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ATV RULES AND STANDARDS

W A S T E W A T E R W A S T E

ATV STANDARD ATV-A 126 Principles for Wastewater Treatment in Sewage Treatment Plants According to the Activated Sludge Process with Joint Sludge Stabilisation with Connection Values between 500 and 5000 Total Number of Inhabitants and Population Equivalents
December 1993 ISBN 3-934984-15-0

Marketing: Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e.V. (GFA) Theodor-Heuss-Allee 17 D-53773 Hennef Postfach 11 65 . 53758 Hennef

ATV-A 126 E
The ATV Working Group 1.7.4 "Operation and Maintenance of Pumping Stations, Pressure Pipelines and Stormwater Tank Systems" has prepared the following Standard. These principles have been prepared by the ATV Specialist Committee 2.10 „Small Sewage Treatment Plants“ to which the following members belong: Dipl.-Ing. Albrecht, Essen Dr.-Ing. Baumgart, Essen LBDir Bucksteeg, München Dipl.-Ing. Grosche, Radebeul RD Dr. Kollatsch, Halle/S Dipl.-Ing. Maus, Arnsberg (Chairman) LBDir Schweizer, Rottweil LRBDir Tiedke, Minden Dipl.-Ing. Tuttahs, Bochum LBDir Voss, Kiel Dr.-Ing. Zerres, Stuttgart

The Standard presented here has been prepared within the framework of the ATV committee work, taking into account the ATV Standard A 400 "Principles for the Preparation of Rules and Standards" in the Rules and Standards Wastewater/Wastes, in the January. 1994 .version. With regard to the application of the Rules and Standards, Para. 1 of Point 5 of A 400 includes the following statement "The Rules and Standards are freely available to everyone. An obligation to apply them can result for reasons of legal regulations, contracts or other legal grounds. Whosoever applies them is responsible for the correct application in specific cases. Through the application of the Rules and Standards no one avoids responsibility for his own actions. However, for the user, prima facie evidence shows that he has taken the necessary care.

All rights, in particular those of translation into other languages, are reserved. No part of this Standard may be reproduced in any form by photocopy, microfilm or any other process or transferred or translated into a language usable in machines, in particular data processing machines, without the written approval of the publisher.

 Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e.V. (GFA), Hennef 1993

Produced by: Rheinischer Landwirtschafts-Verlag G.m.b.H., Bonn

December 1993

2

................................................................................................................................5.................................................................1 4..........................2 4.......................15 4.......................................................................................................................................................................................15 Flow Measurement..............................17 4......1....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7 Dimensioning...........................1 4..................1 3..............1......................................17 Screens.4 4.....................10 Aeration Tanks ..........................9 3.2 4.......17 Grease Trap...3 3..............................................................................................16 Mechanical Pre-treatment ............................5.2 Activated Sludge Section ...1 3..........ATV-A 126 E Contents Preface ................... Sieves ......................................................................................................................................................................................................8 4.............................6 4..........................6 Processes......................................................18 Operational Building and Ancillary Works ...............................................................................................1..................................3 4..............3 4....5 General ...............................................17 Grit Chamber .............................12 Sludge Storage Reservoir ..........18 Secondary Sedimentation Tanks .....19 Other Structures for the Safeguarding of Operations ...4 4 Secondary Sedimentation ................15 Primary Pumping Stations..........................................................................9 Sludge Yield .......2...............1 Loading Values ...................16 Stormwater Treatment ...........................5............................................2 3..........................19 December 1993 3 ............................................................................................................................................................3 3...............15 Construction Principles.......7 4......9 Aeration Tanks ...........10 3....................8 3.............8 Water Pollution..............................................................................................................8 Wastewater Inflow....................5 1 2 3 Area of Application .............................

.................................................................................................................22 December 1993 4 ..................19 Sludge Consistency and Dewatering Capability .........................1 5..........................3 5..........................................................................................................2 5.........19 5....21 Symbols ............4 6 7 Sludge Yield ....................................................................21 Operation ............................20 Sludge Dewatering .....................20 Sludge Storage .............ATV-A 126 E 5 Sludge Treatment and Disposal ..................................................................................................................................................................................................

