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GERMAN ATV STANDARDS
STANDARD ATV - A 118E
Hydraulic Dimensioning and Verification of Drainage Systems
November 1999 ISBN 3-924063-49-4
Distribution: GFA - Verlag für Abwasser, Abfall und Gewässerschutz Theodor-Heuss-Allee 17 D-53773 Hennef P O. Box 11 65 D-53758 Hennef . Tel. 00 49 22 42 / 8 72-120 Fax: 00 49 22 42 / 8 72-100 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: www.atv.de
The following collaborated with the production of ATV Standard A-118 E: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Theo G, Schmitt, Kaiserslautern (Chairman) Dr.-Ing. Holger W. Bröker, Langenfeld Dipl. HTL Christian Eicher, Belp/Schweiz Dipl.-Ing. Rüdiger Heidebrecht, Hennef Ltd. BD Dipl.-Ing. Ulrich Keseling, Hagen Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Sybille Klotsche, Dresden RBM Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Königer, München BD Dipl.-Ing. Albert Kreil, Kassel Dipl.-Ing. Frank Männig, Dresden BD Dipl.-Ing. Dietmar Schaber, Karlsruhe Prof. Dr.-Ing. Friedhelm Sieker, Hannover Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Verworn, Hannover Dipl.-Ing. G. Vogel, Potsdam ir. Jacob G Voorhoeve, Amersfoort/Netherlands
All rights, in particular those of translation into other languages, are reserved. No part of this Standard may be reproduced in any form - by photocopy, microfilm or any other process - or transferred into a language usable in machines, in particular data processing machines, without the written approval of the publisher. GFA Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e.V., Hennef 1999 Original German version printed by: DCM, Meckenheim, Germany
ATV-A 118 E
Preparation...................................................................................................................... 2 Notes for Users ............................................................................................................... 5 Foreword ......................................................................................................................... 5 1 2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 4.2 5 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 Scope........................................................................................................................ 5 Definitions ................................................................................................................ 6 Terms ................................................................................................................. 6 Symbols.............................................................................................................. 9 General ..................................................................................................................... 9 Fundamentals..................................................................................................... 9 Drainage Systems ............................................................................................ 10 Task.................................................................................................................. 10 Relevant Discharge Parameters and Cross-sections ....................................... 10 Wastewater and Infiltration Water Discharge...................................................... 11 Calculation Principles ....................................................................................... 11 Existing Drainage Systems........................................................................ 11 Planning of New Drainage Systems .......................................................... 12 Domestic Wastewater ........................................................................ 12 Industrial Wastewater......................................................................... 12 Infiltration Water ................................................................................. 12 Calculation of the Wastewater and Infiltration Water Discharge ....................... 13 Precipitation Runoff .............................................................................................. 14 Target and Verification Parameters .................................................................. 14 Initial Details on Precipitation Loading .............................................................. 16 Rainfall Duration Frequency Curve and Block Rain .................................. 17 Intensity Variable Synthetic Rainfall .......................................................... 18 Individual Synthetic Rainfall ............................................................... 18 Synthetic Rainfall Groups................................................................... 18 Measured Heavy Rainfall Series ............................................................... 18 Precipitation Continuum ............................................................................ 19 Defining of Permitted Discharges .............................................................. 19
