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Common Buffers, Media, And Stock Solutions

Common Buffers, Media, And Stock Solutions

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11/15/2012

Common Buffers, Media, and Stock Solutions

This section describes the preparation of selected bacterial media and of buffers and reagents used in the manipulation of nucleic acids and proteins. Recipes for cell culture media and reagents are located in APPENDIX 3G and for yeast culture media in Chapter 5. GENERAL GUIDELINES When preparing solutions, use deionized, distilled water and (for most applications) reagents of the highest grade available. Sterilization is recommended for most applications and is generally accomplished by autoclaving. Materials with components that are volatile, altered or damaged by heat, or whose pH or concentration are critical should be sterilized by filtration through a 0.22-µm filter. In many cases such components are added from concentrated stocks after the solution has been autoclaved. Where specialized sterilization methods are required, this is indicated in the individual recipes. CAUTION: It is important to follow laboratory safety guidelines and heed manufacturers’ precautions when working with hazardous chemicals; see APPENDIX 2A for further details. STORAGE Most simple stock solutions can be stored indefinitely at room temperature if reasonable care is exercised to keep them sterile; where more rigorous conditions are required, this is indicated in the individual recipes. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR PCR EXPERIMENTS Because the polymerase chain reaction is designed to detect very small amounts of DNA, only a few molecules of contaminating DNA will produce unwanted amplification products. Ideally, PCRs should not be carried out in the same room where large quantities of DNA are handled. Even where such spatial separation is not practical, the following housekeeping procedures will help avoid contamination with extraneous DNA (H.D. Kay, pers. comm.). 1. Keep laboratory surfaces clean by swabbing with 5% to 10% chlorine bleach. Put fresh absorbent paper bench protectors on bench before beginning PCR. 2. Wear disposable gloves and change them frequently while setting up PCRs. 3. Use only sterile disposable plasticware. 4. Keep a separate set of pipetting devices for setting up PCRs. If possible, use these instruments only with cotton-plugged tips to minimize transfer of DNA by aerosol. A separate microcentrifuge for PCR work is also desirable. 5. Whenever possible, set up PCRs in a laminar-flow hood or Class II biological safety cabinet to help prevent contamination by airborne DNA particles. A UV light within the hood or cabinet will help inactivate contaminating DNA. 6. Handle microcentrifuge tubes aseptically. Do not touch the interior of the hinged cap; if this happens, discard the tube. Microcentrifuge tubes briefly before opening to pellet drops around the cap and help keep reagents and reaction mixtures away from potentially contaminating fingers. Have only one tube open at a time, and open each tube away from the remaining tubes. Hand-held microcentrifuge tube openers (e.g., USA/Scientific Plastics) are available to facilitate aseptic technique. 7. Include negative controls (i.e., no primer and no template) in all PCRs.

APPENDIX 2D

Laboratory Guidelines, Equipment, and Stock Solutions
Current Protocols in Human Genetics (2000) A.2D.1-A.2D.13 Copyright © 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

