Chapter 7 Yielding criteria

1. Criteria for yielding (1) What is the meaning about yield criterion? In this case the stress is un-axial and this point can readily be determined. But what if there are several stress acting at a point in different direction ?
⇒ The criteria for deciding which combination of multi-axial

stress will cause yielding are called criteria. (2). Theory of yield criterion(A) Tresa criterion Yielding will occur when the maximum shear stress reaches the values of the maximum shear stress occurring under simple tension. The maximum shear stress in multi-axial stress = the maximum shear stress in simple tension
⎧σ − σ 2 σ 1 − σ 3 σ 2 − σ 3 ⎫ σ 0 max ⎨ 1 , , ⎬= 2 2 ⎭ 2 ⎩ 2

換言之,最大剪應力為 σ 0 材料就降伏

1 2

1

For pure shear ( k )

σ 1 + σ 2 = 0 ⇒ σ 1 = −σ 2 σ −σ2 k= 1 = σ1 = σ 2
2

又k =

σ1 − σ 2
2

=

σ0
2

=k

∴k =

σ0
2

⇒ For pure shear (k ) state, the yielding is happened if k =

σ0
2

(2)The von-Mises yield criterion Yielding begin when the octahedral shear stress reaches the octahedral shear stress at yield in simple tension.
τ oct = τ oct ,o

2

τ oct =
τ oct ,o =

1 2 2 (σ x − σ y ) 2 + (σ y − σ z ) 2 + (σ x − σ z ) 2 + 6(τ xy 2 + τ yz + τ zx ) 3
2 σ0 3

註:

τ oct ,o 為八面體上之剪應力

故由 τ oct = τ oct ,o 得
1 2 2 2 2 (σ x − σ z ) 2 + (σ x − σ y ) 2 + (σ x − σ z ) 2 + 6(τ xy + τ yz + τ zx ) = σ0 3 3

換言之,八面體之剪應力為

2 σ 0 材料就降伏 3

For the principal stress
1 2 (σ 1 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 = σ0 3 3


1 2 2 2 J 2 = [(σ x − σ y ) 2 + (σ y − σ z ) 2 + (σ x − σ z ) 2 + 6(τ xy + τ xz + τ yz )] 6


J2 =
2 σo

3

For the case of pure shear ⇒

3

577σ 0 3 ∴ kV > kT (3)Yield surface and Haigh-westergaard stress space From the yielding criterion. the shear condition in multi-axial stress = the shear condition in simple tension F (σ ij ) = K (k ) − − − − − − < 1 > σ ij : The stress state k : obtain from simple tension 4 .5σ 0 2 For Von-Mises Yield kV = 1 σ 0 = 0. σ z = 0 6 2 k= σ0 3 3 1 σ0 ∴k = 3 註: k 為純剪應力之大小 故 von-Mises yield 可簡化為: J2 = k 2 Discussion: For Tresca criterion criteion 1 kT = σ 0 = 0.σ 1 = −σ 2 = k .

Since the rotating the axes does not affect the yielding state. That is The shear condition in multiaxial stress = The shear condition in simple tension F (σ ij ) = K (k ) ----------------(1) ↖obtain from simple tension ↑ The stress state (A). any point on this surface represents a points a point at which yielding can begin and function (1) is called the yielding function. since it is always assumed that hydrostatic tension or compression does not influence yielding . s2 . we can assume that only the stress deviators enter into the yielding function. σ 2 . s3 ) = K 5 . σ 3 ) = K Furthermore.(3) Yield surface And Haigh-Westergaard stress space From the form of yielding criterion. The surface in the stress space is called the yield surface. Represents a hyper surface in the six-dimensional stress space. f ( s1 . we can choose the principal axes for the coordinates. F (σ 1 .

J 3 ) = K (k ) For von-mises criterial τ oct = = 1 2 2 2 s12 + s2 + s3 = σ o ( 和σ m 無關) 3 3 2 1 2 σo J 22 = 3 3 1 2 ∴ J 2 = σ o = k 2 . Haigh-Wester-gaard stress space. and k is the yield in pure shear. 3 For Tresca criterion: σ 1 − σ 2 (σ 1 − σ m ) − (σ 2 − σ m ) s1 − s2 σ o (和σ m 無關) = = = 2 2 2 2 3 2 4 J 2 − 27 J 32 − 36k 2 J 2 + 96k 4 J 2 − 64k 6 = 0 B. σ 3 ) 6 . => yielding criterion can be expressed as function of (σ 1 . σ 2 . J 2 . J 3 ⎧ ⎪ J1 = s1 + s2 + s3 = 0 ⎪ 1 ⎪ 2 2 Where ⎨ J 2 = ( s12 + s2 + s3 ) 2 ⎪ 1 3 3 3 ⎪ ⎪ J 3 = 3 ( s1 + s2 + s3 ) ⎩ ∴ f ( J 2 . s3 can be writen in terms of the invariants J1 .and s1 . s2 .

