carried over situations.
Domestic Rod Pack . In fact. Taperlock coupled earth rods present slim profile (less than 1mm deviation) to ensure minimal soil displacement. This designearthing connectors. type type of construction provides the rods with high mechanical strength for driving provides the rods with high mechanical strength for driving and good resistance to corrosion.16mm2 Certificate of Suitability CS571N
CNE Series Copper Clad Rods Rod Diameter Rod Length Cat.
CTE Series Copper Clad Rods
Rod Pack/ Pack/ Pack/ Length 13mm Dia.labour and materials • are 100% Australian made . Bulk Qty 1200 1440 1800 2000 2400 3000 CTE1312 CTE1314 CTE1318 --CTE1324 CTE1330 10/500 10/500 5/500 --5/500 1/50 CTE1512 CTE1514 CTE1518 --CTE1524 CTE1530 10/500 --10/500 --5/500 ----CTE1920 5/500 --1/40 ---
Earth Rod Accessories
Coupling CCT13 10/100 CCT15 10/100 Point DPT13 50/200 DPT15 50/200 Star Point SDP13T 10/100 SDP15T 10/100 Driving Accessories Hand Kango 950 A/C Tex 11 A/C Cobra
CCT19 DPT19 ---
10/50 10/50 ---
Domestic earth rod clip EC13D. The flat tip was developed for rigidity of cold drawn steel.CNE1314T 10 pcs/pk CNE1314 Domestic earth rod 10 pcs/pk EC13D Earth clip
Extendable Earth Rods Taperlock Coupled .labour and materials All PLP couplings are made from stable materials compatible with the earth rod core from stable materials All Dulmison couplings are madeand sheath. They are not prone affect earthing fittings that have beenwhich from adversely to de-alloying or stress corrosion made can adversely affect earthing fittings that have been made from inferior materials such as brass. machined (not ground) to preserve the strength and and (not ground) to preserve the strength rigidity of cold drawn steel.9kA peak with appreciable effect to to the rod itself appreciable effect the rod itself • Have bonded-for-life cladding • have bonded-for-life cladding • Have consistent OD throughout length ensuring fit of • have consistent OD AS1882 earth clips comply withthroughout length ensuring fit of earth clips comply with AS1882 • Can be formed around footings without damage to cladding or core around footings without damage to • can be formed cladding or core • Are 100% Australian made . A single blow is all that is required to lock the rod and coupling together. penetrating all types of soil.. the Earthing inferior materials such as the use In brass theburied Handbook expressly forbids brass. of fact. Available in either copper or stainless steel clad rod. earth rods. Bulk Qty 19mm Dia. Non Extendable Earth Rods PLP manufacture a broad range of non extendable Dulmison manufacture a broad range of non extendable earth rods. Bulk Qty 15mm Dia.General PLP earth rods rods have a structural steel core Dulmison earth have a structural steel core with anwith an outer cladding of of either electrolytic copper copper or cladding either electrolytic pure pure or austenitic stainless steel. The flat tip was developed for penetrating all types of soil.LGR1945 1/20 1/20 1/20 1/20 1/20
Driving Accessories Hand Kango 950 A/C Tex 11 A/C Cobra
DHT15 MDH15K MDH15A D. STE1412 STE1415 STE1418 STE1424 STE1430 SCT15 DPT15 SDP15T
Earth Rod Accessories
Consult office for additional information &/or sizes
Commercial/Industrial LGR Series 19mm Copper Clad Rods* Rod Length Catalogue Number Pack/Bulk Qty 1800 2400 3000 3600 4500 LGR1918 LGR1924 LGR1930 LGR1936 D. The coupling is a single piece with taper matching that of the rod. Suitable for cables in the range 6 . STE1312 STE1314 STE1318 STE1324 STE1330 SCT13 DPT12 SDP12T Pack/ Bulk Qty 10/500 10/500 5/500 5/500 1/50 10/100 50/200 10/100
Pack/ Bulk Qty 10/500 10/500 5/500 5/500 1/40 10/100 50/200 10/100
5/25 Each Each Each
* Add (D-) in front of all part numbers. there are a variety of sizes to meet all situations. The extremities of the rod terminate in identical tapers. This is ideally suited to light sandy soil conditions where there is little driving resistance from the soil. Each rod incorporates an integral driving point. expressly forbids the use of brass in buried situations.
. Dulmison Earth Rods PLP Earth Rods • are Energy Authority approved around Australia and • Are Energy Authority approved around Australia and the South Pacific the South Pacific • Are tested to to 5kA fault current9kA peak with nono • are tested 5kA fault current . and good resistance to corrosion.