A.2D.1
Supplement 26

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR WORKING WITH RNA RNA is susceptible to degradation by ribonucleases, which are ubiquitous, very stable, and generally require no cofactors to function. Therefore, it is very important when working with RNA to take precautions against RNase contamination. 1. Treat all water and salt solutions except those containing Tris with DEPC (diethylpyrocarbonate): add 0.2 ml DEPC per 100 ml of water or solution, shake vigorously to dissolve, and autoclave to inactivate remaining DEPC. DEPC inactivates ribonucleases by covalent modification (however, it cannot be used with Tris solutions because Tris inactivates DEPC). 2. If possible, make separate stock solutions to use for working with RNA and keep separate to ensure that “dirty” pipets do not come in contact with them. 3. Bake glassware 4 hr at 150°C. Rinse plasticware in chloroform or use directly out of the package (when it is generally free from contamination). Autoclaving will not fully inactivate many RNases. 4. Wear disposable gloves that have not been worn in any potentially RNase-contaminated areas. SELECTION OF BUFFERS Table A.2D.1 reports pKa values for some common buffers. Note that polybasic buffers, such as phosphoric acid and citric acid, have more than one useful pKa value. When choosing a buffer, select a buffer material with a pKa close to the desired working pH (at the desired concentration and temperature for use). In general, effective buffers have a range of approximately 2 pH units centered about the pKa value. Ideally the dissociation constant—and therefore the pH—should not shift with a change in concentration or temperature. If the shift is small, as for MES and HEPES, then a concentrated stock solution can be prepared and diluted without adjustment to the pH. Buffers containing phosphate or citrate, however, show a significant shift in pH with concentration change, and Tris buffers show a large change in pH with temperature. For convenience, concentrated stock solutions of these buffers can still be used, provided that a pH adjustment is made after any temperature and concentration adjustments. All adjustments to pH should be made using the appropriate base—usually NaOH or KOH, depending on the corresponding free counterion. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide can be used to prepare buffers without a mineral cation. Many common buffers are supplied both as a free acid or base and as the corresponding salt. By mixing precalculated amounts of each, a series of buffers with varying pH values can conveniently be prepared. RECIPES Acids, concentrated stock solutions (see Table A.2D.2) Ammonium acetate, 10 M Dissolve 385.4 g ammonium acetate in 150 ml H2O Add H2O to 500 ml Filter sterilize Ammonium hydroxide, concentrated stock solution (see Table A.2D.1) ATP, 100 mM 1 g ATP (adenosine triphosphate) 12 ml H2O Adjust pH to 7.0 with 4 M NaOH Adjust volume to 16.7 ml with H2O Store in aliquots indefinitely at −20°C

Common Buffers, Media, and Stock Solutions

A.2D.2
Supplement 26 Current Protocols in Human Genetics

Table A.2D.1

pKa Values and Molecular Weights for Some Common Biological Buffersa

Name Phosphoric acid Citric acidb Formic acid Succinic acid Citric acidb Acetic acid Citric acidb Succinic acid MES Bis-Tris ADA PIPES ACES Imidazole Diethylmalonic acid MOPS Sodium phosphate, monobasic Potassium phosphate, monobasic TES HEPES HEPPSO Glycinamide HCl Tricine Glycylglycine Tris Bicine Boric acid CHES CAPS Sodium phosphate, dibasic Potassium phosphate, dibasic

Chemical formula or IUPAC name H3PO4 C6H8O7 (H3Cit) HCOOH C4H6O4 C6H7O7− (H2Cit−) CH3COOH C6H6O7− (HCit2−) C4H5O4− 2-(N-Morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid bis(2-Hydroxyethyl)iminotris (hydroxymethyl)methane N-(2-Acetamido)-2-iminodiacetic acid Piperazine-N,N′-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid) N-(Carbamoylmethyl)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid 1,3-Diaza-2,4-cyclopentadiene C7H12O4 3-(N-Morpholino)propanesulfonic acid NaH2PO4 KH2PO4 N-tris(Hydroxymethyl)methyl-2aminoethanesulfonic acid N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N′(2-ethanesulfonic acid) N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N′(2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid) C2H6N2O⋅HCl N-tris(Hydroxymethyl)methylglycine C4H8N2O3 Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane N,N-bis(2-Hydroxyethyl)glycine H3BO3 2-(N-Cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid 3-(Cyclohexylamino)-1-propanesulfonic acid Na2HPO4 K2HPO4

pKa 2.12 (pKa1) 3.06 (pKa1) 3.75 4.19 (pKa1) 4.74 (pKa2) 4.75 5.40 (pKa3) 5.57 (pKa2) 6.15 6.50 6.60 6.80 6.80 7.00 7.20 7.20 7.21 (pKa2) 7.21 (pKa2) 7.40 7.55 7.80 8.10 8.15 8.20 8.30 8.35 9.24 9.50 10.40 12.32 (pKa3) 12.32 (pKa3)