.........1 Stormwater Runoff....... 22 Hydrological Methods ... 24 Catchment Area .......... 24 European and DIN Standard Specifications . 32 A1 A2 A3 Creation of synthetic rainfall according to Euler Type II .. 23 Application Criteria ....................................... 29 Literature ...............................................4 5.3 7 7...................................................................................................................................................... 23 Hydrodynamic Calculation Methods .........1............. 21 Run-off Concentration ...............................2 5..... 20 Run-off Formation ..............................................1.................. 27 Applicable Standard Specifications and Rules and Standards ............2.........1................................................ 22 Time Coefficient Method ..................................... 24 Calculation Methods and Precipitation Loading..... 28 ATV Standards Wastewater..........................4 6. 20 Discharge Coefficient ......................................4....... 25 Recalculation of Existing Systems...1..........2......1 5............................................................................1 5.....2...................................................................................................................................1 6......................................1.......................4........................3...........3 5.................................................3.........1.......................................3 6..............................................................................2.................... 25 Task..........4..............................................................2 6................ 29 Appendix .......3............... 26 Verification of Overdamming Frequency .....................................3 5....................2 6.....1 6............ 35 4 November 1999 ....2 6 6...........................................................Waste ...............................2 6.2 5........................... 27 Safety against Flooding ...............................2 5....................... 32 Production of a synthetic rainfall group.................1 6................................................................................................ 28 Hydraulic Calculation and Implementation of Verification .......1 5............... 22 Taking Account of Measures for Decentralised Stormwater Management 22 Calculation Methods for Sewer Discharge...........3...............1 5...............................3......................4.............................................5................................................. 20 Individual Loss Approaches ................... 25 Re-dimensioning of Drainage Networks .............. 26 Calculation of Rehabilitation Variants .... 23 Hydrological Discharge Models ............................................................... 33 Compilation of heavy rainfall series ..........................................................................................
For this. which are mainly operated as gravity systems and which serve for the discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater. this applies in particular for the correct handling of the margins described in the Standard. In 1977 it was republished in a revised edition with the title “Standards for the hydraulic calculation of domestic and industrial wastewater. In addition to taking into account the specifications of the standard series DIN EN 752 on flooding protection. the experiences of neighbouring countries has also been included with the revision. rules of procedure of the ATV and ATV Standard ATV-A 400). to public drainage systems. Everyone is at liberty to apply this Standard. additional knowledge and the increasing employment of computer calculations were also included in the revision. technical-scientific/economic collaboration which has been achieved in accordance with the principles applicable for this activity (statutes. The inclusion of the overall concept of the residential and municipal drainage with the hydraulic calculation of drainage systems is as an absolute must. They may be supplemented or replaced by other approaches if appropriate knowledge or experience is available. a contract or other legal reason. This concerns both measures for the management of stormwater as well as the loading of surface waters with stormwater and combined water discharges. A renewed revision was started in 1984. there exists an actual presumption that it is textually and technically correct and also generally recognised. stormwater and combined wastewater sewers” (ATV 1977). In general. also for the drainage of larger private surface units (commercial/industrial concerns. not the sole source of information for correct solutions. 3 to 6 refer. a survey of towns and communities and of 340 engineer offices on the then current application practice of sewer calculations. however. in the first instance. Drains and sewers beneath buildings are excluded here so far as they are not part of the building drainage system1). It applies. 1 Scope This ATV Standard concerns the dimensioning and verification of drainage systems.ATV-A 118 E Notes for Users This ATV Standard is the result of honorary. carried out in 1994 (ATV. This Standard is an important. an obligation for application can arise from legal or administrative regulations. Statements in Chaps. However. Thanks to the collaboration of specialist colleagues. November 1999 5 . In each application case the available local and project-specific characteristics are to be checked as to whether the rules listed below can be applied without limitation. has also been included. With its application no one avoids responsibility for his own action or for the correct application in specific cases. there is an absolute necessity to consider the water management characteristics and requirements as a whole. according to precedents. in accordance with the standard specification series DIN EN 752 “Drain and sewer systems outside buildings”. Foreword ATV Standard A-118 was first published in 1956 under the title “Standards for the calculation of stormwater and combined wastewater sewers”. Its range of validity. In particular. technical development. This was occasioned by European standardisation as common standard specifications for drainage systems had been developed. stormwater and combined wastewater. ranges from the point where the wastewater leaves the building and/or roof drainage system or flows into road gullies up to the point where the wastewater is discharged into a treatment plant or into surface waters. 1996). housing developments). by extension.