and having equal angles With the coordinate’s axes. The principal (σ 1 . σ 3 ) coordinate system represents a stress space called the Haigh-wWester-gaard stress space.故可以 σ 1 . Consider a line ON which passing through the origin. σ 3 為座標軸. σ 2 . σ 2 . then every point on this line is σ1 + σ 2 + σ 3 3 uuur σ1 = σ 2 = σ 3 = σ m = (即該線之點皆為靜水壓應力) The plane perpendicular to ON . its equation will be σ 1 +σ 2 +σ 3 = 3ρ uuur Where uuu r uuu ON r r OPg uuu = ρ (ON ) and ρ : is the distance from origin to the plane 7 .可得函數圖.

and σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 = 0. i.gaard stress space) Since it is assumed that yielding is determined by the deriatoric state of stress only.e.Wester . uuur uuur 8 . Hence the yield surface must be composed of lines parallel to ON . s2 . it must be a cylinder with generators parallel to uuur ON . since they all have the same deriatoric stress components. is the plane called π-plane. uuu r u uuu ON r r 1 1 1 And A = A = OP ⋅ uuur = σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 = 3σ m 3 3 3 ON u u u r r r r r r B = P − A = (σ 1 − σ m )i + (σ 2 − σ m ) j + (σ 3 − σ m )k ∴ B 2 = (σ 1 − σ m ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ m ) 2 + (σ 3 − σ m ) 2 2 2 = s12 + s2 + s3 (Q J 2 = 1 2 2 2 1 ( s1 + s2 + s3 ) = sij sij ) 2 2 # ∴ B2 = 2J 2 ∴ B = 2J = 1 2 2 1 2 and J 2 = σ 0 (von − Mises) 3 u r => the components of B are therefore the stress deriators s1 . s3 2 σ0 3 => uuu r 1 u u u r r r ON P = A + B = 3σ m uuu + 2 J 22 r ON u r B u r B (at Haigh . And this is the pure shear stress condition. it follows that if one of the points on the line through p parallel to ON lies on the yield surface => they must all lie on the yield surface.

3. 9 . σ 3 . (1. => For this purpose we choose the π-plane which σ m = 0 .-1. −σ 2 . −σ 3 . That means a line perpendicular to σ 1 . 2.Note: (a) The intersection of this yield cylinder with any plane perpendicular to it will produce a curve called the yield locus. are therefore lines of symmetry and we now have six symmetric sectors. as usual. (b) If. isotropy is assumed so that rotating the axes does not affect the yielding. Since this curve will be the same for all planes perpendicular to the cylinder.-3) (c) The yield surface must be symmetric in the principal stress since it certainly does not matter. −σ 1 .-2. σ 2 .

C. we have divided the yield locus into 12 symmetric sectors. and we need only consider the stress states lying in one of these sectors. The stress in π-plane a= b= 2 2 σ 2 cos 300 − σ 1 cos 300 = (σ 2 − σ 1 ) / 2 3 3 2 2 2 1 (2σ 3 − σ 2 − σ 1 ) σ 3 − σ 2 sin 300 − σ 1 sin 300 = 3 3 3 6 1 r 2 = a 2 + b 2 = ⎡ (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 ) 2 ⎤ ⎦ 3⎣ = ⎡(σ 1 − σ m ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ m ) 2 + (σ 3 − σ m ) 2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = 2J2 1 (2σ 3 − σ 2 − σ 1 ) 2σ − σ 2 − 1 6 = tan −1 3 1 3(σ 2 − σ 1 ) (σ 2 − σ 1 ) 2 (if σ 3 > σ 2 > σ 1 ) θ = tan −1 b = tan −1 a ∴ 3 tan θ = 2σ 3 − σ 2 − σ 1 σ 2 − σ1 For von Mise yield criterion 10 . each of 30o .=> Hence.

for θ = 0 3 tan θ = 2σ 3 − σ 2 − σ 1 =0 σ 2 − σ1 1 (σ 1 + σ 2 ) 2 1 1 and σ m = (σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 ) = (σ 1 + σ 2 ) = σ 3 3 2 at π -plane σ m = 0 ∴ σ 3 = 0. the bounds on yield loci will be between C' A B' and C A B.1 2 1 J2 = σ o = r2 3 2 2 2 ∴r2 = σo 3 The yield locus is therefore a circle of radius r = 2 σo 3 NoTe: (a). That means θ =0 is pure shear state ∴σ 3 = (b) for θ = 300 . from 3 tan 300 = ∴σ 3 = σ 2 => uniaxial stress 2σ 3 − σ 2 − σ 1 =1 σ 2 − σ1 (c) If the yield locus is assumed to be convex. 11 .