the operational advantage of denitrification should be used for the stabilisation of the treatment process and for the reduction of the wastewater discharge. Without a thoroughly optimised denitrification a dimensioning parameter for the sludge loading corresponding with the previous dimensioning recommendations of BDS = 0. Nitrogen removal is not generally demanded with sewage treatment plants < 5000 IPE. The run-offs of small sewage treatment plants contribute in sum to a minor degree only to the nitrogen loading of lakes and rivers.05 kg/(kg. the limit of the area of application was reduced from the previous 10. in individual cases. As small sewage treatment plants are fundamentally more operationally sensitive than large plants due to larger variations in loading and less staff.ATV-A 126 E Preface The ATV Specialist Committee 2. for practical reasons simultaneously. ATV Standards A 126 and A 131 must therefore be revised and newly matched to each other for limitations. simple constructional design and robust mechanical and electrical equipment and simple operation have priority over precise process technology.d). with regard to the requirement for simplicity in constructional design. ATV Specialist Committee 2. construction and operation of the complete sewage treatment plant. The regulations are kept deliberately simple and clear.10. However.000 to 5. the classification sizes of sewage treatment plants were regraded and the respectively associated minimum requirements were again tightened. above all in comparison with the area of application of ATV Standard A 131.6 has thoroughly reworked ATV Standard A 131 „Dimensioning of Single-Stage Activated Sludge Plants with More Than 5000 Total Number of Inhabitants and Population Equivalents“ with regard to deliberate nitrogen and phosphorus removal. equipment and operation. This statement does not contradict the requirement. Operationally desired denitrification takes place with sewage treatment plants < 5000 IPE. different minimum requirements for plants of expansion sizes < 5000 IPE and the resultant process-technical concept. from the start of its work and now for over two decades. The following.000 total number of inhabitants and population equivalents (IPE). With the introduction of Appendix 1 of the „General Basic Administrative Regulations on the Minimum Requirements for the Discharge of Wastewater into Lakes and Rivers“. has followed the development and the practical application of activated sludge plants with joint sludge stabilisation. The new version of ATV Standard A 126 presented here „Principles for Wastewater Treatment in Sewage Treatment Plants According to the Activated Sludge Process with Joint Sludge Stabilisation with Connection Values between 500 and 5000 Total Number of Inhabitants and Population Equivalents“ takes into account. December 1993 5 - - - . for specific (thoroughly optimised) nitrogen removal from pollution control areas. The new version of this Standard was published in February 1991. essential aspects mark this Standard: ATV Standard 126 regulates dimensioning. can remain retained in ATV Standard A 126. Thus. in deviation to that of ATV Standard A 131.

constructed and operated according to the recommendations of this Standard. in particular for the improvement of wastewater treatment in rural areas as. a thoroughly optimised denitrification is necessary then the dimensioning principles of ATV Standard A 131 can be applied. newly constructed in comparison with the large ones for which mainly inventory expansion and rehabilitation are fitting. in individual cases. the bandwidth for water quality managerially necessary. ATV Standard A 131 Dimensioning of Single-Stage Activated Sludge Plants with Connection Values over 5000 Total Number of Inhabitants and Population Equivalents. 1 Area of Application This Standard applies for the planning. Small sewage treatment plants are.ATV-A 126 E If. as a rule. The practice oriented determinations should here serve so that defective cheap solutions are avoided equally as exaggerated. The initial loads and the development values must then be determined via formulations from experience. Statistic data evaluations can . which are dimensioned.often not be furnished for the design of small sewage treatment plants.as proposed in ATV Standard A 131 . a balanced water management. The given area of application of between 500 and 5000 IPE does not represent the respective upper and lower application limit for this process. small plants cannot be fed with stormwater. even more than the average number of plants of small development size will be built. in the main. The following summary gives an overview of the standard specifications and regulations in which stipulations are made for activated sludge plants with joint sludge stabilisation for connection values outside those applicable for ATV Standard A 126. inter alia. discharge values which meet the current requirements of sewage treatment plant size classifications 1 and 2 according to Appendix 1 of the Basic Wastewater Administrative Regulations (Rahmen-AbwVwV) can be met with careful operation. In the future. technically practical and economically suitable planning. luxury solutions. The November 1987 Edition of ATV Standard A 126 is replaced with the publication of this Standard. rather. The lower limit of the area of application of 500 IPE is derived from the fact that. Thus the application of simple dimensioning rules can also be practical. Activated sludge plants with joint sludge stabilisation can also be suitable for connection values over 5000 IPE. With small sewage treatment plants. the ecological retention of small flowing waters or economic reasons support this. construction and operation should be shown. construction and operation of sewage treatment plants according to the activated sludge process with joint sludge stabilisation with connection values between 500 and 5000 total number of inhabitants and population equivalents (IPE). December 1993 6 .

Execution and Test/Operation and Maintenance (Area of application up to 8 m3/d domestic and industrial wastewater inflow.ATV-A 126 E ATV Standard A 122 Principles for the Dimensioning. Construction and Operation of Small Sewage Treatment Plants with Aerobic Biological Treatment Stage for Connection Values between 50 and 500 Total Number of Inhabitants and Population Equivalents. From this there results: a good treatment performance. Standards for Treatment] In addition attention is drawn to: DIN 19569 Principles for the design of structures technical equipment for sewage treatment plants.Application. a large loading margin. Part 2/Part 4 Small Sewage Treatment Plants with Wastewater Aeration . this corresponds to a connection value up to some 50 inhabitants) In addition the following standard specifications and regulations are still to be applied in certain cases of application: ATV Standard A 109 Standards for the Connection of Autobahn Facilities to Sewage Treatment Plants ATV Standard A 123 Treatment and Disposal of Sludge from Small Sewage Treatment Plants ATV Standard A 129 Wastewater Disposal from Recreational and Tourist Installations DIN 19520 Abwasser aus Krankenanstalten. as very low BOD5 and COD run-off values are achieved. General principles. DIN 4261. December 1993 7 . Dimensioning. 2 Processes The activated sludge process with joint sludge stabilisation is characterised in that the sludge loading in the aeration tanks is low and a sludge digestion can be dispensed with. Richtlinien für die Behandlung [Wastewater from Hospitals.

