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UNODC report on human trafficking exposes modern form of slavery

UNODC report on human trafficking exposes modern form of slavery

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Published by N R Dewi Nurmayani
A Global Report on Trafficking in Persons launched today by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) provides new information on a crime that shames us all.
Based on data gathered from 155 countries, it offers the first global assessment of the scope of human trafficking and what is being done to fight it. It includes: an overview of trafficking patterns; legal steps taken in response; and country-specific information on reported cases of trafficking in persons, victims, and prosecutions.
At the launch of the Report in New York, the Executive Director of UNODC, Antonio Maria Costa said that "many governments are still in denial. There is even neglect when it comes to either reporting on, or prosecuting cases of human trafficking". He pointed to the fact that while the number of convictions for human trafficking is increasing, two out of every five countries covered by the UNODC Report had not recorded a single conviction.
According to the Report, the most common form of human trafficking (79%) is sexual exploitation. The victims of sexual exploitation are predominantly women and girls. Surprisingly, in 30% of the countries which provided information on the gender of traffickers, women make up the largest proportion of traffickers. In some parts of the world, women trafficking women is the norm.
The second most common form of human trafficking is forced labour (18%), although this may be a misrepresentation because forced labour is less frequently detected and reported than trafficking for sexual exploitation.
Worldwide, almost 20% of all trafficking victims are children. However, in some parts of Africa and the Mekong region, children are the majority (up to 100% in parts of West Africa).
Although trafficking seems to imply people moving across continents, most exploitation takes place close to home. Data show intra-regional and domestic trafficking are the major forms of trafficking in persons.
The United Nations Protocol against Trafficking in Persons - the foremost international agreement in this area - entered into force in 2003. The Report shows that in the past few years the number of Member States seriously implementing the Protocol has more than doubled (from 54 to 125 out of the 155 States covered). However, there are still many countries that lack the necessary legal instruments or political will.
"This Report increases our understanding of modern slave markets, yet it also exposes our ignorance", said Mr. Costa. "We have a big picture, but it is impressionistic and lacks depth. We fear the problem is getting worse, but we can not prove it for lack of data, and many governments are obstructing", he admitted. The head of UNODC therefore called on governments and social scientists to improve information-gathering and -sharing on human trafficking. "If we do not overcome this knowledge crisis we will be fighting the problem blindfolded", he warned.
In a Panel Discussion on "Exposing Denial and Benign Neglect", Mr. Costa called on governments, the private sector, and the public at large to step up the fight against trafficking in persons. "More must be done to reduce the vulnerability of victims, increase the risks to traffickers, and lower demand for the goods and services of modern-day slaves", he said.
To increase public awareness of human trafficking and rally the world to fight it, Mr. Costa appointed Academy Award-winning actress Mira Sorvino as a Goodwill Ambassador to Combat Human Trafficking. "We know that Mira's commitment to the plight of trafficking victims will move people to take action against modern-day slavery", said the Executive Director of UNODC.
A Global Report on Trafficking in Persons launched today by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) provides new information on a crime that shames us all.
Based on data gathered from 155 countries, it offers the first global assessment of the scope of human trafficking and what is being done to fight it. It includes: an overview of trafficking patterns; legal steps taken in response; and country-specific information on reported cases of trafficking in persons, victims, and prosecutions.
At the launch of the Report in New York, the Executive Director of UNODC, Antonio Maria Costa said that "many governments are still in denial. There is even neglect when it comes to either reporting on, or prosecuting cases of human trafficking". He pointed to the fact that while the number of convictions for human trafficking is increasing, two out of every five countries covered by the UNODC Report had not recorded a single conviction.
According to the Report, the most common form of human trafficking (79%) is sexual exploitation. The victims of sexual exploitation are predominantly women and girls. Surprisingly, in 30% of the countries which provided information on the gender of traffickers, women make up the largest proportion of traffickers. In some parts of the world, women trafficking women is the norm.
The second most common form of human trafficking is forced labour (18%), although this may be a misrepresentation because forced labour is less frequently detected and reported than trafficking for sexual exploitation.
Worldwide, almost 20% of all trafficking victims are children. However, in some parts of Africa and the Mekong region, children are the majority (up to 100% in parts of West Africa).
Although trafficking seems to imply people moving across continents, most exploitation takes place close to home. Data show intra-regional and domestic trafficking are the major forms of trafficking in persons.
The United Nations Protocol against Trafficking in Persons - the foremost international agreement in this area - entered into force in 2003. The Report shows that in the past few years the number of Member States seriously implementing the Protocol has more than doubled (from 54 to 125 out of the 155 States covered). However, there are still many countries that lack the necessary legal instruments or political will.
"This Report increases our understanding of modern slave markets, yet it also exposes our ignorance", said Mr. Costa. "We have a big picture, but it is impressionistic and lacks depth. We fear the problem is getting worse, but we can not prove it for lack of data, and many governments are obstructing", he admitted. The head of UNODC therefore called on governments and social scientists to improve information-gathering and -sharing on human trafficking. "If we do not overcome this knowledge crisis we will be fighting the problem blindfolded", he warned.
In a Panel Discussion on "Exposing Denial and Benign Neglect", Mr. Costa called on governments, the private sector, and the public at large to step up the fight against trafficking in persons. "More must be done to reduce the vulnerability of victims, increase the risks to traffickers, and lower demand for the goods and services of modern-day slaves", he said.
To increase public awareness of human trafficking and rally the world to fight it, Mr. Costa appointed Academy Award-winning actress Mira Sorvino as a Goodwill Ambassador to Combat Human Trafficking. "We know that Mira's commitment to the plight of trafficking victims will move people to take action against modern-day slavery", said the Executive Director of UNODC.