a yielding curve outside C C' A B' B which pass the C. depending on the strain-hardening properties of the material. B point will not be convex is call lower bound. depending on the strain-hardening properties of the material. After yielding has occurred.A. (4) Subsequent yield surfaces. Loading and unloading 前面所討論的是 "initial yield"之問題.A yielding curve below CAB Which pass the C. ⎩ After yielding has occurred. and strain-harden function F(σ ij ) is loading function. 12 . 但若 yielding 後.B point will not be convex also is call upper bound. k takes on a new value. k take on a new value. A.其 yielding surface 會如何呢?即"strain hardens"之問題 。 For a yield Function F (σ ij ) = k (加工硬化方程式) And ⎨ ⎧k is a value wich defind a yield surface.

dF = (C) unloading F = k . dF = ∂F dσ ij > 0 ∂σ ij ∂F dσ ij = 0 ∂σ ij ∂F dσ ij < 0 ∂σ ij u ur u ∂F ∂F ur dσ j = ( e j ) ⋅ ( dσ i e j ) ∂σ j ∂σ j u r ur u = ∇F ⋅ dσ i e j (B) Neutral loading ⇒ stress state moving on yield surface. 13 . which is larger than. Loading and unloading for a strain-hardening material Three cases for a strain-hardening material: (A) Loading ⇒ plastic flow is occurring. dF = u r ∇F :表示垂直 yield surface 之向量 ur u dσ i e j :任意增量向量 ⇒ 故 dF = ∂F dσ j < 0 表示曾增加向量為 unloading ∂σ j B. F = k . Subsequent yield loci (A) Isotropic hardening If σ 0' > σ 0 .A. ⇒ The material is called strain harden isotropically. σ 3 ) 為座標軸 . dF = Note:若取 (σ 1 . F = k . the origin yield circle. then the new yield locus is a circle of radius 2 ' σ 3 for von-Misses criterion. but concentric with . σ 2 .

橢圓不在! Prager Kinematic model Assume : (a) The rigid frame having the shape of the yield surface (b)The frame is assumed to be constrained against rotation and to be perfectly smooth. For example. (c)The state of stress and the state of strain are represented in the model in different ways. for a rigid strain-hardening 14 . so that only forces normal to the frame can be transmitted to it.(B) Bauschinger effect 註: 可發現當剪應力走不同方向時.

15 .material. and the state of stress is represented by the position of the pin relative to the origin. the displacement of center of the frame relative to the origin is proportional to the total strain. Note: the isotropic hardening assumption is still generally used. For small plastic strain it probably gives answers that are sufficiently accurate.

At each stage of the plastic deformation there exists a function (σ ij ) so that further plastic deformation takes place only for (σ ij ) > k Both and k may depend on the existing state of stress and on the strain history. (note: 所有的運算皆為向量法則) For obtaining general stress-strain relation. (1) General derivation of plastic stress-strain relations. ⎪ dσ ijd ε ijp ≥ 0(delcte elastic strain engergy) ⎩ Assume:(a)A loading function exists.則更進一步討 論塑性區之 stress-strain . two definition and two assumption are needed.6. 16 .Plastic stress-strain relations在彈性區之應力和應變之關係已經討論過現在. ⎪ dσ ij d ε ij > 0 ⎪ ⎨ ⎪(b)The net work performed by it over the cycle of application and removal is zero or position. Definition: ⎧ (a)Positive work is done by external agency during the application of the set of stress.

⇒∴ d ε p ij = cijk l (dσ k' l + dσ k'' l ) = cijk l dσ k'' l From assumption 1. d ε p 'ij and d ε p ''ij .And ⎧ dσ '' Bl : incremental stress perpendicular to f ⎪ ⎨ ' ⎪dσ Bl : incremental stress tangent to f(σ ij ) ⎩ ' ⇒ dσ Bl produce no plastic flow(延著硬化方程式.(b)The relation between infinitesimals of stress and plastic strain is linear: Gij = dF d ε ijp = cijk l dσ k l Note: (a) cijk l may be functions of stress. it follows that for plastic may be applied to the stress and strain increments. strain. If dσ 'ij and dσ ''ij are two increments producing plastic strain increments.繞著走依然是 彈性範圍) From assumption 2. and history of loading that implies they are independent of the dσ ij (b)From assumption 1. ⇒∴ dF = Q ∂F ∂F dσ k l = (dσ k' l + dσ k'' l ) > 0 ∂σ k l ∂σ k l ∂F ∂F ∂F dσ k' l = 0 ∴ dF = dσ k'' l > 0 ⊥ dσ k' l ∴ ∂σ k l ∂σ k l ∂σ k l ∂F ∂F ∂F ⇒ dF = a >0 ∂σ k l ∂σ k l ∂σ k l and dσ k'' l = a 17 .