DIN EN 1671. while the arrangement. ATV-A 111 “Richtlinien für die hydraulische Dimensionierung und Leistungsnachweis von Abwasserkanälen und -leitungen” (Standards for the hydraulic dimensioning and performance verification of sewers and drains”) [Translators note: not yet (February 2003) available in English] applies for stormwater overflow discharge facilities. Discharge simulation Modelling of discharges in drainage systems.Vacuum drainage service . Special forms of drainage and their dimensioning are. 6 November 1999 . The dimensioning of storage and retention facilities in drainage networks is part of ATV Standard ATV-A 117 [Translators note: not yet (February 2003) available in English]. __________________ 1) Facilities for the drainage of buildings fall under the scope of the standard specification series DIN EN 12056 “Drainage systems within buildings”. Sewer Usually a buried pipeline or other facility for the discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater and/or stormwater from drains. dimensioning and design of stormwater overflow discharge structures in combined wastewater systems are described in ATV Standard A-128E. Rules for private property drainage facilities of larger surface units are taken up in DIN 1986. listed in DIN EN 1091. for other special structures ATV-A 112 “Richtlinien für die hydraulische Dimensionierung und den Leistungsnachweis von Sonderbauwerken in Abwasserkanälen und -leitungen” [Translators note: not yet (February 2003) available in English].pressure drainage service” as well as in ATV Standard ATV-138E “Construction and dimensioning of facilities for decentralised percolation of non-harmful polluted precipitation water”. Coefficient of discharge Factor depending on the catchment area with which the quantity of stormwater per unit of time has to be multiplied in order to obtain the expected stormwater runoff which is to be discharged into the drainage system. for example. Generalities and definitions” and in DIN 4045 “Wastewater engineering vocabulary”. Drain Usually a buried pipe for the discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater and/or stormwater from the point of occurrence to the sewer. 2 Definitions 2. Wastewater Domestic and industrial wastewater and/or stormwater discharged in a drain or sewer.For the hydraulic calculation of sewer cross-sections and open profiles attention is drawn to the ATV-DVWK Standard ATV-DVWK-A 110E “Hydraulic dimensioning and performance verification of sewers and drains”. The most important are listed below. Discharge damping Reduction of the peak discharge through temporary storage of the runoff.1 Terms Technical terms used in the following text are mainly contained in DIN EN 752-1 “Drain and sewer systems outside buildings. in ATV Standard ATV-A 116E “Special sewer systems .
this combined wastewater is discharged and treated. Infiltration water Undesirable discharge into a drainage system. ATV A-105E. Combined system Drainage system consisting of a single pipeline sewer system for the joint discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater and stormwater. Gravity system Drainage system with which the discharge takes place through gravity and with which the pipeline is normally operated partially filled. in the long-term statistical mean. Roughness Measurement of the frictional resistance of the surface of a pipe or channel with turbulent flow. Only domestic and industrial wastewater as well as precipitation water requiring treatment are fed to the combined sewer. reach or exceed a certain value (reciprocal of the recurrence time).ATV-A 118 E Commercial wastewater Effluent completely or partially from industrial or commercial concerns.w. also “flooding”). Frequency Number of events which. retained in surface troughs. Catchment area Area with discharge to a drain. Private property drainage System of pipes and additional buildings for the discharge of industrial or domestic wastewater and/or stormwater to a [public] sewer system or other disposal facility. on a surface. Domestic wastewater Wastewater from kitchens. Precipitation water not requiring treatment is completely or partially percolated directly at the point of occurrence or discharged directly into a body of surface water. Trough loss Precipitation. Surface flooding Condition with which wastewater and/or stormwater escape from a drainage system or are unable to enter this system and either remain on the surface or penetrate buildings from the surface (comp. November 1999 7 . Stormwater runoff Precipitation water which. toilets and similar facilities. a sewer or a form of surface water Flow time (DIN EN 752-4) Time which the stormwater requires to runoff from the hydraulically relevant point of the catchment area to a fixed point of the drainage system. 1997) Special case of a combined system. washbasins. drains into a drainage system or into a receiving water. Sewer system Network of pipelines and additional buildings which discharges domestic and industrial wastewater and/or stormwater from drains to sewage treatment plants.a. bathrooms. Modified combined system (i. which does not contribute to stormwater run-off.