No. A secure and non-detachable joint is achieved by means of the pin’s convolute expanding and deforming the ends of the rod into the coupling sleeve as the rods are driven together.
SDE Series Stainless Steel Clad Rods Rod Length 14mm Dia. High expansion. extendable in 1440mm lengths. The ends of the rod are identical.Type SDE (Telstra) Telstra designed and approved earth rod featuring corrosion resistant stainless steel clad rods. This can mean a reduction in the number of rods required to achieve a specific resistance value. ERB1 Aluminium alloy casting
CCE1512 CCE1514 CCE1518 CCE1524 CCE1530
Cat. Gypsum. Dry mix will yield a volume of approximately 0. Gypsum. Coupling is via a two piece arrangement comprising copper sleeve and hardened steel pin.Type CCE This flush jointed. No. Effective contact is established along the entire length of the driven electrode from day one.
15mm Dia. high conductivity providing long term low ground resistance. CCE1312 CCE1314 CCE1318 CCE1324 CCE1330 Pack/ Bulk Qty 10/500 10/500 5/500 5/500 1/50
Connection Boxes These enclosures provide a tidy means of protecting the connection of the main earth conductor to the earth rod. ERB3 Polymer concrete
Earth Rod Accessories Coupling Point Star Point CCA13 DP13 SDP13 10/100 25/200 10/100
CCA15 DP15 SDP15
Earthing Enhancement Compounds
Cat. The coupling system comprises of a stainless steel sleeve and hardened steel pin having a raised convolution at the midpoint. Slurry will yield a volume of approximately 0. No. Manufactured from high strength aluminium alloy or polymer concrete. with either 13mm or 15mm nominal diameter. low shrink characteristics. having a reduced section with precision drilled hole. The whole coupling mechanism finishes flush with the main body of the rod. copper clad earth rod series is available in a variety of lengths to 3000mm. Natural Gypsum Conforms to
5/30 Each Each Each 100
Stable. noncorrosive. Expansion Jointed . Pin Lock Pack/Bulk Qty 1440 SDE1414L 10/500 Coupling Point Star Point Hand Coupling Tool Earth Rod Accessories C14L DP14 SDP14D Driving Accessories DH14 CT14
Installation: Apply as a dry mix or pourable slurry.
CCE Series Copper Clad Rods Rod Length 1200 1440 1800 2400 3000 13mm Dia. Hinged covers allow easy access for inspection or testing.
Pack/ Bulk Qty 10/500 10/500 5/500 5/500 1/40 Cat.0176m3 (roughly 57 bags to the cubic metre). Sodium Sulphate Conforms to AS2239
Driving Accessories Hand Kango 950 A/C Tex 11 A/C Cobra Drive Pin DH15 MDH15DF MDH15AF MDH15C MDP10M
EARTHRITE Bentonite.030m3 when mixed with 20 to 25 litres of water (roughly 33 bags to the cubic metre)
25/75 50/200 10/100 5/30 5/25
* Add (D-) in front of all part numbers. Non-toxic. they are well suited to use in high traffic areas. Sodium Sulphate N/A EARTH5050 Calcium. EARTHFIL
25/100 50/200 10/100
. plastic lined bags. Bentonite. Example: D-CNE 13 14.A Practical Guide to Good Earthing
Extendable Earth Rods Flush Jointed .
Packaging: 20kg non-tear.
Pack Qty Cat No. C70
Cat. of Fig Cat Pack No.
Fig.120 5.19 13 .6 7.1 .7. 100 GRC5 CLAMP210 10/50 EP1 40
Single Conductor .14.9 .9 .Versatile These clamps are designed for either parallel or right angle connections. stable and low resistance path to earth.21
Pack Qty 25 20 10 10
Rod Dia.6 .10 .630mm2 Bonding cable 70mm2 3 sec current rating 10kA Lug diameter 10mm Terminal thread M10 Thread depth 20mm
* Add (D-) in front of all part numbers. as illustrated.17.19 50 . spring washers and nuts.35 4.7 2 2 ET2 15 13 . No. these pinch and U Bolt type clamps have a vee groove embodied in the casting to accommodate the earthing cable.2
Multiple Conductor Installations for multi-conductor earthing For 2 earth conductors parallel to rod or 2 or 3 earth conductors at right angles to rod.19 16 .9 .35 50 .10 .2 2 1 ET1 25 13 .14.65 13 .1 . EARTHMAT
Description Material: Galvanised mild steel Size: 1500mm x 900mm Mesh: 76mmx 50mm Installation kit for type RDB rotary switches with earth switch.Section 3 Everything for Earthing
Earth Rod Clamps Single Conductor .15 10 .9 .05 .19 13 . Example: D-CNE 13 14.7. Material: Copper alloy casting.19 50 . Material: High copper content alloy castings with stainless steel U-bolt.7 .
