Propaganda

Agenda
• Questions • What is Propaganda ? • Propaganda Characteristics • Propaganda History • Propaganda Techniques • Cases

Questions
• What is Propaganda ? • What are Propaganda Characteristics? • There are many different Propaganda Techniques, Mention three types and Elaborate.

Propaganda
• The most powerful tool in molding the nature and the thinking of the new, the modern man is propaganda.”
• - Schulze-Wechsungen

What is “Propaganda”?
• Propaganda is designed to persuade and Brainwashing the public rather that simply convincing it. • Techniques used to influence & manipulate, our opinions, emotions, attitudes or behavior. • It appeals to the emotions not the intellect. • It is not negative or positive .

Why there is a general perception that propaganda

Is BAD

• Propaganda is concerned with spreading the adoption on

an idea regardless it’s truth, people are much more likely to look upon skeptically.

• Despite the fact that most people don't do a great job at

critical thinking, they do still care about the truth and think that the others should do as well.

• If they believe that some organization is pushing an agenda
without regard for the truth , they are going to have a negative Reaction

Five characteristics of propaganda
• Propaganda is in the eye of the beholder.
• “I’m persuading. The other guy is using propaganda.”

Propaganda has a strong ideological bent.
• example: The Army of God

Propaganda is institutional in nature. It is practiced by organized groups
• governments, corporations, social movements, special interests

• Propaganda relies on mass persuasion
• television, radio, Internet, billboards

• Propaganda tends to rely on ethically suspect methods of influence.
• deception, distortion, misrepresentation, or suppression of information.

Propaganda in history WWI

Why do we use Propaganda?
• Government Support • Mobilize hatred against the enemy • Preserve the friendship with allies • Demoralize the enemy

Propaganda methods
• Posters were the only propaganda method used in WWI . • They used posters to:
– justify their involvement to their own populace – As a means of recruiting men – A way to raise money and resources to sustain the military campaign. – To urge conservation

Why Posters?
• Television had not yet been invented • Not everyone owned or had access to a radio • Posters were the most effective means of getting a message across

Propaganda in World War II
• Information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause • In WWII, propaganda was used more than any other time this world has seen. With new technological inventions such as photography, radio and film, manipulative photography film messages bombarded every day life in an attempt to persuade a person to believe in a specific cause.

War II Propaganda in Figures
Since the beginning of the War, the Reichspropagandaleitung has produced: • more than 2 million brochures • more than 7 million posters • more than 60 million newspapers, wall posters, leaflets, etc. etc It carried out: • about 30,000 slide shows • about 45,000 film evenings every month • about 200,000 meetings and public or factory mass meetings

Propaganda in history: Nazi Germany
“Effective propaganda must limit its points of a few and these points must be repeated until even the last member of the audience understands what is meant by them” Hitler

Nazi Propaganda focussed on
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Anti-Semitism (anti-Jew) Militarism (uniforms; army) Nationalism (pride in Germany) Supremacy of the Aryan race Cult of the Fuhrer (Hitler focal point of nation; god-like figure) 6. Traditional German ‘Volks’ culture

Nazi Propaganda
Methods: • Posters • Radio • Film • Newspapers

Posters
• Posters - cheap & easy to distribute • Placed in prominent positions • Constant reminder of Nazi ideology

Radio
1) The Peoples Receiver – limited range in order to only hear Nazi broadcasts (could not pick up foreign broadcasts) -All news broadcasts came through the Nazi Office of Propaganda -Between 1932-9 the number of families with radios rose from 25% to 70% -Goebbels described radio as “the spiritual weapon of the totalitarian state” 2) Hitler’s Speeches -Hitler is considered to have been one of the greatest public speakers of all time

Film
• Film was used to show Hitler in a positive light as often as possible •Over 1000 films produced during the Third Reich •Nazis often used newsreels shown before the start of feature films

Newspapers
• Censoring newspapers ensures that only the news you want people to read is available to the public • October 1933 new law made editors responsible for infringements of government directives

Propaganda Techniques

Assertion
• An enthusiastic or energetic statement presented as a fact, although it is not necessarily true.

Bandwagon
• This technique tries to persuade everyone to join in and do the same thing.

Testimonial
An important person or famous figure endorses a product

Transfer
• Good feelings, looks, or ideas transferred to the person for whom the product is intended.

Card Stacking
• Selective Omissions • The process of choosing from a variety of facts only those that support the propagandist’s purpose.

Glittering Generalities
• Words that has attractive-sounding but vague terms.
– Coca-Cola: It’s “the Real Thing” – Politicians referring to the “middle class”—it sounds attractive, but nearly everyone considers him or herself to be in the middle class

Lesser of Two Evils
• Tries to convince us of an idea or proposal by presenting it as the least offensive option • Often accompanied by adding blame on an enemy country or political group

Pinpointing the Enemy
• Attempt to simplify a complex situation by presenting one specific group or person as the enemy

Plain Folks
• Common average person, or the man on the street uses this product. For someone just like you

Name-Calling
• Negative words are used to create an unfavorable opinion of the competition in the viewer's mind.

Simplicity and Repetition
• The product name or keyword or phrase is repeated several times

Viewpoint
The West Must beware Rushdie’s Trap
• In fact, under the guide of literary creativity , Rushied has propagated misinformation and leveled insults against Islam. • IF Rushdie intended his novel to be "The beginning of intellectual challenge to Muslims" as he claimed, one wonders what the limits decorum and taste really are. Rather than taking a respectful and decent approach to difficult a question , he has chosen to fly in the face of propriety

CASE I I
• Gulf ware propaganda

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