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W A S T E W A T E R W A S T E
ATV STANDARD ATV A 203E Wastewater Filtration Using Space following Biological Treatment
April 1995 ISBN 3-934984-34-7
Marketing: Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e.V. (GFA) Theodor-Heuß-Allee 17 D-53773 Hennef Postfach 11 65 . 53758 Hennef
-Ing. Bergheim Prof. in the January. Hegemann. Dr. Meyer.-Ing. prima facie evidence shows that he has taken the necessary care. Sekoulov.-Ing. Roth. Schleypen.-Ing. Bochum Dipl.V.version. Hamburg-Harburg Prof. Kaiserslauten Dr. 1994 . Ph.-Ing. Hahn. microfilm or any other process or transferred or translated into a language usable in machines. Dr. Bonn April 1995 2 . Jost. in particular data processing machines. Mayer. in particular those of translation into other languages. Aachen Dr. (GFA).-Ing. Whosoever applies them is responsible for the correct application in specific cases. An obligation to apply them can result for reasons of legal regulations. Dr.-Ing. Karlsruhe Dipl. Through the application of the Rules and Standards no one avoids responsibility for his own actions. 1 of Point 5 of A 400 includes the following statement "The Rules and Standards are freely available to everyone. However. contracts or other legal grounds. Pöpel.-Ing. Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e. for the user.8 "Methods of Advanced Wastewater Treatment following Biological Treatment" which has the following members: Prof. Dr.ATV A 203E These principles have been elaborated by ATV Specialist Committee 2. Wolf. Firk. Stuttgart BDir. Dohmann.-Ing. Para.D. All rights. No part of this Standard may be reproduced in any form by photocopy. München Prof. Berlin (Chairman) Prof. Hennef 1995 Produced by: Carl Weyler KG. With regard to the application of the Rules and Standards. Dr. without the written approval of the publisher. Darmstadt Dr. are reserved. taking into account the ATV Standard A 400 "Principles for the Preparation of Rules and Standards" in the Rules and Standards Wastewater/Wastes.-Ing. Peter-Fröhlich. Zürich Dr.. Berlin Prof.-Ing. Kassel The Standard presented here has been prepared within the framework of the ATV committee work.
5.3 5. 3. 3.4 4.2 6.2 3.ATV A 203E Contents 1.1 3. Introduction Fundamentals of filtration Procedures Downwards throughflowed filters Upwards throughflowed filters Dry filters Special procedures Effect coverage of wastewater filters Removal of filterable substances with space filters Phosphorus elimination Removal of dissolved substances Dimensioning and operation of wastewater filters Dimensioning Filter flushing Dimensioning example 4 4 5 7 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 12 14 17 7.1 4. Standard Specifications and Standards April 1995 3 .1 5.2 4.3 3. 2. 4.
Essentially. van der Waal's forces. is to be assessed case by case with regard to costs. Fundamentals of Filtration The filtration effect is based on many different processes of a physical. no intensified biological effect). in certain cases. 2. (Table 1). chemical and biological nature. and biologically intensified filtration which. for example. Surface filters: cloth filters or fine grain filters with a filter layer height of up to 30 cm (suspension retention on the filter surface. sorption. in unfavourable cases. - The possibility of denitrification in filters following addition of electron donors such as. inter alia. can be washed out due to the sheer forces exercised by the flow. Particles and flocs already retained can. With regard to their function the following well tried methods can be differentiated: wastewater filtration which is limited exclusively to the elimination of filterable substances present in the wastewater. dependent on stability and adhesion. Surface filtration is not part of this Standard. sedimentation.5 m (suspension retention in the complete filter bed). the procedures for wastewater filtration aim at the elimination of particular wastewater content substances ( filterable substances) following biological treatment in accordance with the recognised rules of technology. The following versions are based on this.ATV A 203E 1. diffusion. The filters employed in wastewater filtration can be divided into: Space filters: normal filter bed height 1 . preferably with the aim of advanced phosphorus elimination. (Table 2). capture. be again redeposited deeper in the filter during the filtration process or. April 1995 4 . To these belong: the retention of large particles through the sieve effect between the grains retention of small particles on the surface of the filter medium or on already deposited particles as a result of. carbon. flocculation filtration by which additional filterable substances are produced by means of the addition of precipitation/flocculation agents and/or flocculation aid agents. with the aid of suitable filter materials and sufficient oxygen supply aims additionally at the reduction of the organic residual loading of the wastewater and. Due to the multiplicity of the systems on offer no details on operation are given in this Standard.2. Introduction This Standard is concerned with communal wastewater. at a residual nitrification. The tested procedures of space filtration are dealt with in this Standard. performance and environmental compatibility.
