This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Informal style of Shi
Formal style of Shi Standar Zairean Swahili
Swahili (lingua franca of the area)
Kingwana (local Swahili)
Indoubil (based on Swahili)
Swahili Standard Zairean Local Swahili Shi Formal style Informal style (Kingwana) Indoubil .The factors that lead Kalala to choose one code rather than another are the kinds of social factors.
Which varieties do you think Kalala will used to a)Talk to his younger brother at home? b) Plan the morning’s activities with his best friend? c) Greet a stranger from a different tribe whom he met in the street? .
.Which varieties do you think Kalala will used to a)Talk to his younger brother at home? Informal Shi b) Plan the morning‟s activities with his best friend? Indoubil c) Greet a stranger from a different tribe whom he met in the street? Kingwana *the person lived in Bukavu Standar Swahili *From out of town.
Joshua Fishman. a term popularized by an American sociolinguistic. A domain involves typical interactions between typical settings. They are known as Domain of language use. Function and Topic Social Context Social Who are Factors you talking to .A number of such typical interaction have been identified as relevant in describing patterns of code choice in many speech communities.
Family Friendship Religion Education Parent Friend Priest Teacher Home Beach Church School Planning a family party How to play beach tennis Choosing the Sunday liturgy Solving math problems Applying for a promotion Employment Employer Workplace .
People in Paraguay are proud that they have their own language which distinguishes them from the rest of south America. but they gossip in Guaraní. the American Indian indigenous language. Many rural Paraguayans are monolingual in Guaraní. They read Spanish literature.In Paraguay two languages are used: Spanish. and Guaraní. the language of the colonizers. . but those who live in the cities are usually bilingual.
Domain Family Friendship Religion Education Education Administration Addressee Parent Friend Priest Teacher Lecturer Official Setting Home Café Church Primary School University Office Topic Planning family party Funny anecdote Choosing the Sunday liturgy Telling a story Solving math problems Getting an important license Language Guaraní Guaraní Spanish Guaraní Spanish Spanish .
Using the information about the domains of use in a community it is possible to draw a very simple summarizing the norms of language use for the community. . This is often particularly useful for bilingual and multilingual speech communities.It is useful for capturing broad generalizations about any speech community.
. but English is the appropriate variety or code for her to use at school. though occasionally older customers greet her in Portuguese. She Domain Home/ Family Church/ Variety/ code Portuguese Portuguese English English Religion Work/ Employment School/ Education uses mostly English at her afterschool job serving in a local café. She uses mainly Portuguese at home and to older people at the Portuguese Catholic church and community centre.The information provided in the next example identifies four domains and describes the variety or code appropriate to each Maria is a teenager whose Portuguese parents came to London in the 1960s.
The social distance The status relationship The dimension of formality The function or goal . as a father or as a customer in the market place.The same person may be spoken to in a different code depending on whether they are acting as a teacher.
knows two very distinct varieties of Swiss German. The novels Silvia reads also uses Standard German. One is the local Swiss German dialect of her canton which she uses in her everyday interactions with other Swiss Germans. Silvia. she rarely uses it in speech. . though more radical clerics use Swiss German dialect. Newspapers are written in standard German. The other is standard which she learnt at school. The sermons her mother listens to in church are generally in standard German too.In Eggenwil. it may be in standard German. and though she understands it very well indeed. a town in the Aargau canton of Switzerland. a bank teller. and she occasionally goes to hear a lecture at the university.
Each variety is used for quite distinct functions. with one regarded as a high (H) variety and the other a low (L) variety. H & L complement each other. No one uses the H variety in every day conversation.A situation in which two languages (or two varieties of the same language) are used under different conditions within a community. often by the same speakers. . Two distinct varieties of the same language.