Useful pH MW range (g/mol) — — — — — — — — 5.5-6.7 5.8-7.2 6.0-7.2 6.1-7.5 6.1-7.5 — — 6.5-7.9 — 98.00 192.1 46.03 118.1 60.05

195.2 209.2 190.2 302.4 182.2 68.08 160.2 209.3 120.0 136.1

6.8-8.2 6.8-8.2 7.1-8.5 7.4-8.8 7.4-8.8 7.5-8.9 7.0-9.0 7.6-9.0 — 8.6-10.0 9.7-11.1 — —

229.3 238.3 268.3 110.6 179.2 132.1 121.1 163.2 61.83 207.3 221.3 142.0 174.2

aSome data reproduced from Buffers: A Guide for the Preparation and Use of Buffers in Biological Systems (Mohan, 1997) with permission of Calbiochem. bAvailable as a variety of salts, e.g., ammonium, lithium, sodium.

Laboratory Guidelines, Equipment, and Stock Solutions

A.2D.3
Current Protocols in Human Genetics Supplement 26

Table A.2D.2

Molarities and Specific Gravities of Concentrated Acids and Basesa

Acid/base Acetic acid (glacial) Ammonium hydroxide Formic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Perchloric acid Phosphoric acid Sulfuric acid Bases Ammonium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide

Molecular weight 60.05 35.0 46.03 36.46 63.01 100.46 98.00 98.07 35.0 56.11 56.11 40.0

% by weight 99.6 28 90 98 36 70 60 72 85 98 28 45 50 50

Molarity (approx.) 17.4 14.8 23.6 25.9 11.6 15.7 9.2 12.2 14.7 18.3 14.8 11.6 13.4 19.1

1 M solution Specific (ml/liter) gravity 57.5 67.6 42.4 38.5 85.9 63.7 108.8 82.1 67.8 54.5 67.6 82.2 74.6 52.4 1.05 0.90 1.205 1.22 1.18 1.42 1.54 1.70 1.70 1.835 0.90 1.447 1.51 1.53

aCAUTION: Handle strong acids and bases carefully.

BCIP, 5% (w/v) Dissolve 0.5 g 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate disodium salt (stored at −20°C) in 10 ml of 100% dimethylformamide (DMF). Store wrapped in aluminum foil up to 6 months at 4°C.
The BCIP may not dissolve completely. Vortex the solution immediately before use and pipet with a wide-mouth pipet tip. Discard solution if it turns pinkish.

BSA (bovine serum albumin), 10% (100 mg/ml) Dissolve 10 g BSA fraction V (e.g., Sigma) in 100 ml H2O and filter sterilize using a low-protein-binding 0.22-µm filter. Store indefinitely at 4°C.
Lower-concentration stock solutions (e.g., 1%), which are useful for various applications, can be made by diluting 10% stock appropriately with sterile water. BSA is available in varying forms that differ in fraction of origin, preparation, purity, pH, and cost. Use a form that is appropriate for the application.

Denhardt solution, 100× 10 g Ficoll 400 10 g polyvinylpyrrolidone 10 g BSA (fraction V) H2O to 500 ml Filter sterilize Store at −20°C in 25-ml aliquots dNTPs: dATP, dTTP, dCTP, and dGTP Concentrated stocks: Purchase deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) from a commercial supplier (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech is recommended) either as ready-made 100 mM solutions (the preferred form for shipping and storage) or in lyophilized form. If purchased lyophilized, dissolve dNTPs in deionized H2O to an expected concentration of 30 mM, then adjust to pH 7.0 with 1 M NaOH (to prevent

