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ANSYS 9.

0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
ANSYS 9.0
Preview II
Grama Bhashyam
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Topics
• Mechanics
– Solid Shell Element
– Rezoning – 2D
– Spotwelds
– Pre-Integrated Shell/Beams Sections
– Follower Forces
– NonLinear Diagnostics and Contact
– Temperature Dependent Curve Fitting
– Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
– Local CYS for Function BC’s
– Static Cyclic Symmetry
– Component Based Acceleration
– CMS Superelements
• Multifield Solver
– Flotran Remeshing for Multifield Solver
• Electric and Magnetic Analysis
– Electrostatics and Magnetic Forces Calculation
– High Frequency Electromagnetic Enhancements
– Thermoelectric Analysis
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Solid Shell Element
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Problems associated with a shell
theory based FEM
• Nonlinear MPCs or transitional
elements are required for
connecting shell and solid
elements.
• Treatment of variable thickness
is unclear.
• Definition of contact interaction
needs special attention.
• Difficulties in the specialization
of general three-dimensional
material laws to plane-stress
state.
• Complicated update of rotations
in geometrically nonlinear
analyses.
ANSYS 9.0:
Solid Shell Element
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Numerical locking in low-order 3D
solid elements
• The error in the kinematic
approximation with linear 3D solid
elements becomes apparent in
bending dominant problems.
This error is magnified as the
thickness decreases, which
beyond a certain ratio may
make the FE model
excessively stiff.
• Current element technologies, such
as the enhanced strain (or extra
shapes), are not sufficient to
remedy this numerical locking in
linear 3D solid elements.
ANSYS 9.0:
Solid Shell Element
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1 6 11 16 21 26
Number of Elements Per Edge
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

M
a
x
.

D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
Solid185 (enhanced strain)
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Element Summary
• Involves only displacement
nodal DOFs and features an
eight-node brick connectivity.
Thus the connection problem
between solid and shell elements
can be eliminated.
• Performs well in simulating
shell structures with a wide
range of thickness (from
extremely thin to moderate
thick).
• Is compatible with 3D
constitutive models and
automatically accounts for
thickness change.
• Performs well for both flat-plate
and curved shells.
ANSYS 9.0:
Solid Shell Element
1
8
6
4
7
5
3
R1
R2
R3
X1
X2
X3
2
)
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3
3
3
2
3
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3
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
, ,
, ,
, ,
r
x
r
x
r
x
R
r
x
r
x
r
x
R
r
x
r
x
r
x
R
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
FE solution convergence relative to mesh refinement
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1 6 11 16 21 26
Number of Elements Per Edge
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

M
a
x
.

D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
Shell181 (enhanced strain)
Solid185 (enhanced strain)
SolidShell 190
Normalized shell thickness ( t / L) : 0.001, linear static analysis
ANSYS 9.0:
Solid Shell Element
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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FE solution convergence relative to mesh refinement
Normalized plate thickness ( t / L) : 0.01, linear static analysis
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Number of Elements Per Edge
D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

a
t

L
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

4
Shell181 (enhanced strain)
Solid185 (enhanced strain)
Solid45 (extra shapes)
SolidShel 190
ANSYS 9.0:
Solid Shell Element
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
FE solution from different models
t/L = 0.01, linear static analysis
Maximum Displacements
------------------------------------------------------------
Ux Uy Uz
SolidShell190 343.41 -642.89 -1395.8
Shell181 Enh 341.91 -639.15 -1395.9
Solid185 Enh 257.12 269.73 -882.97
ANSYS 9.0:
Solid Shell Element
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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FE solution convergence relative to mesh refinement
geometrically nonlinear static analysis
-0.2
-0.15
-0.1
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
# elements per edge
R
a
d
i
a
l

D
i
s
p
.