strain ∂F ∂F ( )( ) and history of loading) ∂σ ke ∂σ ke ( 18 . ⎫ ⎪ ' '' ' will produce the same ⎬ ⇒ (dσ ij + dσ ij )d ε ijp < 0 ⇒ dσ ij d ε ijp = 0 p plastic increment dε ij ⎪ ⎭ ' ⇒ dσ ij Gij dF = 0 ' Q dF > 0 ⇒ dσ ij d ε ijp = 0 ⎫ ∂F ⎪ ⎬ ⇒ G ij ' ⇒ dσ ij Gij dF = 0 ⎪ ∂σ ij ⎭ ⇒ Gij = G ∂F = Cijke ∂σ ij ∂F (G is a constant which may ) ∂σ ke ⇒ be function of stress. positive or negative. ' '' dσ ij d ε ijp ≥ 0 ⇒ (dσ ij + dσ ij )d ε ijp ≥ 0 ' Because dσ ij produce no d ε ijp ∴ We can chose any constc.∴a = dF >0 ∂F ∂F ∂σ k l ∂σ k l ∂F ∂F dF ( ) = cijk l ∂σ k l ∂σ k l ∂F ∂F ∂σ k l ∂σ k l From d ε ijp = cijk l dσ k'' l = cijk l a = cijk l ( dF )dF = Gij = dF ∂F ∂F ∂σ k l ∂σ k l ∂F ) ∂σ ke ∂F ∂F ( )( ) ∂σ ke ∂σ ke ( ⇒ d ε ijp = Gij dF and Gij = Cijke ↑ is called potential function From definition 2.

( Note : From d ε ijp = G =G ∂F ∂F '' dσ kl ∂σ ij ∂σ kl ∂F dF ∂σ ij (dF = ∂F '' dσ kl ) ∂σ kl '' dF 之增加由 dσ kl 控制.而 dF 則為 yield locus 半徑增加量) 一、 The flow rules associated with von-Mises and Tresca (一) For the von-Mises yield function F (σ ij ) = J 2 = 1 1 1 2 ⎡(σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 1 − σ 3 ) 2 ⎤ = sij sij = σ o ⎦ 2 6⎣ 3 From d ε ijp = GdF ∂F ∂F ∂sij = GdF ∂σ ij ∂sij ∂σ ij ( sij = σ ij − σ m ⇒ ∂sij ∂σ ij = 1) = GdFsij = d λ sij ⇒ Paradtl .Reuss equation 19 .∴ d ε ijp = G ∂f dF → Hardening value ∂σ ij ^ 垂直yield locus之方向梯度 ∂F ∂σ ij (dλ: is a nonnegative constant which may vary through out the loading history ) = GdF = dλ ∂F ∂σ ij => The plastic strain increment vector must be normal to the yield surface.

and that plastic flow take place without limit when F (σ ij ) =k.(二) For Tresca yield function – Assuming it is known which is the maximum principal stress σ 1 and minimum principal stress σ 3 . and the material behaves elastically when F (σ ij ) <k. 二. For plastic flow. =0 . σ 1 > σ 2 > σ 3 F= 1 1 (σ 1 − σ 3 ) = σ 0 2 2 ∴ ∂F 1 ∂F ∂F 1 = . =− ∂σ 1 2 ∂σ o ∂σ 3 2 1 ⎧ p ⎪ d ε1 = 2 d λ ⎪ ⇒ ⎨ d ε 2p = 0 ⎪ 1 ⎪d ε 3p = − d λ 2 ⎩ (1)(2) are known as the flow rules associated with the von-Mises and Tresca criteria. ∂F ⎧ ∂F ∂F ⎪ dF = ∂σ dσ ij = 0 ∴ d ε ijp // ⇒ d ε ijp = d λ ⇒⎨ ij ∂σ ij ∂σ ij ⎪ dσ d ε p = 0 ⎩ ij ij 20 .Perfectly Plastic Material For ideal plasticity it is also assumed that F (σ ij ) exists and is function of stress only .