Common Buffers, Media, and Stock Solutions

A.2D.4
Supplement 26 Current Protocols in Human Genetics

acid-catalyzed hydrolysis). Determine the actual concentration of each dNTP by UV spectrophotometry at 260 nm, referring to the extinction coefficients given in Table A.3D.1. Working solutions: Prepare working solutions of desired concentration (commonly 2 mM) for each dNTP by diluting concentrated stocks appropriately. Remember that the molarity of the 3dNTP and 4dNTP mixes refers to the concentration of each precursor present in the solution. 4dNTP mixes: For use in various molecular biology applications, prepare mixed dNTP solutions containing equimolar amounts of all four DNA precursors; e.g.: 2 mM 4dNTP mix: 2 mM each dATP, dTTP, dCTP, dGTP 1.25 mM 4dNTP mix: 1.25 mM each of dATP, dTTP, dCTP, dGTP. 3dNTP mixes: For use in radioactive labeling procedures, prepare similar stocks lacking one particular dNTP but containing equimolar amounts of the remaining three precursors; e.g.: 2 mM 3dNTP mix (minus dATP): 2 mM each of dTTP, dCTP, dGTP. Store dNTPs and dNTP mixtures as aliquots at −20°C (stable for ≤1 year). DTT, 1 M 15.45 g DTT (dithiothreitol) 100 ml H2O Filter sterilize; do not autoclave Store at −20°C EDTA, 0.5 M (pH 8.0) 186.1 g Na2EDTA⋅2H2O (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) 700 ml H2O Stir while adding 50 ml 10 M NaOH Add H2O to 1 liter
Begin titrating before the sample is completely dissolved. EDTA, even in the disodium salt form, is difficult to dissolve at this concentration unless the pH is increased to between 7 and 8. Heating the solution may also help to dissolve EDTA.

Ethidium bromide solution Concentrated stock (10 mg/ml): Dissolve 0.2 g ethidium bromide in 20 ml H2O. Mix well and store at 4°C in dark or in a foil-wrapped bottle. Do not sterilize. Working solution: Dilute stock to 0.5 µg/ml or other desired concentration in electrophoresis buffer (e.g., 1× TBE or TAE) or in H2O.
Ethidium bromide working solution is used to stain agarose gels to permit visualization of nucleic acids under UV light. Gels should be placed in a glass dish containing sufficient working solution to cover them and shaken gently or allowed to stand for 10 to 30 min. If necessary, gels can be destained by shaking in electrophoresis buffer or H2O for an equal length of time to reduce background fluorescence and facilitate visualization of small quantities of DNA. Alternatively, a gel can be run directly in ethidium bromide by using working solution (made with electrophoresis buffer) as the solvent and running buffer for the gel. CAUTION: Ethidium bromide is a toxic and powerful mutagen. Gloves should be worn when working with solution or gel and a mask should be worn when weighing out solid. Keep separate solid and liquid waste containers for disposal of ethidium bromide–contaminated material.

Laboratory Guidelines, Equipment, and Stock Solutions

A.2D.5
Current Protocols in Human Genetics Supplement 26

Formamide loading buffer, 2× Prepare in deionized formamide (UNIT 4.3): 0.05% (w/v) bromphenol blue 0.05% (w/v) xylene cyanol FF 20 mM EDTA Do not sterilize Store at −20°C Gel loading buffer, 6× 0.25% (w/v) bromphenol blue 0.25% (w/v) xylene cyanol FF 40% (w/v) sucrose or 15% (w/v) Ficoll 400 or 30% (v/v) glycerol Store at 4°C (room temperature if Ficoll is used)
This buffer does not need to be sterilized. Sucrose, Ficoll 400, and glycerol are essentially interchangeable in this recipe. Other concentrations (e.g., 10×) can be prepared if more convenient.

HBSS (Hanks balanced salt solution) 0.40 g KCl (5.4 mM) 0.09 g Na2HPO4⋅7H2O (0.3 mM) 0.06 g KH2PO4 (0.4 mM) 0.35 g NaHCO3 (4.2 mM) 0.14 g CaCl2 (1.3 mM) 0.10 g MgCl2⋅6H2O (0.5 mM) 0.10 g MgSO4⋅7H2O (0.6 mM) 8.0 g NaCl (137 mM) 1.0 g D-glucose (5.6 mM) 0.01 g phenol red (0.01%; optional) Add H2O to l liter and adjust to pH 7.4 Filter sterilize and store at 4°C
HBSS can also be purchased from a number of commercial suppliers. HBSS may be made or purchased without CaCl2 and MgCl2. These components are optional and usually have no effect on an experiment; in a few cases, however, their presence may be detrimental. Consult individual protocols to see if the presence or absence of these components is recommended.