1 Wastewater Inflow If with sewage treatment plants of this size. as there is no primary sedimentation tank.144 m3/h per inhabitant. Operational difficulties such as the formation of bulking and floating sludge cannot. corresponding to 0. The maximum dry weather inflow from communities with commerce and industry to cover the outside requirement is to be calculated in individual cases and is: Qdw = QDI + Qi QDI = QD + QC + QI in m3/h in m3/h The combined sewage flow that must be treated in a plant can is calculated as: Qcs = n. Due to these characteristics activated sludge plants with joint sludge stabilisation offer favourable preconditions for the treatment of wastewater from small communities. a simple stabilisation of the sludge. in particular in the lower range. a high operational safety. possibilities for a reduction of nutrients. These can appear in particular if commercial or industrial dischargers significantly influence the raw wastewater or cause large surge loads.004 l/s per inhabitant. Sewer infiltration water is to be taken into account separately according to local conditions.ATV-A 126 E as the loading variations. localities and settlements.1. Simultaneous precipitation can be employed for phosphorus elimination. as the ammonium compounds are nitrified and denitrification is also possible through control or limitation of the oxygen addition. 3 Dimensioning 3. are picked up in the large volume aeration tanks. which are typical with small connection values. be completely excluded.QDI + Qi in m3/h December 1993 8 . as large buffer capacities as well as simplicity of process and the operation of the overall plant confer a high degree of operational safety and process stability. statistically assessable data on the amount of wastewater and its development are not available the following is to be assumed for residential areas: QD = 0. The portion of wastewater from commerce for local disposal is included in this inflow. there is therefore no resultant raw sludge to be treated and the surplus sludge removed from the aeration tanks is extensively stabilised under aerobic conditions. even with these plants.1 Loading Values 3.

d).2 Water Pollution The following inhabitant related loads are to be assumed for dimensioning: BOD5 COD Filterable substances (DSo) TKN P = 60 g/d*) = 120 g/d = 70 g/d = 11 g/d = 2.0 kg/kg. as a rule.ATV-A 126 E As a rule for dimensioning purposes n = 2. The dry mass of the sludge increases according to the precipitant applied. the given specific sludge yields remain the same due to the better thickening through the additional mineral contents from the surface water inflow.1. 2.5 % DSM) ca.3 Sludge Yield From experience an excess sludge yield of 1.d). Qcs = 2.QDI + Qe in m3/h The dimensioning of stormwater tanks with a direct discharge into the sewage treatment plant is to be matched with the QD value relevant for the dimensioning of the sewage treatment plant. stored (ca. The absolute quantity of organic dry solids in activated sludge then remains almost even. December 1993 9 .d). 5. can be taken as a basis with domestic wastewater. 3. 2 l/(PE.1.5 g/d The loads from supernatant liquor from gravity thickeners are included in the above load details. With normal degradation of the organic pollutants fed in the disposable sludge yield of: not thickened (ca. 1. referred to the degraded BOD5.0 % DSM) ca. Thus also no changes result for the sludge volumes. BOD5 and nutrient loads from commercial and industrial concerns which cover the outside requirement are to be determined in individual cases. simultaneous precipitation is applied. however. 5 l/(PE. 3. If the Sludge Volume Index reduces through this then a higher dry solids content can be set. 1 l/PE. With simultaneous treatment of stormwater the above DSM (dried solid matter) values increase by up to 20 %. In cases in which a deliberate P-elimination is also demanded with sewage treatment plants of this area of application. pre-thickened (ca.0 % DSM) ca.

1 Aeration Tanks VAT = B d. According to practical experiences.200 ≤ 0. depending on the sludge index. With appropriate operation a partial denitrification is possible. the following dry substance contents and volumetric loading can be assumed: Wastewater containing small organiccommercial part high organiccommercial part high and extremely fluctuating organic commercial part SVI ml/g 75 .05 ≤ 0.20 150 .05 kg/(kg.BOD5 B DS ⋅ DS AT in m3  *) Only this value is included in the dimensioning procedure or VAT = B d. With deliberate denitrification (dimensioning in accordance with ATV Standard A 131).BOD5 kg/kg.25 ≤ 0.d) as BV.05 DSAT kg/m3 ≤5 ≤4 BV.d ≤ 0. a sludge age of tDS = 25 days results.ATV-A 126 E 3.BOD5 kg/(m3)d ≤ 0.BOD5 in m3 in kg/(m3.d) This corresponds to a sludge age tDS ≥ 20 d with a surplus sludge production SSB ÷ 1 kg DSM/kg BOD5 With this dimensioning the sludge can be extensively aerobically stabilised and the ammonia nitrogen nitrified over a large part of the year.BOD5 B V.50 ≤3 ≤ 0.2.150 BDS.100 100 .BOD5 = BDS . DSAT The following is to be applied for the determination of the volumetric content for the treatment of wastewater with sludge stabilisation: BOD5 sludge loading BDS ≤ 0.15 December 1993 10 .2 Activated Sludge Section 3.

