What is GSM ?
Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a second generation cellular standard developed to cater voice services and data delivery using digital modulation d l ti
• Developed by Group Spéciale Mobile (founded 1982) which was an
initiative of CEPT ( Conference of European Post and Telecommunication ) • Aim : to replace the incompatible analog system • Presently the responsibility of GSM standardization resides with special mobile group under ETSI ( European telecommunication Standards Institute ) • Full set of specifications phase-I became available in 1990 • Under ETSI, GSM is named as “ Global System for Mobile communication “ • Today many providers all over the world use GSM (more than 135 countries in Asia Africa Europe Australia America) Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, • More than 1300 million subscribers in world and 45 million subscriber in India.
Tele-services Bearer or Data S i B D t Services Supplementary services
M bil telephony Mobile t l h .Tele Services
• Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones • Offered services .Emergency calling
Include various data services for information transfer between GSM and other networks like PSTN. ISDN etc at rates from 300 to 9600 bps Short M Sh t Message Service (SMS) S i
up to 160 character alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal
Unified Messaging Services(UMS)
Group 3 fax Voice mailbox Electronic mail
or incoming calls • Call Forwarding.All calls.Link multiple calls together • CLIP – C ll line identification presentation Caller li id tifi ti t ti • CLIR – Caller line identification restriction
.Put a caller on hold to take another call • Call Barring.Supplementary Services
Call related services : • Call Waiting.Notification of an incoming call while on the handset • Call Hold. outgoing calls.Calls can be sent to various numbers defined by the user • Multi Party Call Conferencing .
GSM System Architecture
BSC MS BTS MSC
PSTN ISDN PDN
BTS MS BTS MS
BSC VLR EIR AUC HLR
GSM System Architecture
Mobile Station (MS)
Mobile Equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Station Controller (BSC)
Network Switching Subsystem(NSS)
Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Authentication Center (AUC) ( ) Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
Mobile Equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
.System Architecture Mobile Station (MS)
The Mobile Station is made up of two entities:
vehicle mounted. hand held device Uniquely identified by an IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) q p y) Voice and data transmission Monitoring power and signal quality of surrounding cells for optimum handover Power level : 0.8W – 20 W 160 character long SMS.
.System Architecture Mobile Station (MS)
Mobile Equipment Portable.
Subscriber Id S b ib Identity Module (SIM) i M d l
Smart card contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Allows user to send and receive calls and receive other subscribed services Encoded network identification details Protected by a password or PIN Can be moved from phone to phone – contains key information to activate the phone
.System Architecture Mobile Station (MS) contd.
System Architecture Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts that communicate across the standardized Abis interface allowing operation between components made by different suppliers p p y pp
Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base St ti Controller (BSC) B Station C t ll
p . yp . Frequency hopping Communicates with Mobile station and BSC Consists of Transceivers (TRX) units
.multiplexes. signals to the antenna.System Architecture Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
Base Transceiver Station (BTS): ( )
Encodes.modulates and feeds the RF .encrypts.
System Architecture Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
Base Station Controller (BSC) Manages Radio resources for BTS Assigns Frequency and time slots for all MS’s in its area Handles call set up Transcoding and rate adaptation functionality Handover for each MS Radio Power control It communicates with MSC and BTS
Location Updating p g .
.Inter BSS and inter MSC call handoff MSC does gateway function while its customer roams to other network by using HLR/VLR.Registration .System Archibtecture Network Switching Subsystem(NSS)
Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Heart of the network Manages communication between GSM and other networks Call setup function and basic switching Call routing Billing information and collection Mobility management .
Visitor Location Registers (VLR)
.Controls those mobiles roaming in its area g .Reduces number of queries to HLR
.supplementary services.database contains IMSI.System Architecture Network S it hi S b t N t k Switching Subsystem
Home Location Registers (HLR)
.prepaid/postpaid. by HLR database .permanent database about mobile subscribers in a large service area(generally one per GSM network operator) .MSISDN.Temporary database which updates whenever new MS enters its area.
System Architecture Network Switching Subsystem
Authentication Center (AUC)
.Maintains authentication ke s and algorithms a thentication keys .Made up of three sub-classes: The White List.Generally associated with HLR
Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
Database that is used to track handsets using the g IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) .Only one EIR per PLMN
.Protects against intruders in air interface . The Black List d the Gray Li t Bl k Li t and th G List .