即左式為多軸壓力狀態 . Effective stress and strain (一)Effective stress σ e From yield criterion ⇒ F (σ ij ) = K (σ 0 ) or f (σ ij ) = σ 0 ↑From uni-axial tensile test. ∂σ k l ∂σ ij 3 sij sij 2 3 ∂F 2 ∂σ ij ∂F ∂F ∂σ k l ∂σ k l d ε ep = 3 ∂F 2 ∂σ ij ' ∂F ∂F σ e ∂σ k l ∂σ k l dσ e ∴ ∴σ e = 3 2 = Note: 當降伏時 σ e = σ 0 .∴ d ε ijp // ∂F ∂F ⇒ d ε ijp = d λ where d λ is a scalar. 若該值等於 σ 0 則降 伏。 σ e 稱之 effective stress. (二)Effective plastic strain d ε ep From the definition of plastic work=Effective plastic work σ e d ε ep = sij d ε ep (If plastic flow is happened) ∴ dε = p e sij σe dε = p e sij 3 sij sij 2 σ 0dε p e and ∴ d ε = Gd λ sij ⇒ sij = p e d ε ijp Gd λ 21 . ∂σ ij ∂σ ij 三.即應力之降伏相當於單軸應力之降伏. 可相對某一值 σ e .Determination of the function G. Definition 1 F (σ ij ) = K (σ e ) = J 2 = σ e2 For Von-Mises 3 ∴ sij d ε ep == σ 0 ∴ d ε ijp = ∂F ∂F = sk l ..

d ε zp = − d ε xp ∴ d ε ep = d ε xp 1 2 1 2 即降伏之塑性應變當於單軸應力之降伏。 即 sij d ε ep = σ e d ε ep = σ 0 d ε xp ⇒ 塑性功能不變法則 ⇒ 達到塑性狀態所所需之功和過程無關。 (三)Determination of the Function G. From d ε ijp = GdF ∂F 2 and d ε ep = d ε ijp d ε ijp 3 ∂σ ij ∴ d ε ep = GdF 2 ∂F ∂F 3 ∂σ ij ∂σ ij d ε ep ∂F ∂F ∂σ ij ∂σ ij ∴ dFG = 3 2 ∴ d ε ijp = 3 ∂F 2 ∂σ ij ∂F ∂F ∂σ k l ∂σ k l d ε ep = 3 ∂F 2 ∂σ ij ' ∂F ∂F σ e ∂σ k l ∂σ k l dσ e (σ e' = dσ e ) ←The slope of the uniaxial stress-plastic strain curve at d ε ep the current value of σ e 22 .= d ε ep d ε ep 2 p p d ε ij d ε ij = 3 3 p p d ε ij d ε ij 2 ∴ d ε ep = 3 p p d ε ij d ε ij (For Von-mises criterion ) 2 = 3 p p p (d ε xp ) 2 + (d ε yp ) 2 + (d ε zp ) 2 + 2(d ε xy ) 2 + (d ε yz ) 2 + (d ε zx ) 2 2 For uniaxial tens it test ⇒ d ε yp = − d ε xp .

σ e ⇒ ε ij = ( i + j ) → ε e = ε ij ε ij 3 2 ∂x j ∂x j 23 . = sij ∂σ k l ∂σ ij ⇒ ∴ d ε ijp = = 3 sij 2 d ε p ( Q σ = 3 s s ) ∂F = s .σe ⇒ε ij = ( i + j ) 2 ∂xj ∂xj εe = • p 3 •p •p ε ij ε ij 2 ∴ sij = 2 σe • p ε ij 3 •p εe If the velocity field is know • • p 1 ∂v ∂v 2 •p •p vi .For Von-Mises criterion ∂F ∂F = sk l . ∂F = s e e ij ij kl ij 2 ∂σ k l ∂σ ij sk l s k l 3 sij 3 sij dσ e d ε ep = 2 σe 2 σ e σ e' 3 sij 2 dε p (Q σ = 3 s s ) e e ij ij 2 sk l sk l ∴ d ε ijp = = 3 sij 3 sij dσ e d ε ep = ←(The flow rule associated with von mises 2 σe 2 σ e σ e' yield criterion) = sij σe = or 3•p = ε ij 2 2 σe • p ∴sij = p ε ij 3• εe 3 s • p 3 s σe ε ij = ij ε e = ij ' 2 σe 2 σe σe • p • and • 1 ∂v ∂v vi .

(?) Incremental and deformation theories For d ε ijp = 3 sij d ε ep 2 σe d ε ijp = 3 sij d ε ep 2 σe are called incremental stress-strain relations because they relate the increments of plastic strain to the stress. (?)Convexity of yield surface. ⎧ sij = K ⎨ ⎩σ e = K 3 s p ∴⇒ ε ijp = εe 2σ 0 ij 0 e IF 3 s p p ∫ dε ij = 2 σ dε e 0 ij 0 e 0 σ ij = Kσ ij and K is monotonically increasing function of 0 ⎧ sij = Ksij Then ⎨ 0 ⎩σ e = Kσ e ∴ d ε ijp = 0 0 3 sij 3 sij d ε ep ⇒ ∫ d ε ijp = d ε ep 0 0 2 σe 2 σe 0 3 sij p ⇒ε = εe 2 σ e0 p ij ⇒ The plastic strain is a function only of the current of stress and is independent of the loading path. If in plastic state. Singular points.⇒ sij will be know. Convexity of yield surface Let some external agency add stresses along some arbitrary path inside the surface until a state of stress d ε ij is reached which is on the 24 . the incremental theory reduces of the deformation theory. 一.e if all the stress are increasing in ratio (stressed disk or cylinders). For the case of proportion or radial loading i.