3. this figure must be higher by a factor of 1/α than the calculated necessary oxygen supply capacity in wastewater (oxygen transfer correction factor = 0.125 B d.6 Required motor output N= αOC αOC N kg/kWh kW December 1993 11 . as a rule.3) with the application of precipitant for P-elimination.g. If the method of intermittent aeration is selected for denitrification this is to be taken into consideration with the design and selection of the aeration system.9 depending on the type of aeration installation). and they should only be deviated from in very special cases: Surface Aerator Oxygen yield αOCN = 1. the ratio TKN:BOD5 ÷ 1:5. In such a case it is advisable to verify the additional oxygen demand for the nitrogen oxidation. inter alia. In practice the following design values for oxygen yield and/or oxygen transfer in sewage have proven their value. 3. The increase in capacities should take place corresponding with the duration of the “off-times“ (increase of the oxygen loading value).0 kg/kg Hence αOC = B D.1.BOD5 in kg/h This value. If the oxygen supply capacity in clear water under standard conditions is quoted.6 grams of oxygen per gram of ammonia nitrogen is used for the complete nitrogen oxidation.0.BOD5 24 = 0.ATV-A 126 E The dimensioning values are not altered (see Sect.BOD5 24 in kg/h Oxygen load OL ≥ 3. If inflows of digested sewage are to be expected.5 (e.2.1.2 Aeration Installations The necessary oxygen transfer capacity in wastewater is: αOC = O L ⋅ B D. covers the oxygen consumption by micro-organisms for carbon and nitrogen oxidation purposes as.5 . As 4. oxygen shortage can occur if the ratio TKN:BOD5 rises to levels above 1:3. slaughterhouses).0 . due to such industries as. an additional 2 mg/l of oxygen per 1 mg/l of hydrogen sulphide for oxidation. with normal communal wastewater.

In practice. and the circulation system. the highest inflow independent of dry or rainy weather. Manufacturer's details are to be taken for the calculation of point aerators. be under 2 Watt/m3. 3. depending on the shape and volume of the tank. secondary sedimentation and aeration are to be considered as a unit. the sludge content. values between 3 and 8 Watts/m3 result.m) a control range of 3:1 results. The power density of the circulation installations with separate circulation. is to be applied.3 Secondary Sedimentation From a process technology point of view. in any case. which are to be balanced only by higher dry substance contents for the balance of the permitted sludge loading. The hydraulic feeding and the with this achievable thickening of the return sludge are relevant for the dimensioning. lead to larger secondary sedimentation tanks. under favourable conditions. Larger control ranges must be covered by switching in and out aerator pipe trains. Guaranteed values for both the oxygen transfer capability. It follows from the dimensioning regulations that the dry solids content of the aeration tank and the sludge volume index determine the size of the secondary sedimentation tank. the energy absorption and also the minimum flow rate at the tank bottom should be given by the manufacturer. Here attention is to be paid that the reduction of the specific oxygen transfer compared with pure water transfer performance is taken into account.m). referred to the tank volume can. calculated dependant on the depth of air introduction hE is: QA = αOC fO2 ⋅ hE in m3/h Specific oxygen utilisation without separate recirculation fO2 = 8 − 10 g / m 3 per m of depth of air introduction - with separate recirculation fO2 = 12 − 15 g / m 3 per m of depth of air introduction Plug-flow aerators are calculated for an airflow of maximum 10 Nm3/(h. It these deviate from the values already verified in practice then verification on the finished structure is recommended. A value of VA ÷ 15 m/s should be applied for the air velocity in the pipelines. With a minimum admission of 3 Nm3/(h. Therefore. Savings with the aeration tank volumes.ATV-A 126 E Fine-Bubble Diffused Air Aeration The air volume flow QA which is needed to achieve the required oxygen transfer capacity in wastewater (αOC). The maximum surface feeding results as: December 1993 12 .