RF Spectrum GSM 900 Mobile to BTS (uplink): 890-915 Mhz ( p ) BTS to Mobile(downlink):935-960 Mhz Bandwidth : 2* 25 Mhz GSM 1800 Mobile to BTS (uplink): 1710 1785 Mhz 1710-1785 BTS to Mobile(downlink) 1805-1880 Mhz Bandwidth : 2 75 Mhz 2*
. of RF carriers : 124 Access Method : TDMA/FDMA Modulation Method : GMSK Modulation data rate : 270.GSM Specification
Carrier Separation : 200 Khz Duplex Distance : 45 Mhz No.
6 Kbps Ciphering 33.GSM Operation
Speech coding 13 Kbps Channel Coding 22.6 Kbps Modulation
270.8 Kbps Interleaving 22.83 Kbps
.8 Kbps Burst Formatting 33.
Half t 11 4kb H lf rate 11.4kbps TCH (traffic) Speech Full rate 22.8kbps Data 2.4 kbps 4.8 kbps 9.6 kbps p FCCH(Frequency correction) SCH(Synchronization) PCH(Paging) CCCH CCH (control) Dedicated RACH(Random Access) AGCH(Access Grant) SDCCH(Stand Alone) SACCH(Slow-associated) FACCH(Fast-associated)
GSM Frequency Bands
System GSM 400 GSM 400 GSM 850 GSM 900 (P-GSM) GSM 900 (E-GSM) GSM-R (R-GSM) DCS 1800 PCS 1900 CS 900 Band 450 480 850 900 900 900 1800 1900 900 Uplink 450.4 - 457.6 478.8 - 486.0 824.0 - 849.0 890.0 - 915.0 880.0 - 915.0 876.0 - 915.0 1710.0 - 1785.0 1850.0 - 1910.0 850 0 9 0 0 Downlink 460.4 - 467.6 488.8 - 496.0 869.0 - 894.0 935.0 - 960.0 925.0 - 960.0 921.0 - 960.0 1805.0 - 1880.0 1930.0 - 1990.0 930 0 990 0 Channel Number 259 - 293 306 - 340 128 - 251 1 - 124 975 - 1023, (0, 1-124) 955 - 973, (0, 1-124, 975 - 1023) 512 - 885 5 512 - 810 8 0
GSM-900, GSM-1800 – Used in most countries (Europe, Middle East, Africa, Asia)
1800. Australia.Multi-band and multi-mode phones
Dual band phones
GSM 900 and 1800 MHz. Often these phones use multiple frequency bands as well. 1900 (North America)
Quad band phones
Supports all four major GSM frequency groups. Brazil) GSM 850 and 1900 MHz (North America)
Tri band phones
Can operate on GSM systems as well as on mobile phone mobile-phone systems using other technical standards. 1800. (Europe.
. 1900 (Europe) 850. Asia.
The GSM telephone set and the SIM are the only system elements with which most users of GSM have direct contact.
Base Station Subsystem
the BSS provides a connection between the MSs of a limited area and the network switching subsystem (NSS).
.Base Station Subsystem
Via the Air-interface. One TRAU (transcoding rate and adaptation unit). The BSS consists of the following elements:
One or more BTSs (base tranceiver station). One BSC (base station controller).
. toward the NSS. the BTS is connected to the BSC via the Abis-interface.Base Transceiver Station
The BTS provides the physical connection of an MS to the network in form of the Air-interface On the Air interface.
the most important part of a BTS. Typically. which administers all other parts of the BTS. Furthermore. from the perspective of signal processing. Operations and Maintenance Module The operations and maintenance (O&M) module consists of at least one central unit.