HCl, 1 M Mix in the following order (for 1 liter): 913.8 ml H2O 86.2 ml concentrated HCl (Table A.2D.2) Do not sterilize HEPES-buffered saline, 2× 90 ml H2O 1.6 g NaCl (0.27 M) 74.6 mg KCl (10 mM) 21.3 mg Na2HPO4 (1.5 mM) 0.18 g glucose (10 mM) 1.07 g HEPES (45 mM) Adjust pH to desired value (see Table A.2D.1) with 0.5 N NaOH Adjust volume to 100 ml with H2O Filter sterilize Store in aliquots indefinitely at −20°C

Common Buffers, Media, and Stock Solutions

A.2D.6
Supplement 26 Current Protocols in Human Genetics

Table A.2D.3

Additives for Bacterial Media

Additivea Antibiotics Ampicillin Carbenicillin (in 50% ethanol) Chloramphenicol (in methanol) Gentamycin Kanamycin Streptomycin Tetracycline (in 70% ethanol)b Color-detection reagents Isopropyl-1-thio-β-D-galactoside (IPTG) 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-Dgalactoside (Xgal) dissolved in N,N-dimethyl formamide

Stock conc. (mg/ml)

Final conc. (µg/ml) 50 50 20 15 30 30 12 23.8 (100 µM) 20

4 4 10 10 10 50 12 23.8 (100 mM) 20

aAll additives should be dissolved in sterile distilled H O unless otherwise indicated. All additives 2

should be stored at 4°C, except tetracycline and carbenicillin, which should be stored at −20°C. For further information and references as to the characteristics of these additives, consult CPMB UNIT 1.4.

bLight-sensitive; store stock solutions and plates in the dark.

KCl, 1 M 74.6 g KCl H2O to 1 liter LB medium 10 g tryptone 5 g yeast extract 5 g NaCl 950 ml H2O 1 ml 1 M NaOH Add H2O to 1 liter Autoclave 25 min After solution has cooled to ≤50°C, add antibiotics and color-detection reagents (Table A.2D.3) and nutritional supplements as needed. If not for immediate use, store (without antibiotics) ≤1 year at room temperature.
The original recipe for LB medium (sometimes referred to as Luria or Lenox broth) does not contain NaOH. There are many different recipes for LB that differ only in the amount of NaOH added. Even though the pH is adjusted to ∼7 with NaOH, the medium is not very highly buffered; thus, as a culture growing in LB medium nears saturation, the medium pH drops.

LB plates Mix ingredients for LB medium (see recipe) along with 15 g agar or agarose. Heat solution, stirring to dissolve agar. Autoclave, cool to ∼50°C, and add antibiotics and color-detection reagents (Table A.2D.3) and nutritional supplements as needed. Pour (30 to 40 ml per 100-mm plate) into sterile disposable petri dishes (plates) and allow to solidify. Store at 4°C, wrapped in the bags used to package the empty plates.
The medium will stay liquid indefinitely at 50°C but will rapidly solidify if its temperature falls much below 45°C.
continued Laboratory Guidelines, Equipment, and Stock Solutions

A.2D.7
Current Protocols in Human Genetics Supplement 26

For most applications, it is advisable to dry the plates before storage by leaving them out at room temperature for 2 or 3 days or by leaving them with the lids off for 30 min in a 37°C incubator or laminar flow hood.

Loading buffer (see Gel loading buffer, Formamide loading buffer, and Urea loading buffer recipes) 2-ME, (2-mercaptoethanol)50 mM 50 mM working solution: 1 M stock: 5 ml 1 M 2-ME 0.5 ml 14.3 M 2-ME 95 ml H2O (2-mercaptoethanol) 6.6 ml H2O Store in dark or foil-wrapped bottle indefinitely at 4°C Do not autoclave MgCl2 , 1 M 20.3 g MgCl2⋅6H2O H2O to 100 ml
MgCl2 is extremely hygroscopic. Do not store opened bottles for long periods of time.

