This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
W A S T E W A T E R W A S T E
STANDARD ATV A 200E Principles for the Disposal of Wastewater in Rurally Structured Areas
May 1997 ISBN 3-934984-32 0
Marketing: Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e.V. (GFA) Theodor-Heuß-Allee 17 D-53773 Hennef Postfach 11 65 . 53758 Hennef
ATV A 200E
This ATV Standard has been produced by ATV Working Groups 1.2.7 "Wastewater Discharge in the Rural Area" and 2.10.2 "Wastewater Treatment in the Rural Area". Members are: Working Group 1.2.7 Dipl.-Ing. Riedl, München (Chairman) Dipl.-Ing. Coppik, Mainz Dipl.-Ing. Kobrow, Düsseldorf Dipl.-Ing. Martinko, Stadtlohn Dipl.-Ing. Otto, Aachen Dipl.-Ing. Reinhardt, Sondershausen Dipl.-Ing. Scharenberg, Hövels-Wingertshardt Dipl.-Ing. Spellier, Salzgitter Dipl.-Ing. Welter, Aachen Dipl.-Ing. Dipl.-oec. Prenger, Paderborn (Guest) Working Group 2.10.2 Dipl.-Ing. Bucksteeg, München (Chairman) Dipl.-Ing. Grosche, Radebeul Dipl.-Ing. Kollatsch, Halle Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Lützner, Dresden Dipl.-Ing. Maus, Arnsberg Dipl.-Ing. Tiedtke, Minden Dipl.-Ing. Schröder, Aachen Dipl.-Ing. Schweizer, Rottweil Dipl.-Ing. Voß, Kiel Dr.-Ing. Zerres, Stuttgart Dipl.-Ing. Linder, Stuttgart (Guest) The Standard presented here has been prepared within the framework of the ATV committee work, taking into account the ATV Standard A 400 "Principles for the Preparation of Rules and Standards" in the Rules and Standards Wastewater/Waste, in the January 1994 version. With regard to the application of the Rules and Standards, Para. 1 of Point 5 of A 400 includes the following statement: "The Rules and Standards are freely available to everyone. An obligation to apply them can result for reasons of legal regulations, contracts or other legal grounds. Whosoever applies them is responsible for the correct application in specific cases. Through the application of the Rules and Standards no one avoids responsibility for his own actions. However, for the user, prima facie evidence shows that he has taken the necessary care". The Rules and Standards are not the sole but rather an important source of knowledge for technically correct solutions for the tasks of wastewater and waste engineering in normal cases. For these the ATV Standards form a yardstick for correct technical conduct. They cannot, however, deal with all possible special cases, in which extensive or limited measures are offered. In special cases it is possible to deviate from the definitions of the Rules and Standards, if the same effectiveness with the same security can be achieved in a different fashion.
All rights, in particular those of translation into other languages, are reserved. No part of this Standard may be reproduced in any form by photocopy, microfilm or any other process or transferred or translated into a language usable in machines, in particular data processing machines, without the written approval of the publisher. Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e.V. (GFA), Hennef 1997 Produced by: JF.CARTHAUS GmbH & Co, Bonn
Contents May 1997 2
ATV A 200E
Direction and objective 1. 2. 3. 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.6 4. 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 3.5.3 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6. Area of Application General planning principles Wastewater discharge Types of wastewater Domestic and industrial wastewater Precipitation water Sewer infiltration water Planning principles Drainage systems Modified separate system Modified combined system Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater Gravity drainage Pressure drainage Vacuum drainage Disposal of precipitation water Precipitation water not requiring treatment Precipitation water requiring treatment Potential for savings Wastewater treatment Selection of the sewage treatment plant Small sewage treatment plants or local sewage treatment plant? Local sewage treatment plants or group sewage treatment plant? Requirements under Water Law Special features of small sewage treatment plants and planning principles Choice of treatment process Wastewater lagoons Technical sewage treatment plants Plants with vegetation beds Potential for savings General Potential for savings with limited interim solutions Potential for savings with permanent solutions Notes for cost comparison calculations Costs determination Finance mathematical processing of costs Effects of costs on wastewater charges Overall assessment Technical Rules and Standards and sources 4 4 5 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 13 15 15 15 15 17 17 18 18 19 20 23 23 23 24 25 26 27 28 28 29 29
in accordance with the given details in ATV Standard A 400 "Principles for the Revision of Rules and Standards"  to provide recommendations for the cost favourable solution of planning. construction and operating problems. do not replace the necessary creative service of the engineer with conceptual planning and the constructive implementation in accordance with the requirements of the individual case. large property areas due to more widely spaced. It should show how the dimensioning bandwidths and planning latitude can be used in the rurally structured regions and. Task of this Standard is. scattered settlements.if at all . the actual aims. The aim of the ATV Standard is not to so reduce standards that. as a rule. through this. may have not disproportionate costs for additional installations on private property. formulation of the communal contribution and charge regulations. promotion practice of the Federal States. as otherwise the specific costs (DM/inhabitant) would be disproportionately high. It is the objective of this Standard to simplify the application of relevant Standards specially for rural areas and to promote creative solutions. the reduction of the annual costs stands at the forefront. open building. up to some 25 I/ha settlement area.. Through this. plant operators are in danger of not being able to maintain legal requirements and thus have to face the consequences of criminal and taxation law. have been summarised without restricting the design possibilities through new detailed prerequisites. cost savings with public sewerage systems. However. built and operated in accordance with the same principles and requirements as for urban areas. often widely separated villages and localities. how savings can be made. considerable follow-on costs in the middle and long-term and/or premature reinvestments. is the preparation and listing. Equally the Standard cannot interfere with the following important cost. With this. individual farmsteads. protection of lakes and rivers and safety of local hygiene may not be placed in jeopardy. Wastewater treatment plants in rurally structured areas should not be planned. small settlement density. which have often not been taken into account.is only achieved in the shortterm. with all the currently discussed measures for cost reduction. Area of Application The following listed criteria can serve as orientation for the term "rurally structured" within the sense of this Standard: small. The latter cause. through this . and not only the today propagated investment cost reductions. May 1997 4 . through divergence from quality ensuring standards. In this respect proposals for cost reduction. contribution and charge relevant factors: legal regulations. In particular the statements in the Standard. the required effect of the lowering of charges . hamlets.ATV A 200E Direction and Objective This Standard indicates possibilities for the economic realisation of an ordered disposal of wastewater in rurally structured regions. Also. 1.