0 m hi ≈ 1.12 m.5 m - for circular tanks with scraper (Fig.h).2 hc htot ≥ 4. rSS hc ≥ 1/3 hf with wastewater treatment hc ≥ 2.0 m with combined wastewater treatment hc ≥ 3. with Sludge Index values ≥ 120 mg/l up to 150 %. referred to the dry weather inflow Qd. 2) Alternatively a secondary sedimentation tank dimensioning in accordance with ATV Standard A 131 is permitted.0 m hmin ≥ 3. For technical construction and economic reasons hopper-bottom tanks are made with diameters up to about 10 . The transfer flow of the return sludge pumps is to be so designed that the return ratio RV is. 1) hf = n .ATV-A 126 E qA = qSV DS AT ⋅ SVI in m/h The maximum sludge volume feed qsv is for hopper-bottom tanks for circular tanks with scrapers ≤ 600 l/(m2 . h) The required tank surface can be calculated as follows: A SS = Q Q DW or cs qA qA in m2 The necessary tank depths are: for hopper-bottom tanks (Fig. 100 %. in general. The weir crest feed rate with maximum inflow may not exceed the value of 10 m3/(m. The return sludge feed must be controllable. December 1993 13 . h) ≤ 450 l/(m2 . Above this circular tanks with scrapers are used: the diameter of the central structure should be 1/5 to 1/6 of the diameter of the relevant dimensioning surface.

1: Hopper-bottom tank Fig.ATV-A 126 E Fig. 2 Circulator tank with scraper December 1993 14 .

Archimedean screws are used for pressureless raising of wastewater in open flumes. are clearly higher than with larger plants. as far as possible.1 General As is general with sewage treatment plants a safe.ATV-A 126 E 3. However. They make it possible to integrate these plants into a broad control and monitoring system. Even with small sewage treatment plants the use of instrumentation and control techniques will increase. operationally safer and require less maintenance than previously. The desired simple and robust design will therefore. with the necessarily smaller machinery the solid matter carried by the wastewater leads clearly more frequently to blockages than with pumping equipment for larger plants. When centrifugal pumps are used in pumping stations the units are more reliable and easier to maintain if a dry-well installation method is used.2 Primary Pumping Stations Small wastewater inflows with considerable fluctuations must be dealt with by small sewage treatment plants and their pumping stations. Operational safety takes precedence over cost and energy saving. be made available for the anticipated surplus sludge quantities: with disposal ensured throughout the year with agricultural utilisation to bridge a vegetation period or the winter ≥ 1 month ≥ 6 months 4 Construction Principles 4. These possible operational faults and the necessary maintenance and repair tasks in any case require suitable installations and a reserve pump of the same size. 4. referred to the daily average. Installations offered today are cheaper. extensively fault-free and simple operation is to be sought with the planning and construction of small sewage treatment plants. be adopted in the lower range. A special advantage of Archimedean screw pumps is the fact that intermittent charging of the treatment plant can be avoided. As a more sophisticated structure is necessary for them small treatment plants often have to rely on submersible December 1993 15 . Storage space should be available to balance the inflow variations. The volume of the inflow sewer can also be used as security. When designing the pumps account is to be taken that the daily peaks with dry weather inflow. With small sewage treatment plants therefore attention is to be paid particularly to the fact that a wastewater technician cannot be permanently present. Due to the small inflows often one pump would be sufficient to convey the total inflow. with which the maintenance tasks are kept to a minimum. With this even small dry weather inflows can be conveyed economically as their efficiency only deteriorates significantly at less than 30% of rated output.4 Sludge Storage Reservoir Storage space for the following storage periods should. as a rule.

4 Stormwater Treatment Both combined and separate sewerage systems are also employed for stormwater treatment in small catchment areas. only be installed if there are clear construction costs advantages. deposits may not occur either before or after the throttle device.ATV-A 126 E pumps. the smaller the emptying quantity is. from the operational point of view.3 Flow Measurement Sewage treatment plants within this scope of application are to be fitted with a flow measurement device. however. 4. Emptying via either pumps installed in the tank or via the primary pumping station has shown itself to be advantageous. Further information on the design and locating of measurement devices is to be taken from DIN 19559. otherwise via a compost filter. December 1993 16 . the most favourable. It may be sensible to use pneumatic pumping stations as primary pumping stations for sewage treatment plants if one has to pump over great distances. smooth matching on site. However. It may be of a simple design and should also be suitable for the measurement of small inflows. they can also serve as collection tanks. with operating faults. To be sought is a possibility for direct. balanced using an appropriate control technique. The emptying gradient (base height difference) should be as small as possible. A secure access to the metering point must be guaranteed. Siting of the measurement devices in the outlet brings advantages also due to the reduced danger of blockages. 4. with centrifugal pumps the dependence between conveyance height (markedly different filling level in the stormwater tank or suction space) and conveyance stream is to be taken into account and. The siting of stormwater tanks within the area of the sewage treatment plant is. Due to the generally worse efficiency one must frequently reckon with significantly higher electricity costs than with centrifugal pumps. With conveyance using centrifugal pumps the odour and concrete corrosion problems are manageable if the pressure line is temporarily charged with compressed air or ends in a ventilated degassing shaft. Due to the small inflows which can be accepted by sewage treatment plants in the lower range the control of the emptying of stormwater tanks and the danger of blockage of the small pipe cross-sections is a problem. Pumping stations with submersible pumps should. The throttle devices without outside energy which are available function according to different procedures. the more uncertain is the control. under certain circumstances. The extracted exhaust air can be directed into the aeration tank when using compressed air aeration. Odour and concrete corrosion problems due to digested sewage and the resultant development of hydrogen sulphide are avoided due to the specific mode of operation of pneumatic pumps with a switchable blown stage. In this case they should be so designed that.