A
t

t
w
o

c
o
r
n
e
r
s
Shell181 (pt1)
solid190 (pt1)
Solid185 (pt1)
shell181 (pt2)
solid190 (pt2)
solid185 (pt2)
ANSYS 9.0:
Solid Shell Element
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Modal Analysis of a Hemi-sphere Shell
thickness = 0.001 mesh density = 15 x 15 (Thin Shell)
Mode Shell181 Enh Solid185 Enh SolidShell 190
1 3.07759484 8.239738235 3.071760383
2 21.24648643 103.9636569 21.22872394
3 53.86043052 350.1158379 53.82984828
4 99.48796565 758.7461212 99.48163717
5 158.4547881 1303.958847 158.4723161
6 232.5992189 1927.192569 232.6698198
7 325.8971451 2484.333703 326.0458065
thickness = 0.1 mesh density = 15 x 15 (Thick Shell)
Mode Shell181 Enh Solid185 Enh SolidShell 190
1 268.3336331 233.1024418 233.0809773
2 1401.119808 978.7538942 980.0141457
3 2400.852477 1761.461958 1763.326339
4 3284.527205 2224.35367 2225.628723
5 3590.50519 2403.006279 2402.639212
6 3670.531134 3157.10644 3155.306854
7 4179.724049 3418.795507 3420.088344
ANSYS 9.0:
Solid Shell Element
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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FE solution from Different Models – Lateral Buckling
L = 100.0 W = 5.0 T = 0.2 (Thin Shell)
Mode Shell181 Enh Solid185 Enh Solid190 Enh
1 -5.33E-02 -3.88E-02 -5.32E-02
2 -1.99E-02 3.88E-02 -1.99E-02
3 1.99E-02 0.14182488 1.99E-02
4 5.33E-02 0.34611073 5.32E-02
L = 100.0 W = 5.0 T = 2.0 (Thick Shell)
Mode Shell181 Enh Solid185 Enh Solid190 Enh
1 17.892629 18.661164 18.145959
2 47.598787 50.793036 48.393721
3 82.888858 91.861602 84.70019
4 128.51412 149.1249 132.4327
ANSYS 9.0:
Solid Shell Element
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Car roof assembly part under pressure load (linear static analysis)
Max. Deflection:
SOLID186: 0.001521
SOLID190: 0.001575
SOLID185: 0.001290
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Rezoning – 2D
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Why?
• Mesh distortion terminates analysis
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Solution: rezoning
• What is rezoning?
– Remesh base on the deformed domain at a
selected substep
– Map the solved variables and achieve equilibrium
based on the mapped variables
– Resume the solution based on the new mesh
• Long term goal:
– Fully automatic rezoning with different adaptive
criteria to overcome mesh distortion and reduce
discretization error
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Current status
• Manual rezoning for 2D analysis
– Elements:
• Plane 182, B-Bar formulation with or without
mixed u/P formulation
• All stress states, i.e. plane strain, plane stress,
axisymmetric, generalized plane strain
– Materials:
• All hyperelastic materials (TB, Hyper…)
• Analysis type:
– Static analysis with nlgeom, on
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Current status (Cont.)
– Loads and boundary conditions:
• Displacements
• Forces
• Pressures
• Nodal temperature, applied by BF,TEMP…
– Remesh
• Manual remeshing
– Select the elements to remesh
– Generate a area
– Create the new mesh by ANSYS meshing commands
– Based on multi-frame restart files
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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How Does it work ?
• Based on solved data
/batch,list
/prep7
et,1,182
...
tb,hyper,1,,..
...
rect,0,b,0,h,
esize,el,0,
amesh,1
d,....
/solu
nlgeom,on
time,1
NSUBST,..
...
solve
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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How does it work, a pseudo input
• 4 basic steps needed
– Step 1
• Retrieve data
– Step 2
• Select the region
• Generate area
• Create new mesh
• Transfer load/Bc
– Step 3
• Map variables
– Step 4
• Resume solving
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Step 1: Retrieve data
• Command:
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
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Step 1: Retrieve data (cont.)
• Functionality:
– Check the needed files
• The RDB, RST, RXXX and LDHI files
– Rebuild the data environment at the
requested substep by REZONE command
– Update the
nodes to the
deformed
geometry
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Step 2: Remesh
1. Select the region to remesh
– To start by START option
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
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Step 2: Remesh
– Select any region on the deformed domain
• By any element selection commands
• By selecting elements to generate the region to
remesh
• The region should have:
– Same material,
– Same element type, esys and keyopts
– Same thickness (real constant) for plane stress
– It can be the whole or part of the domain
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
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Step 2: Remesh (Cont.)
2. Generate an area to create new mes
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
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Step 2: Remesh (Cont.)
– Functionalities:
• Generate an area to create mesh in rezoning
• Check the validity of the selected region
• Keep compatibility with its neighbors
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
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Step 2: Remesh (Cont.)
3. Create new mesh by
– Any mesh control
commands (lesize,
smrtsize, shpp,..)
– Amesh
• Multiple horizontal
Rezoning
– Another region can
be chosen and
remeshed following
the same procedure
(in future)
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
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New Mesh With BC
Step 2: Remesh (Cont.)
4. Transfer boundary conditions automatically by DONE
option
Old Mesh With BC
DONE Will be END in future
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
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Step 3: Map solutions
• Intorduce extra substeps to balance the
residuals
– Rebalance factor: How much residual force has
been balanced, from 0.0 to 1.0
– Note: time /external load unchanged
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
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Step 3: Map solutions (Cont.)
• Output information ( Mapsol, 10)
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
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Step 3: Map solutions (Cont.)
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
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Step 4: Resume the solution
• Command:
– Regular multi-frame restart by
• Antype,,restart…
• Solve
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
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New files
• Vertical Multiple Rezoning (in future)
» Rezone the same/other area during different
time/substeps
» All models and solved variables saved in files
» Can be restarted from any rezoned model at any
time
» Maximum number of rezoning: 99
File name
Regular
Run
Rezone 0 Rezone 1 Rezone 2 Rezone 11 Rezone NN