. the central unit also contains the system and operations software of the TRXs. All other parts of the BTS are more or less associated with the TRXs and perform auxiliary or administrative tasks. which allows for local control of the BTS.Transmitte/Receiver M d l T i /R i Module The TRX module is. That allows the O&M module to process the commands from the BSC or the MSC directly into the BTS and to report the results. For those purposes. That allows it to be reloaded when p necessary. integrated frequency hoppingunit. without the need to “consult” the BSC. The TRX consists of a low-frequency part for digital signal processing and a high-frequency part for GMSK modulation and demodulation Both parts are connected via a separate or an demodulation. the O&M module provides a human-machine interface (HMI). purposes it is connected directly to the BSC by means of a specifically assigned O&M channel.
that is. Although the trend is to derive the reference clock from the PCM signal on the Abis. It is especially needed when a BTS has to be tested in a standalone environment. without a connection to a BSC or when the PCM clock is not available due to link failure. In contrast. Th i itt d i l The input filt t i ll i a t filter typically is nonadjustable wideband filter that lets pass all GSM 900. all DCS 1800. the O&M center (OMC) controls th kH Wh th t t l the settings of the filters.
Input and Output Filters
Both input and output filters are used to limit the bandwidth of the received and th t i d d the transmitted signals.
.Clock Module Cl k M d l
The modules for clock generation and distribution also are part of the O&M area. as in the case of a change in frequency. When necessary. or all PCS 1900 frequencies in the uplink direction. a BTS internal clock generation is mandatory.interface. remote-controllable filters or wideband filters are used for the downlink direction that limits the bandwidth of the output signal to t 200 kHz.
and morph structure. structure have to be considered to provide optimum radio coverage of an area. subscriber behavior.BTS Configurations
Different BTS configurations. p g
Standard configuration Umbrella cell configuration Sectorized (Collocated) Base Transceiver Stations
. The most important BTS configurations are. depending on load.
All BTSs are assigned different cell identities (CIs) (CIs). three. Figure shows three location areas with one. A number of BTSs (in some cases.
. and five BTSs. a single BTS) form a location area.
when cars are moving at rather high speeds through a network of small cells. For example. g y Consequently. This situation is applicable in every urban environment that features city highways. the handovers result in a substantial increase of the signaling load for the network as well as in an unbearable signal quality degradation for the end user.Umbrella Cell Configuration
The umbrella cell configuration consists of one BTS with high transmission power and an antenna installed high above the ground that serves as an “umbrella” for a number of BTSs with low transmission power and small diameters The umbrella cell configuration has its merits in certain situations and therefore may result in relief from load and an improvement of the network network. almost consecutive handovers from one cell to the next are necessary to maintain an active call. small cells are required to cope with the coverage demand in an urban environment. On the other hand.
or collocated. Like the umbrella cell configuration. this configuration is used mostly in highly populated areas
.Sectorized (Collocated) Base Transceiver Stations
The term sectorized. BTSs refers to a configuration in which several BTSs are collocated at one site but their antennas cover only an area of 120 or 180 degrees.
a small digital exchange with some mobile-specific extensions. The BSC is. depending on the manufacturer.Base Station Controller
The BSC forms the center of the BSS. A BSC can. connect to many BTSs over f t tt BTS the Abis-interface. The BSC was defined with the intention f i t ti of removing most of the radioi t f th di related load from the MSC. from a technical perspective.
therefore. its function is to switch the incoming traffic ( ) channels (A-interface from the MSC) to the correct Abisinterface channels. The BSC.Architecture and Tasks of the Base Station Controller
Because the BSC has the functionality of a small digital exchange. comes with a switch matrix that (1) takes care of the relay functionality and (2) can be used as the internal control bus
Terminal C t l El T i l Control Elements of th Abi I t f t f the Abis-Interface
The connection to the BTSs is established via the Abis-terminal control elements (TCEs). Furthermore. and so on are dynamically administrated. the quality of the radio resources and terrestrial resources. the BSC BSS capacity must maintain a relatively large database in which the maintenance status of the whole BSS. which.
The BSC is the control center of the BSS.
. such as assigned frequencies. the Abis TCEs also may be responsible for the administration of BTS radio resources. Major tasks of the Abis-TCEs are to set up LAPD connections toward the BTS peers. the transfer of signaling data. The number of Abis TCEs that a BSC may contain depends largely on the number of BTSs and on the system manufacturer. In that capacity. Depending on the manufacturer. provide the control function for a TRX or a BTS. the BSC database contains the complete BTS operations software for all attached BTSs and all BSS specific information. more or less independently from the BSC’s central unit. and last—but not least—the transparent transfer of payload least the payload.
