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Measures of Central Tendency Variable A variable is a quantity which can vary from one value to another. The common examples of variables are barometer readings, temperature, rainfall records, wages, heights etc. Variables are of two kinds. (i) Continuous variables: The quantities which can assume any numerical value within a certain range are called continuous variables. For example, if we consider the height H of a child at various ages, we observe that as the child grows from 110 cm to 160 cm (say), his height takes all possible values within this range. Thus, the height H of a child at various ages is an example of a continuous variable. (ii) Discrete (or discontinuous) variables: The quantities which cannot assume all possible values are called discrete variables. For example, the number of children x in a family can take any of the values 0, 1, 2, 3 , ..., but cannot be 2.1, 2.46, 3.783. Thus, the number of children x is an example of a discrete variable. statistics paper which are arranged according to their roll numbers, the maximum marks allotted to the paper being 100: 17, 71, 70, 14, 22, 00, 55, 59, 23, 87, 93, 21, 22, 50, 87, 54, 70, 52, 87, 74, 63, 87, 28, 04, 17, 49, 85, 81, 76, 52, 21, 86, 50, 87, 26, 87, 50, 60, 32, 40, 30, 90, 27, 89, 81, 21, 14, 30, 37, 22. The data given above is in raw form, i.e. we cannot conclude anything. Such type of data is called Ungrouped data. When the data is arranged in ascending or descending order of magnitude, the data is said to be arranged in an array. Suppose these data is arranged in the intervals 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-50, 50-60, 60-70, 70-80, 80-90, 90100. This is done by the method called ‘tally method.’ In this method, we prepare a frequency table as follows:

Constant: A quantity is a constant if it can assume only one value.

Frequency Distribution A frequency distribution is defined when the following two information are specified: (i) (ii) The value which the variable takes, and The number of times (i.e. frequencies) a value is taken by a variable.

Consider the marks obtained by 50 students in a

In the above example, 'marks' is the variable x and the 'number of students' against the marks is called frequency f. Thus, the frequency of the class 50-60 is 8. The value of the variable which is mid-way between the upper and lower limits is called mid-

.. 1 ..

W . ... W . X 2 . Harmonic mean 4.+ X n ∑ X = n n Weighted Arithmetic Mean In the calculation of simple average. 15.. 2 . X 3 . 1. then their AM. The cumulative frequencies are shown in the last column. X n respectively.. Mode Arithmetic Mean (AM) If X1. . . the cumulative frequency of the class 0-10 is 2 (since there is no class above it).. . For the table. Cumulative frequency 'more than' Number of students 2 13 18 20 28 30 34 44 48 50 Cumulative frequency 'less than' Marks under 20 under 30 under 40 under 50 under 60 under 70 under 80 under 90 under 100 Number of students 6 16 20 22 30 32 37 48 50 Measures of Central Tendency The following are the five measures of central tendency. we employ a welldefined short-cut method which is explained in the example below. X 2.. X 3 . In the above example. usually denoted by X W is given by X W = ∑ Wi Xi i=1 n n ∑ Wi i=1 Sometimes. each item of the series is considered equally important but there may be cases where all items may not have equal importance and some of them may be comparatively more important than others.. Xn are the given n observations.. Median 5.point (or mid-value) of the class.. .. In such cases. . In the above example. . .. Geometric mean 3... 25. h: Class size and ui = .. In this method. W be the weights attached to X= 1 2 3 n variable values X 1 . we assume any value of the variable as ‘assumed mean’ and then find the 1 actual mean using X = A + h N ∑ fi ui where A: xi − A h Assumed mean.. proper weightage is to be given to various items — the weights attached to each item being proportional to the importance of the item in the distribution. the following two forms of the frequency distribution may also be used.. . is given by Marks above 90 above 80 above 70 above 60 above 50 above 40 above 30 above 20 above 10 above 0 X 1 + X 2 + X 3 + . 95.. Let W . . the mid-values of the classes are respectively 5. to calculate AM. Arithmetic mean 2. usually denoted by X . The cumulative frequency corresponding to a class is the total of all the frequencies upto and including that class. Then the weighted arithmetic mean.