- 3. the removal of dissolved organic substances is significantly influenced by the degree of oxygen supply of the total filter bed. filtration direction. Comprehensive commercial scale experience with space filtration up until now exist only for the filters underlined in Table 1. Table 1: Space filtration procedures Design of Flow filter direction medium Flushing cycle Flushing medium Elimination effect* FS Designation Single layer filter April 1995 5 . The grading of the filter grain from coarse to fine in the direction of flow combines the effects of the storage capacity of the coarse grains for the larger particles with the good sieve effect of the fine grain for the fine particles. at first. by which the wastewater trickles through the filter bed as in a biological filter and is supplied with oxygen via an air flow. The flushing technique is also to be taken into account with the selection of filter grain material in order to continue keeping the desired grading (classification). This effect represents a surface filtration. Due to the unique O2 saturation of. either in uniflow or contraflow. filter layers.N is possible. The biological effectiveness and with this. individual and then more and more particles are retained by the sieve effect and the pressure loss subsequently increases exponentially. flushing technique and application purpose. overdam filtration with surface aeration of the filter body with the aid of an aeration system in the filter bed. no or only few particles retained through the sieve action.ATV A 203E With uniformly coarse filter grains and clean filters there are. With appropriate boundary conditions NO3 oxygen can also slightly improve the biological effect. If the pore channels have narrowed sufficiently through the loading. With uniformly fine filter grains particles are removed mainly by sieving on the surface of the filter bed. Procedures The procedures of filtration applied in practice for advanced wastewater treatment can be differentiated in accordance with Tables 1 and 2 by filter medium. The total pressure loss (filter resistance) increases while filtration increases at first slowly. 10 mg/l only the nitrification of some 2 mg/l NH4+. With downwards operated staged filtration aerobic conditions occur only in the upper filter layer due to the small O2 concentration of the filter inlet and with this a slight elimination of dissolved wastewater content substances. The desired O2 enrichment improves the efficiency of the elimination of dissolved organic substances and nitrification. With this there are the following possibilities for oxygen supply: enrichment of the inflow with the aid of a pre-aeration. dry filtration. for example. linearly.
downwards throughflowed filter is set up as a space filter with one layer (single layer filter) or better with two layers (two layer filter) over a filter bed. P FS. intensified Multilayer filter Flocculation filter Biol. Figs.1 Downwards Throughflowed Filters The overdammed. P NH4 FS FS. COD.45 µm Other than with FS concerned with residual elimination ** with appropriate equipping Table 2: Surface filtration procedures Flow regime Design of Flow filter direction medium One Overdam filter layer Flushing cycle Discontinuou s Downwards Quasi continuous As desired Quasi continuous Flushing medium Water Air Water Water Elimination effect FS FS FS Designation Pulsed bed filter Cell filter Cloth filter Back-up Cloth difference 3. Intensified filter Flocculation filter Biol. NH4+ FS. COD NH4+ FS. Intensified filter Upwards filter Flocculation filter Biol. COD. P)** Radial or upwards thru'flowed filter FS = filterable substance (determined using membrane filtration. up until now. P NH4+ FS. COD NH4+ FS Biol. COD NH4+ FS. P FS. COD. COD. Intensified filter Flocculation filter Biol. P NH4+ Special procedur e * Water Air FS. COD. not been usual in Germany.ATV A 203E Downwards Discontinuou s One filter layer Overdam Upwards Discontinuou s Water Air FS. intensified Dry filter Flocculation filter Two filter layers Trickle film Two filter layers Downwards Discontinuou s Water Air Downwards Discontinuou s Water Air Single filter layer Horizontal or upwards Continuous Water Air FS. NH4+. Multilayer filters with more than two layers have. pore width 0. April 1995 6 . (COD. 1 and 2 show a schematic drawing of this filter. COD.