RDB RDB RD01 RD02 RD11 RDNN
RXXX RXXX RXXX RXXX RXXX RXXX
LDHI
RST RST RS01 RS02 RS11 RSNN
LDHI
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Post processing
• Post1 enhancement
– SET,List,,Fact
• where Fact is used to control which files are to be listed:
• Fact = ALL or blank lists all files (rst,rs01,rs02,etc.)
• Fact = LAST lists the last file only (e.g. rs02)
• Fact = num of rezoning (e.g. 01) lists only file rsxx
– Example: SET,List,,All
– Other enhancements are coming soon
ANSYS 9.0:
Rezoning
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Spotwelds
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New example
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Mesh Independent Spot Weld
• In automotive and/or aerospace industries, many
applications require modeling of spot welds between
two or more thin parts
• The strength and fatigue properties of thin sheet
components are considerably influenced by spot
welds
• The traditional model of spot welds:
– Matching meshes of different parts at spot weld connection
points.
– Effects of spot weld radius is not taken into account
– underestimates the strength of the spot weld connection
ANSYS 9.0:
Spotweld
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• Parts can be meshed independently
• The spot weld can be located anywhere between multiple parts
that are to be connected in a finite element model regardless of
the mesh.
• A spot weld is defined by the surfaces to be connected and a spot
weld node near the surfaces. The spot weld node determines the
location of spot weld
• The location of the spot weld can be independent of the location
of the nodes on the surface to be welded.
• The approach takes into account of effects of spot weld radius.
ANSYS will generate
– RBE3 type MPC via a contact pair on each spot weld surface. The
radius defines the range of force distribution.
– A beam element to link the two adjacent surfaces. The beam has
physical radius.
• The spot weld can be either rigid or deformed
Mesh Independent Spot Weld
ANSYS 9.0:
Spotweld
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Create a New Spot Weld Set
ANSYS 9.0:
Spotweld
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Create a New Spot Weld Set
SWGEN, Ecomp, SWRD, NCM1, NCM2, SND1, SND2, SHRD,
DIRX, DIRY, DIRZ, ITTY,I CTY
ECOMP – Spot weld set name. It is the element component and it is used to
identify set of spot weld for list, output, and adding more surfaces.
NCM1/NCM2: – Spot weld surfaces
Pre-defined node components (for select)
Meshed areas (for pick)
SND1: – First spot weld node. It determines the location of spot weld. It can
be one of node on surface NCM1 or an independent node near the
surface. ANSYS will determine the actual location by projecting it onto
surface NCM1.
Spot weld
surface 1
Spot weld node 1
After projection
Original position of
spot weld node 1
Spot weld
surface 1
Spot weld node 1
After projection
Original position of
spot weld node 1
Projection onto surface Projection direction
specified by user
ANSYS 9.0:
Spotweld
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Create a New Spot Weld Set
SWRD – Spot weld radius. Each spot weld has a circular projection onto the
spot weld surface. By the definition of each contact pair, ANSYS will form
RBE3 type constraint equations internally which distribute internal force of
contact node (i.e. spot weld node) to the target nodes lying with in the
region of spot weld radius.
CONTA175
(spot weld node 1)
Spot weld
surface 1
TARGE170 elements
Spot weld radius
CONTA175
Nodes to be constrained
ANSYS 9.0:
Spotweld
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Create a New Spot Weld Set
Beam element – connects two spot weld surfaces.
Rigid Link is a default : MPC184 with KEYOPT(1)=1
Deformed Link : if current defined element type is BEAM188 with proper
Material ID and section ID (solid circle)
Spot weld
surface 1
Spot weld node 1
Spot weld
surface 2
Spot weld node 2
A beam element
MPC184/BEAM188
Example:
MP,EX,3,200000000000. ! define spot weld material properties
MP,NUXY,3,0.3
SECTYPE,3,beam,csolid ! define a cylinder beam
SECDATA,2.75e-002 ! beam circular radius
ET,3,188 ! define a deformed spot weld
TYPE,3
MAT,3
SECNUM,3
*SET,NODE1,9000 ! define a spot weld node
N,NODE1,0.1,0.5,10.2 ! define location of spot weld
SWGEN,SWELD1,2.75e-2,2,3,NODE1 ! Spot sweld name=SWELD1,
! RADIUS=2.75e-2,
!Spot weld surfaces=AREA 2 and 3.
ANSYS 9.0:
Spotweld
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Add more surfaces
ANSYS 9.0:
Spotweld
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Add more surfaces
SWADD, Ecomp, SHRD, NCM1, NCM2,
NCM3, NCM4, NCM5, NCM6, NCM7,
NCM8, NCM9
Ecomp - The name of an existing spot weld set
which composes contact, target and beam
elements for the spot weld definition.
SHRD - Search radius. It defauts to 4 times of
spot weld radius SWRD
NCM1-NCM9 - Surfaces to be added the spot
weld set. Each surface can input by a pre-
defined node component or by a meshed area.
- SWADD command can be repeated to add
more surfaces
- Max. number of allowabl2 surfaces (including
two from basic set) = 11.
Spot weld
surface 1
Spot weld radius
Spot weld node 1
Spot weld
surface 2
Spot weld node 2
Spot weld
surface 3
Spot weld node 3
Basic spot weld set
Original position of
spot weld node 1
Beam2
Beam1
Spot weld
surface 4
Spot weld node 4
More surfaces
Beam3
ANSYS 9.0:
Spotweld
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Mesh-Independent Spot Weld
SWDEL, Ecomp
- Delete spot weld set
- Ecomp - The name of an existing spot
weld set.
- If Ecomp = ALL (default) all the spot
welds are deleted
ANSYS 9.0:
Spotweld
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Mesh-Independent Spot Weld
SWLIST, Ecomp
- List spot weld set
- Ecomp - The name of an existing
spot weld set.
- If Ecomp = ALL (default) all the spot
welds are Listed
• In POST1 not only elements and
contact pairs are listed but also
output beam results. For deformed
BEAM188 both forces/moments and
stresses are listed.
ANSYS 9.0:
Spotweld
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© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Mesh-Independent Spot Weld
Beam188
Conta175
Targ170
Output
ANSYS 9.0:
Spotweld
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Mesh-Independent Spot Weld
Beam188
Conta175
Targ170
Output
ANSYS 9.0:
Spotweld
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Pre-integrated shell/beam sections
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Preintegrated Shell Section
• A,B, D and E sub-matrices are symmetric
– Allow only bottom symmetric half to be defined
– MT, BT are generalized stresses caused by a fully
constrained unit temperature rise
• θ is the current temperature, θ
I
is reference
temperature
• A,B,D,E,MT,BT can be defined at 6 temperatures
independently
• Mass Density of shell/unit area may also be defined
at 6 temperatures
( )
(
¸
(