in any case. which can make disposal more difficult.5. Fundamentally. birds. With the smaller aperture widths and with sieves the amount of screenings/sievings rises with increasing proportion of faeces. in any case.5. The accrued screenings/sievings must. Depositing in closable containers has proved effective.3 Grease Trap Many operational problems with floating solids on aeration and secondary sedimentation tanks can be avoided by installing a grease trap. small animals. if required overflowable.2 Grit Chamber Ventilated grit chambers should be employed in the upper application range. Sieves For small plants one cannot do without automatically cleared screens/sieves as a protective device to remove floating solids and textile materials. A comminution and return into the wastewater flow must not. can prove useful. be removed from the wastewater. Sludge deposits can be partially reduced. occur. Care is to be taken for sufficient ventilation. for reasons of frost protection and to protect against the development of odours. using a lightly bubbling aeration or through a stirrer to even out the circular water movements. With the larger aperture widths operational problems can occur with advanced wastewater and sludge treatment as well as with the agricultural utilisation of sewage sludge due to clogging and blockages. a hydraulic verification is necessary for the selected device.1 Screens. also the washing of sievings.ATV-A 126 E 4. Circular grit chambers represent a suitable solution for plants of the lower application range and as an alternative primarily with tight conditions.5. 4. 4. container back-up due to rain and generally for the establishment of better working conditions. 100 mm) is necessary in order to prevent a back-up in the sewer network and an overflow of the channels with a failure of the automatic clearance device. manually cleanable rack screen (spaces up to approx.5 Mechanical Pre-treatment 4. Screens are employed with aperture widths of from 6 to 20 mm. to be provided with a superstructure. A sand grader can be an advantage for better separation of mineral and organic particles for sewage treatment plants of the upper range with aerated grit chambers and circular grit chambers. The installation of a press and dewatering facility with disposal into a container or conveyance in a bagging installation. At screens or sieves which cannot be overflowed an emergency overflow with a simple. With an aerated grit chamber and with a circular grit chamber the sand is cleared by means of a mammoth pump or submerged wastewater pump. This also offers the advantage with accidents involving oil of drawing off the oil at a suitable point before entry into the December 1993 17 . Screen/sieve installations are fundamentally.

The bottom scraper must be removable from a filled tank insofar as only one tank is available. in particular with small sewage treatment plants. attention is to be paid that the locally conditioned peculiarities in the inflow conditions are taken sufficiently into account with the design of individual plant components. It is important both for tanks and power units to be matched to one another as well as to save energy with a simple and effective oxygen regulation. Compact construction methods are frequently offered which combine the activated sludge stage and the secondary sedimentation. the oxygen supply can be operated with energy saving through appropriate reduction of the sludge content in the aeration tank.6 Aeration Tanks The activated sludge stage is operated without primary treatment.ATV-A 126 E aeration tank. be set and. Here. 4. removable in winter. A good degassing of the inflow to the secondary sedimentation tank encourages the settling effect. more easy. are to be provided for the removal of floating sludge. As a rule newly built sewage treatment plants are not fully loaded when taken into service as a certain provisioning for the future is necessary and normal. December 1993 18 . with staged regulation. However. The smaller tank volumes make the increased employment of prefabricated construction elements. and taking into account all necessary ancillary equipment. with this the stabilisation is fundamentally to be ensured. Additional power units for the circulation make an intermittent operation of the oxygen transfer installation. Oxygen transfer and water circulation systems determine the constructional shape of an aeration tank. They must be maintenance friendly and accessible for cleaning tasks. 4. Scum boards or equivalent facilities combined with reliably functioning installations. point. disc and plate aerators. With compact construction methods this is to be verified in individual cases.7 Secondary Sedimentation Tanks Deep hopper-bottomed tanks with vertical flow are particularly suitable for small sewage treatment plants as mobile sludge removal facilities are not necessary. Aeration and circulation installations must also be removable even with full tanks insofar as only one tank is available. Tank shape and aeration system are to be so selected that sludge depositing does not occur. particularly with concrete and other basic construction elements. thus the denitrification is encouraged. With an aerated grit chamber or circular grit chamber normally the grease trap is combined constructionally with these. The design of the outflow must be such that an extensively even removal from the top surface can be achieved. The aeration installations should be so combined that can be raised completely from the tank. With balanced tailoring to the local situation and the construction site conditions. the dispersed construction method need not be more expensive than a compact plant. however. The desired sludge loading can. A dispersed construction method offers the opportunity to design individual plant components as required. Aeration takes place via pipe.