May 1997 5 - . General Planning Principles Basis of all planning of wastewater disposal facilities in rurally structured regions should be a wastewater action plan (WAP). The sewerage system catchment area and the capacity of the sewage treatment plant are to be determined according to the actual built-up area and existing population as well as existing population equivalents from commerce. - The immediate surroundings of towns also counts as rurally structured area. as far as possible. no continuous . Drainage and wastewater treatment systems form one unit and are always to be so considered also with regard to the lakes and rivers into which discharges are to take place. as far as possible. frequently small sewage treatment plants. often preloaded by diffuse inputs. up to some 20 % of the settlement area including roads and paths. With the determination of basic data one should. All characteristics of the disposal area are to be surveyed and investigated separately for stability and prognosis. small sewage treatment plants.g. be limited in order to be able to achieve the planning aims (no over-dimensioning. in order. local sewage treatment plants). to continue to use these. The wastewater action plan contains: definition of the area of application. often recreational facilities with seasonally heavily varying wastewater production. primarily agricultural structure and. frequently small and low performance surface waters. sewers often only as stormwater sewers to nearest lake or river. possibly incomplete. Falling back on general recommendations must. 2. as far as possible. as a rule. no unnecessary safety factors. Development forecasts and blanket statements with high safety reserves are to be examined critically. sewer network. water consumption). This corresponds with the wastewater disposal concepts or plans legally laid down in some Federal States.ATV A 200E small proportion of hard surfaces. insofar as the above-given criteria apply. frequently with discharges from small sewage treatment plants. little industry and commerce. primarily according to water management and techno-economic criteria and not according to administrative limits and/or local political aspects. determination and techno-economic assessment of all existing wastewater systems (sewers. cost optimisation). few available technical drainage systems. however. They must also be included in the general development planning of a community and particularly in the construction management planning. refer to existing data material (e.
be achieved also with measures in the lake or river.g. chalk formation) always require separate consideration in individual cases due to the particular protection requirement of the groundwater. Improvements to the quality of waters sought by requirements beyond the minimum requirements can. Due to the vast extent of the drainage area in rurally structured regions the cost emphasis lies in the area of sewerage system/precipitation water treatment so that the greatest savings potential is to be expected here. Due to the requirement for topicallity. if an existing critical condition in a lake or river can be improved through the rehabilitation of the wastewater disposal system. protection of groundwater. however. With this.10 years) to be disposed of publicly in the long-term (> 10 years) no public disposal planned. necessary from the point of view of water pollution control.ATV A 200E definition of the measures. drinking water) do not stand in the way. immediate basic treatment at as many locations as possible is more important than extensive treatment at a few places. preparation of short and mid-term transitional solutions according to priority and with cost details for the step-by-step approach to the planning aim. preparation of possible alternatives and variants with the same depth of planning. local discharge into surface waters should be sought rather than long discharge sewers. detrimental effects on protected areas. Planning objective is a solution optimised with regard to investment and follow-on costs.g. currently no instructions on how to act. discharges into the sub-soil (e. if the interests of priority use (e. The following are to be taken into account with regard to water management interests: water quality management situation in the area of the discharge. insofar as particular water management reasons for water pollution control do not stand in the way. influence of discharges on downstream usage. Solutions which solely transfer May 1997 6 . taking into account the legal data given. the WAP is to be updated at intervals of approximately 5 years. in individual cases. for this procedure there are. in order to find cost favourable solutions. The measures should be arranged in the WAP approximately according to the following timings: to be disposed of publicly in the short-term (< 5 years) to be disposed of publicly in the mid-term (5 .
1). Possible saving of project costs (DM) General development and concept planning Project planning Implementation Diag. Fehler! Keine gültige Verknüpfung. wastewater is produced from agricultural operations.. e. 3. Economic disposal solutions can only be achieved if the elaboration is based on wellfounded conceptional planning and this planning is carried out independently. measures for the avoidance and reduction of percolation are dealt with in particular. already within the scope of planning. i.e. Wastewater Discharge Discharge covers the collection and the transport of water.1 3. Consideration is to be give. qualified planner. The use of all savings potential presupposes the tasking of an experienced. With regard to savings potential the flexibility in standard specifications and rules and standards are to be applied consistently. 1: Possibilities of influencing the project costs dependent on project stage With planning. the various possibilities for collection and transport are to be investigated and compared with the respective possibilities for wastewater treatment. 3. in addition to domestic wastewater. as to how far cost saving organisational structures/mergers can be created for operational tasks which have to implemented together. The greatest savings potential is in the planning stage (see Fig.1. May 1997 7 . Those responsible for measures. a favourable time for tendering and as wide a possible competition. The tendering for construction projects is to be directed towards the possible capacity of the commercial economy. Wastes and residues from agricultural operations.ATV A 200E costs from public drainage systems to private drainage facilities do not correspond with the principle of cost minimisation. With the economic considerations to be carried out for connection of a rurally structured region to a wastewater system.g. planners of wastewater systems and responsible authorities must discuss these possibilities and the resultant consequences together. With this. technical regulations are to be examined and interpreted taking into account the special features of rurally structured regions.1 Types of Wastewater Domestic and Industrial Wastewater In rurally structured regions. free from delivery and production interests.
from a drainage aspect.g. and precipitation water not requiring treatment. Depending on the usage of the surface area on which the precipitation falls one differentiates between: precipitation water requiring treatment. stormwater treatment and combined wastewater treatment with the respective. must be fed to a treatment system.3. With agricultural operations heavily soiled areas such as washdowns. 3.5). barracks is counted with domestic wastewater Commercial wastewater (e. agriculture (see ATV Advisory Leaflet M 702)  is to be taken into account according to quantity and kind. stormwater) as well as surface water running into a wastewater sewer (e. may not be fed into the communal wastewater sewer. Sewer Infiltration Water Sewer infiltration water covers groundwater (leakage). manure aprons or runoff areas separated from the normal yard surfaces are to be drained into liquid manure pits. measure of divided charges.g. via a manhole cover). The surface water from outside areas is to be kept away from the sewerage system.2 Planning Principles The technical Rules and Standards for the discharge of wastewater. as public traffic areas. It is to be established whether the precipitation water. The regulations for communal drainage and the charges must be agreed for the drainage solution (hard surfaces.). Yard surfaces are to be treated. 3. due to the degree of its pollution.1.g. An accurate demarcation of the catchment areas is to be carried out and. determined specific inflow values also apply in rural areas. 3. Wastewater from restaurants. With this the following principles are to be assumed: May 1997 8 . illicit water introduced via bad connections (e. from food businesses.1. 3.ATV A 200E liquid manures and silo seepage liquor. etc. hotels. The planning concepts must orient themselves to the requirements of the rural area. stormwater usage. for every area. may be transported into a receiving water or allowed to percolate into the subsoil (see also Sect. it is to be established whether the precipitation water requires treatment or this requirement can be avoided.2 Precipitation Water Water which runs off and is collected from precipitation in built-up or hard surface areas also counts as wastewater. In rurally structured regions the greatest part of the precipitation water produced is seen as not requiring treatment. Domestic wastewater originates from households and small businesses which serve to supply the region. drain water.
A pre-treatment of commercial and industrial wastewater can be necessary. commercial and industrial water and precipitation requiring treatment are fed to the combined wastewater sewer. sewer infiltration water is to be avoided.3 priority is to be given to the collection and discharge of wastewater.3. precipitation water is to be percolated immediately where it arises. via trenches. flumes or depressions. is necessary it should take place. as far as possible. in particular for the separation of qualitatively differing partial flows: modified separate system modified combined system. With the combined system the wastewater is collected and discharged in a sewer together with the precipitation water. wherever the subsoil conditions and the degree of pollution of the precipitation water allow. With the separate system wastewater and precipitation water are collected and discharged separately. precipitated or discharged into a surface water immediately at its origin or after diversion. this combined wastewater is diverted and treated.4 Discharge of Domestic and Industrial Wastewater At the forefront of wastewater disposal in the rural area is the discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater. Further information can be found in the respective drainage regulations and in ATV Standards A 102  and A 115 . The precipitation water not requiring treatment is irrigated. percolated or discharged into a surface water immediately at its origin or after diversion.3. 3. Precipitation water not requiring treatment is irrigated. no water is to be fed to a sewage treatment plant whose degree of pollution is lower than that required for the effluent of the sewage treatment plant. So far as wastewater requiring treatment is unavoidable this is fed into a stormwater sewer. May 1997 9 . 3. commercial and industrial wastewater only are fed to it. which does not require treatment.ATV A 200E 3.2 Modified Combined System The modified combined system is a special case combined system. if a discharge of precipitation water. Drainage Systems In general one differentiates between combined and separate systems. Only domestic. In addition to the combined and separate systems there are the following drainage systems.1 The modified separate system consists of one wastewater sewer. Modified Separate System 3. domestic.