¸

− −
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

BT
MT
D B
B A
M
N
I
T
θ θ
κ
ε
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

2
1
22 21
12 11
2
1
γ
γ
E E
E E
S
S
ANSYS 9.0:
Pre-integrated Shell Sections
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Benefits/Limitations
• Benefits
– Missing capability for 4
node shells in ANSYS
– Faster: no material point
calculations or storage
– Third party software
provide the section
stiffness for layered,
sandwich or other
constructions
– Optimization with
homogenized behavior
• Limitations
– No output of stresses
• Section resultants
(membrane forces and
bending moments are
available)
– Ability to specify initial
stresses is lost
– Linear material behavior
– Birth and death is not
supported (currently)
– Not meaningful to use at
finite strains
• Thickness is not
updated
– Offset is not allowed
ANSYS 9.0:
Pre-integrated Shell Sections
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Nonlin. Beam General
Sections
• We define the “section
stiffness” directly as a
function of
– “section strain” and
– Temperature
• There is no material
input necessary
• We also define mass
density and thermal
expansion coefficient
– One temp. input per node
(no variation across
section)
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
) , (
) , (
0
) , (
) , (
0 ) , (
) , (
γ
γ
θ
κ
κ
ε
ε
ε
ε
ε
ε
ε
t SF
t SF
t Q
t F
t F
t Ax
S
S
T
M
M
N
Curvature
B
e
n
d
i
n
g