Diglossic situations Arabic-speaking countries Greece Medieval Europe classical Arabic (H) Katharévousa Latin (H) regional colloquial varieties (L) French Dhimotiki Spanish Italian .
the relationship is closer is some cases than others. H is morphologically more complicated H and L is the same H≠L H-L H – Formal domains L – everyday objects . Degree of difference Pronunciation Grammar Vocabulary H and L varies from place to place.In diglossic communities while the two varieties are (or were) linguistically related.
lectures) Education (lesson discussion) Broadcasting: Radio Shopping gossiping . prayers) Literature Newspaper Broadcasting: TV news Education (written material.Exercise: fill in the following table when H will be used and when L will be used in diglossic communities H/L Religion (sermon.
lectures) Education (lesson discussion) Broadcasting: Radio Shopping gossiping H H H L L L L .Exercise: fill in the following table when H will be used and when L will be used in diglossic communities H/L Religion (sermon. prayers) Literature H H Newspaper Broadcasting: TV news Education (written material.
People generally do not think of the L variety as worth describing.Attitudes towards the two codes in a diglossia situation are complicated People generally admire the H variety even when they can't understand it. Attitudes to the L variety are varied and often ambivalent. Attitudes to it are very respectful These attitudes are reinforced by the fact that the H variety is the one which is described as “fixed” or standardized. . in grammar book and dictionaries.
summarize what you now know about the differences between H & L in diglossic communities 1) How are the H&L Varieties linguistically related? Are they distinct languages or varieties of the same language? 2) How are they used in the community? 3) Which is used in conversations with family and friends? 4) How is each variety learned? 5) Which has most prestige? 6) Which is codified in grammar books and dictionaries? 7) In which variety is literature written? .Exercise: Answer the following questions.
as the only language of the country. They ignore the existence of the Haitian Creole. . which in fact everyone uses at home and with friends for all their everyday interactions. In Haiti. people may rate L very low indeed.In countries where the H variety is a language used in another country as a normal means of communication. and the L variety is only used locally. although both French and the Creole were declare national languages in the 1983 constitution. many people still regard French(H).
The term polyglossia has been used for situations where a community regularly used more than two languages. .
Alternatively one variety may gradually displace another. It is possible for two varieties to continue to exist side by side from centuries.Diglossia has been described as a stable situation. sheep calf mouton veau English English French ox bœuf beef mutton veal pig porc pork .
Sometimes the switch is founded in sentences or even in a single phrase. when there is some obvious change in the situation.Code switching or code mixing is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between 2 or more languages. such as the arrival of a new person Involves status as high as low depending the relationship When a bilingual speaker utilizes more than one language in a single utterance or in a conversation . People sometimes switch code within a domain.
I‟m disont: . Moi. tout j‟peux yeux repond ‟c‟est: -Hallo cher. J‟parle pas en anglais pis eusses I‟parlont pas francais.Speakers who aren‟t very proficient in a second language may use brief phrases for this purpose. Quand il app‟lont icitte pour Chrissmusse. where the phenomenon is called “Franglais”. The switches are often very short and they are made primarily for social reasons.Bonjour. j‟peux pas parler avec leur enfants. CASES : The communities in Canada with both francophone and Anglophone populations. Grom‟mom comment vou‟ est? Et moi. gramma‟s fine an‟y‟all? .
with tears en sus ojos. The sun was coming up.Robin. Robin escucho el canto de unos pajarillos que celebraban the arrival of spring. Robin said. Vió lots of birds jumping from place to place mientras cantaban alegremente. Bird. said Mrs. get up’. Example 1 Code switching or code mixing Participants Status Solidarity . ‘If only I could sing’. Era una fresca mañana en primavera.
COME IN. The switch is simply an interjection. Sarah: You`re right. Example 2 Sarah: I think everyone’s here except Mere John: She said she might be a bit late but actually I think that s her arriving now. or a sentence filler in the other language which serves as an ethnic identify marker. Haere mai. Kia ora Mere. Have you started yet? . Kei te pai.Tamati uses a Maori tag at the beginning of his utterance while the Cantonese speaker uses a final tag. a tag. HOW ARE YOU?) Mere : Kia ora e hoa. Kei te pehea koe? ( HI MERE.
OK? M) àndale pues (OK WELL).Example 3 A) Well I`m glad I met you. and do come again. (Switch between Spanish and English)Two Mexican Americans or Chicanos in the United States . Mm? The tag served as a solidarity marker between two minority ethnic group members whose previous conversation has been entirely in English.