ATV A 200E 3. High and low points below the hydraulic pressure line are permitted. 2: Example of a gradient pressure pipeline with and without pump Further information can be taken from ATV Standards A 110  and A 116  as well as the Working Report of the ATV Working Group 1.1. possibly. In comparison with the gravity pipeline. With this the wastewater is transported via a pressure pipeline (with or without pumping station) even if sufficient gradient is available. This technique allows the economic connection of large areas with low population density and the connection of individual houses.1 Gravity Drainage With a gravity drainage system the depth of the sewer is of considerable economic significance.1.4. the connection of cellar gravity drainage systems is not a compelling necessity. Fig. The security against backflow in deep lying cellars is ensured in accordance with the provisions of DIN 1986.2 Pressure Drainage The pressure drainage system is a special drainage system extensively used for the discharge of wastewater from rurally structured regions. the dimensioning principles for pressure pipelines apply. crossings of lakes and rivers). The depth is influenced by the topography. 3. necessary crossover structures (e. the existing supply pipelines and. May 1997 10 . 2).g. An often cost favourable model of transport pipelines is represented by the gradient pressure pipeline. Separation between shafts are larger as only monitoring and cleaning openings are to be provided (see Fig. farms or small groups of houses with pipe diameters even smaller than DN 50.6) (KA 1/87) .4. whereby maintaining an even gradient is not necessary. However.2 (1. In addition. pipes with small nominal widths can be laid.
whereby. 3. May 1997 11 .1 (KA/ 5/95) . The boundary between precipitation water requiring and not requiring treatment is based on the principle of feeding no water to a sewage treatment plant whose degree of pollution is less than is required in the effluent of the sewage treatment plant. cisterns. chambers. ditches. Further information can be taken from the Working Report of ATV WG 1. As a rule not requiring treatment are runoffs from roof and courtyard surfaces as well as residential roads and pathways. river or percolation system.5 Disposal of Precipitation Water There are no Federal German countrywide rules for the treatment of precipitation water in the separate system. connected hard surface areas. garden ponds. The combination of several houses with one pumping station is possible. prEN 1091  and prEN 1671 . artificial retention installations. With the planning of the disposal of precipitation water implementation is to be examined in this order. percolation and discharge. Foreseeable later network extensions are to be taken into account due to the tight limitations for the pipeline dimensioning. Further information can be taken from ATV Standard A 116 .5. 3. if a discharge acceleration compared with the natural surface run-off over the ground and/or an overloading of the peculation system or lake or river is to be avoided with larger.3 (KA 2/94  and KA 8/96 ) and the ATV WG 1.1 Precipitation Water not Requiring Treatment The disposal of water not requiring treatment is made up from the technical measures of retention.4.4. pipes. their effect on the sewage treatment plant is to be taken into account. The following come into consideration as retention facilities terrain depressions. In addition.3 Vacuum Drainage Vacuum drainage systems can be considered for the discharge of wastewater. if required. the vacuum drainage system requires particular care with the laying and operation of the pipelines. 3. Further information can be taken from ATV Standard A 116  and prEN 1091 . Retention Retention systems can be necessary before discharge into a lake.ATV A 200E With pressure pipelines smaller than DN 80 pumps with cutter devices (not to be confused with the banned kitchen waste comminutor) must be employed. Frequently combinations of these measures are applied. One has to differentiate between natural retention areas. lagoons.4.
Combinations of both types and also combination with depression percolation as depression-ditch-system are possible. if necessary in combination with retention systems matched to the local conditions. to the centralised percolation system. as far as possible via open ditches. Possibilities for percolation listed in order of water management value are: Surface percolation Percolation on permeable hard surfaces or on flat side areas of impermeable surfaces. above ground percolation in a gravel filled ditch. in comparison with other drainage systems. The functioning of such systems. Pipe and ditch percolation Percolation in a perforated pipe section bedded in gravel. depends to a high degree on the acceptance by the landowner. centralised percolation should be selected. whereby a percolation in the ditches is also desired. Hollow also serves for short-term retention. Percolation basins Open earth basin covered at least with thin grass with large percolation surface and high storage volume. Special form of surface percolation. active layer of soil is in order to exploit its good cleaning capacity. May 1997 12 . servicing and maintenance of such systems are of considerable significance. Central percolation can take place via depressions or into a tank. usually grass covered ground hollows. percolation systems. Percolation for a large catchment area (Central percolation) If the subsoil conditions do not permit decentralised percolation and there is no receiving water within an economic distance. From a conceptional aspect one must differentiate between: Percolation on private property (Decentralised percolation) By extensive avoidance of impermeable surfaces and. if necessary possible breaking of the sealing and subsequent new permeable surfacing.ATV A 200E Percolation Priority is to seek percolation via a sufficiently covered. Percolation in terrain depressions Percolation in flat. The precipitation water is fed. Further information on the selection and dimensioning of decentralised percolation systems can be taken from ATV Standard A 138 . are to be installed on private property.
the precipitation water should be fed to the lake or river. Stormwater overflow discharges.5. to reduce the danger of blockages with small throttle discharges and. For rural areas the following is to be observed with the employment of a combined system. Discharge If the subsoil conditions do not allow a decentralised or centralised percolation and there is a lake or river in the vicinity. where possible via an open ditch. 500 IPE the parallel treatment of stormwater in the sewage treatment plant is barely possible as these sewage treatment plants have only a small buffer for the - - May 1997 13 . Dimensioning and design of stormwater treatment systems are in accordance with ATV Standard A 128  and/or the Directives of the Federal States. be equipped with adjustable throttle devices in order. With small lakes and rivers attention is to be paid to the material and hydraulic effects of an introduction of precipitation water. 4.1). e.g.3 (KA 8/96)  and ATV WG 2. stormwater overflow systems should. as far as possible. with small catchment areas and the thus small wastewater run-offs. stormwater sedimentation tanks and percolation systems via the active soil can be considered for employment as stormwater discharge or treatment plants. on the other hand.ATV A 200E Shaft percolation Intermediate storage of precipitation water in a shaft /chamber with permeable walls and delayed percolation into the subsoil. as a rule.4. Stormwater overflow discharges are necessary upstream of the sewage treatment plant depending on the type of sewage treatment plant and on local conditions. on one hand.ditch system. Information on this can be taken from the report of the ATV WG 1. to be discharged and treated via a pipeline system. stormwater tanks with overflow. throttling and discharge of the combined wastewater discharge to the sewage treatment plant can be problematic. via the depression . Combined wastewater overflow discharges could possibly be dispensed with if wastewater ponds are employed and suitably designed for wastewater treatment (see Sect. 3. whereby possibilities of retention should be used. with the employment of a mechanical sewage treatment plant with a capacity below ca.2 Precipitation Water Requiring Treatment Insofar as precipitation water requiring treatment cannot be avoided it is. to use the storage volume optimally. The combined system always requires treatment of the stormwater.2.1. stormwater overflow systems in the form of enclosed tanks are to be avoided for reasons of cost.1 (KA 5/93) .
4. Due to these problems decisions on a combined system in rural areas are to be examined critically.ATV A 200E large pollutant loads and water quantities which run off in rainy weather (see also Sect.2). 4. May 1997 14 .