M
o
m
e
n
t
ANSYS 9.0:
Nonlinear Beam Preintegrated
Sections
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Benefits/Limitations
• Why?
– Allows nonlinear
relationships (elastic and
elasto-plastic) in terms of
generalized stresses and
generalized strains
– Very efficient
– Allows results from
experiments or another slice
analysis as input
• Limitations
– No coupling between Axial
and Bending behaviors
– Allows nonlinear elastic and
plastic behavior
– 20 points of stress-strain
supported
– Stress-Strain curve may be
supplied at 6 temperatures
– Not applicable for “Warping”
Key-option
– Only SMISC quantities are
supported
• PRSSOL is meaningless
ANSYS 9.0:
Nonlinear Beam Preintegrated
Sections
Beam188/
Beam184
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Follower Forces
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Follower load example
P/100
P P
Nodal loads
Follower loads
ANSYS 9.0:
Follower load
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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FOLLW201 element
• A “one” node
element
– Must be used with nodes
that are attached to
shells & beams (uses 6
d.o.f per node)
– No material, section,
esys attributes necessary
– Contributes to “stiffness”
only for NLGEOM,ON
• NROPT,UNSYM preferred
• Follower stiffness
symmetrized for
NROPT,FULL
• Real constants
– 6 values
• First three n1,n2,n3
entrees are direction
cosines of the force
vector
• Next three m1,m2,m3
entrees are direction
cosines of the moment
vector
– The vectors defined by
real constants will evolve
with deformation (follow
the displacements)
ANSYS 9.0:
Follower load
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Follower loads
• Follower loads are
non-conservative
• Introduce
unsymmetric load
stiffness contributions
• Introduce stability
issues; flutter,
dynamic stability
• Often counter intutive
and non-predictable
• A simple cantilever
with follower load has
flutter instabilities
• SFE command is
used to specify load
magnitude
• FACE 1 – force
• FACE 2 – moment
ANSYS 9.0:
Follower load
sfe,nel+1,1,pres,1,-load
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Nonlinear Diagnostics & Contact
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Diagnostic Tool
• Visualization and adjustment tools for initial
contact status
– CNCHECK, DETAIL: evaluate Contact Pair specifications
– CNCHECK, ADJUST: move contact nodes to target to close
gap or reduce penetration
– CNCHECK, POST: view contact initial status before solving
– CNCHECK, RESET: reset contact default settings
ANSYS 9.0:
Contact
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Diagnostic Tool
• NLDIAG,CONTACT,on
– File Jobname.cnd is written during
iteration/substep/loadsetp
– Lists on a pair-based items.
– Identify when and how contact occurs.
– When divergence occurs, it
determines the regions where contact
is unstable.
ANSYS 9.0:
Contact
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Penalty based shell-shell Assembly
• Prevent overconstraint when contact occurs on both
sides of shell
Surface-surface contact:
Only translation DOF’s are
constrained
Penalty based shell-shell:
Both translation & rotation
DOF’s are constrained
Rotational
resistance
ANSYS 9.0:
Contact
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Temperature Dependent Curve Fitting
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Purpose
• The purpose of the project is to generate coefficients from temperature
dependent experimental data.
• This is applicable to all HyperElastic, ViscoElastic(Prony Series) and
Implicit Creep models.
• This is an extension of the existing curve fitting capabilities for all the
above mentioned material models.
ANSYS 9.0:
Temp. Dependent Curve
Fitting
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Experimental Data Definition
• Add data at various temperatures and as many as you like in the
following format. This is applicable to all experimental data types.
(uniaxial, biaxial, shear, volumetric, creep,…)
Example;
/temp,100
0.0 1
0.1 2
0.2 3
• Only one temperature per file.
ANSYS 9.0:
Temp. Dependent Curve
Fitting
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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New Functionality
• A new option is added to enable temperature dependent curve fitting.
• With the temperature dependent option on, The solver filters
experimental data depending on the temperature and generates
separate sets of coefficients at corresponding temperatures.
• There are two solution procedures
– Set a temperature and solve. Repeat this for all other temperatures,
verify/view the results and save the coefficient to ansys material database.
– Set the temperature to “all” and solve. This will solve for all temperatures at
once. Verify/view the results and save to database.
• The plot page plots the curves at all temperatures.
ANSYS 9.0:
Temp. Dependent Curve
Fitting
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
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Step by step procedure
• Import Experimental Data
– One temperature per file
• Pick an appropriate material model.
• Enable temperature dependent curve fitting (tbft,set,categ,func,opt,tdep,1)
• Solution
– Set the temperature (tbft,set,categ,func,opt,tref,temp1)
– Solve
– Set the temperature (tbft,set,categ,func,opt,tref,temp2)
– Solve ……
Or
– Set the temperature (tbft,set,categ,func,opt,tref,all)
– Solve command solves for coefficients at all temperatures.
• Verify the results using plots for all temperatures.
• Save the data to Ansys database.
ANSYS 9.0:
Temp. Dependent Curve
Fitting
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Sample Script
/prep7
! Define Material
tbft,fadd,1,hyper,moon,2
! Define Uniaxial Data
tbft,eadd,1,unia,unia-100.exp
tbft,eadd,1,unia,unia-200.exp
tbft,eadd,1,unia,unia-300.exp
tbft,eadd,1,unia,unia-400.exp
! Define Volumetric Data
tbft,eadd,1,volu,volu-100.exp
tbft,eadd,1,volu,volu-200.exp
tbft,eadd,1,volu,volu-300.exp
tbft,eadd,1,volu,volu-400.exp
Contd ………..
ANSYS 9.0:
Temp. Dependent Curve
Fitting
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Sample Scripts contd.
tbft,set,1,hyper,moon,2,tdep,1
tbft,set,1,hyper,moon,2,tref,100
tbft,solve,1,hyper,moon,2,0
tbft,set,1,hyper,moon,2,tref,200
tbft,solve,1,hyper,moon,2,0
tbft,set,1,hyper,moon,2,tref,300
tbft,solve,1,hyper,moon,2,0
tbft,set,1,hyper,moon,2,tref,400
tbft,solve,1,hyper,moon,2,0a
tbft,list,1
tbft,fset,1,hyper,moon,2
tblis,all,all
fini
ANSYS 9.0:
Temp. Dependent Curve
Fitting
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Temperature dependent Uniaxial Experimental Data
ANSYS 9.0:
Temp. Dependent Curve
Fitting
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Solver Page
ANSYS 9.0:
Temp. Dependent Curve
Fitting
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
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HyperElastic Polynomial –
Uniaxial Data Fit at four temperatures
ANSYS 9.0:
Temp. Dependent Curve
Fitting
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Saved Coefficients in
Ansys Material GUI
ANSYS 9.0:
Temp. Dependent Curve
Fitting
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
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Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
• Objectives
– Frequency and temperature dependent
elastic properties
– Frequency and temperature dependent
damping coefficient
– Calculate damping matrix from elements
– Support full harmonic response analysis
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
• Equation of motion
| |{ } | |{ } | |{ } { } F u K u C u M = + + & & &
[M] – mass matrix
[K] – stiffness matrix
[C] – damping matrix
| | | |