5. pumice stone. is almost always filter sand. in comparison with the lower layers. 1: Basic principle of downwards throughflowed filter for throughflow flushing Fig. April 1995 7 . while the lower filter layer.ATV A 203E Fig. however. Mainly anthracite. d10 The smallest possible share of fine grain material is to be sought in order to avoid the surface filtration effect. under operating conditions specifically lighter material (see Table 6 for grain wet density) is selected so that the arrangement of layers is re-established after flushing. swelling shale or swelling clay are used as upper layer materials. With multilayer filters the upper layer. 2: Basic principle of downwards throughflowed filter for overdam flushing Both with the single layer filter and with the multilayer filter the grain material of each layer is to have a very close grain spectrum d60 U = ≤ 1. as with single layer filters. is relatively coarse.
Usually filter sand of grain size 1 to 3 mm is employed as filter material. With flushing the filter material.2 Upwards Throughflowed Filters With upwards throughflowed filters (see schematic diagram in Fig. Fig.3 Basic principle of dry filter for throughflow flushing Dry Filters In the dry filter the wastewater trickles as film over the grain material. 3) the space effect is achieved by the decreasing grain size and pore cross-section in the direction of flow.ATV A 203E The inflow in the overdam area is to be introduced gently so that the filter surface is not disturbed. Fig.3: 3. even with equal density. 4 shows a schematic cross-section through a two layer dry filter in which the air flows in the direction of flow of the wastewater to ensure oxygen supply. 3. April 1995 8 .3: Basic principle of upwards throughflowed filter for throughflow flushing Fig. is classified from coarse to fine and thus kept in the desired position. The pore space is not filled with water.
01 gN g FS < 0. BDS g BOD5 g FS g COD g FS gP g FS without with simult. Other wastewater content substances are also removed with the filterable substances.0 1. nitrogen and phosphorus in filterable substances BOD5 Sludge loading of pre-deposited biological stage.50.01 0. P-elimination 0. The discharge values lie very often below 5 mg/l FS.d) 4. Effect Coverage of Wastewater Filters A qualitative assessment of different filtration procedures with regard to their effect is contained in Table 3.3 kg/(kg. Precip. Here influencing variables are April 1995 9 . through a protective layer made from plastic elements. Some information is provided by Table 4.0.ATV A 203E Arrangement of grain and flushing of dry filters corresponds with those of overdam filters. The removal of filterable substances can be impaired with wastewater filters with deliberate biological effect using filter bed aeration. Table 3: Effect coverage of different filtration procedures FS Filtration Biologically intensified filtration Flocculation filtration following simultaneous precipitation or increased biological P-elimination (additional biological intensified) ++ ++ ++ COD 0 + + NH4+ 0 + 0 P (dissolved) 0 + + (++) (+) (+) (++) 0 = no or slight effect.4 Special Procedures The following count as special procedures: continuously flushing calibration layer filter continuously functioning radially throughflowed filters./ Biol.d) 0. 4. The inflow on to the filter is to be such that the filter material is not disturbed.03 < 0.15 . COD.1 Removal of Filterable Substances by Space Filters With the different filtration procedures filterable substances remaining in the outflow of the secondary sedimentation system can be extensively held back.01 <0.g. + = good effect.0 1.15 kg/(kg. 3. ++ = very good effect Table 4: Average values of BOD5. e.01 0.01 0.5 1.03 0.