Examine in individual cases .Decentralised percolation of precipitation discharge of wastewater water at place of occurrence or discharge into surface water . avoid and transport sewers by line selection. disconnection of all surface areas which can be drained by percolation or direct discharge into a lake or river requiring .Undercutting of previously minimum pipe nominal widths . trench cutting machines or small excavators with trench bucket .Pay attention to the efficiency of inspection shafts/chambers to the operationally and cleaning equipment necessary level .Record easements.Reduce precipitation treatment water . meadows and arable land) .Unsealing of hard surfaces.Allow settlement in open ground with in-situ soil .Reduction of laying depth of collector sewer .As far as possible backfilling of the open cut .Examine the economy and applicability of alternative construction methods and closed construction in accordance with ATV Standard A 125.Examine and assess carrying capability and structural condition with regard to future use demanded . if necessary also create artificial facilities .Ensure timely agreement disposal pipelines .Retention of precipitation water .Discharge of precipitation water not requiring treatment via open ditches .Combined drainage systems within disposal area for collection and transport .Separate surface water from external areas of the sewerage system .Reduction of stormwater runoff a .If required.g.Structural reduction of monitoring and pump .Critical limitation of the area where disposal . also overbuilding through private property (gardens.e.Laying of sewers in soft surface verges of .As a rule lifting systems necessary .Indication of new construction areas .Sewerage system only for collection and .Common pipeline trenches for supply and .Use of existing drainage systems . is to be under public arrangements release from connection and usage obligation .Consequent reduction of the amount of sewer infiltration water .Employment of new laying techniques . take public paths into account existing supply pipelines .Proved measures for the avoidance or treatment at location of occurrence . pressure or gravity drainage . assure access.Particularly useful for transport sewers. indicate and take into primarily where a cost favourable disposal is consideration effects on an existing drainage possible system . drain ploughs.ATV A 200E Table 1: Potential for savings with the discharge of wastewater Measures: Remarks: .Reduction of the pipeline length of collection .Removal of remote individual properties.Agreement of road construction measures with sewer construction measures May 1997 15 .Use natural retention volumes.
The valid Standard Specifications and Directives for sewage treatment plants considered are summarised in Table 2. as well as the life of the systems must be taken into account. depreciation) are recorded in real cost terms. Ordnance (RahmenAbwasserVwV) in accordance with §7A of the Water Management Law (WHG). The disposal here of sludge is.ATV A 200E 3. the freedom of choice as to whether it pursues keeping scattered buildings and the smallest localities as such or whether it defines residential or May 1997 16 .there are no generally valid minimum requirements laid down. to a large extent. below 5000 IPE (so-called small sewage treatment plants) and thus within the area of application for Size Classes 1 and 2 of Appx. without large communal sewage treatment plants in the neighbourhood. unsolved and.for scattered buildings. along with investment costs also the operational costs. Wastewater Treatment The capacity of sewage treatment plants in rural areas lies. servicing. For small sewage treatment plants in accordance with DIN 4261 . Such an extensive decentralisation can be verified as saving no costs if almost equal treatment services. The measures listed in Table 1 should be examined for applicability both for the construction of new plants and for rehabilitation projects. Sect. monitoring. Small sewage treatment plants can be erected if a proper wastewater disposal by means of public sewerage systems incur disproportionately high costs and the proper disposal within and outside the property as well as the faecal sludge disposal are assured.these are plants for a capacity up to 8 m3/d wastewater inflow .3 with 3.1 4. barely possible.5) are essential prerequisites for this. Each community has. Small sewage treatment plants only come into consideration .1. 4. sludge disposal. The statements made can. whereby. 1 of the Basic Wastewater Administration. 4. 3. within the scope of its planning jurisdiction and in agreement with the water authorities. to a limited extent. are required and really all costs (operation. The preparation and assessment of alternatives with different drainage solutions (local sewage treatment plant or group sewage treatment plant) and drainage systems (comp.6 Potential for Savings For wastewater discharge it can be established that the potential for savings in the conceptual field is greater that that for the constructional design and method of construction. such as with local or group sewage treatment plants. local adjustments. as a rule.1 Selection of the Sewage Treatment Plant Small Sewage Treatment Plants or Local Sewage Treatment Plant? The wastewater engineering connection of a built-up area with sewage treatment plants individual to a private property and subsequent discharge contradicts the concerns of local hygiene and water management. gaps in buildings or similar or as rehabilitation element for interim solutions.independent of the treatment process employed . This section goes into detail for the „small sewage treatment plant“. be carried over to plants with larger design capacities.
Small sewage treatment plants which can be operated long-term without servicing do not exist. 4. to influence the decision "capable of acceptance by lake or river yes/no" and thus also the decision "local sewage treatment plant yes/no". May 1997 17 . Local political groups.2 Local Sewage Treatment Plants or Group Sewage Treatment Plant? With the search for the correct wastewater engineering solution one must assume various assessment criteria.there results the necessity for a correct disposal in the form of a central local connection. In addition to the cost comparison calculations in accordance with Federal States Working Team. the following question has to be at the forefront: can a lake or river fundamentally and in particular with regard to downstream usage. Economy If a lake or river with acceptance capability. Lakes and rivers Wastewater engineering rehabilitation measures serve for local hygiene and water pollution control. 4. alternatives for local and group sewage treatment plants are to be investigated. Water (LAWA) Guide lines  the non-financial assessable factors are to be evaluated in accordance with Sect. With the correct selection of a tested technical process the necessary decisions with regard to "lakes and rivers" and "location" can be made with certainty. If it wishes to have the latter . High technology. a nearby site for a sewage treatment plant and a location for the group solution are available. at all accept the treated wastewater at all? This question is a matter for the responsible water authority.2 Requirements under Water Law With sewage treatment plants with a design capacity below 5000 IPE the minimum requirements apply only for the organic pollutant parameters BOD5 and COD. The sequence below at the same time reflects the order of precedence with decision making.1. none for the nutrient parameters nitrogen and phosphorous. Wastewater treatment processes Due to the differences of the wastewater treatment processes offered it is often attempted.ATV A 200E commercial areas. With regard to the latter. with system specific arguments. project management planning and planners of wastewater systems must work together regarding the decision on location. 5. extremely automated plants on the one hand or particularly nature-near sewage treatment plants on the other provide no fundamentally new arguments for the decision. The question of location If a lake or river is suitable for the acceptance of treated wastewater there arises the question of seeking a location for a local sewage treatment plant acceptable to all those involved and affected.
planners and responsible authority. the provision of qualified operating personnel for small sewage treatment plants in practice often meets with the greatest difficulties: even automation cannot offer any equivalent alternative. necessary in order to achieve or maintain the planned quality in the lake or river and if. The essential reasons for this are: the wastewater flow with small catchment areas has larger specific pollutant load surges and higher hydraulic peaks than with larger drainage networks. however. If time-staged requirements under Water Law are predetermined the planner is in a position to present a design for appropriately fitting expansion stages. from a water management aspect. clearly arranged. it is also expected that the desired target can be actually achieved by reduction of the diffuse loads. operational safety and easy serviceability have priority over exaggerated volume and energy savings. small machines and technical processing installations are basically more liable to faults than large units. at the same time. buffering and balancing of the wastewater inflow are more important than highly technical treatment stages. A high performance automation is to be avoided. 4.3 Special Features of Small Sewage Treatment Plants Planning and operation of small sewage treatment plants often prove to be more difficult than with larger plants. come into consideration if they are. The following planning principles derive from the special features of small sewage treatment plants: small sewage treatment plants may not be designed as smaller copies of large plants. Advisory Leaflets and Guides for small sewage treatment plants (see Table 2) already take account of the above planning principles. The requirements under Water Law for the discharge of treated wastewater must be agreed between and laid down well in time by those responsible for the measures. Thus the sewage treatment plant size of 5000 IPE also marks a limitation from the dimensioning and technical process aspect which is reflected in ATV Standards of the ATV series of Rules and Standards (see Table 2).ATV A 200E Advanced requirements can. simple multipurpose construction is more advantageous than complicated multi-stage technology. ATV Standards. as a rule. robust mechanical installations are to be provided. easily serviced. sludge treatment can be put down as agricultural utilisation. May 1997 18 .