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Published by: N R Dewi Nurmayani on Feb 15, 2013
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Institution

The
perso
2003.

Crimina

The Crim
(CID) of
tional Or
cases of h
posed of f
cooperation
Central Burea

117

East Africa

Services provided to victims

State authorities provide legal protection to per-
sons in need, including victims of human traf-
ficking. NGOs provide housing and shelter.
Victims of child stealing and related offences
were identified by the criminal justice system.

Uganda

Institutional framework

The specific offence of trafficking in persons
does not exist in the legislation of Uganda. Draft
legislation prepared in 2007 was awaiting pres-
entation to parliament in 2008. During the
reporting period, the offences of “child stealing”,
“child abduction” and “child kidnapping” were
used to prosecute some forms of trafficking in
children.

Criminal justice response

The draft Trafficking in Persons Act contains
clauses in Section 23 providing for the creation
of a specialized law enforcement agency for the
prohibition of trafficking in persons.

Because of the absence of a specific provision on
human trafficking, no prosecutions or convic-
tions were recorded for trafficking in persons
during the reporting period.

Cases prosecuted for “child stealing”

Fig. 53:

and other related offences in Uganda
(2006-2007)

Source: Ugandan Police Annual Crime Report

Persons convicted of “child stealing”

Fig. 54:

and other related offences in Ugan-
da (2006-2007)

Source: Ugandan Police Annual Crime Report

Identified victims of “child stealing” and

Fig. 55:

other related offences in Uganda (2006-
2007)

Source: Ugandan Police Annual Crime Report

Uganda

2

9

4

4

1

1

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

2006

2007

Disapeared-Missing children
Child kidnap
Child abduction
Child stealing

3

2

1

0

5

10

15

20

2006

2007

Child abduction
Child stealing

109

6

14

30

59

1

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

2006

2007

Child kidnap
Child stealing
Child abduction

g”

n-

118

GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Uganda

Additional information

The majority of the victims sheltered by both
the Women and Youth Services (WAYS) and the
Slum Aid Project (SAP) were subject to com-
mercial (and child) sexual exploitation. In addi-
tion, victims sheltered by WAYS also were
victims of child domestic labour, and some were
found to have run away from or were rescued
from slave-like working conditions.

During 2006-2007, IOM-Uganda provided vol-
untary return and reintegration assistance to
115 Congolese victims of trafficking to the
Democratic Republic Congo from Northern
Uganda where they were stranded. Seventy-nine
additional Congolese women and children
awaited repatriation before the end of 2007.
Four other trafficking victims were assisted by
IOM in returning to Uganda from Europe.

The following chart shows victims sheltered by
the Women and Youth Services (WAYS), the
Slum Aid Project (SAP) and persons assisted by
IOM. They include only victims located in the
city of Kampala and its urban environs.

Victims of trafficking in persons and re-

Fig. 56:

lated offences in Kampala (2004-2007)

Sources: Women and Youth Services (WAYS) and the Slum
Aid Project (SAP)

65

84

172

120

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

2004 2005 2006 2007

119

East Africa

Services provided to victims

State authorities, NGOs and interna-
tional organizations provide legal pro-
tection, medical and psychosocial support,
and housing and shelter to persons in need,
including victims of trafficking.

Additional information

By the end of 2007, about 250 persons were
sheltered in Tanzania for several reasons, includ-
ing trafficking. The exact number of trafficking
victims taken care of is unknown.

The United Republic
of Tanzan
ia

Institutional framework

The specific offence of trafficking in persons was
established in Tanzania in July 2008.

Criminal justice response

Because of the absence of a specific provision on
human trafficking, no prosecutions or convic-
tions were recorded for trafficking in persons
during the reporting period.

t,
n need,

ns were
includ-
fficking

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