So far as precipitation water requiring treatment cannot be avoided.Rainfall intensity Average amount of precipitation in a catchment area which occurs within a certain time period. Additional impoundment (overdamming) Loading condition of the sewer system with which the water level exceeds a defined reference level. Flooding Condition with which wastewater and/or stormwater escape from a drainage system or are unable to enter this system and either remain on the surface or penetrate buildings from the surface (comp. this is fed in a stormwater sewer to stormwater treatment. Dry weather flow Discharge into a drainage system with specified dry weather conditions. 1997) Domestic and commercial wastewater is fed to the wastewater sewer. ATV A-105E.a. Recurrence time. 8 November 1999 . Storage tank Closed or open tank for the temporary storage of wastewater. Precipitation water not requiring treatment is completely or partially percolated directly at the point of occurrence or discharged directly into a body of surface water. Wastewater Water changed by usage and discharged in a drainage system.w. Modified separate system (i. Separate system Drainage system normally consisting of two drain/sewer systems for the separate discharge of wastewater and stormwater. annual Average period of time in which an event achieves or exceeds a value (reciprocal of the frequency of occurrence). Rehabilitation All measures for repair or improvement of existing drainage systems. within a private sewerage system. also “surface flooding”). below which special measures are to be taken against backwater Backwater line Calculated or actually occurring wastewater levels within a drainage system above a certain control crosssection. Level of backed-up water (DIN 4045) Height. Sewer with storage capacity Oversized sewer with the function of a storage tank.
increasing low water in bodies of surface water and maintaining evaporation and the reestablishment of groundwater.ha) l/(s. a reduction of the discharged infiltration and precipitation water is to be sought in co-ordination with the above named objectives.s) Stormwater discharge in the wastewater sewer (referred to AC. infiltration water and precipitation water. The exclusive discharge principle.S Qtot q qc qd qiw qs. discharge capacity/associated rainfall intensity) 3 General 3.s) Inhabitant specific domestic wastewater discharge Infiltration water discharge with dry weather (referred to AC.2 Symbols Symbol AC. ATV-M101). November 1999 9 . see Qs. inter alia (comp.1000I) I/(s.ATV-A 118 E 2. Therefore. The two latter mentioned objectives have.ha) l/(s. up to now. for the maintenance of hygienic conditions in residential areas through the complete collection and discharge to the sewage treatment plant of wastewater produced the extensive prevention of damage due to flooding and saturation as a result of precipitation run-off and the greatest possible maintenance of the usability of residential areas independent of the weather conditions (“ease of drainage”).S r r(D. been taken into account by the discharge of precipitation water in combined or stormwater sewers.S)) Rainfall intensity Rainfall intensity with a duration of D and frequency of occurrence of n Rainfall intensity with a duration of D and recurrence time Tn Rainfall intensity with a duration of 15 min Average ground slope Recurrence time Peak discharge coefficient (max.ha) l/(s. competes with and is in part inconsistent with the targets set by water management of damping discharge peaks. Accordingly drainage systems serve.s D ID n nai Q Qc Qcf Qd Qdw Qiw Qs Qs.ha) % a Designation Catchment area with sewers Rainfall duration or duration step Population density in the catchment area Frequency of occurrence Calculated frequency of additional impoundment (overdamming) Volume flow of discharge.T) r15 S Tn ψp Unit ha min I/ha 1/a 1/a l/s l/s l/s l/s l/s l/s l/s l/s l/s l/s l/(s. however. inflow Discharge of commercial wastewater Calculated discharge capacity with complete filling Discharge of domestic wastewater Dry weather discharge Infiltration water discharge Stormwater run-off Unavoidable rainfall run-off in the wastewater sewer of a separate system (Infiltration water component with rainfall) Relevant measure of discharge for dimensioning Discharge Commercial wastewater discharge (referred to AC. The maintenance of hygienic conditions is a main concern of residential drainage systems and it is imperative that this be met by all wastewater disposal facilities.s.1 Fundamentals The discharge occurring in a drainage area consists of domestic and commercial wastewater.ha) l/(s.n) r(D. throughflow.ha) l/(s.ha) l/(s.