ω µ ω = )) ( ), ( E ( K K
e
| | | |

=
e
C C | | | |
e e
K ) ( s C ω =
s – structure damping coefficient
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
– Elasticity
• TB,ELASTIC Command
Isotropic elasticity (Ex, NUxy)
Orthotropic elasticity
(Ex,Ey,Ez,Gxy,Gxz,Gyz,Nuxy,Nuxz,Nuyz)
Use TBFIELD to define frequency and temperature
dependent elastic properties
– Damping coefficient
• TB,SDAMP (SDAMP - stand for structure damping)
Use TBFIELD to define Frequency and temperature
dependent damping coefficient
– Element supports
• 182, 183, 185, 186, 187 for all stress states
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
• Elasticity
– The Command
TB,ELASTIC,MAT,NTEMP,NPTS,TBOPT
MAT
Material number
NTEMP
Number of temperature
NPTS
Number of data point
2 – for isotropic elasticity
9 – for orthotropic elasticity
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
• Elasticity
– The Command
TB,ELASTIC,MAT,NTEMP,NPTS,TBOPT
TBOPT
elastic data table option
IEL isotropic elasticity behavior, the
default
OELN orthotropic elasticity behavior
with minor Poisson ratio
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
• Procedure
• Use ANSYS full harmonic analysis procedure
ANTYP,HARM
• Parallel to other ANSYS full harmonic analysis
with damping effect through commands such
as ALPHA and BETA; MP,DAMP; DMPR; …
• The DAMPING matrix from TB,SDAMP is
additive to other damping matrix, and therefore
the damping effect is “add on”
• TB,ELASTIC can be used with TB,SDAMP and
also MP,DAMP;ALPHA and BETA; DMPR.
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
• Example
• Define an elastic data table with frequency dependence
TB,ELASTIC,1, ,2 ! Elastic data table
TBFIELD , FREQ,25 ! First frequency value
TBFIELD , TEMP,25 ! First temperature value
TBDATA,1,2.50e11,0.3 ! E and µ
TBFIELD ,FREQ,50 ! Second frequency value
TBDATA,1,2.0e11,0.3
TBFIELD ,TEMP,50 ! Second temperature value
TBFIELD ,FREQ,75 ! Third frequency value
TBDATA,1,1.5e11,0.3
TBFIELD ,FREQ,100 ! Forth frequency value
TBDATA,1,1.0e11,0.3
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
• Example
• Define a damping coefficient data table with frequency
dependence
TB,SDAMP,1, ,1 ! damping data table
TBFIELD , FREQ,25 ! First frequency value
TBFIELD , TEMP,25 ! First temperature value
TBDATA,1, 0.2 ! Damping co.
TBFIELD ,FREQ,50 ! Second frequency value
TBDATA,1, 0.19
TBFIELD ,TEMP,50 ! Second temperature value
TBFIELD ,FREQ,75 ! Third frequency value
TBDATA,1, 0.18
TBFIELD ,FREQ,100 ! Forth frequency value
TBDATA,1, 0.17
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
• Example
– SOLUTION procedure
/SOLUTION
ANTYPE,HARMIC ! Harmonic response analysis
HROPT,FULL ! Full harmonic response
HROUT,OFF ! Turn off printout
HARFRQ,25,400 ! Frequency range
NSUB,16,,16
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
• Example: Cantilever beam subject to uniform
pressure
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Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
• Material data
0.0E+00
5.0E+10
1.0E+11
1.5E+11
2.0E+11
2.5E+11
3.0E+11
0 100 200 300 400
Young's modulus as function of frequency
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
• Material data
Damping coefficient as function of frequency
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0 100 200 300 400
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0.0E+00
2.0E-07
4.0E-07
6.0E-07
8.0E-07
1.0E-06
1.2E-06
0 100 200 300 400 500
Results from FDM
Expected results
Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
• Comparison of displacement
d
i
Note:
Reference solution is obtained by defining material properties with the corresponding
frequency at every load step
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
• On going development
– Frequency dependent anisotropic elasticity
– Extension to support SHELL181,
BEAM188, BEAM189, LINK180,
SHELL208, SHELL209
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0.0E+00
2.0E-07
4.0E-07
6.0E-07
8.0E-07
1.0E-06
1.2E-06
0 100 200 300 400 500
Results from FDM
Expected results
Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis
• Comparison of displacement
d
i
Note
Reference solution is obtained by using material property defined by MP and change
the property with the frequency every load step
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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New Material Definition
Stress vs. Plastic strain Curve
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Requirements
• Directly define stress vs plastic strain
data for multilinear isotropic hardening
plasticity (MSIO)
• Directly define stress vs plastic strain
data for multilinear kinematic hardening
plasticity (KINH)
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Stress Plastic Strain Data
• The command
TB,PLASTIC,mat,ntemp,npts,TBOPT
mat = material number
ntemp = number of temperature
npts = number of stress plastic strain points
TBOPT = MISO for isotropic hardening
= KINH for kinematic hardening
Note:
The first data point is always the yield stress with
zero plastic strain.
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Stress Plastic Strain Data
• Example multilinear isotropic hardening
plasticity
TB,PLASTIC,1, ,10,MISO
TBPT,, 0.000000, 0.3000D+05
TBPT,, 0.000378, 0.3875D+05
TBPT,, 0.000955, 0.4500D+05
TBPT,, 0.001617, 0.5000D+05
TBPT,, 0.002406, 0.5312D+05
TBPT,, 0.003236, 0.5563D+05
TBPT,, 0.004067, 0.5813D+05
TBPT,, 0.004940, 0.6000D+05
TBPT,, 0.006771, 0.6250D+05
TBPT,, 0.010561, 0.6560D+05
Stress vs. plastic strain curve
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012
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Stress Plastic Strain Data
• Example for a multilinear kinematic
hardening plasticity
TB,PLASTIC,1, ,10,KINH
TBPT,, 0.000000, 0.3000D+05
TBPT,, 0.000378, 0.3875D+05
TBPT,, 0.000955, 0.4500D+05
TBPT,, 0.001617, 0.5000D+05
TBPT,, 0.002406, 0.5312D+05
TBPT,, 0.003236, 0.5563D+05
TBPT,, 0.004067, 0.5813D+05
TBPT,, 0.004940, 0.6000D+05
TBPT,, 0.006771, 0.6250D+05
TBPT,, 0.010561, 0.6560D+05
Stress vs. plastic strain curve
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012
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Stress Plastic Strain Data
• TB,PLASTIC applies whenever
TB,MISO or TB,KINH apply
– TB,PLASTIC,,,,MISO is equivalent to TB,MISO
– TB,PLASTIC,,,,KINH is equivalent to TB,KINH
– TB,PLASTIC can be combined with other material
models, such as CHABOCHE, CREEP, RATE,
HILL
– Use TBTEMP to define a temperature dependent
data table
– Support elements 180, 181, 182, 183, 185, 186,
187, 188,189, 208, and 209
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Preprocessing
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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• Function loads can now interpret (x,y,z)
in local coordinate system
ANSYS 9.0:
Sim. Support
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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• Post1 surface calculations- New “Cylinder” surface. Creates a
cylindrical cut through the model of user specified radius and
orientation.
• Map results on to the cylindrical surface to perform calculations
ANSYS 9.0:
Sim. Support
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Static Cyclic Symmetry
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Static Cyclic Symmetry
• Plotting of /CYCEXPAN’ded B.C’s in POST
• B.C. application through ‘Picking’
• Point loads and Surface loads
• B.C. through nodes, keypoints picking to apply forces
and displacements
• B.C. through picking - pressure on elements, lines, areas
and displacement on lines and areas
• Verify results and compare with commands
• Imaginary loads (F, SF, D)
• Post data structure – real and imaginary
results
ANSYS 9.0:
Linear Dynamics
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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B.C. plotting in POST
B.C. through picking - areas
AREA LKEY LOAD LABEL VALUE(S)
3 1 PRES -200.00 0.0000 SECTOR 1
3 1 PRES -200.00 0.0000 SECTOR 3
9 1 PRES 10.000 0.0000 SECTOR 2
9 1 PRES 10.000 0.0000 SECTOR 5
10 1 PRES 10.000 0.0000 SECTOR 2
10 1 PRES 10.000 0.0000 SECTOR 5
12 1 PRES 20.000 0.0000 SECTOR 7
ANSYS 9.0:
Linear Dynamics
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Component based Acceleration
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Component Based Acceleration
• Apply apply inertia forces on different
element components, based on the
accelerations on the different parts of
the structure.
CMACEL, CM_NAME, CMACELX, CMACELY, CMACELZ
CM_NAME The name of the element component
CMACELX, CMACELY, CMACELZ
Linear acceleration of the element component
CM_NAME in the global Cartesian X, Y, and Z axis
directions, respectively.
ANSYS 9.0:
Linear Dynamics
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Example
/prep7

