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UNODC report on human trafficking exposes modern form of slavery

UNODC report on human trafficking exposes modern form of slavery

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Published by N R Dewi Nurmayani
A Global Report on Trafficking in Persons launched today by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) provides new information on a crime that shames us all.
Based on data gathered from 155 countries, it offers the first global assessment of the scope of human trafficking and what is being done to fight it. It includes: an overview of trafficking patterns; legal steps taken in response; and country-specific information on reported cases of trafficking in persons, victims, and prosecutions.
At the launch of the Report in New York, the Executive Director of UNODC, Antonio Maria Costa said that "many governments are still in denial. There is even neglect when it comes to either reporting on, or prosecuting cases of human trafficking". He pointed to the fact that while the number of convictions for human trafficking is increasing, two out of every five countries covered by the UNODC Report had not recorded a single conviction.
According to the Report, the most common form of human trafficking (79%) is sexual exploitation. The victims of sexual exploitation are predominantly women and girls. Surprisingly, in 30% of the countries which provided information on the gender of traffickers, women make up the largest proportion of traffickers. In some parts of the world, women trafficking women is the norm.
The second most common form of human trafficking is forced labour (18%), although this may be a misrepresentation because forced labour is less frequently detected and reported than trafficking for sexual exploitation.
Worldwide, almost 20% of all trafficking victims are children. However, in some parts of Africa and the Mekong region, children are the majority (up to 100% in parts of West Africa).
Although trafficking seems to imply people moving across continents, most exploitation takes place close to home. Data show intra-regional and domestic trafficking are the major forms of trafficking in persons.
The United Nations Protocol against Trafficking in Persons - the foremost international agreement in this area - entered into force in 2003. The Report shows that in the past few years the number of Member States seriously implementing the Protocol has more than doubled (from 54 to 125 out of the 155 States covered). However, there are still many countries that lack the necessary legal instruments or political will.
"This Report increases our understanding of modern slave markets, yet it also exposes our ignorance", said Mr. Costa. "We have a big picture, but it is impressionistic and lacks depth. We fear the problem is getting worse, but we can not prove it for lack of data, and many governments are obstructing", he admitted. The head of UNODC therefore called on governments and social scientists to improve information-gathering and -sharing on human trafficking. "If we do not overcome this knowledge crisis we will be fighting the problem blindfolded", he warned.
In a Panel Discussion on "Exposing Denial and Benign Neglect", Mr. Costa called on governments, the private sector, and the public at large to step up the fight against trafficking in persons. "More must be done to reduce the vulnerability of victims, increase the risks to traffickers, and lower demand for the goods and services of modern-day slaves", he said.
To increase public awareness of human trafficking and rally the world to fight it, Mr. Costa appointed Academy Award-winning actress Mira Sorvino as a Goodwill Ambassador to Combat Human Trafficking. "We know that Mira's commitment to the plight of trafficking victims will move people to take action against modern-day slavery", said the Executive Director of UNODC.
A Global Report on Trafficking in Persons launched today by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) provides new information on a crime that shames us all.
Based on data gathered from 155 countries, it offers the first global assessment of the scope of human trafficking and what is being done to fight it. It includes: an overview of trafficking patterns; legal steps taken in response; and country-specific information on reported cases of trafficking in persons, victims, and prosecutions.
At the launch of the Report in New York, the Executive Director of UNODC, Antonio Maria Costa said that "many governments are still in denial. There is even neglect when it comes to either reporting on, or prosecuting cases of human trafficking". He pointed to the fact that while the number of convictions for human trafficking is increasing, two out of every five countries covered by the UNODC Report had not recorded a single conviction.
According to the Report, the most common form of human trafficking (79%) is sexual exploitation. The victims of sexual exploitation are predominantly women and girls. Surprisingly, in 30% of the countries which provided information on the gender of traffickers, women make up the largest proportion of traffickers. In some parts of the world, women trafficking women is the norm.
The second most common form of human trafficking is forced labour (18%), although this may be a misrepresentation because forced labour is less frequently detected and reported than trafficking for sexual exploitation.
Worldwide, almost 20% of all trafficking victims are children. However, in some parts of Africa and the Mekong region, children are the majority (up to 100% in parts of West Africa).
Although trafficking seems to imply people moving across continents, most exploitation takes place close to home. Data show intra-regional and domestic trafficking are the major forms of trafficking in persons.
The United Nations Protocol against Trafficking in Persons - the foremost international agreement in this area - entered into force in 2003. The Report shows that in the past few years the number of Member States seriously implementing the Protocol has more than doubled (from 54 to 125 out of the 155 States covered). However, there are still many countries that lack the necessary legal instruments or political will.
"This Report increases our understanding of modern slave markets, yet it also exposes our ignorance", said Mr. Costa. "We have a big picture, but it is impressionistic and lacks depth. We fear the problem is getting worse, but we can not prove it for lack of data, and many governments are obstructing", he admitted. The head of UNODC therefore called on governments and social scientists to improve information-gathering and -sharing on human trafficking. "If we do not overcome this knowledge crisis we will be fighting the problem blindfolded", he warned.
In a Panel Discussion on "Exposing Denial and Benign Neglect", Mr. Costa called on governments, the private sector, and the public at large to step up the fight against trafficking in persons. "More must be done to reduce the vulnerability of victims, increase the risks to traffickers, and lower demand for the goods and services of modern-day slaves", he said.
To increase public awareness of human trafficking and rally the world to fight it, Mr. Costa appointed Academy Award-winning actress Mira Sorvino as a Goodwill Ambassador to Combat Human Trafficking. "We know that Mira's commitment to the plight of trafficking victims will move people to take action against modern-day slavery", said the Executive Director of UNODC.