MgSO4 , 1 M 24.6 g MgSO4⋅7H2O H2O to 100 ml NaCl, 5 M 292 g NaCl H2O to 1 liter NaOH, 10 M Dissolve 400 g NaOH in 450 ml H2O Add H2O to 1 liter Do not sterilize NBT (nitroblue tetrazolium chloride), 5% (w/v) Dissolve 0.5 g NBT in 10 ml of 70% dimethylformamide (DMF). Store wrapped in aluminum foil up to 1 year at 4°C. PCR amplification buffer, 10× 500 mM KCl 100 mM Tris⋅Cl, pH 8.3 x mM MgCl2 0.1% (w/v) gelatin Store in aliquots at −20°C
This solution can be sterilized by autoclaving. Alternatively, it can be made from sterile water and stock solutions and the sterilization omitted. 15 mM MgCl2 is the concentration (x) used in many PCR assays. However, the optimal concentration depends upon the sequence and primer of interest and may have to be determined experimentally (see CPMB UNIT 15.1).

Common Buffers, Media, and Stock Solutions

Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH ∼7.3 8.0 g NaCl (137 mM) 0.2 g KCl (2.7 mM) 2.16 g Na2HPO4⋅7H2O (8.0 mM) 0.2 g KH2PO4 (1.5 mM) H2O to 1 liter Filter sterilize and store at 4°C

A.2D.8
Supplement 26 Current Protocols in Human Genetics

Prepackaged PBS (pH 7.4), which is reconstituted by adding water, is commercially available from Sigma. This is very convenient if used in large quantities.

Potassium acetate buffer, 0.1 M Solution A: 11.55 ml glacial acetic acid/liter (0.2 M). Solution B: 19.6 g potassium acetate (KC2H3O2)/liter (0.2 M). Referring to Table A.2D.4 for desired pH, mix the indicated volumes of solutions A and B, then dilute with H2O to 100 ml. Filter sterilize if necessary. Store up to 3 months at room temperature.
This buffer may be made as a 5- or 10-fold concentrate simply by scaling up the amount of potassium acetate in the same final volume. Acetate buffers show concentration-dependent changes in pH, so check the pH of the concentrate by diluting an aliquot to the final concentration. To prepare buffers with pH intermediate between the points listed in Table A.2D.4, prepare closest higher pH, then titrate with solution A.

Potassium phosphate buffer, 0.1 M Solution A: 27.2 g KH2PO4 per liter (0.2 M). Solution B: 34.8 g K2HPO4 per liter (0.2 M). Referring to Table A.2D.5 for desired pH, mix the indicated volumes of solutions A and B, then dilute with H2O to 200 ml. Filter sterilize if necessary. Store up to 3 months at room temperature.
This buffer may be made as a 5- or 10-fold concentrate simply by scaling up the amount of potassium phosphate in the same final volume. Phosphate buffers show concentration-dependent changes in pH, so check the pH of the concentrate by diluting an aliquot to the final concentration. To prepare buffers with pH intermediate between the points listed in Table A.2D.4, prepare closest higher pH, then titrate with solution A.

RNase A stock solution (DNase-free), 2 mg/ml Dissolve RNase A (e.g., Sigma) in DEPC-treated H2O (UNIT 7.1) to 2 mg/ml. Boil 10 min in a 100°C water bath. Store ≤1 year at 4°C.
The activity of the enzyme varies from lot to lot; therefore, prepare several 10-ml aliquots of each dilution to facilitate standardization.

Table A.2D.4 Preparation of 0.1 M Sodium and Potassium Acetate Buffersa

Desired pH 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.6

Solution A (ml) 46.3 44.0 41.0 36.8 30.5 25.5 20.0 14.8 10.5 8.8 4.8

Solution B (ml) 3.7 6.0 9.0 13.2 19.5 24.5 30.0 35.2 39.5 41.2 45.2

aAdapted by permission from CRC, 1975.