This does not apply for wastewater with an increased non-filterable P component. with discontinuously flushed filters. Alternatives for the type of chemical. 4. nevertheless. with aerated filters. The material structure ensures that the removal of the active biomass during one filter flushing process remains within bounds. 4.2 mg/l P. in addition to a sufficient oxygen supply. With smaller plants (100. partially or continuously dosed flocculation aid agents. the employment of porous or of at least slightly rough or slightly angular filter material is. Most operational systems are dimensioned as multilayer filters for filtration rates of maximum 15 m/h and between 6 to 8 m/h for dry weather. ATV Standard A 202) Flocculation filtration should be employed for advanced phosphorus elimination only after pre-precipitation or simultaneous precipitation in the previous mechanical-biological wastewater treatment stage or following a biologically reinforced phosphorus elimination with runoff values < 2 mg/l Ptot. 0. For operational-technical and economical reasons it is recommended to plan. 5.2 Phosphorus Elimination (comp. April 1995 10 .000 IPE) and very large plants (> 1M IPE) values deviating from this can be economical. the air velocity (impairment over 2.5 m/h) and the grain size of the filter material employed as well as the filter layer height. As guidance value a mol ratio of Fe/P of 2 to 3 can be assumed. it can be assumed to be Qt = 7. With the aid of filter material with adsorptive effect or with the employment of adsorptive additives there are. of significance. dosing quantities and dosing point should be taken into account during planning.0 mg/l P such systems can achieve a mean Ptot runoff value of ca.1 Dimensioning and Flushing of Wastewater Filters Dimensioning The most important parameter with the dimensioning of filter plants is the filter rate. With space filters. With biologically intensified filtration for residual nitrification and residual COD elimination.45µm pore width) are designated as dissolved substances.ATV A 203E essentially the filter rate (impairment over 5 m/h). at least 6 filter units with a filter surface area per unit < 80 m2. 5. In cases of wet weather the following rate. corresponding effects to be achieved. With residual nitrification with simultaneous flocculation filtration a detrimental effect on the biological effect is possible due to the use of chemicals.3 Removal of Dissolved Substances And Residual Nitrification Normally wastewater content substances which are not held back by membrane filters (0. up to 5 m/h. taking into account the units being flushed. In the main Fe3+ salts or aluminium compounds and.5 m/h.5 . With an inflow of some 1. In space filters and flocculation filters no elimination of AOX is to be expected. as supplement. following the taking into operation of the filtration filter. dependent on the selected filtration process. In every case. investigations for performance optimisation are required. it is to be limited to 15 or 10 m/h. are employed as the chemicals for flocculation filtration.
The flushing process with multilayer filters is concluded by an intensive clean water flushing for a renewed classifying of the filter bed layers.2.0 m Material Anthracite Exp.3.4 .0 2. DVGW* Standards W 210.5 .2 .2.0 .2).1.2 . at the same time.2.6 m Material Grain Filter sand 0.4.0 1.4 . grain sizes and layer heights which are employed with space filtration (areas of employment and elimination effect see Table 1). W 126.96.36.199 Upwards throughflowed Layer height 1.).0 . Clay Exp. slate Grain [mm] 2.6 m Material Filter sand Basalt Grain 1.2.0 .0 Necessity and grain size to be selected dependent on filter bases and filter material With the selection of filter materials account should also be taken. makes a sufficient volume for the flocculation reaction available with flocculation filtration. laiddown time.5 1.5 .1. With flushing the filter bed is loosened and the grain material freed of pollutants which are removed from the filters.0 Material Filter sand Grain [mm] 2. 5.0 .3 * Lower layer layer height 0.4.0 2.2 Filter Flushing Discontinuously operating filters must be regenerated by flushing (as a rule after 24 .48 hrs.188.8.131.52 m Material Anthracite Exp. With downwards through-flowed multilayer filters the selection of material and the grading of the grain must be oriented to the criteria of the filter flushing (see Sect.25 Support Layer* Material basalt. In the case of wet weather a short-term flushing can be applied which deviates from the normal.2 m Material Filter sand Grain [mm] 1.0 . 5. slate Exp.0 m is selected which serves to balance the operationally based increased filter resistance and.3.5 1. according to the achievement of a certain maximum filter resistance or indications of break-up of the filter bed (increased runoff concentration).0.6 1. with regard to longterm satisfactory operation of the filter plant.15 Dry filter downwards two layer Upper layer layer height 1. With special boundary conditions and with the use of special procedures trials should be carried out for the optimisation of the process. Table 5 gives a summary of materials. Table 5: Build-up of filter bed for normal space filters Downwards through-flowed One layer filter Layer height 0.4 .5 . of Rules and Standard Specifications from water processing engineering such as.2.0 .1.ATV A 203E With discontinuously flushed filters an overdam height of at least 2. filter gravel Layer height [m]: 0.5 .71 .0 Two layer filter Upper layer layer height 0.8 .4 . The flushing cycle is either according to a fixed. Parts 1-3". W 212 "Filtration in Water Processing. for example. clay Pumice Grain [mm] 1.0.4 .5 2. April 1995 11 .0 Lower layer layer height 0.0.8 .