nsel,s,loc,z,0,-72
esln,,1
cm,roof1,elem
nsel,s,loc,z,-75,-140
esln
cm,roof2,elem
nsel,s,loc,z,-150,-220
esln,,1
cm,roof3,elem
nsel,s,loc,z,-225,-300
esln
cm,roof4,elem
esel,all
nsel,al
Fini
/solu
antype,static
cmacel,roof1,,0.36
cmacel,roof2,,0.37
cmacel,roof3,,0.38
cmacel,roof4,,0.39
solve
fini
ANSYS 9.0:
Linear Dynamics
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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CMS - Superelements
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Expansion in transformed location
• Expand the substructure results in
transformed location if SETRAN or
SESYMM command is applied in USE
pass.
1. SEEXP, Sename, Usefil, Imagky, Expopt
Expopt
Key to specify whether the superelement expansion pass
2. RSTOFF, Lab, OFFSET
Offsets node or element IDs in the FE geometry record.
ANSYS 9.0:
Linear Dynamics
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Example
!left wing is from right wing in USE pass
/prep7
et,1,50
se,RightWing
sesymm, LeftWing, X, 100, se2, sub
se,se2
cp,...
fini
! expansion Pass
/assign,rst,rightwing,rst
/solution
expass,on
seexp,rightwing,use, ,on
rstoff, node, nof2
rstoff, elem, eof2
numexp,all
solve
finish
ANSYS 9.0:
Linear Dynamics
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
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CMSFILE command enhancement
• Handle the CMS result file, but also other
types of result file. So, the user can keep
FEM parts in CMS analysis and postprocess
the substructure expanded result files and
FEM result files together.
CMSFILE, Option, Fname, Ext, CmsKey
CmsKey
Valid only when adding a results file (Option = ADD
or ALL), this key specifies whether or not to
check the specified .rst file to determine if it
was created via a CMS expansion pass:
ON — Check (default).
OFF — Do not check.
ANSYS 9.0:
Linear Dynamics
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Re-meshing for Ansys Flotran in
MultiField solver
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Motivation
• For FSI problem when fluid mesh is highly
distorted (affect the accuracy) or mesh fails in
morphing
• Improve the accuracy when the mesh was
distorted by ALE mesh moving scheme.
• Enable user to solve FSI problem with large
domain changes when the mesh fails in ALE
mesh update process by using Ansys MF
solver.
ANSYS 9.0:
Remesh in MF Solver
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
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How to use
• Use FLDATA39 to setup the re-meshing
parameters for fluid field in Multifield
solver, no new MF commands required
by re-meshing.
• FLDATA39, REMESH, Label, Value
ANSYS 9.0:
Remesh in MF Solver
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
© 2003 ANSYS, Inc.
Example:Rigid body rotation of a valve in a tube
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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Electrostatic & Magnetic forces
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
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Basis & advantages
The theoretical basis for the projects is based on a new 3D
electromagnetic formulation that uses analytic formulae for
integral and post evaluations.
• General
– + Reluctance forces due to material changes (not available currently)
– + Current segment forces like electrodes (not available currently)
– + Lorentz forces in permeable material (not available currently)
– + Consistently combine these forces (there is confusion here now)
– ! Yes, presently we can't do these forces; I think competition can't either
• Fast:
• Accurate
• Consistent
– Electric and magnetic methodology are the same
– Easier usage, no prep7 action needed
• no need to create think air layer around body (present usage)
• no more flagging (present usage)
– Users, at post1, select nodes on bodies of interes and call a FMGN to report forces
– Compliant with present FMAGSUM: existing input continue to run
ANSYS 9.0 Preview II
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2-D ELECTROSTATIC FORCES
g
V N
x
W
F
r
t
2
0
arg
ε ε
=


=
Simplified expression for
combdrive driving force
(ignores fringing effects [1,2]):
Electrostatic Force (N)
Driving (x) Transverse (y)
Simplified analytical [1,2]
5.31⋅10
-9
0.0
ANSYS
(Maxwell Stress Tensor)
3.55⋅10
-9
0.006⋅10
-9
ANSYS
(New Virtual Work)
5.65⋅10
-9
0.005⋅10
-9
Potential distribution between comb fingers
Electrostatic forces developing between comb fingers
REFERENCES
1. T.-C. H. Nguyen W.C. Tang and R.T. Howe. Laterally driven
polysilicon resonant microstructures. Sensors and Actuators A,
20:25–32, 1989.
2. M.W. Judy W.C. Tang, T.-C.H. Nguyen and R.T. Howe.
Electrostatic-comb drive of lateral polysilicon resonators.
Sensors and Actuators A, 21-23:328–331, 1990.
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3-D ELECTROSTATIC FORCES
Potential distribution between two spherical electrodes
Electrostatic forces developing between two electrodes
REFERENCES
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/capsph.html#c1
.
2
2
2
0
1 1
2
(
¸
(