ATV-A 126 E 4. A control box for low voltage distribution. 5 Sludge Treatment and Disposal 5. In sewage treatment plants with additional phosphorus elimination using December 1993 19 . by providing reversible power supply or a stand-by power unit. to the values given in Sect. or to avoid a mechanical breakdown by keeping complete units of equipment in store. Pavements must be at least 0. less endangered by frost. A parallel arrangement of individual process stages can be practical with plants in the upper area of application. Heating of individual components is. In special cases such as. in places with erosion endangered outer areas or heavy traffic loading due to agricultural vehicles.6 m wide and must have at least a loosely compacted surface. not sufficient. at least the sand discharge device should be protected against freezing up. 3. Centrifugal aerators must be protected against becoming out of balance due to freezing spray with the aid of a covering.8 Operational Building and Ancillary Works An operational buildings also necessary in plants in the lower application range. and sanitary facilities are to be planned as minimum equipment required. Roller type aerators can have a heated cover. With paved paths. The possibility of providing power using mobile generators is at least also to be planned. In open sludge silos the circulation facility is to be operated more when there is a danger of frost. In individual cases consideration must be given to the question as to what extent by-passes are necessary to deal with emergency situations.3 due to the washing away of the finest mineral components with the surface water. slabs must be placed close to one another. Mechanical installations must not only be easily exchangeable but also are to be arranged in an easily accessible manner. Aeration tanks with compressed air aeration are. Even sewage treatment plants of the above area of application must be capable of approach by heavy vehicles for the removal of sludge or larger repairs. as a rule. Fault indicators are to be provided. A telephone connection is to be planned. for example. from experience. In areas with long periods of frost grit chambers should also be included in the cover.1. Attention is to be paid that there is a sufficient number of wash-down hose connections throughout the plant.1 Sludge Yield In activated sludge plants with joint sludge stabilisation sludge occurs only as surplus sludge. An easily approachable point for the taking of samples is to be constructed within the area of the run-off from the sewage treatment plant.9 Other Structures for the Safeguarding of Operations Due to the disproportionate costs it will generally not be possible to avoid completely interruptions resulting from power failure. The same applies with secondary sedimentation for hopper tanks as they penetrate deep into the ground. Carriageways must have a minimum curve radius of 12 m and a minimum width of 3. a store for holding plant specific spare parts with work bench and working area to perform monitoring functions or set up in-house monitoring.5 m. Screens/sieves are fundamentally to be provided with cover for protection against frost. 4. even with grit chambers that function well. considerable increments may also have to be applied.

a post-precipitation occurs under anaerobic conditions. A floating sludge layer can form in the sludge silo.g. as a rule. 5. Furthermore. Height adjustable installations for the removal of separated sludge liquor are to be provided.ATV-A 126 E simultaneous precipitation the solids load increases in comparison with the pure biological operation. Consequently the dewatering behaviour of the aerobic stabilised sludge is considerably improved. or only with difficulty. Various organic substances are not. except with lower temperatures. a too heavy sludge can. In addition increased contents of hazardous substances in sludges can.70 Watt/m3 according to container size and sludge properties. Dependant on the case it is sensible to divide the required storage capacity between at least two storage units. December 1993 20 . This process can be reduced or prevented by previous denitrification in the wastewater treatment part of the sewage treatment plant or with additional stirrers and circulating devices in the silo. The content of hazardous substances in surplus sludge from domestic wastewater is. In soft water areas or supply networks with varying drinking water properties. Suitable pumps (e. amenable to aerobic degradation. 5. with a longer storage of aerobic stabilised sludge in sludge sites. A storage of more than two years is advantageous. from this point of view. one has to reckon with high zinc and copper levels. With sludge from stabilisation plants which. Regular sewage sludge examinations can give information about unhealthy conditions in the catchment area. eccentric screw pumps) must be provided as sludge transportation power units.2 Sludge Consistency and Dewatering Capability Aerobic stabilised sludge thickens less readily in comparison with digested sludge. the content of hazardous substances in sewage sludge can be excessive. be traced back to commercial users of sewers.with a substantial commercial wastewater component. Subsequently the sludge can be well dewatered mechanically. For this a robust. the filtrate water yielded can be collected in order to dose it to the plant. With this it can also be avoided that long-term stored and newly yielded surplus sludge mix together. as a rule. an agricultural utilisation is possible. Insofar as the levels cannot be adequately reduced through extensive requirements on the user of the sewer other disposal methods are to be sought. the formation of floating sludge is considerably encouraged by the buoyancy effect of gaseous nitrogen which forms due to the denitrification which occurs in the silo. Even if such discharges meet the requirements of the state of technology . The dewatering capability is often better if the sludge indicates a high proportion of mineral components. particularly in the warm season. which prevents the separation of the supernatant liquor.3 Sludge Storage Sludge silos in which the sludge still thickens due to gravity serve as intermediate storage for surplus sludge. transportable vortex impeller type submersible pump or a high performance agitator is practicable. with mobile dewatering with several storage tanks. Therefore. insignificant so that. It is recommended that silo installations are so equipped with flushing connections that critical pipelines can be cleaned. extensively nitrify. even after a short storage time. Circulation devices should have a power density of from 30 . However. become so solidified that it can only be kept in a transportable condition by increased circulation.