5 2. even following a mixing of material using air flushing.1.0 .4 2.1. from the bottom upwards.6 1.2. slate Exp.3 . not proved successful as with this conglomerations of organic masses and filter material cannot be removed.04 30 1.5 .4 .71 .96 20 1.5 Debris density [kg/m3] * 720 720 1700 340 650 600 650 600 1500 1500 1500 1500 Flushing rate for a satisfactory expansion [m/h] 55 90 110 55 60 90 60 90 55 75 90 130 Anthracite Basalt Pumice Exp.0 25 1.4 . It is only with a good agreement of these characteristic values that it can be guaranteed that a clean multilayer filter formation.4 1.5 184.108.40.206 1.5 1.4. Pure water flushing has.30 %. which can be expected to give corresponding bed expansions. with filtered wastewater and/or air.1 .5 2.9 2.4 2.1.2. clay Filter sand 1. rates.1 . April 1995 12 .0 2. in practice.87 10 0. With classifying the flushing rate is so increased that the filter bed is expanded by 20 .4 1.5 2. Theoretically the loosening rate of the upper filter material should be somewhat smaller than or equal to the lower lying layer/material.12 The hydraulic material characteristic values such as loosening point (start of expansion) and expansion ratio significantly determine the formation of the multilayer filters.5 . The flushing programme of multilayer filters must take care of both the cleaning of the filter bed as well as the classifying of the individual filter layers.7 1.1.5 2.1.5 2.9 1.5 . Summary of material characteristic values and flushing rates for classifying at 20° C water temperature and clean grain Filter material Grain [mm] Corn mass Solid density 3 density [g/cm3] [g/cm ] * * 1.0 .0 2.2 . whereby the expansion coefficient should be respectively larger/the same.6 2.5 2.3. as otherwise the space filter effect is lost. Table 6.5 2.7 1.2.5 1. are given in Table 6. Notes on flushing programmes are given in Table 7.2. can be re-established with the subsequent flushing with clean water.2 .25 1.5 2.5 2.1.0 0.5 2. relevant are the manufacturer's details DVGW = German Association of Gas and Water Specialists ___________________ * Correction factor of flushing rate for 5 ° < T < 30°C Temperature [°C] Correction factor [-] 5 0.3 2.0 1.3.5 .5 2.ATV A 203E Flushing consists of several phases by which it is flushed.92 15 0.0 .0 .4 .5 1.4. 15 * Guidance values.5 2.6 1.2.
to the pre-treatment storage or to the aeration tank. Interruption of inflow Lowering of overdam water level Opening up of filter bed covering Mixture of media with high turbulence Removal of solids Classifying of filter media and separation of layers Taking into service of filter 75 .5 2.20 55 . To reduce a hydraulic overload of the sewage treatment plant through recirculated sludge water. With the dimensioning and design of sludge water pipelines and reservoirs the possibility of sludge and sand deposits as well as their clearance and possible separate treatment are to be taken into account.0 2.100 12 . April 1995 13 .0 1.0 - The sludge water is fed back to the inflow of the grit chamber. Table 7: Example for the flushing programme of an overdammed multilayer filter Phase Purpose Air flow rate [m/h] Water flow rate [m/h] Duratio n [min] 1 2 3 4.100 2. with a smaller number of filter chambers.90 60 .0 1. Otherwise the sludge water flow is to be taken into account with the hydraulic dimensioning of the sewage treatment plant.100 75 .ATV A 203E If.0 6. a large filtrate reservoir is to be provided.0 5. 5. 7. 6. the resultant filtrate is insufficient for the flushing of a filter chamber.5 3. a sludge water reservoir is also to be provided.
ATV A 203E 6. A filtration plant is planned to meet the increased requirements on effluent quality. trials on a semi-commercial basis are necessary on the wastewater filtration.minimum number of units: 6 . in particular with regard to the phosphorus content. Filter rates: Dry weather: vf = 7.however.5 m/h Combined wastewater inflow: vf = 15. Qd Q1 Qm = 54000 m3/d = 3000 m3/d = 5500 m3/h Monitoring values: COD BOD5 NH4-N Ptot Ntot = 60 mg/l = 10 mg/l = 5 mg/l at T > 12° C = 0.0 m/h Theoretically required filter surface and filter units: A Filt = 3000 m 3 / h = 400 m 2 for Q t 7 . Dimensioning Example Below is a dimensioning example for a downwards throughflowed filter with constant overdam height. employment of new filter procedures). A downward throughflowed filtration plant with overdam is chosen. filter surface each unit < 80 m2.5 mg/l = 18 mg/l 20 mg/l filterable substances are expected in the runoff of the secondary sedimentation stage (see ATV Standard A 131). It is assumed that there is a phosphorus content of 1 mg/l Ptot in the runoff of the secondary sedimentation stage. in which values experienced in communal filter plants are applied. For P elimination it is proposed that a biological pre-elimination in combination with simultaneous precipitation in the activated sludge plant and a flocculation filtration is carried out. With certain boundary conditions (special requirements on filter runoff.5 m / h 5500 m 3 / h = 367 m 2 forQ m 15 m / h A Filt = The following were taken into account with the selection of the number of filter units: .size of the filter surface according to the criteria Qflush ≈ Qt . April 1995 14 .
90 %) is reached. there results an additional quantity of 3 . for example. a flushing rate of initially 80 m/h is laid down (see Tables 5 and 6).71 mm 0.34 m2 = 408 m2 > 400 m2 Verification of combined wastewater inflow. taking into account the concurrent flushing of one filter unit. Dosing of Precipitant A dosing of iron chloride sulphate (FeClSO4) is foreseen.25 Support layer* Filter gravel * Necessity and grain size dependent on formation of filter base and filter material Overdam An overdam height of ca. 2 m is selected.7 37.4 mg/l Fe3+ with a concentration in the wastewater of 1 mg/l P.g.7 m / h < 15 m / h (12 − 1) ⋅ 34 m 2 Filter materials and filter bed heights The filters are conceived as two layer filters.: 5500 m 3 / h = 14.20 m 1. 3000 m 3 / h Ai = = 37. Calculation: April 1995 15 . The overdam is to be kept constant by opening and closing a gate valve in the runoff of each filter unit.5 m 2 80 m / h Number of units: 400 m 2 = 10. An intensive mixing of the wastewater and precipitant is ensured in the pipeline to the filter plant and in the feed pumps of the filter plant. Precipitant is dosed into the input of the filter.5 m 2 selected: 12 units each 34 m2 A prev = 12. Should.ATV A 203E With regard to a free selection of filter material for the planning of the construction maturity planning.25 mm 10 m 0. a mol ratio ß = 2 be selected. A filter flushing is undertaken if a certain gate valve opening (e. Upper layer Lower layer Anthracite Grain Layer height Filter sand Grain Layer height Layer height 14 .
5 g DS in total Less solids in the runoff of the filter: 54000 m3/d .1 ml / s diluted FeClSO 4 solution 184 Determination of retained solids Solids from the runoff of the secondary sedimentation stage: 20 g/m3 . is used for filter flushing.ATV A 203E With Qt = 3000 m3/h (= 833 l/s) and an Fe addition of 4 mg/l (diluted FeClSO4 solution with 184 g/l Fe3+) the following are dosed 833 Fe = 3332 mg / s iron 4 mg / l or 3332 = 18. 54000 m3/d Solids from precipitant addition: 54000ß m3/d . According to Table 7 the filtrate requirement during the flushing of one filter unit is: Phase 4 : 20 m / h ⋅ 34 m 2 ⋅ Phase 5 : 50 m / h ⋅ 34 m 2 ⋅ Phase 6 : 80 m / h ⋅ 34 m 2 ⋅ Total 2 min = 23 m 3 60 min/ h 5 min = 142 m 3 60 min/ h 2 min = 91 m 3 60 min/ h 256 m3 Verification of sufficient quantity of flushing water: April 1995 16 . in accordance with Table 7. Filtrate water is used for flushing the filters. The complete flushing programme. including switching pauses. lasts 21 min. 2. 5 g/m3 Retained in the filter Flushing programme = 1080 kg/d DS = 540 kg/d DS = 1620 kg/d DS = 270 kg/d DS = 1350 kg/d DS A programme. 4g Fe/m3 .
2 + 35 = 83.ATV A 203E Assumption: Night inf low = 54000 ⋅ 1 = 1286 m 3 / h = 21. with regard to the downstream series filtration.2 m3 If required. an enlargement of the secondary sedimentation stage is not necessary.4 m 3 / min 42 Maximum requirement (Phase 6): 80 m / h ⋅ 34 m 2 ⋅ 1 min = 45. The possible short-term higher feeding of the filter is acceptable. Extra loading of the sewage treatment plant 60 min/ h ⋅ 324 m 3 = 926 m 3 / h 21 min Inter alia.5 − 21. In wet weather such an additional loading is not justifiable. VRe s = 256 m 3 + 2 m ⋅ 34 m 2 = 324 m 3 The reservoir must. without a sludge water reservoir.4) m 3 / min ⋅ 5 min = 35 m 3 Sum of the reservoir volumes: 48.5 m 3 / min > 21. with this design. the reservoir volume is determined by the inlet chamber of the pump.4 m 3 5 min (28. a reservoir is necessary in which the total sludge water quantity plus a filter overdam can be stored. April 1995 17 .4) ⋅ 2 = 48. be emptied by the time of the next flushing of the filter. would also have to be taken into account. Also. Sludge water reservoir: With the dimensioning of the sewage treatment plant.4 m 3 / min 60 min/ h Required filtrate reservoir volume: Q ⋅ 2 min = ( 45.2 m 3 Taking into account Phase 5: 142 m 3 = 28.4 − 21. a short-term additional hydraulic surge loading of 80 m/h . with regard to the sludge water return pump. 34 m2 =2720 m3/h.
Standard W 211. Procedures for the Elimination of Phosphorus from Wastewater. Aufbau und Bestandteile (Entwurf) Oktober 1993 [Fixed Bed Filters for Water Processing. Teil 1. 1992] (Translator's note: if there is no known translation into English a courtesy translation is given in square brackets). 1987 [DVGW Rules and Standards. Part 1. Assessment and Application of Granulated Filtermaterials (Draft 1992)] Dimensioning of Single Stage Activated Sludge Plants upwards from 5000 Inhabitants and population equivalents. Teil 3. Fundamentals. 1978 [Filter Sands and Filter Gravels for Water Treatment Plants. DIN 19605 DIN 19623 Standard Specifications and Standards Festbettfilter zur Wasseraufbereitung. Part 3. Teil 2. Planning and Operation of Filter Plants. Plannung und Betrieb von Filteranlagen. 1983 [DVGW Rules and Standards. Filtration in Water Treatment Systems. Technical Delivery Conditions. Regelwerk Arbeitsblatt W 211 DVGW Regelwerk Arbeitsblatt W 212 ATV Standard A131E ATVArbeitsblatt A202 April 1995 18 . Technische Lieferbedingungen. 1983] Filtration in der Wasseraufbereitung. 1978] Filtration in der Wasseraufbereitung. Filtration in Water Treatment Systems Part 2. 1992 [ATV Standard A202. Beurteiling und Anwendung von gekörnte Filtermaterialien (Entwurf 1992) [DVGW Rules and Standards. 1991 Verfahren zur Elimination von Phosphor aus Abwasser. DVGW. Grundlagen. Arbeitsblatt W 210 DVGW. Standard W 211. Regelwerk. Standard W 210. 1987] Filtration in der Wasseraufbereitung.ATV A 203E 7. Design and Components (Draft) October 1993] Filtersande und Filterkiese für Wasserreinigungsanlagen.
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