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Published by: N R Dewi Nurmayani on Feb 15, 2013
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Persons investigated for offences related

Fig. 284:

to trafficking in persons (2003-2006)

Source: Police Headquarters, Cyprus

Number of sheltered victims in Cyprus

Fig. 285:

(2004-2006)

85

41

10

0

50

100

150

200

250

2004

2005

2006

Women

Source: Social Welfare Services

Number of sheltered victims in Cyprus,

Fig. 286:

by citizenship (2005-2006)

Source: Social Welfare Services

19

121

55

89

73

19

25

7

0

50

100

150

200

250

2003

2004

2005

2006

Males

Females

Belarusian
4

Moroccan,
4

Bulgarian,
4

Russian, 5

Romanian,
6

Chinese, 7

Filipino, 12

Moldovan,
25

Ukrainian,
45

245

Western and Central Europe

Czech Republic

Institutional framework

The specific offence of trafficking in persons has
existed in the Czech Republic since 2002. The
criminal code was amended in 2004 to include
trafficking for forced labour as well as for other
forced services.

Criminal justice response

A special Human Trafficking Department in the
Organized Crime Unit of the Criminal Police
and Investigation Service Office of the Police of
the Czech Republic dedicated to investigating
human trafficking has been in operation since
1996. A special Forced Labour Section was cre-
ated in 2006. In 2007, there were 50 officers
assigned full time to the policing of human traf-
ficking within the Human Trafficking Depart-
ment and Forced Labour Sections.

Persons investigated for trafficking in

Fig. 287:

persons in the Czech Republic (2003-
2006)

19

30

18

11

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

2003 2004 2005 2006

Source: Czech Police statistics, Ministry of Justice

Persons prosecuted for trafficking in

Fig. 288:

persons in the Czech Republic,
by gender (2003-2006)

17

16

10

10

4

7

3

2

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

2003 2004 2005 2006

Males Females

Source: Ministry of Justice

in

44

Czech Republic

Persons convicted of trafficking in per-

Fig. 289:

sons in the Czech Republic, by gender
(2003-2006)

4

8

14

1

6

4

1

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

2003 2004 2005 2006

Males

Females

Source: Ministry of Justice

246

GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Czech Republic

Additional information

A referral mechanism for those identified as vic-
tims of trafficking in persons has been operating
since 2003 with the participation of the Ministry
of the Interior, various police units, NGOs, IOM
and asylum facilities.

All persons convicted of trafficking in 2005-2006
subjected their victims to sexual exploitation. Of
the victims of trafficking in persons assisted by
the Programme to Support and Help Victims of
Trafficking in Human Beings, 17 were subjected
to sexual exploitation in 2005. In 2006, 10 vic-
tims suffered sexual exploitation and four were
subjected to forced labour.

Services provided to victims

A special programme to support and protect vic-
tims of trafficking in human beings was created
in 2003. This system provides care and protec-
tion, including shelter, alimentation, legalization
of stay, medical, psychological, legal and educa-
tional assistance, and work permits. The Social
Services Act (in force since January 2007) also
provides the possibility of services such as shelter,
which are usually provided by NGOs.

Sanctions imposed on persons convicted

Fig. 290:

of trafficking in the Czech Republic, by
gender (2003-2006)

1

2

9

2

3

9

12

2

4

8

3

1

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

2003

2004

2005

2006

Fines

Specific ban
Cond. imprisonment1 to 5 years

Source: Ministry of Justice

Victims of trafficking in persons

Fig. 291:

identified by State authorities in the
Czech Republic (2003-2006)

43

72

53

72

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

2003 2004 2005 2006

Source: Czech Police statistics

Victims of trafficking in persons assisted

Fig. 292:

by the Programme to Support and Help
Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings
in the Czech Republic (2003-2006)

10

10

4

1

5

17

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

2003

2004

2005

2006

Women

Men

Total

Source: Programme to Support and Help Victims of
Trafficking in Human Beings

Victims of trafficking in persons assisted

Fig. 293:

by the Programme to Support and Help
Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings
in the Czech Republic, by citizenship
(2005-2006)

2

9

4

6

3

7

Czech

Ukrainian

Bulgarian

Vietnamese

Other Central Europe

South East Europe

Source: Programme to Support and Help Victims of Traffick-
ing in Human Beings

247

Western and Central Europe

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