This applies particularly when sludge is dewatered in mobile dewatering facilities at long intervals and the filtrate water is yielded in surges in large quantities. Plants must be so designed that. 5. Should sludge be transported to a large sewage treatment plant for further treatment then technical feasibility and costs of a preliminary dewatering. possibilities for intermediate storage and dosed input into the aeration tank are to be provided. The additional working time is then available for larger scale maintenance tasks and small repairs. In order not to load non-adapted activated sludge in surges in this way. 6 Operation Sewage treatment plants require a regular. using a centrifuge. If the sludge has to be stored in a dump the necessary properties for this in accordance with the rules of the dump operator are to be achieved.ATV-A 126 E With closed sludge silos attention is to be paid to digester gas which forms. for example. With the dimensioning of the wastewater treatment stage the treatment of the yielded filtrate water must also be taken into account in all cases as it does not occur continuously. Holiday and illness deputation must be ensured. The treatment performance must be checked regularly through in-house examinations. Odour nuisances can also come from open sludge basins which. in particular between sewage treatment plants of the lower limit of the area of application to larger neighbouring sewage treatment plants in which trained personnel for December 1993 21 . can be investigated.g. With sewage treatment plants at the lower limit of the area of application one has to reckon with an average working daily time requirement of three hours. routine tasks can be completed by one man in two hours per day. intervene. e. pumping stations or stormwater tanks in the sewer network) some eight hours per working day are to estimated for operation.g. due to the inherent over-capacity of this installation. as a rule. Practical experience has shown that. with a sewage treatment plant with a design capacity of 5000 IPE without ancillary plants (e. can be prevented by additional water impoundment. This requires appropriately trained sewage treatment plant personnel who observe the individual operational processes and. In some cases measures to protect against explosions are necessary. The choice of the dewatering process depends ion the requirements of sewage sludge disposal. working daily monitoring and maintenance. For plants in the lower design capacity natural dewatering of sludge on sufficiently dimensioned drying sites can certainly also be taken into consideration.4 Sludge Dewatering If wet sludge cannot be utilised in agriculture. independent of the design capacity. mechanical dewatering is necessary. if required. For plants of the upper area of application one full-time member of staff and at least a number of hours from an additional assistant are necessary for this. despite the selection of the smallest dewatering unit. The association of personnel. maintenance and in-house monitoring.

height of rise of compressed air in the water Depth of funnel of hopper-bottomed tank Depth of inlet in hopper-bottomed tank Minimum depth of secondary sedimentation tank Total depth of secondary sedimentation tank Inhabitant and population equivalents Motor output Oxygen load. 7 Symbols ADS ASS Bd.d) kg/m3 g/(m3.BOD5 BDS BV.m) m m m m m m IPE kW kg/kg kg/h kg/kWh m/h l/(m2.ATV-A 126 E such tasks are available is recommended. Creation and equipping of a laboratory site/laboratory and the scope of in-house monitoring depend on the relevant regulations of the Federal State and the local conditions. quotient from oxygen transfer capacity-and-BOD5 volumetric loading Oxygen transfer capability in clear water under normal conditions Oxygen yield in clear water Surface loading Sludge volume feed rate Daily wastewater discharge Sewer infiltration water discharge Air volume flow Commercial wastewater discharge Combined wastewater discharge Domestic wastewater discharge Domestic and industrial wastewater discharge Dry weather discharge Industrial effluent flow rate Stormwater discharge into the contaminated water sewer of a separate sewer system December 1993 22 . for example for reasons of accident prevention.d) kg/(m3. These personnel are then also available if tasks are to be carried out which require at least two persons.BOD5 DSAT fO2 hc hE hf hi hmin htot IPE N OL OC OCN qA qSV Q Qi QA QC Qcs QD QDI Qdw QI Qr d m2 kg/d kg/(kg.h) m3/h m3/h m3/h m3/h m3/h m3/h m3/h m3/h m3/h m3/h Sludge age Surface of secondary sedimentation tank BOD5 load per day BOD5 sludge loading BOD5 volumetric loading Dry matter content in activated sludge tank Specific oxygen utilisation Depth of cylindrical top above hopper of hopper-bottomed tank Depth of air introduction.

referred to Bd.ATV-A 126 E QSS rSS SSB SVI TKN VAT α αOC αOCN kg/h kg/kWh m3/h m kg/kg ml/g m3 Daily yield of surplus sludge Radius of secondary sedimentation tank Specific surplus sludge production.BOD5 Sludge Volume Index Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration (ammonia-N and organic N) Useful capacity of activated sludge tank Oxygen supply factor Oxygen transfer capability in wastewater Oxygen yield in wastewater December 1993 23 .

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