as coell as elastic increments.yield surface. Now suppose the external agency to add a very small outward pointed stress increment dσ ij which produces small plastic strain increments d ε ij . The work done by the external agency over the cycle is (1) Elastoplastic problems of spheres and cylinders ⎧σθ = σφ ⎩ εθ = εφ 一、 Spherical coordinates – The problems of spheres ⎨ (a) The equilibrium equation (σr + dσr )( r + dr )dφ ( r + dr ) sin φdθ − σrrdφr sin φdθ − 2σθr sin φdθdrdφ = 0 ⇒ σr 2rdr + dσrr dr − 2σθrdr = 0 dσr 2(σr − σθ ) + = − Fr dr r 2 and Fr body force per unit volume (b) The strain-displacement or compatibility relation 25 .

εθ = εφ = ~~~~~< 1 > ⎪ dr r ⎪ du d ( rεθ ) dεθ εθ − εr ⎪ = ⇒ + =0 ⎨ From < 1 >.du u ⎧ εr = . εr = dr dr dr r ⎪ ε rp + ε φp + ε θp = 0 ⇒ ε rp = −2ε θp ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (c) The stress-strain relation 1 ⎧ εr = (σr − 2 µσθ ) + ε rp ⎪ E ⎨ 1 1 ⎪εθ = [σθ − µ (σφ + σr )] + ε θp = [(1 − µ )σθ − µσr ] + ε θp E E ⎩ Ⅰ. Von-Miese yield function 1 2 1 1 J 2 = σ 0 . J 2 = Sij S ij = [(σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 ) 2 ] 3 2 6 and σ 1 = σ r . εθ = dr r dε θ ε θ − ε r + =0 dr r ε rp + ε θp + ε zp = 0 26 . σ 2 = σ 3 = σ θ 2 ∴ (σ r − σ θ ) 2 = σ 0 ⇒ σ 0 = σ r − σ θ Ⅱ.Prandfl-reuss Equation From dε ijp = 3 dε ep S ij dε ep = 2 re 2 p p dε ij dε ij = dε rp 3 ∴ dε rp = dε ep sgn(σ r − σ θ ) 二、 Polar coordinates-For cylinders problems (1) The equation of equilibrium of stress dσ r σ r − σ θ + = − Fr dr r (2) The strain-displacement relations or compatibility equation εr = ∴ du u .

三、 Thick Hollow sphere with internal pressure Consider a sphere with inner radius a and outer radius b . It is obvious that complete symmetry about the center will exist so that the radial and any two tangential direction will be principal direction. for generalized strain.(3) The stress-strain relation 1 ⎧ ε r = [σ r − µ (σ θ + σ z )] + ε rp ⎪ E ⎪ 1 ⎪ p ⎨ ε θ = [σ θ − µ (σ z + σ r )] + ε θ E ⎪ 1 ⎪ε z = [σ z − µ (σ r + σ θ )] − (ε θp + ε rp ) ⎪ E ⎩ NOTE: for the case of plane stress, σ z = 0 ,and for the case of plane strain ε z = 0 or ε z = const. subjected to an internal pressure P. (1) Elastic solution 1 ⎧ ⎪ ε r = E (σ r − 2 µσ θ ) dε ε −ε From ⎨ and θ + θ r = 0 1 dr r ⎪ε θ = [(1 − µ )σ θ − µσ r ] E ⎩ dσ θ dσ r 1 ⎧1 ⎪ E [(1 − µ ) dr − µ dr ] + Er (1 + µ )(σ θ − σ r ) = 0 ⇒ compatituibility ⇒⎨ σ − σθ dσ r ⎪ +2 r = 0 ⇒ equabhuiums dr r ⎩ equations 27 . In both cases the stear stresses and strains are zero.