no or only small mechanical expense. extension possibilities for staged expansion. May 1997 19 . Further advantages are: possibility of near natural configuration. cost saving construction. grit chamber residue. The most purposeful and economic solution can then be made from investigations of alternative solutions. are to be more favourably rated than small volume technical sewage treatment plants for the treatment of wastewater in rural locations. Table 3 contains a summary and assessment of the wastewater treatment processes for connection sizes up to 5000 IPE. simple. the most simple possibility of joint treatment of stormwater in small localities with combined sewer systems.4. robustness and simplicity of the process technology. due to their large buffer capacity. They can dampen the knock-on effect of hydraulic and material pollution surges on lakes and rivers and offer. With this a preselection of the treatment process/type of sewage treatment plant can be made. assurance of sludge disposal. (For possible solutions see ATV Standard A 201).1 Wastewater lagoons. sewage sludge). easy servicing and accessibility in order to be able to carry out the necessary operations and the laid down self-monitoring measurements. activated sludge plants with joint aerobic sludge stabilisation. in addition to a regular control of operation only small servicing task.4 Selection of Treatment Process Technical sewage treatment plants and wastewater lagoons as well as combinations of these two processes are available. wastewater lagoons with inserted biological contactors or biological filters. biological contactor or biological filter plants. plants with hydrophyte beds as biological treatment element. Wastewater Lagoons 4. With this the main aspects are: efficiency and stability of the treatment process as well as the assurance of maintaining the required discharge values. In addition new developments are always coming into discussion. aerated lagoons. through retention. The following come into question as treatment process: oxidisation ponds. treatment and disposal of residues (screenings.ATV A 200E 4.
with connection values of more than some 1000 IPE and. Wastewater lagoons have a relatively high surface area requirement. in particular with the expansion of existing plants of one or another process and/or for planned staged expansion. 4. 3. However. In particular.. they are more May 1997 20 . with existing or unavoidable new combined sewerage systems of smaller rural areas. Combination of lagoons with biological contactors or biological filters can be shown to be a practical solution for connection sizes below some 3000 I. in particular if separate drainage exists. Prefabricated compact plants/container sewage treatment plants. above all.4. Activated sludge plants with joint sludge stabilisation are.5. to constructional difficulties and operational problems due to the necessary throttling down to small inflows. Sludge storage space is necessary for technical sewage treatment plants with independent sludge disposal. With permeable subsoil a possible expensive sealing of the bottom could be come necessary. Aerated lagoons are advantageous. cheaper to produce. already considerable space for the acceptance of stormwater inflow is available through small impoundage. at least for energy costs. in particular such as those in the food industry. Due to the large surface area requirement its main employment area is with connection values below 1000 IPE. Biological contactor plants are assessed as being similar to biological filter plants if and when the mechanical installations are delivered in a robust design. it represents the only viable solution for wastewater treatment. due to their smaller specific surface area requirement.e. i. However. appropriate stormwater tank emptying times (see also Sect. with localities with connection values of less than 500 IPE. than biological contactor and biological filter plants. The joint treatment of stormwater in accordance with the principles of ATV Standard A 128  leads. as a rule. cheaper in construction and more expensive in operation. The following lagoon systems were differentiated: Large volume oxidation ponds have the largest buffer capacity against pollution and hydraulic surges. according to the above described methods are. Problems with the sludge stirred up in the secondary sedimentation stage seldom occur.2 Technical Sewage Treatment Plants Technical sewage treatment plants are available for residential areas.ATV A 200E sludge clearance only necessary in one or two year intervals. as a rule. to be protected against the effects of weather by an overhead construction. Due to the longer retention times of the wastewater in the aeration tanks a larger buffer capacity is ensured. with the connection of seasonal operations.2) as well as the design of the secondary sedimentation installations. with flat large aeration tanks. stormwater is not jointly treated. the treatment method of the digestible sludge arising in the primary sedimentation stage must be well thought out in biological filter plants. However. Biological filter plants regenerate themselves after a short period without any operational intervention should there happen to be damage to the fixed biological film. The development of algae and thus algae drifting can also be disruptive. Odour emissions from the first pond of an oxidation pond series are possible. in any case. Furthermore. Biological contactors are. it must be ensured that only little sewer infiltration water ensues.
ATV Guide H 254 gives important information on the assessment of such plants.5. treatment performance and sludge treatment in comparison with the normal. - Vegetation beds have a comparatively high requirement for surface area. varied by component. scope of servicing. New developments with special combination of methods and process variants. construction and operation as well as primary sludge treatment and disposal. In many cases they are for wastewater inflow only. however. proven operational processes. 4. the minimum requirements for sewage treatment plants up to 1000 IPE can be maintained. Odour emissions can occur.3 Plants with Vegetation Beds For plants with vegetation beds there have been. Discontinuous (alternating) bed feeding improves the treatment performance and contributes to the longer retention of the permeability of the soil matrix. With permeable subsoil possible expensive sealing of the bottom is possible. the butcher and the village inn. with careful planning. Suitable solutions for the joint treatment of stormwater and for sludge treatment are often lacking. design and operation on the basis of ATV Standard A 262 and feeding with pre-treated domestic wastewater of normal concentrations. up until now. not conceived for the joint treatment of stormwater. 4. practice has shown that. the following is recommended: observation of the details laid down in ATV Standard A 262 (Draft) with regard to location.. In the specific pollutant loads for the inhabitants there are already contingencies for locally oriented small commercial concerns such as. construction of vegetation beds at ones own expense with the objective of cost saving only under the direction of a specialist.1 Potential for Savings General Precondition for the utilisation of all the following potential savings is the agreement between the person responsible for the measures. The establishment of growth rates to be May 1997 21 . planning and construction principles. only provisional definitions in an ATV Standard A 262 (Draft) which. System sewage treatment plants.4. There are already ATV Working Groups formed for the processes given above as examples. General growth rates must be justified and should only exceed 10 .15 % if concrete developments with dates are known.ATV A 200E inflexible in their design for individual requirements and in method of operation. Nevertheless.g. SBR process. still does not represent generally accepted dimensioning. e.5 4. cost comparison calculations taking into account all peripheral installations. The use of cohesive soils is unsuitable for reasons of soil hydraulics. Should vegetation beds be employed for biological treatment of wastewater. dimensioning. can be equivalent to dispersed construction. fixed bed technology and special constructions are to be assessed separately case by case with regard to operational safety. the planner and the responsible authority. i.e. for example.