It is able to compress speech from 64 Kbps to 16 Kbps. which ti t ti f ti i i l th TRAU hi h typically is located between the BSC and the MSC. Although speech compression is intended mainly to save resources over the Air-interface. in the case of a fullrate channel and to 8 Kbps in the case of a halfrate channel. it also is suitable to save line costs when applied on terrestrial links
.Transcoding Rate and Adaptation Unit
One f th O of the most interesting functions in GSM involves the TRAU. The used method is called regular pulse excitation–long term prediction (RPE-LTP). The task of the TRAU is to compress or decompress speech between the MS and the TRAU.
but difference in amplitude for loud sounds cannot be distinguished so easily. Both are approximations of the natural logarithmic function.A-law A law and µ law µ-law
Spoken language generally is not linear in its dynamics. one can take advantage of this it ti thi situation and code a sufficient-quality sound d d ffi i t lit d with relatively few bits. When digitizing speech. and both were standardized by ITU for transmission of digital speech on PCM transmission lines. the A-law and the µ-law were p p . µ invented. and the human ear is rather sensitive to soft sounds. For this purpose.
. All other countries use the A-law.Both methods are used on a per-country basis. The µ-law is used only in the United States and Japan.
A-law A law
µ-law µ law
GSM Network Planning N t k Pl i
Dr. Chandimal Jayawardena
The process has to be applied case b case. criteria and targets. Though some of the steps may be common. by
.Radio Network Planning Process
The network planning process itself is not standard. the process is determined by the type of project.
the operator performs majority of the planning function and outsource selected aspects of the job.
The opposite network planning solution is when the network operator buys the new network with a turnkey agreement. that if the operator is the only person responsible for network planning there might be a difficulty in maintaining knowledge of the latest equipment and features. the operator is involved only in defining the network planning criteria.
The network operator can also buy network planning consultancy services. however. After the network roll-out has been finished and enters the care phase an agreement about the future has to be made. There is risk.
This type of comprehensive responsibility for the network planning is more suitable for traditional network operators. The care services can be outsourced as well but the operator might also be interested to take some well.
. This is generally used in cases where new technologies need to be introduced in mature networks. g existing network and previous network planning experience than newcomers in this technology field. An operator taking all the responsibility after the outsourced planning phase includes some risk. No services means simply that the operator is responsible for the network planning from the very beginning until the end.
In this case.Network Planning Projects
Network planning projects can be divided into three main categories based on howmuch external planning services the operator is using using. In this way some special know-how can be bought to supplement the knowledge of the network planning group. portion of the network operations and start to learn the process. who have extensive knowledge of their p . A better solution is to learn the network operation at a pace agreed with the network vendor.
Network Planning Project Organization
which is then built as a cellular network. etc. drop call rate. The final target for the network planning process is to define the network design design. Financial limitations Future deployment plans
Environment factors and other boundary conditions
Area topography Hotspot locations Available frequency band Recommended base transceiver station (BTS) locations
. A summary of the main factors affecting network planning are listed below: Market analysis
Competitor analysis Potential customers User profiles: services required and usage
Coverage requirements Capacity requirements Quality targets: call setup success.Network Planning Criteria and Targets
Network planning is a complicated process consisting of several phases.
which can be combined at a higher level to main phases that differ depending on the logics.Network Planning Process Steps
The network planning process consists of several phases.
The dimensioning gives a preliminary network plan as an output. The network planning criteria is used as an input for network dimensioning. the requirements depend on many factors. Following are the basic inputs for dimensioning:
coverage requirements. busy hour value. The network planning criteria is agreed with the customer. frequency spectrum. subscriber information number of users and growth figures. call blocking. number of channels. the main criteria being the coverage and quality targets. drop call rate. which is then supplemented in coverage and parameter planning phases to create a more detailed plan. in-car and indoor with the coverage probabilities.