Mains cable 50 .15
Conductor Size csa mm2 Diameter mm 16 . mm 13 .7 8.
. No.35 5. EP3 20 13 .15 16 .1 .14.2 2 2 ET4 10 13 .Parallel Simple and robust. Material: High copper content alloy castings with stainless steel U-bolt.120 150 .2 3 3
Earth Mats Earth mats and installation kits Kit Earthmat
Earthing Bond For commercial earthing installations C70 The Earthing Bond system provides an earth connection welded to the steel reinforcement.14.19 50 .120 8.2 15. mm csa mm2 Dia.14. bronze set screw or stainless steel U-bolt and nuts.7.120 8. GB1 GB2 GB3 EL21090
Rod Dia. mm Conductors No.120 5.7.19 16 . 1 Fig. spring washers and nuts.14.7 2 1 EP4 20 13 .
Cat.19 16 . 3
Rod Conductor Size No. 2 Fig.120 8.185 35 .
Cat No.14.35 5. thus offering a virtually indestructible.19 12 .21 17 . Conductor Size mm csa mm2 Diameter mm 13 . Qty Dia.120 5.
95 95 . 15. a number of various combinations of conductor sizes and grid connections arrangements are readily accommodated. mm Cross section mm2 Conductors Blank Blank 50 . • Easy identification . mm2
Catalogue Pack Qty No.by means of length of bare stranded copper cable.95
Application to Earthing Grid Systems By joining two Compress-On connectors . • Pre-coated with Coppalube .One crimp from a standard compression tool • Range taking .120 Open Section
70 . the CEC connector is fitted by use of standard compression tools to form a dependable.70 13 .
Consult office for additional information and/or sizes
CEC15000 CEC15035 CEC15070 CEC15120
50 40 40 50
Tap off Conductor Die Set Dia. • All weather application .0 95 .Identical material to the conductor eliminates problems caused by electrolytic corrosion and the corrosive effects to some soil.
.50 70 .A specially formulated jointing compound heavily laden with copper particles. exclude moisture and resist rotation of the connector on the earth rod. to increase the mechanical and electrical integrity of the connection.15mm dia.40 DU1315 or Earthrods 11.120mm2 8. Features and benefits • Simple installation . tamper-proof joint from conductor to earth rod or buried earthing cable.50 50 . Installation notes • Standard “C” head compression tool of minimum 12 tonne capacity recommended • Full compressive force of the tool is utilised as application is not limited by die halves meeting.For cleanliness and ease of handling. • Individually packed .Current carrying capacity greater than that of the conductor • Corrosion resistant .A Practical Guide to Good Earthing
CEC Connectors A heavy duty compression connector for earth rods and conductors PLP CEC CEC connectors were specifically developed to dissipate surges of high fault current Dulmison connectors were specifically developed to dissipate surges of high fault current and effectively to limit potential damage to equipment.35 70 . and to and to quickly and effectively to limit any any potential damage to equipment.70 70 .safeguardsafeguard personnel close to that equipment.
Catalogue Pack Conductor Qty Combination No.50 70 . Example: D-CNE 13 14.Each CEC connector is clearly stamped with the appropriate catalogue number.either of the same or of different catalogue numbers .From 35mm2 to 120mm2 (13 to 15mm diameter earth rods) • Connector design .0 50 .
* Add (D-) in front of all part numbers.4 25 .50 50 .This connector may be installed in damp or fire risk areas with no adverse effects on the joint or the environment. Manufactured from pure wrought copper. conductor size and installation die reference. are quickly and economically made. personnel close to that equipment. but the pressure release valve in the tool • Regular use of a load test cell to confirm compression performance of the tool is recommended. and more to the point.