Laboratory Guidelines, Equipment, and Stock Solutions

A.2D.9
Current Protocols in Human Genetics Supplement 26

Table A.2D.5 Preparation of 0.1 M Sodium and Potassium Phosphate Buffersa

Desired pH 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8

Solution A (ml) 93.5 92.0 90.0 87.7 85.0 81.5 77.5 73.5 68.5 62.5 56.5 51.0

Solution B (ml) 6.5 8.0 10.0 12.3 15.0 18.5 22.5 26.5 31.5 37.5 43.5 49.0

Desired pH 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0

Solution A (ml) 45.0 39.0 33.0 28.0 23.0 19.0 16.0 13.0 10.5 8.5 7.0 5.3

Solution B (ml) 55.0 61.0 67.0 72.0 77.0 81.0 84.0 87.0 90.5 91.5 93.0 94.7

aAdapted by permission from CRC, 1975.

SDS, 20% Dissolve 20 g SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate or sodium lauryl sulfate) in H2O to 100 ml total with stirring (it may be necessary to heat the solution slightly to fully dissolve the powder). Filter sterilize using a 0.45-µm filter. SOC medium 35 g yeast extract 20 g tryptone 0.5 g NaCl 2.5 ml 1 M KCl H2O to 960 ml Adjust pH to 7.0 with 5 M NaOH (∼0.2 ml) Autoclave 25 min Cool to 50°C Add the following sterile ingredients: 10 ml 1 M MgCl2 (10 mM final) 10 ml 1 M MgSO4 (10 mM final) 20 ml 1 M glucose (20 mM final) Store <1 year at 4°C
1 M glucose stock should be sterilized by filtration.

Sodium acetate, 3 M 408 g sodium acetate trihydrate (NaC2H3O2⋅3H2O) 800 ml H2O Adjust pH to 5.2 with 3 M acetic acid Add H2O to 1 liter Filter sterilize

Common Buffers, Media, and Stock Solutions

A.2D.10
Supplement 26 Current Protocols in Human Genetics

Sodium acetate buffer, 0.1 M Solution A: 11.55 ml glacial acetic acid/liter (0.2 M). Solution B: 27.2 g sodium acetate (NaC2H3O2⋅3H2O)/liter (0.2 M). Referring to Table A.2D.4 for desired pH, mix the indicated volumes of solutions A and B, then dilute with H2O to 100 ml. (See potassium acetate buffer recipe for further details.) Filter sterilize if necessary. Store up to 3 months at room temperature. Sodium phosphate buffer, 0.1 M Solution A: 27.6 g NaH2PO4⋅H2O per liter (0.2 M). Solution B: 53.65 g Na2HPO4⋅7H2O per liter (0.2 M). Referring to Table A.2D.5 for desired pH, mix the indicated volumes of solutions A and B, then dilute with H2O to 200 ml. (Also see potassium phosphate buffer recipe.) Filter sterilize if necessary. Store up to 3 months at room temperature. SSC (sodium chloride/sodium citrate), 20× 175 g NaCl (3 M) 88 g trisodium citrate dihydrate Na3C6H5O7⋅2H2O (0.3 M) H2O to 800 ml Adjust pH to 7.0 with 1 M HCl Add H2O to 1 liter SSPE (sodium chloride/sodium phosphate/EDTA), 20× 800 ml H2O 175 g NaCl (3 M) 7.4 g EDTA (20 mM) 24.0 g NaH2PO4 (0.20 mM) Adjust pH with 10 N NaOH (∼6.5 ml for pH 7.4) Adjust volume to 1 liter with H2O T4 DNA ligase buffer, 10× 500 mM Tris⋅Cl, pH 7.6 100 mM MgCl2 10 mM DTT 10 mM ATP 250 µg/ml BSA Store in aliquots at −20°C TAE buffer, 50× 242 g Tris base 57.1 ml glacial acetic acid (Table A.2D.2) 37.2 g Na2EDTA⋅2H2O (2 mM) H2O to 1 liter
This solution does not normally need to be sterilized. The Tris base and acetic acid correspond to 40 mM Tris⋅acetate.