3.3 Task Depending on the drainage procedure. To this belong. 3. Non-hazardous polluted precipitation water is to be kept extensively away from the sewer system through decentralised retention. discharge and water level measurements in sewer networks are carried out and flow into the model application. With the separate system domestic and process wastewater are discharged in one sewer and the stormwater as well as possibly land drain water in their own stormwater sewer. The reliability of the results can be increased if precipitation.2 Drainage Systems The drainage of residential areas usually takes place using the combined system or the separate system. existing sewers and the wastewater treatment plant are hydraulically relieved and combined wastewater overflow can be reduced.With the planning and dimensioning of new networks as well as with the rehabilitation of existing systems all possibilities are to be made use of to keep non-hazardous polluted precipitation water away from the sewer system and to reduce the discharge of precipitation.dry weather discharge Qr.wet weather discharge (2) - 10 November 1999 . represent methods of approximation with which simplifying assumptions must still be made. This applies in particular for the verification calculation.4 Relevant Discharge Parameters and Cross-sections In separate and combined sewer systems the following applies for the determination of the total discharge Qtot: Separate system normal (wastewater) sewer Qtot = Qd + Qr.T . in particular. 1997).T [l/s] (1) Qd . 3. Taking into account more recent principles for the handling of stormwater there result mixed forms which are designated as modified systems. In particular. also the precipitation discharge model. 6): new dimensioning of drainage networks recalculation of existing systems calculation of rehabilitation variants verification of overdamming frequency assessment of security against flooding. stormwater and combined sewers and drains as well as possibly open channels (separate stormwater discharge) are to be calculated in accordance with this ATV Standard. All procedures mentioned in this ATV Standard. percolation and as far as possible separate (if necessary also open) discharge of the remaining share of the discharge. For this. through this measure.unavoidable stormwater discharge into the normal sewer of separate areas stormwater sewer Qtot = Qr [l/s] Qr . measures for decentralised retention of stormwater and percolation as well as the delayed (open) discharge of slightly polluted precipitation water (ATV-A 105E. the following tasks are to be differentiated (see Chap. In the combined system the domestic and process wastewater are discharged together with the precipitation run-off in a common sewer (combined sewer). Modified drainage systems result from the requirement in future to move away from complete discharge with precipitation water and to differentiate this according to its properties. normal.