¸


=


=
b a
a
V
a
W
F
r
a
ε πε
2
2
2
0
1 1
2
(
¸
(

¸


− =


=
b a
b
V
b
W
F
r
b
ε πε
Forces developing between
two spherical electrodes:
Radial Electrostatic Force (N)
F
a
(inner) F
b
(outer)
Analytical model
2.23⋅10
-6
-0.56⋅10
-6
ANSYS
(Maxwell Stress Tensor)
1.59⋅10
-6
-0.79⋅10
-6
ANSYS
(New Virtual Work)
2.21⋅10
-6
-0.55⋅10
-6
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3-D MAGNETIC FORCES: TEAM20 BENCHMARK
REFERENCES
1. M. Gyimesi, D. F. Ostergaard, “Analysis of Benchmark
Problem TEAM20 with Various Formulations”, Proceedings
of TEAM Workshop, COMPUMAG, Rio, 1997.
2. M. Gyimesi, D. F. Ostergaard, “Mixed Shape Non-
Conforming Edge Elements”, IEEE Transactions on
Magnetics, Vol. 35 No. 3, 1999, pp. 1407-1409.
3. M. Gyimesi, D. F. Ostergaard, “Non-Conforming
Hexahedral Edge Elements for Magnetic Analysis”, IEEE
Transactions on Magnetics, Vol 34 No. 5, 1998, pp. 2481-
2484.
Vertical (z-direction) force (N)
1000 A-turns 3000 A-turns
5000 A-turns
Experimental (target)
8.10 54.4 80.1
ANSYS (Old Virtual Work)
7.24 51.3 76.7
ANSYS (New Virtual Work)
7.25 51.4 76.8
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High Frequency Electromagnetics
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High-Frequency Electromagnetics
• Electromagnetic Wave Scattering from Periodic Structures and
Frequency Selective Surface (FSS)
– Very difficult to simulate whole structure by FEA with HUGE
number of DOFs
– Simplify the simulation using unit cell with Periodic Boundary
Condition
Plane Wave
Periodic Structure
Master surface
Slave surface
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High-Frequency Electromagnetics
– Vector basis function with Floquet principle leads to
E
slave
= E
master
e
-jΨ
– Hex, Tet, Wedge and Pyramid element
– Coupling between master and slave surface
– Plane wave excitation
– Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) absorbing boundary
condition
– Reflection/Transmission and radar cross section (RCS)
Calculation
• Lumped Circuit Model in FEA Full-Wave Electromagnetic Solver
Microstrip line
FEA Mesh
Lumped circuit model
RLC
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High-Frequency Electromagnetics
– Present the lumped circuit parameter in the high
frequency electromagnetic distribution parameter
system
– Integrate lumped RLC circuit model into full-wave
electromagnetic FEA solver
– Hex, Tet, Wedge and Pyramid element
• Improve Fast Frequency Sweep Performance
– Variation Technology (VT) for broadband Fast
Frequency Sweep
– Speed up VT performance ~20% with the similar
memory requirement
– PML termination with acceptable absorbing rate
– Hex, Tet, Wedge and Pyramid element
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High-Frequency Electromagnetics
• Special Absorption Rate (SAR) Calculation
– Calculation of SAR in FEA element for lossy material
– Plot/Print SAR distribution using ETABLE of ANSYS
postprocessor
– Available in Hex, Tet, Wedge and Pyramid element
• Power Calculation of a N-port High-Frequency
Electromagnetic System
– Input/Output power at ports
– Dissipated power in N-port system
– Power reflection/transmission coefficient, return loss
and insertion loss at ports
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Thermoelectric Analysis
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• Enhance the thermoelectric analysis to include (in addition to
Joule heating)
– Seebeck, Peltier, Thomson effects
– transient electrical effects
Objectives
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• New thermoelectric analysis option on the coupled-field elements
– PLANE223, SOLID226, SOLID227
– keyopt(1)=110
Electric field on Thermal field on Structural field off
• New material property to input Seebeck coefficients
– MP,SBKX (also SBKY, SBKZ) - to model Seebeck and Peltier effects
– MPDATA,SBKX (also SBKY, SBKZ) – to model Thomson effect
• Transient thermoelectric analysis now uses electric permittivity
– MP,PERX (also PERY, PERZ) – to capture transient electrical effects
Scope
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Elements - Summary
SF: CONV, HFLUX, RAD
BF: HGEN
Loads
3-D 10-node 3-D 20-node 2-D 8-node Name
Coupled-field solid
SOLID227 SOLID226 PLANE223
0 - Plane
1-Axisymmetric
KEYOPT(3)
KZZ, RSVZ, SBKZ, PERZ
KXX, KYY, RSVX, RSVY, SBKX, SBKY, DENS, C, ENTH, PERX,
PERY
Material
Properties
Temperature (TEMP) – Heat flow (HEAT)
Electric scalar potential (VOLT) - Electric current (AMPS)
DOFs-Reactions
110 (thermoelectric analysis) KEYOPT(1)
MP,PP,ED Product
Geometry
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• To do a thermoelectric analysis you need to
– use one of these element types - PLANE223, SOLID226, SOLID227
– set KEYOPT(1)=110
– specify electrical resistivity (RSVX), thermal conductivity (KXX), and other
applicable properties (DENS,C,ENTH) if needed
• To include Seebeck/Peltier thermoelectric effects
– specify Seebeck coefficients (SBKX)
– specify the temperature offset from absolute zero to zero (TOFFST)
– temporarily, you have to set KEYOPT(2)=1 to activate Seebeck/Peltier
coupling (in the final release, the coupling will be activated automatically upon
the definition of Seebeck coefficients)
• To add electric transient effects
– specify electrical permittivity (PERX)
Procedure
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Example - Peltier Cooler
p-type material
n-type material
I
out
I
in
= 10 A
conductor
Cold side T= -3
o
C
Hot side T= -54
o
C
Temperature distribution
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• TECs are used in applications where temperature stabilization,
temperature cycling, compact or pinpoint cooling are required:
– Electronic and optical component cooling
• CPU, photodetectors, low noise amplifiers, laser diodes
– Consumer products
• Portable food/beverage coolers, automotive seat cooling/heating
– Medical, laboratory and scientific equipment
• Blood analyzers, thermal cycling devices (blood, lymph, DNA), heart and
eye surgery
– Military & Space
• Naval navigation, night vision equipment, guidance systems
– Indoor environmental devices
• Conditioners, fans, humidifiers
Markets and Applications
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HEAT TRANSFER ENHACEMENTS –
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Radiosity Solution Enhancements
Three major enhancements at ANSYS9.0
(NOT available for FLOTRAN)
-Posprocess radiation data via SURF251
& SURF252 element types
-Efficient solution for fine surface meshes
via decimation/agglomeration
-Efficient solution for models with
symmetry planes
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Decimation Concept
Radiation via coarse
SURF251
Thermal via PLANE55
/SHRINK,.5 used
for clarification
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Radiation Enhancements
The following new commands allow generation
of SURF251/252 elements:
RDEC : This specifies decimation parameters
for coarsening
RSYM: allows user to define symmetry
parameters
RSURF: action command to generate the
surface elements
(Details in attachment command.doc)
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Radiation Enhancements
Use the NMISC records of SURF251/252
Elements to print /display the following:
-area of each surface element
-temperature of surface element
-emissivity of surface element
-enclosure # of surface element
-net radiation heat flux leaving surface element
(see attached input files for details)
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Planer vs Cyclic Symmetry
POS(plane of symmetry)
specified by user via CS
command
COR(center of rotation)
specified by user via CS
command
1 reflection only
2 repetitions
original
original
Reflection is NOT the same as Repetition !!!
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Planer Symmetry
SURF251
PLANE55
2 Planes of symmetry
Input file is RSYMtest1.dat
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Cyclic Symmetry
Center of rotation
Cyclic symm plane
SURF251
PLANE55
Input file is RSYMtest2.dat

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