TBE buffer, 10× 108 g Tris base (890 mM) 55 g boric acid (890 mM) 40 ml 0.5 M EDTA, pH 8.0 (20 mM) H2O to 1 liter
10× and 5× TBE tend to precipitate over time. If convenient, dilute to 2× or 1× immediately, or stir continuously. This solution does not normally need to be sterilized.
Laboratory Guidelines, Equipment, and Stock Solutions

A.2D.11
Current Protocols in Human Genetics Supplement 26

TBS (Tris-buffered saline) 800 ml H2O 8.00 g NaCl (0.137 M) 0.2 g KCl (2.7 mM) 3.0 g Tris base (24.8 mM) Adjust pH as desired (usually to pH 8) with 1 M HCl Adjust volume to 1 liter with H2O
Prepackaged TBS (pH 8.0), which is reconstituted by adding water, is commercially available from Sigma. This is very convenient if used in large quantities.

TCA (trichloroacetic acid), 100% (w/v) 500 g TCA 227 ml H2O TE buffer 10 ml 1 M Tris⋅Cl, pH 7.4, 7.5, or 8.0 (or other desired pH; 10 mM final) 2 ml 0.5 M EDTA, pH 8.0 (1 mM final) H2O to 1 liter Terrific broth (TB) 900 ml H2O 12 g tryptone 24 g yeast extract 4 ml glycerol Autoclave 20 min and allow broth to cool to <60°C Add 100 ml sterile potassium phosphate solution Store ≤1 year at 4°C
Potassium phosphate solution is made by dissolving 2.31 g (0.17 M) KH2PO4 and 12.54 g (0.72 M) K2HPO4 in H2O, then autoclaving 20 min to sterilize.

Tris⋅Cl, 1 M Dissolve 121 g Tris base [tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane] in 800 ml H2O Adjust to desired pH with concentrated HCl Mix and add H2O to 1 liter Store up to 6 months at 4°C or room temperature
Approximately 70 ml of HCl is needed to achieve a pH 7.4 solution and ∼42 ml for a solution that is pH 8.0. IMPORTANT NOTE: The pH of Tris buffers changes significantly with temperature, decreasing 0.028 pH units per 1°C. Tris-buffered solutions should be adjusted to the desired pH at the temperature at which they will be used. Because the pKa of Tris is 8.08, Tris should not be used as a buffer below pH ∼7.2 or above pH ∼9.0. Always use high-quality Tris (lower-quality Tris can be recognized by its yellow appearance when dissolved).

TY medium, 2× 16 g tryptone 10 g yeast extract 5 g NaCl H2O to 1 liter Autoclave 25 min After solution has cooled to ≤50°C, add antibiotics (Table A.2D.3) and nutritional supplements as needed. Store <1 year at 4°C.
Common Buffers, Media, and Stock Solutions

A.2D.12
Supplement 26 Current Protocols in Human Genetics

Urea loading buffer, 2× 5 mg bromphenol blue (0.05% w/v) 5 mg (w/v) xylene cyanol FF (0.05% w/v) 4.8 g urea (8 M) 186 mg EDTA (50 mM) H2O to 10 ml Do not sterilize Store up to 6 months at room temperature ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The editorial board thanks Joanne Cleary (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) for revising this appendix and adding recipes, including the general guidelines for buffer selection.

LITERATURE CITED
Chemical Rubber Company. 1975. CRC Handbook of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Physical and Chemical Data, 3rd ed., Vol. 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. Mohan, C. (ed.). 1997. Buffers: A Guide for the Preparation and Use of Buffers in Biological Systems. Calbiochem, San Diego, Calif.

Laboratory Guidelines, Equipment, and Stock Solutions

A.2D.13
Current Protocols in Human Genetics Supplement 26

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