On short circuit tests the conductors A connection not affected melt before the Cadweld connection. that of the 2. No. No. Cadweld is ideal for on-site welding of connections to a and cargo loading areas. The could be hazardous. A CadweldSpecial stainless steel ‘drive fit’ protective cap • conductors Cat. a ribbed design affording a fast and positive earthing The heavy dutymeans of has a ribbed design affording a and cargo loading areas. i. • Extendable for deep driving adjacent insulation or tube wall strength. Bronze Mild steel Copper Copper to . No. No. 4. that of the A connection with a high for further details • connected conductors. No. anconnection without contact pressures to loosen or corrode . A connection not affected by high current surges. Consult office for technical information. melt before the Cadweld connection.Section 3 Section 3 Everything for Earthing Everything for Earthing
The Cadweld Connection The Cadweld Connection Airport Earthing Terminal
conductors 2.e. Although the Survey and Mapping temperatures reached is a effect this weld are extremely high.that is in most cases. conductors Consult office current carrying capacity equal to or greater than. portable and positive earthing connection ideal for on-site lead connector clips. servicing generation of static electricity heavy duty capping i.the Furseweld connection is A integral part of the conductor system. fast and positive earthing connection bycopper cladding. portable and extremely fast. 3.to connections fast and by means of earth wide range of metals as follows Copper Copper to .Mild steel Material: Solid steel core overlaid with copper cladding. 3. Material: Solid steel core overlaid with copper cladding. twice that of the connected connection provides area 1. No.the Furseweld connection is A connection without contact pressures 4. new release flush fitted static terminal Cat.stainless secures datumprotective cap • Special F20634 steel ‘drive fit’ permanence • Cat. A connection with a high 3. Installation procedure: Drive electrode into ground to required depth. connection by capping earth lead connector clips. Consult Cadweld Connections The “Forever Connection” for office for technical information. servicing Type AET of static electricity for the earthing of airport tarmac areas where any and cargo loading areas. AET1918 For static electricity earthing . No. new release flush fitted static terminal Cat.
Illustrated here are just a few of the many uses for Cadweld applicable to earthing. AET1918 contained For heavy duty industrial equipment • Are self • Electrical systems earthing • Require no gas welding equipment • The cathodic of heavy dutyplant and installations protection of industrial equipment • Require no arc cylinders • The earthing Standard of plant and installations • Require no gas cylinders Require no external power • Busbar connections length: 1800mm. other lengths to• special order Pack Qty: 15source • The cathodic protection • Electric connections communication systems • external power source • Busbar transport andelectrodes provide for the earthingRequire notarmac areas where any Type AET of airport • Electric transport and of static electricity could be hazardous. AET1918F About the Cadweld Connection A Cadweld connection is a true fusion. AET1918 Standard length: 1800mm. On short circuit tests the conductors melt before the Cadweld connection.Cat. Although fast A Cadweld connection to true fusion.Cat. has aircraft refuelling. lead connectorcap.e. that of the connected conductors.e. AET1918F Also available. new release flush fitted static terminal Cat. other lengths to special order Pack Qty: 15 Type AET electrodes provide for the earthing of airport tarmac areas where any generationelectrodes provide could be hazardous. by high current surges. Also available. i. AET1918F Survey and Mapping Datum Marks Survey and Mapping Datum Marks SDE Series 14mm rods SDE Series 14mm rods • Stainless steel for permanence • Stainless steel for permanence Extendable for deep driving • Extendablemachine driven Manual or for deep driving • Manual stainless steel ‘drive fit’ protective cap Special or machine driven Cat. Cadweld contained The “Forever Connection” • Are self Connections • Electrical systems earthing for • Require no arc welding equipment • The earthing ofstatic electricity earthing .Stainless steel Installation procedure: Drive Copper cladinto ground to required depth. an integral part of the conductor system. Remove Installation procedure: Drive cap and into flush. current carrying capacity equal to or greater than. the connection surfaces is considerablySDE Series theoftotal amount of heat or soldering the connection surfaces is (a matter of less than that a comparable brazing applied to operation. The heavy a ribbed a wide range of metals extremely fast. heavy bronze cap. No. protruding portion of rod above cap and finish flush. twice that of the connected 1. servicing communication systems generation Simple. cap and finish Copper clad steel Brass About the Cadweld Connection Also available.Cat. seconds) 14mm rods considerably less than that of a comparable brazing or soldering operation. aircraft refuelling. connected conductors. A connection with a high current carrying capacity equal to or greater than. or molecular weld of virtually pure copper. Consult Illustrated here are just a few office for technical information. Material: Solid steel core overlaid with means of earth heavy bronze clips. Remove protruding portion of rod above electrodefinish ground to required depth. to loosen or corrode . Illustrated here are just a few of the many uses for Cadweld applicable to earthing.the Furseweld connection is an integral part of the conductor system. Thus it is thatStainless steel for and thin walled tube may be Cadwelded without detriment to • insulated cables permanence adjacent insulation or tube wall and thin walled tube may be Cadwelded without detriment to Thus it is that insulated cables strength. Cadweld is duty capping haswelding ofdesign affording a as follows Simple. or molecular weld of virtually process itself is so the Datum Marks (a matter of reached tothe total amount are heat applied to the process itself is so fast temperatures seconds) effect this weld of extremely high. Remove electrode steel Brass Stainless steel Bronze Monel metal protruding portion of rod aboveGalvanized steel flush. On short circuit tests the conductors 4. For static electricity earthing . A connection with a F20634 secures datum permanence 2. thepure copper. aircraft refuelling. No. cross sectional area that is in most cases. A connection not affected by high current surges. other lengths to special order Pack Qty: 15 Standard length: 1800mm.of the many uses for Cadweld applicable to earthing.office for securesdetails permanence Consult F20634 further datum • Consult office for further details
Galvanized steel Monel metal
Airport Earthing Terminal Airport Earthing Terminal
. A connection without contact pressures to loosen or corrode . heavy bronze cap. The CadweldManual or machine driven • connection provides for The connection with a cross sectionalfor .