. including information about possible needed guard bands. As specified earlier. services. the signal level for outdoor. As in any other business it is an advantage to be aware of the current market situation and competitors.Preplanning
The preplanning phase covers the assignments and preparation before the actual network planning is started started. b bili i quality requirements. information. traffic per user.
finding the real site locations. initial network configuration. Coverage maps are made for the planned area and final site locations and configurations. completed The final site locations are agreed The output of the planning phase is the final and detailed coverage and capacity plans. as the process proceeds coverage planning becomes completed.Planning
The planning phase takes input from the dimensioning. hich radio network coverage and capacity planning with a planning tool. The nominal plan does not commit certain site locations but gives an initial idea about the locations and also distances between the sites. The nominal plan is then supplemented when it has information about the selected site locations. config ration This is the basis for nominal planning which means planning. The nominal plan is a starting point for the site survey.
After the planning phase has finished and the site location and configurations are known detailed planning can be started started. For radio planning the responsibility is to allocate parameters such as handover control and power control and define the location areas and set the parameters accordingly.
. The number of frequencies that can be used is always limited and therefore the task here is to find the best possible solution. adjacency and parameter planning. Planning tools have frequency planning algorithms for automatic frequency planning. Neighbour planning is normally done with the coverage planning tool using the frequency plan information information. Frequency planning is a critical phase in network planning. In the parameter planning phase a recommended parameter setting is allocated for each network element. The tool uses interference calculation algorithms and the target is to minimize firstly the co-channel interference and also to find as low an adjacent channel interference as possible. The planning tool can also be utilized in manual frequency planning. The detailed planning phase includes frequency.
GSM Network Planning Criteria
The definition of the radio network planning criteria is done at the beginning of the network planning process. Typical network quality targets are as follows:
. The network operator has performance quality targets for the cellular network and these quality requirements are also related to how the end user experiences the network.
Micro cells are used in city areas to cover areas close by and antennas are on the walls. usage of three sector sites or a combination of three sector and omni sites with the operator. The pico cells are used to cover either very specific hot spot in an outdoor area or to give indoor coverage. They are used for both indoor and outdoor coverage
.Radio Network Dimensioning
Dimensioning is the main part of the preplanning phase. Th antennas are typically mounted on walls d The i ll d ll and below the average rooftop level. The macro cells are used in rural and suburban areas to cover large areas. It is imperative to agree the network layout. One i O important planning issue i also whether only macro cells are used t t l i i is l h th l ll d in the beginning or a combination of macro. The micro cell has a cell range of less than 1 km and is for i f outdoor coverage. The pico cell has a cell range less than 500 m and is characterised by antennas mounted low on the walls. clearly below the rooftop level. The macro cell has a cell range of 1–35 km and is characterised by b an outdoor antenna. A t Antennas are above b rooftops. which covers a l td t hi h large area. micro and pico cells. In addition to the dimensioning parameters the priority of the parameters also needs to be agreed.
Link Budget Calculations
The radio link budget aims to calculate the cell coverage area. One of the required parameters is radio wave propagation t estimate the propagation loss between ti to ti t th ti l b t the transmitter and the receiver. The other required parameters are the transmission power. antenna gain. losses. margins
. cable losses receiver sensitivity and margins.
ii i The radio signal experiences the same path loss when travelling from the BTS to the MS as from the MS to the BTS.
When defining the cell coverage area. the aim is to balance the uplink and downlink powers. The BTS transmission power is higher than the MS transmission power and therefore the reception of the BTS needs to have high sensitivity.Link Budget Calculations cont. The links are calculated separately and are different from the transmission powers powers. The GSM link budget parameters are:
BTS sensitivity MS sensitivity MS and BTS powers Antenna gains Diversity gain Cable and connector losses Other equipment loss factors Mast head amplifier (MHA) and booster The interference degradation margin
MS class 1.05 and the recommended value is −106 dBm.
is also specified in the ETSI recommendation 05. as defined in the th ETSI recommendation 03.Link Budget Calculations cont. The value for the noise is 10 dB and the minimum Eb/N0 is 8 dB. Th receiver sensitivity Si i solved f d ti 03 30 The i iti it is l d from th the following equation. where the receiver sensitivity value is separate for each MS class.30.
The MS sensitivity can also be calculated using the information of receiver noise F and minimum Eb/N0. MS class 4. where the input noise power Ni is the product of three parameters: the Boltzman constant k.
BTS sensitivity iti it
Specified on the ETSI GSM recommendation 05. the value is −100 dBm. the recommended value is −102 dBm. GSM 1800. This is a general recommendation and therefore when preparing a link budget with a certain manufacturer’s equipment this vendor’s recommendations can be used. temperature T0 = 290K and bandwidth W = 271 kHz (54 dB):
.05. which means GSM 900.