P = σ0 σ0 σ0 a a ⎧ σ ρ3 − β3 Sr = r = P 3 3 ⎪ ⎪ σ0 ρ ( β − 1) ∴⎨ 3 3 ⎪ Sθ = P 2 ρ + β ⎪ 2 ρ 3 ( β 3 − 1) ⎩ ∗ dw = (σ ij − σ ij )d ε ijp + dσ ij d ε ijp ∗ and σ ij : some state of stress inside 28 . c2 = 3 2 b3 − a 3 (b − a 3 ) ⎧ Pa 3 Pa 3 b3 − a 3b 3 1 σr = 3 (1 − 3 ) + 3 = 3 ⎪ ⎪ (b − a 3 ) r 3 b − a 3 b − a 3 a ∴⎨ 3 1 3 Pa ⎪ σθ = − σ r + ⎪ 2 2 b3 − a 3 ⎩ For convenience the following dimensionless quantities are now introduced: β= σ σ b r P . Sθ = θ . S r = r . r = ez dz ∴ϑ ≡ let ϑ = − d d dr d z d = = e =r = rD dz dr dz dr dr 原式 ⇒ (ϑ + 3)σ r = 2c1 y h = c2 e −3 z = c2 1 r3 yp = 2c1 1 2 2 ϑ ϑ 2c1 = = c1 (1 − + ( ) 2 − Λ ) = c1 ϑ (ϑ + 3) 3 3 3 3(1 + ) 3 3 c2 2 + c1 r3 3 ∴σ r = c2 2 + c1 r3 3 ∴ y = yh + y p = c2 2 ⎧ ⎪ σ r ( a ) = − P = a 3 + 3 c1 From boundary condition ⎨ c 2 ⎪σ r (b) = 0 = 2 + c1 = 0 3 b 3 ⎩ ∴ c1 = 3 Pa 3 − Pa 3b 3 .⇒ 2(1 − µ ) dσ θ µ − 1 dσ r = 1 + µ dr 1 + µ dr 1 ∴ σ θ = − σ r + c1 2 From ⇒ 2c dσ r 3 + σr = 1 dr r r ⇒r dσ r + 3σ r = 2c1 dr dσ r 3 2c + σr = 1 dr r r d .ρ = .

The surface must therefore be convex.the loading surface π π ⎧ p p ⎪ Q dσ ij d ε ij ≥ 0 ∴ dσ ij d ε ij cos θ ≥ 0 ∴− 2 ≤ θ ≤ 2 (acute angle) ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ Q (σ − σ ∗ ) ≥ 0 σ − σ ∗ d ε p cosψ ≥ 0 ∴− π ≤ θ ≤ π (acute angle) ij ij ij ij ij ⎪ ⎩ 2 2 For convex surface ∗ No vector σ ij − σ ij can pass outside the surface intersecting the surface twice. ( at − ≤ ψ ≤ 2 π π 2 condition) 29 .

Singular point- The yield surface has vertices or corners where the gradient is not defined (Tresca hexagon). 二. Such point can be treated by introducing an auxiliary parameter. there exist. some points σ ij .For surface is not convex ∗ If the surface is not convex . four sets of relations must be satisfied as: (a) ⇒ The equation of equilibrium of stress ∂σ ij ∂x j + fj = 0 (b) The strain-displacement or compatibility relations: ⎧ 1 ∂u ∂u ε ij = ( i + j ) ⎪ 2 ∂x j ∂xi ⎨ ⎪ε = 0 for plasticity ⎩ ii 30 . 7. σ ij such ∗ that the vector σ ij − σ ij form an obtuse angle.Application To solve any plasticity problem.

(c) The stress-strain relations I、Von-Mises yield function 1 2 1 J 2 = σ 0 . J 2 = sij sij 3 2 II、 Prandtl-Reuss Equations d ε ijp = 3 dε sij 2 σe p e ⎧ ⎪ σe = and ⎪ ⎨ ⎪d ε p = ⎪ e ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ Test by tensidle-tet 2 p p⎪ d ε ij d ε ij ⎪ 3 ⎭ 3 sij sij 2 (d) The boundary conditions σ ij l i =τ j ⎧ stress-boundary ⎨ ⎩displacement-boundary u j = U J p26 31 .

β are merely parameters or curvilinear coordinates used to designate the point under consideration. From monr’s cycles 32 . ⎧α − line ⎨ ⎩ β − line Note:<a> α . The two families of curves called shear lines. <b>Take a curve element.θ then any point stress could be know. or slip lines.p31 ⇒ If we know σ m . If curves are now drawn in the xy plane such that at every point of each curve the tangent coincides with one of maximum shear direction. just as x and y designate the point.

ε y = . From boundary condition. = = ∂x ∂α ∂y ∂β α. ε y = y . Geiringer Velocities equation From Prandtl-Reuss equation.τ xy 三.θ 2 ⇒ σ m ⇒ σ x . and incompressibility condition ⎧• • σ −σ y ⎧ dε x − dε y σ x − σ y ⎧ p dε 3 ⎪ε x − ε y = x = ⎪ ⎪d ε ij = sij ⎪ • τ xy τ xy ⇒ ⎨ ε xy σ e 2 ⇒ ⎨ d ε xy ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ dε + dε = 0 ⎪ • • d ε iip = 0 x y ⎩ ⎩ ⎪ ε x+ε y = 0 ⎩ ∂u ∂u 1 ∂u ∂u and ε x = x . ε xy = ( x + y ) ∂x dt ∂y 2 ∂y ∂x dt ⎧ From α . β ⎨ = v cos θ − v sin ⎩v y = sin θ + vβ cos θ = 0 ⎧ σ − 2 Kθ1 = c1 along α − line ⇒⎨ m ⎩σ m + 2 Kθ 2 = c2 along β − line If we choose the ⇒ θ = 0. c2 If we know θ1 . ε xy = ( x + ) ∴ x =εx = = 2 ∂y ∂x ∂x dt ∂x ∂y dt p e 33 . β curve linear coordinate system ∂θ ⎧ ∂σ m − 2K =0 ⎪ ⎧ σ − 2 Kθ1 = c1 along α -curve ∂α ⎪ ∂α ⇒⎨ m ⎨ ⎪ ∂σ m + 2 K ∂θ = 0 ⎩σ m + 2 Kθ 2 = c2 along β -curve ⎪ ∂β ⎩ ∂β ∗ ⇒ Hencky equation. ε xy = ( x + y ) 2 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x • ∂v y • dε 1 ∂v ∂v y ∂ du x ∂vx • .∴ ∂v • dε x • 1 ∂v ∂v ∂ du x • =εx = =. we obtain c1 . ε y = y . σ y . ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ .

or the stress slip lines are the same as the velocity slip line.∂v y ⎧ ∂vx ⎪ ( ∂x ) − ( ∂y ) σ − σ y ⎪ = x ∂vx ∂v y 2τ xy ⎪ + ) ⇒⎨ ( ⎪ ∂y ∂x ⎪ ∂v ∂v y ( x+ )=0 ⎪ ∂x ∂y ⎩ Since the principal axes of stress and stress and of plastic strain increment coincide.方向無應變率) Now consider the velocities in the slip direction β And ⎨ x α ⎩v y = vα sin θ + vβ cos θ ⎧ v = v cos θ − v sin θ Take α .Geometry of the slip-line field 34 . ∗ dεα dε β 1 • • = = (ε x + ε y ) = 0 ⇒ There dt dt 2 are no extension. ⇒ the strain rates normal to the α and β direction are equal to the mean strain rate. (在靜水壓. β curve-line coordinate θ = 0 v ∂v ∂θ ⎧• ε α = ( x )θ =0 = α − vβ =0 ⎪ ∂x ∂α ∂α ⎪ and ⎨ • v ∂v ⎪ε β = ( y )θ =0 = vα ∂θ + β = 0 ⎪ ∂y ∂β ∂β ⎩ ⎧ dvα − vβ dθ = 0 along a α − line ⇒⎨ ⎩dvβ + vα dθ = 0 along a β − line →Geiringer velocities equation 四. it follows that the maximum shear stress lines and maximum shear velocity lines coincides. only shearing flows in the slip direction. that mean.

Hencky’s first law –the angle between two slip lines of one family at the points where they are cut by a slip line of the other family is constant along their lengths. From Hencky’s equation ⎧ σ m − 2 Kθ1 = c1 along α − line ⎨ ⎩σ m + 2 Kθ 2 = c2 along β − line ⎧along AD-α -line −=σ mD 2Kθ D ⎨ ⎩ along DC-β -line σ mD − 2=+ ∴σ mC − σ mA = + − ⇒ 4Kθ D − 2 Kθ A − 2 KθC = 2 KθC + 2 Kθ A − 4Kθ B ⇒ 4Kθ D + 4Kθ B = 4Kθ C + 4Kθ A ⇒ θD + θB = θC + θA ⇒ θA − θB = θD − θC ⎧ along AD-α -line σ mA − 2 Kθ A =σ mD − 2Kθ D ⎨ ⎩along DC-β -line σ mD − 2 Kθ D =σ mC +2Kθ C ∴σ mC − σ mA = 4 Kθ D − 2 Kθ A − 2Kθ C The same method along AB and BC σ mC − σ mA = 2 KθC + 2 Kθ A − 4Kθ B ⇒ 4Kθ D − 2 Kθ A − 2 KθC = 2 Kθ C + 2 Kθ A − 4Kθ B ⇒ 4Kθ D + 4Kθ B = 4Kθ C + 4Kθ A ⇒ θD + θB = θC + θA ⇒ θA − θB = θD − θC 35 .

σ 3v3 = Tv 3 uu uu r r 2 2 2 ∴Tv 2 = Tvg = σ 12 v12 + σ 2 v2 + σ 32 v3 Tv 36 . Maximum shear stress Let us take the coordinate axes in the principal direction.(3)Maximum And Octahedral shear stress 一. σ 2 v2 = Tv 2 . And any section direction is v = l i + n j + mk = v j r r r r From σ ij vi = Tvj ⇒ σ 1v1 = Tv1 .

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