Petter: OF COURSE.Example 4 ( BOKMAIL IS IN SMALL CAPITAL LETTERS. Ranamal is not) Jan: Hello Pette. GIVE IT HERE… . She`s out of hospital and convalescing well. Jan: That’s good I´m pleased to hear it. How is your wife now? Petter: Oh she’s much better thank you Jan. DO YOU THINK YOU COULD HELP ME WITH THIS PESKY FORM? I AM HAVING A GREAT DEAL OF DIFFICULTY WITH IT.
.When people switch from one code to another for reasons which can be identified. it is sometimes called situational switching. Example: • A Hemnesberge resident chatting to a friend in the queue at the community administration office gets to the counter and speaks to the clerk.
.Example 5 illustrated that people may switch code within a speech event to discuss a particular topic. Bilinguals often find it easer to discuss particular topics in one code rather than another.
Jiá gou súi goò. Li: People here get divorce too easily. they also signal ethnic identity. jià ji sùi ji.A group of Chinese students are discussing Chinese customs. In this example. YOU FOLLOW A CHICKEN) . (IF YOU HAVE MARRIED A DOG. YOU FOLLOW A DOG. In Chine it`s not the same. IF YOU `VE MARRIED A CHICKEN. Like exchanging faulty goods. the switches not only emphasize the precise message content.
•In the town of Oberwart two little Hungarian-speaking children were playing in the woodshed and knocked over a carefully stacked pile of firewood. BOTH OF YOU. Their grandfather walked in and said in Hungarian. WELL NOW) •When they did not respond quickly enough he switched to German ‘Kum her’ (COME HERE) . no hát akkor! ( WELL COME HERE ! PUT ALL THIS AWAY. the language he usually used to them: •‘Szo! Ide dzuni! Jeszt jeramunyi mind e kettuotok.
Tea‟s ready Robbie (Robbie ignores him and carries on skate-boarding) Father: Mr. Father. . Identify the linguistic features in this example which signal that Robbie`s father has switched code between his first and second utterance. Robert Harris if you do not come immediately there will be consequences which you will regret.
So I tried. And in bed at night I'D GET DESPERATE. Even when I was at work. • My doctor told me to go on a diet. He is talking to a fellow Samoan at work about his attempt to go on a diet. I'D KEEP THINKING ABOUT FOOD ALL THE TIME. I COULDN'T GET TO SLEEP. So I'd get up and RAID THE FRIDGE. She just shrugged and said 'well it's your funeral!' Some people call this kind of rapid switching illustrated in this example „code mixing‟. She said I was overweight. BUT IT WAS SO HARD.Alf is 55 and overweight. but I prefer the term „metaphorical switching‟ . THEN I'D FEEL GUILTY AND SICK AND WHEN I WOKE UP NEXT DAY I WOULD BE SO DEPRESSED because I had to start the diet all over again the doctor wasn't sympathetic.
It is obviously important to distinguish this kind of switching from switches which reflect lack of vocabulary in a language . when people speaking a second language such as people will often use a term from their first language because they don't know how to say it in their second language. People may also borrow words from another language to express a concept or describe an object for which there is no obvious word available in the language they are using. For example. .
e. English Red boat Big house French possible switch point? Bateau rouge Grande maison YES: i.Linguistic constraint is another factor of code-switching. "big maison" or "grande house" No . It means that people may just switch between an adjective and a noun if both languages utilize the same order for that adjective and noun such as the following example.
When they later heard the tapes some were appalled and promised they would not switch in this way in the future. I usually realize soon afterwards and correct myself.' D) 'My attitude towards code-switching is a very relaxed one'. C) 'Code switching is not very pure. two linguists recorded university students home on vacation. but it is still embarrassing'. B) 'When I switch. The students unconsciously switched between the local dialect and standard Norwegian according to the topic.In Hemnesberget. .
como estas?” Mark: “well. A SHORT SPANGLISH CONVERSATION: Anita:” hola. y tu?” Anita: “ todo bien. i know.The term Tex Mex is used to described rapid code switching between Spanish and English. good morning.” . Siempre hay problemas parqueando in el area at this time. Pero tuve problemas parqueando mi carro this morning” Mark: “ si.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.