Also frequency range is inversely proportional to the size of the antenna.
The BTS antenna gain is dependent on the antenna type and whether the antenna is omnidirectional or directional. For MS class 4 (GSM 900) the maximum TX power is 2Wand for class 1 (GSM 1800) 1W. The typical way to arrange diversity is to have it in the BTS reception. the method is
can be used for correcting unbalance between the uplink and downlink.
MS and BTS powers
MS TX (transmission) power is defined by the MS class in ETSI specifications specifications. because the gain is highly p dependent on the mobile user’s relative location towards the base station when the amount of body loss varies. The TX power is adjustable.Link Budget Calculations cont. The actual MS antenna gain is complicated to estimate. BTS TX power depends on the BTS type and vendor. In the link budget calculations for the MS antenna the gain is generally 0 dBi. It is also dependent on the physical size of the antenna which in turn has an impact on the frequency range. which enables the link budget to be balanced. The gain of a directional BTS antenna is dependent on the horizontal and vertical half power beam widths. The antenna gain is around 16–20 dBi when there is a widely used antenna with 60–65◦ horizontal h lf power b 60 6 h i l half beam width and 5–10 vertical h lf power b id h d 10 i l half beam width. which is then connected to the radiating aperture of the antenna. One basic method is to separate receiver antennas vertically or horizontally.
which is located close to the antenna in BTS reception. are the mast head amplifier ( p (MHA) and booster. combiner and filter losses. An i di id l A individual connector gives a l t i loss of around 0 1 dB b t d f d 0.Link Budget Calculations cont. is used to amplify the received signal.
Two other gain factors.1 dB. which need to be considered in the link budget if used. Cable and connector losses
are case specific and need to be measured or calculated separately.
Other equipment loss factors
consist of isolator.
The interference degradation margin
describes the loss due to frequency reuse. but depending on di the cable installations there can be several in one antenna line. This decreases the unbalance between the uplink and downlink by giving extra gain in the uplink the direction. )
The MHA. The booster can be used to amplify the BTS transmission power.
W lfi h Ik i
. Two well-known models are: Okumura–Hata Walfish–Ikegami. How much power needs t b t H h d to be transmitted using th itt d i the BTS? The complexity of the model affects the applicability as well as the accuracy accuracy. Models have been created for different environments to predict the path loss between the transmitter and receiver.Radio Wave Propagation
Propagation models have been developed to be able to estimate the radio wave propagation as accurately as possible.
which affects the received power.Basic Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
When the signal has been transmitted in the free space towards the receiver antenna. The effective area A of the receiver antenna. the power density S at the distance from the transmitter d can be written as:
where Pt is the transmitted power and Gt is the gain of the transmission antenna. can be expressed as where λ is the wavelength and Gr is the gain of the receiver (RX) antenna. The received power density can also be written as:
Combining these three equations. the received power is given by:
Basic Electromagnetic Wave Propagation cont.
In reality the radio wave propagation path is normally a non-lineof-sight situation with surrounding obstacles like buildings and trees. g g g which have been travelling through different paths facing reflection. trees Therefore the applicability of the free space propagation loss is limited. diffraction and scattering.
. The received signal actually consists of several components.
Free space loss The free space path loss is the ratio of transmitted and received power (excluding antenna gains)
Once converted into dB: where f is the frequency in megahertz a d d is the distance in e e s t e eque cy ega e t and s t e d sta ce kilometers.
which means that it is based on field measurements. The weakness of the Okumura–Hata model is that it does not consider reflections and shadowing. Hata applied the measurement results into equations. Okumura performed the field measurements in Tokyo and published results in graphical format. which can be applied for a macro cell environment to predict median radio signal attenuation. The parameter restrictions for this model are:
. The Okumura–Hata model is an empirical model. The model can be applied without correction factors for quasi-smooth terrain in yp an urban area but in case of other terrain types correction factors are needed.Okumura–Hata Okumura Hata Model
The Okumura–Hata model is a well-known propagation model.
Okumura–Hata Okumura Hata Model cont cont. Hb is the base station antenna height (m).