) 800 820 860 900 920 980 1000 Number of workers 7 14 19 25 20 10 5 Sol. say.f. 891. h = 20.A ui = ( x1 − A) /h −100 −5 − 80 − 40 0 20 80 100 −4 −2 0 1 4 5 fiui − 35 − 56 − 38 0 20 40 25 For discrete frequency distribution. which is the median. If n is even.) just N and determine the corresponding 2 value of the variable.. where N = 2 ∑ fi i =1 n Step 3: See the cumulative frequency (c.2. calculation of multiplying two inconvenient numbers is avoided. .2 100 Hence.Ex. Step 1: Find the cumulative frequencies (c. (using (4) and (e)) 44 = 900 + 20 − = 891.. Wage (Amount in Rs. X2 = –5. greater than For grouped or continuous frequency distribution. 1 Two variables X and Y. X4 = –8 and Y1 = –3. Calculation of Median For individual observations Step 1: Arrange the observations x1. Calculate (1) ΣX (2) ΣY (3) ΣXY (5) ΣY2 (4) ΣX2 (6) (ΣX)(ΣY) (7) ΣXY2 (8) Σ(X + Y)(X – Y) Sol. xi 800 820 860 900 920 980 1000 n + 1 observation. Y 4 = 6. assume the values X1 = 2. h = 20 fi 7 14 19 25 20 10 5 xi . respectively. Y 2 = –8. Step 2: Determine the total number of observations.) Step 2: Find N . Y 3 = 10. th th n and + 1 2 th Let the assumed mean be A = 900.f.. One part comprises all the values greater than and the other part comprises all the values less than the median.. x2. xn in ascending or descending order of magnitude. ∑fi ui = − 44 1 n ∴ Mean = X = A + h ∑ fi ui N i=1 N . Step 1: Obtain the frequency distribution. 2 . X3 = 4. 3 . Median The median is that value of the variable which divides the group in to two equal parts. mean wage = Rs. . n Step 3: If n is odd. then median is 2 n the AM of the values of 2 observations. Step 2: Prepare the cumulative frequency column and obtain N = Σ fi Find ∑fi = 100 Here A = 900. then median is the value of Ex. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) ΣX = –7 ΣY = 5 ΣXY = 26 ΣX2 = 109 ΣY2 = 209 (ΣX)(ΣY) = –35 (using (1) and (2)) ΣXY2 = –190 Σ(X + Y)(X – Y) = Σ(X2 – Y2) = 109 – 209 = –100. With the help of this method.. 2 Find the mean wage from the data given below.

6. Examples The set 2. 18 has mode 9. 7.8.9 Sol. 50. 9. 6. 3. 5. 6 and (2) 51. 8 and 9. 11. 48. 5. F = cumulative frequency of the class preceding the median class. A distribution having a unique mode is called ‘unimodal’ and one having more than one is called ‘multimodal’. 7. 16 has no mode. (2) Arranged in an array. Mode Mode is the value which occurs most frequently in a set of observations. Mean = 5. 12. 8.5 × 5 = 19. 9.. 5. 5. 2. the numbers are 48. L = lower limit of the f median class. 4. N = Σ fi. 9 has two modes. 4.5. 48.3 and 51. h = width (size) of the median class.5 15 N/ 2 − F =L+ × h . 5. the numbers are 2.Step 3: See the cumulative frequency just greater than N and determine the corresponding class.5 − 11 ∴ Median = l + 2 × h = 15 + ×5 f 15 = 15 + 13. h = 5.5. 10. 4 . f is frequency of the median class. 5. 5. The set 3. N −F 24. 2. 48. 10. Median = Arithmetic mean Class 5 − 10 10 − 15 15 − 20 20 − 25 25 − 30 30 − 35 35 − 40 40 − 45 Freqency Cumulative frequency 5 6 15 10 5 4 2 2 N = 49 5 11 26 36 41 45 47 49 1 (5 + 5) = 5. 49. 9.6. 6.. 50. and mode for the sets (1) 3. Mean = 49. Ex. 15. The set 2.9. 4.5. 8. 4 and 7. 2.5. 2. F = 11. . Step 4: Use the formula: Median Thus 15-20 is the median class such that l = 15.6. The mode may or may not exist. The 2 2 N is 2 26 and the corresponding class is 15-20. 7. Median = middle number = 49. cumulative frequency just greater than . 9.1. 10. it may not be unique. 12. 3 Calculate the median for the following distribution: Class: 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 Frequency: 5 6 15 10 5 4 2 2 Sol.3. 5. Note: The mean deviation from the median for any distribution is minimum. of two middle numbers = Here N = 49 ⇒ N 49 = = 24. median. 4 Find the mean. 5. 7. f = 15. 2 This class is known as the median class. 49. (1) Arranged in an array. Mode = non existent. 2 Mode = Number most frequently occurring = 5. 3. and is called bimodal.7. 5. where. Ex.7. and even if it does exist.