free from construction problems. Locations for sewage treatment plants are to be so selected that they are. the selection of material must. the technical safety standard is. for short term operating duration. 4. for stormwater tanks). the solution which goes beyond the local area can be developed by stages from these plants. Unfavourable site conditions. as far as possible. necessary interim local sewage treatment plants are to be so designed and constructed that. to be limited to the absolutely necessary. The solution which extends beyond the local area must therefore already be planned early.ATV A 200E included in the planning must take place taking into account other reserves. mechanical equipment and other plant components can possibly be used further at other locations. in planning forecasts. in agreement with the Municipal Accident Insurers (GUV) and the professional association.g. be matched to the interim solution (e. in order to take into account the location and the later function can be taken into account in the planning of local sewage treatment plants. In general not only the effects of measures for savings on investment costs but also on the operating costs as well as on operational safety are to be estimated and taken into account in decision making. activated sludge plants with joint sludge stabilisation can be modified later with digesters. local plants should be so constructed that components can later continue to be used on site (e. can be refunctioned later for stormwater treatment/storage. lagoons can be expanded later with biological contactors/filters. existing earth or concrete tanks. at least for the main features.g. Fundamentally. if required. Insofar as a group sewage treatment plant is to be sought in the long-term. expansion phases staged by time must. in the area of data assessment and dimensioning.2 Potential for Savings with Limited Interim Solutions With limited interim solutions there are the following possibilities for savings.g. in the long rune. flooding protection measures. e. noise and nature conservation conditions as well as measures for the reduction of odour emissions have considerable influence on the construction and operating costs. - May 1997 22 . dependent on the later further usage of the sewage treatment plant: with technical sewage treatment plants and lagoons the dimensioning latitude given by ATV Rules and Standards for the reduction of volume is to be fully utilised. be provided with a minimum time interval (some 5 years) in order to guarantee economic efficiency and to avoid continuous construction sites.5. for example. railings and gratings in galvanised normal steel and not in special steel). An addition of growth rates and other reserves and/or safety factors to give an inflated total reserve is to be avoided.
based on the construction of liquid manure containers in agriculture). sludge containers should be constructed in simple form (e. Commerce is only to be taken into account according to the actual loading and.g. Furthermore. realistic values are to be used in the planning. not according to theoretical rates or unproven details from commercial operators. A load-dependent.g. Instead of this. May 1997 23 - - - . are to be of simple design. If a sludge dewatering is necessary. staged expansion should be included in the planning (e. primarily locality oriented. as far as possible. or better. to a large extent one should do without stationary emergency power equipment. with regard to the very infrequent usage. protection against flooding should be matched to the duration of the interim solution taking into account the effects of flooding. with wastewater lagoons one can dispense with an automatic screen and grit chamber. a dewatering together in a larger neighbourhood sewage treatment plant fitted with appropriate facilities is to be planned observing the reloading due to sludge liquor.5. In addition to the general statistical basic data. Technical and measurement equipment of the sewage treatment plant should be carried using sound judgement. emergency circulation pipelines are to be limited to the absolutely necessary level and. water bound cover).3 - Selection of location as well as considerations on central regional solutions should be made according to water management and technical-scientific aspects and not to administrative boundary or local political aspects. Where measurements for the substantiation of dimensioning data are practical.g. control and regulation technology is to be dispensed with. expensive measurement. container or wooden hut). these should be carried out. operational buildings should be constructed simply (e. wastewater lagoons which can later be supplemented by technical plant). Potential for Savings with Permanent Solutions - - - 4.ATV A 200E traffic areas are to be made as simple as possible (e. a mobile dewatering. The efficiency of existing plant components is to be determined carefully and sensibly included in the overall concept. with the agricultural utilisation of sewage sludge one can dispense with a stationary sludge dewatering plant. exchange units should be held ready as neighbourhood aids or emergency plans should be agreed with the Fire Service or Technical Aid Service (THW). integration of laboratory and workshop facilities outside the local area can be used in order to reduce the requirement for space. with technical plants with a grit chamber clearance device. a simple circuit diagram is sufficient in place of a mosaic circuit diagram.g.
overall assessment. components or indeed complete lines can be taken out of operation. It provides a statement on the cost associated advantage of an alternative with the comparison of various possibilities. in which a good dewatering with even return loading of the sewage treatment plant is achieved with the employment of a suitable conditioning agent. Quality standards are to be reduced to the absolutely necessary (material. In addition to normal construction the employment of prefabricated containers can be taken into consideration taking account of lifetime. Delivery of faecal sludge with small sewage treatment plants presumes the holding of large reserves as well as extensive additional facilities and is therefore to be avoided. the sewage treatment plant should be so designed that. financial processing of the costs including cost comparison of cost cash values and/or annual costs and sensitivity tests/sensitivity analyses. The aim of this Guideline is the cost associated assessment of water management measures within the framework of investment decisions. Prognoses on rates and contributions must be put together from the communal tax laws of the Federal (German) States. through appropriate design of the plants. Plant components can be placed on the ground or erected on shallow foundations. Information for Cost Comparison Calculations Investment and subsequent costs are essential for reaching a decision on a project or possible variants/alternatives. that only small areas have to be overbuilt. equipment). whereby direct acceptance by the farmers is to be sought. The procedure in accordance with the Federal States Working Team Water (LAWA)  "Guideline for the Carrying Out of Cost Comparison Calculations" has proved itself for cost comparison. outside the season. wall thickness. If seasonal businesses are connected. Sludge lagoons. The cost comparison calculation divides into the following steps: costs determination. should local conditions allow. the complete concept and total costs must also be identifiable where an all-embracing and complete disposal can be carried out by stages only. Necessary superstructures should be combined and/or so planned. can be practical with necessary intermediate storage of sewage sludge. Attention should be paid to standardisation (holding of spare parts) with the organisational combination of several sewage treatment plants. It does not correspond with a business management cost comparison. - - 5. In particular. May 1997 24 .ATV A 200E Sewage sludge is as far as possible to be utilised in agriculture.
those responsible for the measures.e. can only verify the relative cost advantage capability of the alternatives. wastewater system planners. The determination of the costs must be based on region specific up-to-date prices and as far as possible on technical experiences from local projects. Cost Determination The accuracy of cost determination depends on the planning stage (see Table 4).1 intrusions into nature and landscape. DM/ha Estimated on the basis of values from experience DM/m. This is necessary as the assessment of these factors is naturally also liable to subjective estimations. responsible authorities and. reduction of the ease of drainage for customers. DM/m3 reinforced concrete Exact determination on the basis of contract conditions with the unit prices offered by the bidder May 1997 25 . operational safety. DM/I. Below are given notes and supplements from previous experiences on the individual work steps. The depreciation of properties is not to take place. the following are designated as non-monetarily assessable aspects: 5.ATV A 200E The application of this procedure. even those on private property. For example. the affected citizens must agree on the assessment of the non-monetarily calculable planning aspects. consideration of the overall water resources. Cross-region statistical details can offer an idea for the establishment of future price changes. possibly. Thus the application of this method theoretically assumes the same useful life for the alternatives and . only makes possible a comparison of the monetarily appraisable cost associated effects of alternatives with the same level of planning without useful lives entering the comparison. With the implementation of cost comparison calculations contributions from third parties are not taken into account. capability for timely realisation. they must be matched to the regional conditions. Cost determination Planning stage/ point in time Accuracy % (without development of construction costs) ± 50 Provisional cost assumption Cost assumptions Cost estimation Cost calculation Cost estimate On awarding planning task Study Initial planning Draft planning Placing of construction services Rough estimate Estimation based on values from experience DM/km. however. therefore. Before starting planning. The further the planning advances the more detailed and accurate the costs can be estimated. DM/m3 Determined on the basis of roughly allocated construction quantities per component DM/m3 soil. DM/m2. i. The cost determination for alternative solutions must always be comprehensive. include all costs which occur at all points of origin.
wastewater charges. easements costs for preparation (planning. they are also prescribed specifically. Current expenses/operating costs . 5.personnel costs . survey. As these variables are decisive for the result of the comparison. are to be traceably documented. expert opinion) costs for development and infrastructure construction costs reinvestment costs. or the purpose of a value. development of construction and operating costs (actual/nominal).energy costs . calculation variables are: useful life of construction.ATV A 200E Establishment of costs Settlement of measures Precise determination according to site measurements and contractual agreements 0 Table 4: Accuracy of cost determination dependent on the planning stage The following types of cost are to be taken into account in the cost comparison calculation: Investment costs costs for purchase of land. May 1997 26 . to be determined beforehand by those involved. mechanical and electrical technology. period of consideration for the cost comparison. With this. Particular attention must be given to the following points: determination of the period under consideration. rate of interest (actual/nominal).material costs (operating and auxiliary resources) . the various cost structures (alternatives with higher investment costs are compared with solutions with high subsequent costs) must be taken into account. With this.2 Financial Mathematical Processing of Costs In this working step the costs of alternatives are converted by finance-mathematical means.disposal costs . at a predetermined point in time. in part. for a Federal State. damages.maintenance costs . Manufacturer specific dependencies are to be assessed carefully with regard to their effects on the current costs. determination of the individual rates of depreciation. The input values for the calculation variables. The LAWA Guidelines  contain proposals for the determination of these parameters. consideration of reinvestments and determination of payment points.
. The expenses for depreciation are. A recommendation on the determination of the charges cannot be given.3 Effects of Costs on Wastewater Charges Every alternative examined in the cost comparison calculation must subsequently be thoroughly assessed for annual costs which result from this. along with the investment costs.are relevant for the wastewater charges. has to bear. 5. be more favourable in annual costs than lower investment costs with reduced standards. dependent on the specific local formulation of the charges bye-law. as these are. Every planning measure and every comparison is based on assumptions. 3: Composition of the wastewater charges in rurally structured regions May 1997 27 .and not the investment costs alone . higher investment costs for high value types of design can. i.e.region specific deviations with the determination of the calculation variables. 3) are made up from the cost groups operating costs including personnel costs wastewater charge calculated costs (interest and depreciation for expenses).ATV A 200E consideration of residual values. . Investment and operating costs are often equally opposed. These . which the citizen. in every case. consideration of the construction time for the start of the flow of capital and the repayment period. essentially determined by the depreciation period. Basically the annual costs for wastewater disposal and thus the wastewater charges (see Fig. due to the longer depreciation period. essentially.unified determination of interest rate and price changes (actual/nominal) for all alternatives. Interest W astewater charges Personnel costs Other operating costs Expenses for depreciation Fig. By the variation of important input parameters (sensitivity analyses) the cost related effects of possible changes to the end result are presented clearly.
Abfälle und Abwasser aus landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben . It must.     EN 1091 prEN 1671 ATV A 101 ATV A 102 Vacuum Drainage Outside Buildings.8/88 Discharge of Non-Domestic Wastewater into a Public Sewerage System . as well as the considerations. indicate the evaluation of the non-monetarily considered aspects.und Gewerbebetrieben .1. A courtesy translation is given in square brackets).1.9/92 Pipe Driving .Planungs Bau. Rehabilitation and Replacement .1.6) Abwassertransportleitungen . A summary in the form of a decision matrix has proved successful.und Betriebs-grundsätze“ [Report of the ATV Working Group 1. Performance Requirements 2/97 Vacuum Drainage Systems .10/94 Special Sewage Systems Vacuum Drainage Service .4 Overall Assessment The overall assessment is a summary of all previous examinations and calculations as well as those of the input parameters upon which the comparison is based.2 (1. in addition to the results of the cost comparison. Wastes and Wastewater from Agricultural Concerns (in preparation)] Arbeitsbericht der ATV-Arbeitsgruppe 1.2 (1.ATV A 200E 5.1.8/95 [Manure. It serves as the final work step which presents the solution which is to be implemented and the decision steps.11/90 [General Notes for the Planning of Wastewater Discharge Systems and Wastewater Treatment Systems with Industrial and Commercial Concerns] Standard for the Hydraulic Dimensioning and Performance Verification of Sewers and Drains .Pressure Drainage Service .Planning Construction and Operation Principles“] May 1997 28      ATV A 110 ATV A 115 ATV A 116 ATV A 125 ATV A 128  ATV A 138  ATV A 400  ATV M 702  KA 1/87 .4/92 Construction and Dimensioning of Facilities for Decentralised Percolation of Non-Harmful Polluted Surface Water .12/94 Planning of Drain and Sewer Systems New Construction.9/96 Standards for the Dimensioning and Design of Stormwater Structures in Combined Sewers . Technical Rules and Standards and Sources (References which have no known official translation are given in the original language.6) „Compressed Air Flushed Wastewater Transportation Pipes .1/92 Allgemeine Hinweise für die Planung von Abwasserableitungsanlagen und Abwasserbehandlungsanlagen bei Industrie.1/90 Grundsätze für die Erarbeitung des Regelwerkes 1/94 [Principles for the preparation of Rules and Standards]) Wirtschaftsdünger. 6. transparently.
4/97 [Information on the Selection of the Drainage System]  LAWA Ausarbeitung Guidelines in the  KA 5/95  KA 8/96  KA 5/93  ATV-A105 (Draft) Further ATV Standards and Standard Specifications are listed in Table 2 "Summary of the Valid Standard Specifications and Standards for Small Sewage Treatment Plants". 1. Report of the ATV Working Group 1. Arbeitsbericht der ATV-Arbeitsgruppe 1.1] Handlungsempfelungen zum Umgang mit Regenwasser.kreises Nutzen-Kosten-Untersuchungen in der Wasserwirtschaft 1993 [Guidelines for the Carrying out of Cost Comparison Calculations.1.derzeitiger Stand der Regenwasserbehandlung im Trennsystem. 2nd Report of the ATV Working Group 1. Leitlinien zur Durchführung von Kostenvergleichsrechnungen des LAWA Arbeits . 1st Report of the ATV Working Group 2.1.4. 2. Arbeitsbericht der ATV-Arbeitsgruppe 1.3.4.Current Status of Stormwater Treatment in the Separate System.3 [Recommendations for the Handling of Stormwater.1] Hinweise für die Wahl des Entwässerungssystems .3] Weitergehende Anforderungen an Mischwasserentlastungen.4.3 [Dealing with Stormwater . Report of ATV Working Group 1. Arbeitsbericht der ATV-Arbeitsgruppe 2.4. May 1997 29 .ATV A 200E  KA 2/94 Umgang mit Regenwasser . Elaboration of the LAWA Working Group Usage-Costs Investigations Water Industry 1993 Hinweise zur Versickerung von Niederschlagsabflüssen.1 [Extensive Demands on Combined Wastewater Overflows.4.1 [Notes on Percolation of Precipitation Runoffs.4. Arbeitsbericht der ATV Arbeitsgruppe 1.
Dimensioning. Design General engineering supervision approvals by the German Institute for Civil Engineering ATV Standard A 135 of March 1989 Principals for the Dimensioning of Biological Filters and Biological Contactors with Connection values over 500 Population Equivalents ATV Standard A 201 of October 1989 Principles for the Dimensioning .000 IPE .Table 2: Summary of valid Standard Specifications and Standards for small sewage treatment plants as at April 1997 Range of 4 IPE to 50 IPE ATV Standard A 106 of October 1995 Design and Construction Planning of Wastewater Treatment System ATV Standard A 123 of June 1985 Treatment and Disposal of Sewage Sludge from Small Sewage Treatment Plants DIN 4261 Part 1 of February 1991 Small Sewage Treatment Plants Plants without Wastewater Aeration Application. Construction and Operation of Plant Beds for Communal Wastewater for Capacities up to 1000 Inhabitants and Population Equivalents ATV Guide H 254 of November 1986 General Assessment Criteria for Sewage Treatment Plants with Special Process Combinations/Variants for Design Capacities to 10. Dimensioning and Design DIN 4261 Part 3 of September 1990 Small Sewage Treatment Plants Plants without Wastewater Aeration Operation and Servicing ATV Standard A 129 of May 1979 Wastewater Disposal from Recreational and Tourist Facilities ATV Standard A 122 of June 1991 Standards for the Dimensioning.000 Total Number of Inhabitants and Population Equivalents ATV Standard A 109 of January 1983 Standards for the Connection of Motorway Services to Sewage Treatment Plants Range of 50 IPE to 500 IPE Range from 500 IPE to 5000 IPE DIN drawing approval through DIN CERTCO DIN 4261 Part 2 of June 1984 DIN 426 1 Part 4 Small Sewage Treatment Plants Small Sewage Treatment Plants Plants with Wastewater Aeration Plants with Wastewater Aeration Application. Construction and Operation of Small Sewage Treatment Plants with Aerobic Biological Treatment Stage for Connection Values between 50 and 500 Inhabitants and Total Population Equivalents ATV Standard A 126 of December 1993 Principles for the Treatment of Wastewater in Sewage Treatment Plants According to the Activated Sludge Process with Joint Sludge Stabilisation with Connection Values between 500 and 5. Construction and Operation of Wastewater Lagoons for Communal Wastewater ATV Standard A 257 of October 1989 Principles for the Dimensioning of Wastewater Lagoons and Interconnected Biological Filters or Contactors ATV Standard A 262 (Draft) of October 1996 Principles for the Dimensioning.
ATV A 135) 3 M and E equipment 4 Constructional characteristics None to very little Pre-treatment necessary. with small design capacities difficulty with stormwater tank drainage No long-term experience. installations necessary details occasionally unacceptable space interconnection Process stages Process stages In part difficult access controllable individually controllable individually and control possibilities of individual spaces Very large to large Large to medium.means: application also outside the limitations of the range ATV Advisory Leaflet M 258 .Draft) Well known Well known Established (ATV A 201) Established (ATV A 201) Established (ATV A 257) Established (ATV A 122. aeration and stirring Bodies of water controllable at all times 5 Reaction volumes 6 Buffer capacity for pollutant surges 7 Storage capacity with regard to combined wastewater inflow Bodies of water controllable at all times. 5000 IPE Process Assessment criteria A Plant beds B Nonaerated wastewater lagoon C Aerated wastewater lagoon D Lagoon plant with technical intermediate stage (biological filter/contactor) Well known E F G Mechanical-biological Mechanical-biological Sewage treatment plant sewage treatment sewage treatment plant with additional or new plant (compact construction) technology (open construction) (compact construction) Well known Well known Always open questions with new developments 1 Treatment processes 2 Dimensioning Known in part. long-term activation more favourable.in preparation Employment of Fine Screens and Sieves in Small Communal Sewage Treatment Plants Table 3: Assessment of wastewater treatment processes for connection sizes up to approx. stormwater tanks necessary. various mechanisms in the bodies of soil and still unclear on the influence of plants Provisional determinations (ATV M 262 . continuously even wastewater feed and bed throughflow Bodies of soil difficult to control. in some cases algae mass development Exceptionally large Mostly high to very high Mutual matching of Proven solutions System type unit lagoons and technical available for all construction. with small design capacities difficulty with stormwater tank drainage Tested over the longterm Often small. with small design capacities difficulty with stormwater tank drainage According to the system more or less Medium Variably high Deviations from normal dimensioning values often at the expense of process stability and/or operational safety (ATV H 254) Very high System type unit construction. tendency to blockages Large None to very little None Medium Mutual matching of lagoons. ATV A 126. ATV A 126. however. biological filter/contactor less so Very small. long-term activation more favourable. with additional bed impoundment medium Very large Very large Very large to large 8 Treatment performance Varying long-term experiences Tested over the longterm Tested over the longterm Tested over the longterm Usually very small stormwater tanks necessary. at least not . enrichment of substances. ATV A 135) Established (ATV A 122. occasionally unacceptable space interconnection In part difficult access and control possibilities of individual spaces Often very small Very large Slight. biological filter/contactor less so Small to very small stormwater tanks necessary.
.Organic substances .Nutrients Minimum Requirements (MR) maintainable Very variable MR maintainable Moderate MR maintainable Moderate MR maintainable Moderate MR maintainable Slight long-term tested MR maintainable Slight with full load No details possible No details possible .General .
development of odours with operating problems Alternative to normal biological processes with connection values < 1000 I. suitable as down-stream stage for wastewater treatment Moderate Very large Landscaping very easy. specialist required with operational defects Very different for the various systems Sludge clearance more or less frequent according to system. costs. super-structure requires skilled concealment Only after careful answering of questions on which advantages the new process brings with departure from tried systems and with acceptance of additional risks 17 Area of application For rural sites > 1000 I. particularly suitable for small locations with combined wastewater systems High Slight Measures for landscaping and noise protection necessary Moderate to high Very slight Some system dictated buildings urgently require skilled concealment Particular care required with selection from the numerous manufacturer specific systems with regard to advantages. frequency of sludge removal according to intermediate storage possibility High A few weeks Necessary daily. tasks often more difficult due to networking. disadvantages and costs No details possible Very slight Noise and odour problems usually solved by complete cover.Table 3: Assessment of wastewater treatment processes for connection sizes up to approx. development of odours with operating problems Preferably for rural sites < 1000 I. in particular with locations with limited space or for the wastewater inflows rehabilitation of smaller from seasonal overloaded lagoon operations plants or of biological filter or contactor plants with combined wastewater problems Adaptable to special local conditions . tasks often more difficult due to networking. risks with winter operation Sludge clearance more or less frequent depending on the system None Very slight None Slight 11 Operational safety 12 Residues Very high Very high to high Very high to high Different dependent on location and design Frequency of sludge removal according to intermediate storage possibility Sludge clearance in one to several year cycles according to design Sludge clearance in one to several year cycles according to design Sludge clearance in one to several year cycles according to design 13 Operating costs Slight Very slight Considerable electricity Considerable electricity costs. overall moderate overall moderate Moderate to high Large Landscaping still very possible. noise protection necessary according to aeration system Moderate to high Large to moderate Landscaping still very possible High 14 Construction costs 15 Area requirement 16 Environmental concerns Moderate Very large Landscaping very easy. specialist required with operational defects Very different for the various systems Sludge clearance more or less frequent according to system. plant care necessary Danger of blockage. servicing Several weeks With inflow facilities and in the single flow area increased. sludge removal and disposal often not sufficiently thought out No details possible 9 Introductory phase 10 Operational controls.continued Process Assessment criteria A Plant beds B Nonaerated wastewater lagoon C Aerated wastewater lagoon D Lagoon plant with technical intermediate stage (biological filter/contactor) Intermediate stage a few weeks Slight E F G Mechanical-biological Mechanical-biological Sewage treatment plant sewage treatment sewage treatment plant with additional or new plant (compact construction) technology (open construction) (compact construction) A few weeks Necessary daily A few weeks Necessary daily. For small sites < 3000 particularly suitable for I. 5000 IPE .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.