The Okumura–Hata model for path loss prediction can by written as where f is the frequency (MHz). a(Hm) is the mobile antenna correction factor.
and for a large city:
where Hm is the MS antenna height:
. d is the distance between the BTS and MS (km) and Lother is an additional correction factor for area type correction.
The correction factor for the MS antenna height is represented as follows for a small or medium sized city.
Receiver antenna height = 1.
Parameter set for Okumura–Hata calculations
Example: Distance from BTS = 2 km.5 m.
.Okumura–Hata Okumura Hata Model cont cont. Transmitter antenna height = 30 m.
Okumura–Hata Okumura Hata Model cont cont.30 to 200 m Mobile antenna . i. from 1 to 20 km. base station antenna height .1 to 10 m cell range.
. the distance between the BTS and MS.
The Okumura–Hata model is valid for frequency ranges 150–1500MHz and 1500–2000 MHz.e.
which is especially applicable for micro cells but can also be used for macro cells. The parameters related to the Walfish–Ikegami model are:
W = The mean value for street widths (m) Φ = Road orientation angle (degrees) hroof = Th mean value for building h i h ( ) The l f b ildi heights (m) B = The mean value for building separation (m)
.Walfish–Ikegami Walfish Ikegami Model
The Walfish–Ikegami model is an empirical propagation model for an urban area.
TheWalfish–Ikegami model separates i Th W lfi h Ik i d l into two cases: line-of-sight (LOS) and nonlineof-sight. Line-of-sight situation (d in km and f in MHz) Non-line-of-sight situation where Lrts = the rooftop–street diffraction and scatter loss Lmsd = the multiscreen d diffraction loss.Walfish–Ikegami Walfish Ikegami Model cont cont.
g. the cell size determination can be started.
. The link budget defines the maximum allowed path loss with certain configurations. e. which means different combinations of the planning parameters. but some different BTS profiles are normally needed. Firstly. frequency. only small ones can b used i th city area. the theoretical maximum for the cell size is calculated using the selected basic propagation model. e g frequency macro/microcell environment BTS antenna height environment.Coverage Planning in GSM Networks
The t Th target for coverage planning is to find optimal locations f tf l i i t fi d ti l l ti for base stations to build continuous coverage according to the planning requirements. height.g. e. The number of different combinations is targeted to be kept as small as possible. The coverage prediction is based on the map and the model and therefore the accuracy is dependent on those as well. The model selection is done according to the planning parameters. As the link budget calculations are created for all the network configurations. Sometimes there can be restrictions in the antenna usage. and thi creates l ll be d in the it d this t different link budgets for urban and rural areas.
The amount of traffic is expressed in Erlangs.Capacity Planning in GSM Networks
In the capacity planning phase a detailed capacity per cell level is estimated. The definition for g g Erlang is the following:
Example: 25 users make a phone calls in an hour. The capacity allocation is based on these coverage maps and traffic estimates. Average call duration isthree minutes. Th prior task was to select the b i d The i k l h base station l i locations and i d calculate the coverage area using actual BTS parameters. which is the magnitude of telecommunications traffic. How much traffic are the users creating in Erlangs? g g
. An Erlang describes the amount of traffic in one hour. which can be a separate layer on the map of the planning tool.
Using a re-use rate of 12.e. i. the number of TRXs. dividing the number of channels by the frequency re-use rate.Frequency Planning
The Th number of carriers per sector can b calculated b di idi th b f i t be l l t d by dividing the available bandwidth by the product of the re-use rate and bandwidth for a single carrier. carriers per sector. is calculated below: the capacity of the network with 100 BTSs and 600 cells can be calculated as The re-use pattern factor K can be calculated geometrically:
where the higher the value of q the smaller is the co-channel interference
The co-channel interference can be calculated as the ratio of the carrier (C) to the sum of the interferers (In ):
where d describes the distance between the transmitter and the receiver.
. Parameter q is the co-channel interference reduction factor. the parameter K should be optimised to be as small as possible when the system is operational and fulfilling the planning requirements.Frequency Planning cont cont. α is a constant and γ is the propagation path loss slope.
To enable maximum capacity.
Frequency Planning cont cont.
Interference for the first tier is Assuming all interferers are equally strong: g
Interference for the second tier: