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All graphics, photos and text copyright 2007 Kris H. Light
The Earth has seasons because the north/south axis points toward or away from the sun as the year progresses. summer has the longest. the “equinox”. 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness. . to revolve around the Sun. Every 4 years a leap year adds an extra day. On the first day of spring and fall.4 days. day and night is equal.4 days It takes the Earth 365.Winter has the shortest days. or one year.1 Year = 365.
and the waning crescent “C” . On the first day the moon can’t be seen from Earth. The tiny sliver of a waxing crescent looks like the outside of a “D”. On the 7th night. During the next 14 days more light is seen each night. the 3rd Quarter. This is the new moon. one-half of the moon can be seen. we see different phases. . it is the 1st Quarter. the moon is in the “waxing” phase. From here on out the moon will be losing light each night and it begins the phases of the waning Gibbous.To remember the Phases of the moon – think of “D-O-C” The moon looks different each night because it revolves around the Earth. On the 28th day it can’t be seen in the new moon phase and the “moonth” is complete. it then looks like the Letter “O”. Since the moon does not make its own light (it reflects light from the sun). The phases just before and after the full moon are called the gibbous phases. A lunar cycle takes 28 days (or 1 “moonth”). On the 14th night the entire disc of the moon can be seen in the full moon.
The Moon is in the waxing crescent phase in this photograph. it can be seen early in the afternoon. Light . Waxing Crescent Moon – “D” K. with a tiny sliver of light visible on the right. a little more light is added. At the beginning of the 28day "moonth" there is a New Moon. so during some phases in the 28-day lunar monthly cycle (which I call a "moonth"). Each day as the moon continues its' revolution (orbit) around the earth. An easy way to tell where the moon is in the cycle is to think of "D-O-C". this is called a waxing moon. The moon rises an hour later each day. The first sign of the moon is the crescent moon. which is between the sun and the Earth and it can't be seen.
it is up early enough in the evening and the craters are easy to see on the edge. this is the best time to view the moon through a telescope or binoculars. K. The light is visible from the right side.First Quarter On around the 7th day of the "moonth" the moon is 1/4th into the revolution and half of the moon is visible. called the first quarter. By the way. like the edge of a "D". Light .
Waxing Gibbous The next phase is the "almost full" phase called a gibbous moon. Light . K.
The full moon reflects the light from the sun back toward the earth. The moon rotates so slowly that only one side can be seen from the earth. The surface of the moon is covered in craters made by meteorites. meaning “sea” in Latin.Full Moon – “O” K. Since the moon has no atmosphere or weather. . Light On day 14 the moon is full. The gray areas seen here are called mare (mah-ray). We have never seen the back side of the moon except from an orbiting spacecraft. it then looks like an "O". the surface does not change unless it has been struck by foreign objects (or spacecraft from Earth!). it doesn't make its' own light. They are lava beds from ancient eruptions.
Light . K. It then begins the waning phase. the moon begins to lose light every night.Waning Gibbous After the full phase.
it is in the 3rd quarter phase and half of the moon is visible from the left side. It can be seen very late at night and into the early morning.Third Quarter Moon By day 21. K. Light .
It can be seen very late at night and into the early morning. it is light reflected to the moon from the Earth. it is in the waning crescent phase and a sliver of the moon is visible from the left side. The faint ring next to the bright part of the moon in this picture is called gegenschein. Light . K.Waning Crescent – “C” By day 25.
The light shines on the “back side” of the moon.New Moon At the beginning and end of the “moonth” the moon is between the earth and sun and it can’t be seen from earth. .
Never look at the sun during an eclipse! .A Solar Eclipse occurs only during a New Moon Moon’s shadow If the moon is in the correct plane between the earth and sun it will block the light of the sun. causing an eclipse.The Moon’s shadow zooms around the earth at 1000 miles per hour as the Earth rotates! During “totality” the sun is completely blocked and people will see the stars for a short time.
During a solar eclipse the moon blocks the sun Moon .
. the earth blocks the sunlight and throws its shadow on the the moon causing a lunar eclipse. It is OK to look at a lunar eclipse because you are not looking at the sun.A Lunar Eclipse takes place only during a Full Moon When the full moon is in the correct plane. During a lunar eclipse the moon looks reddish because some of the Sun’s light bends around the earth.
A Lunar Eclipse K.Moon during a Lunar Eclipse The moon has a reddish color during a lunar eclipse because the longer wavelengths of the sun’s light rays bend around the earth. Light .
Comet 17P / Holmes In October 2007. dust. Comet Holmes put on a spectacular show by suddenly becoming much brighter over 3 days. and ions. comets do not make their own light. dry ice. dust and rock. Coma Algol – Nucleus a binary star in Perseus Comet Holmes K. This part is called the coma which is lit by the sun. A nucleus of the comet is a “dirty snowball” made of water ice. but usually with an oblong path out of the plane of the planets. It gives off gases. Light . Comets orbit the sun like a planet.
The 8 Planets in our Solar System Pluto was designated a “dwarf planet” in August 2006 due to its small size and elliptical orbit. .
What is gegenschein? 15. Does the moon rise at the same time each day? 8. Does the sun move through the solar system? 4. What does the earth do when it rotates? 3. What does the earth do when it revolves? 2. During what phase of the moon does a lunar eclipse occur? . What is a gibbous moon? 10. How many days is a “moonth”? 6. Why do we have seasons? 5. Why can we see only one side of the moon? 13. During what phase of the moon does a solar eclipse occur? 17. What is the moon doing if it is waxing? 7. How much of the moon is visible during a New Moon? 16. How much of the moon is visible during the 1st and 3rd Quarter phases? 9. Where is the moon in relation to the earth and sun when it is full? 11. What are the mare on the moon? 12. Does the moon make its own light? 14.Follow-up Questions 1.
com Kris Light (firstname.lastname@example.org) .End of Presentation http://EastTennesseeWildflowers.