A thick. a heavy duty hammer. 900 or 950 and similar weight equipment suitable for light driving to medium depths . More often than not. There are a variety of methods for driving earth rods into the ground from the simple hand held hammer to power operated mobile rigs.typical are Atlas Copco.e. Cobra. The Mechanical Hammer. While it may be possible to maintain this when manually using a light type hammer such as an electric Kanga. Their use is dictated by the nature of the soil and terrain.Section 4 Getting Down to Earth
Earth rods are installed by one of two methods. 20kgs of EARTHRITE will yield a volume of approximately 0. The earth rod should be driven lightly using a hammer of around 11/2 to 3 kgs. is suited to deeper driving and heavier earth rods but should be rig mounted because of its size and weight. A large number of comparatively light hammer blows are more effective. Where rods havebe be rods up to 3m long can be driven satisfactorily one length. The Kanga model 2500.of which Pionjar. As a rule of thumb. and the number of rods to be driven. These have the advantages of being self-contained and independent of compressed air or electricity supply for operation. 9
.0176 cubic metres (i. Driving an earth rod with a mechanical hammer calls for special care to ensure the force of the blows are axial to the rod. and preferable. Where holes are drilled. which can be one of three types: a.Fig 9. it is certainly advisable to use rig mounting to ensure correct driving especially when it comes to driving the longer earth rods. General note: Very light and very heavy hammers with a long stroke are not suited to earth rod driving. the length of drive needed to secure minimum resistance. Petrol engine driven These power operated aids are used when soil conditions are not suited to hand driving and when long earth rods have to driven to great depths. and they interface between the earth rod driving end and the mechanical hammer. The driving methods are The Hand Held Hammer is an effective method for most domestic installations encountered in suburban lots. However. Pneumatic hammers . b. Such a compound is EARTHRITE. Atlas Copco and similar are suited. to heavy blows which are destructive to the metal and can cause deformation to the rod end as well as bending and possible splitting. it is preferable to use one of the Dulmison extendable earth earth longer than 3m. well mixed slurry of EARTHRITE and water is then poured in to backfill the hole. This is a mixture of Bentonite and Gypsum with a small amount of Sodium Sulphate to reduce the resistivity of the backfill. the only option is to drill a hole to take the earth rod. where driving is difficult or progress non-existent. the gap between the earth rod and wall of the drilled hole is commonly filled with a water expanding compound. c. A range of machine driving heads are given in the Driving Accessories tables on pages 6 and 7. There are two methods of installing earth rods into the drilled hole. rods. Medium tools in the 71/2 to 12 kgs range with a stroke of approximately 58 to 108mm delivering 2200 blows per minute are ideal for normal applications.typical are Kanga models 1800. it is preferable to use one of the PLP extendable seriesseries rods. Machine drilling equipment is available commercially and ranges from electric. a. Petrol engine driven hammers . One method is to backfill the hole with dry EARTHRITE and as extendable rods are driven to the required depth. pneumatic and petrol-driven drills and augers to hydraulic plant with diamond bits that can penetrate rock. Where rods have to to 3m. Drilled Installation Driving Methods Methods of installing Earth Rods
Fig. The fitting of a guide to the rod will assist rigidity and reduce whipping when the rod comes up against resistance to penetration. Electric b. keeping the force of the blows axial to the rod to obviate the risk of whipping. water is poured into the backfilled hole. The second option is to assemble the extendable rods together and insert into the drilled hole. roughly 57 bags to the cubic metre). and similar chipping hammers in the 7kg range with speeds of around 2000 blows per minute. Pneumatic c. the rod can be driven into the ground by either a hand held hammer or mechanically operated hammer. Electric hammers . Earth rods up to 3m long can be driven satisfactorily in in one length.
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