8. 8. Therefore. like in this example. the class corresponding to the maximum frequency is called the modal class and the value of mode is obtained as. Mode = 3 Median – 2 Mean Measures of Dispersion The various measures of dispersion are as follows 1. the class containing the mode) D1 = Excess of modal frequency over frequency of next lower class D2 = Excess of modal frequency over frequency of next higher class c = Size of the model class interval. 15. 10 – 90 percentile range Range It is the difference between two extreme observations of a distribution. 8. 18. Mode = I + Relationship Between Mean (M). 10. 5 . Range 2. Mean deviation 3. h( f1 − f0 ) . 18. Let Xmax be the greatest observation and Xmin the smallest observation of the variable. 9. . Therefore. mode is the value of the variable corresponding to the maximum frequency. 57 = 21 + . the range is same but the variation is greater in the first series than the second series. 15. 6. 9. After arranging the terms of (2). To counter this. 18 Sol. Median (Md) and Mode(Mo) In case of symmetrical distribution. Quality control 2. 9. 10. 7. Standard deviation 4. 5 Compute the mode of the following distribution: Class intervals: 0-7 7-14 14-21 21-28 28-35 35-42 42-49 Frequency : 19 25 36 72 51 43 28 Mode Sol. Range = Xmax–Xmin.42 = 25. In case of continuous frequency distribution.42 . After arranging the terms of (1). f1= frequency of the modal class f0= Frequency of class preceding the modal class f2= Frequency of class succeeding the modal class The above formula can be rephrased as Mode D1 = L + D + D c . Then. 8. 9. 8. Quartile deviation 5. 7. 8. 6. 3.e. (M0 ) = l + = 21 + f − f−1 ×i 2f − f−1 − f1 72 − 36 ×7 144 − 36 − 51 252 = 21 + 4.. Shares 3. Uses 1. semi-interquartile range and 10 – 90 percentile range were designed to improve on the deficiencies of the range. range = 15. range = 15.Calculation of Mode In case of frequency distribution. ( f1 − f0 ) − ( f2 − f1 ) where l = Lower limit of modal class h = Magnitude of the modal class. Note that range is not a very good measure of dispersion because. 9. Ex. Weather forecast Ex. Mean = Median = Mode In case of a ‘moderately’ asymmetrical distribution. we get 3. 1 2 1 where L1 = Lower class boundary of the modal class (i. 5 (2) 9. 12.. 5. 18. 6 Find the range of the sets (1) 12. we get 3. 3.

55 N = Σf = 100 Σf |X – X| = 226.45 62.Mean Deviation (MD) If X1.21 (18) + (27) ≈ 55.55 44. 6 .71 inches is X ± MD = 67. which is 86% of 3 the total. and the lower class boundary of the fourth class is 68.1 64 18 3. which is 97% of 3 the total.50 .45 ± 3(2.23 8 ≈ 97. .26) = 67.97 − 71. Sol.45| (f) 32.71 72 .97 inches is X ± MD is 42 + (2) X ± 2 MD X ± 2 MD = 67. The number of students in the range Ex. n n + 1 (69.45 ± 2. X2.45 18. X3 .45 68..74 Class |X – X| = Frequency f|X – X| M ark (X) |X – 76.19 in.5 inches. is given by MD = The range from 65.19) of the students in the second class 1 1 Σ | Xi − A | = Σ | di | .25 61 5 6.74 Number of students 5 18 42 27 8 Total = 100 0. then the mean deviation (MD) about A.71 .68 . In case of frequency distribution.5 3 – 65..71 – 68. The number of students in the range X ± 2 MD is 62.26.62 63 .5 18 + 42 + 27 + 18 – 3 71.. This range includes all the individuals in the third class + 1 (65.93 to 71.65 66 .5 8 ≈ 86.78.5 inches).4 73 8 5. 3 3 which is 55% of total. to 69.68 69 .62 .93 − 62.65 . i i n n Modulus removes the effects of negative deviations and therefore gives us the absolute value of the deviation. 7 Determine the percentage of the students heights in the following table of mean deviation of the heights of 100 male students. the upper class boundary of the second class is 65.31 1. that fall within the ranges (1) X ± MD (3) X ± 3 MD Height (inches) 60 .67 − 59. (2) The range from 62.85 70 27 2.9 67 42 0. Xn are n given observations. Height (in) 60 63 66 69 72 .5 5 + 18 + 42 + 27 + 5– 3 74..5) of the students in the fourth 3 class (since the class-interval size is 3 inches.5 − 74.45 ± 6. where d = X – A. (3) The number of students in the range X ± 3 MD is 60. mean deviation about A is given by 1 1 Σ fi | Xi − A | = Σ fi | di | = | X − X | .

Therefore. s 2 N represents sample variance and σ2 represents population variance. X2. Of all such deviations.. Note that root mean square deviation about origin is also called the quadratic mean and is given by 1 ∑ x i2 . σ c . where a is the N average besides the arithmetic mean. XN is the set of N observations. then its standard deviation is given by Variance It is the square of the standard deviation. σ does not change. 7 . if multiplied by k. N Also note that σ is independent of origin but not of scale. X ax i + b . This property provides an important reason for defining the standard deviation as above. σ changes to kσ. . This is so because the sum of the squares of the deviation of a set of numbers Xi from any number a is minimum if and only if a = X . But. This means that if each of the observations are increased by a constant k. if S= each observation is transformed to transforms to aσ . 2 variance = σ = = X2 − X2 The root mean square deviation about any point a is defined as S = ∑(X i =1 N i − a)2 . Sample variance means variance of a sample drawn out from a population. . Therefore.Standard Deviation If X1....Generally. 1 σ= Σ ( Xi − X)2 where X is the AM alternative N formula for standard deviations is σ= 2 Σfi X i Σf X − i i N N 2 1 Σ ( Xi − X)2 . the minimum is that for which a = X .

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