combined sewer DN 300 In justified cases (e. small discharge in rurally structured areas or in dispersed residential areas. i. Separate approaches apply for the dimensioning of stormwater overflows and wastewater treatment plants. suitable measures for the avoidance of deposits and blockages are to be taken. The formulations in ATV Standard ATV-A 111 “Richtlinien für die hydraulische Dimensionierung und Leistungsnachweis von Abwasserkanälen und -leitungen” apply for pipe throttles.ATV-A 118 E Combined system (combined wastewater sewer) Qtot = Qd + Qr [l/s] (3) Note is to be taken of ATV Standard ATV-A 110E “Standards for the Hydraulic Dimensioning and performance Verification of Sewers and Drains” for the hydraulic calculation of sewer cross-sections and open profiles. this also concerns stormwater discharged in normal sewers.a. steep stretches. 4. industrial) and infiltration water whose discharge quantities are to be determined separately. independent of the calculated total discharge. including the infiltration water component of the dry weather discharge. With the dimensioning of normal sewers. Here the actual discharge relationships. This also applies to the selection of the shape of the cross-section.can also be chosen.1 Existing Drainage Systems The size of the dry weather discharge of existing drainage systems should fundamentally be determined and assured using sufficiently long measurement periods. TV inspection. as far as possible not below DN 250 . to be carried out in different seasons in order to record seasonal influences. With the dimensioning of gravity sewers the mathematical discharge capacity QV is not to be fully exploited. It is recommended that the next largest cross-section is selected if the determined total discharge Qtot with stormwater and combined sewers is ca. In this case particular attention is to be paid to the operational aspects and. in general not to undercut the following minimum nominal widths in public sewers with gravity discharge: normal sewers DN 250 stormwater.1. The discharges are related to the sewered catchment area AE. later establishment of connections) it is recommended.1 Calculation Principles With all named discharge quantities and discharges given below one is concerned with hourly peak values not with daily averages. as far as possible. November 1999 11 . danger of blockage.however. are more correctly recorded than using global planning values. flushing. implementation of measures for stormwater management) small cross-sections . 4 Wastewater and Infiltration Water Discharge The dry weather discharge in drainage systems of residential areas consists of the following components: domestic wastewater process wastewater (commercial.a.a. taking into account the cost effective aspects in the individual case.g. deliberate discharge of polluted precipitation run-off) or for operating conditions are required. 90 % of the discharge capacity QV. For operational reasons (i. variations in infiltration water yields. main connecting sewers with good gradient conditions. 4. The discharge measurements are.k (not to the impermeable surface Au!). if required. If necessary. it is to be carefully considered to what extent additional reserves for non-foreseeable future developments (i.
open development) and 300 I/ha (city centres). for the calculation of future wastewater discharge. With this. is subject to the style and living standards of the population. sanatoriums. 12 November 1999 . a wastewater yield of 150 l/I. In addition. Due to the disadvantageous effects increased attention is always to be paid to keeping the infiltration water inflow as small as possible by using suitable measures. This should not.1000I) is recommended for the hourly peak value of the domestic wastewater discharge. due to different habits.3 Infiltration Water Infiltration water covers unwanted discharges which get into the sewer system and.1. The spectrum of associated residential densities normally lies between 20 I/ha (rural areas. This applies to a particular degree for communities in conurbations. When there are no specific local details a dimensioning value for sewers of qd = 4 l/(s. 4.1000I). For the dimensioning of sewers in commercial and industrial areas an areaspecific approach using the following operational wastewater discharge rates qc is recommended: businesses with low water consumption qc = 0.1.1. the water consumption from own extraction plants should also be included.2. the values are based on an assured water requirement forecast of the local water supplier and. 4.5 l/(s. So far as planning conditions are considered.1 Domestic Wastewater The domestic wastewater discharge Qd is essentially determined from personal water consumption. even with the assessment of available consumption values. currently lies between 80 and 200 l/I. separate assessments. in dimensioning.0 l/(s.2 Planning of New Drainage Systems 4. Resulting from the hourly peak value of the wastewater discharge value for qd greater than 5 l/(s. It is influenced by the residential density and structure and. be significantly undercut. This is based on the limited accuracy of water requirement forecasts for the longer forecast periods normal with sewer system planning (≥ 50 years). rest homes. False discharges of wastewater into stormwater sewers are generally to be prevented. The average daily water consumption of the population.1. camping sites and similar.ha) businesses with medium to high water consumption qc = 0. in particular.d). with the penetration of groundwater and depending on the type of sewer. if necessary also with measurements of discharge. should be carried out. including small commercial activities. residential areas and developments in consumption as well as possible effects on rehabilitation projects are to be taken into account. regional demands and the size of residential areas can also be of significance.ha) Larger values are to be applied in operation-specifically justified individual cases.d should not be undercut.2 Industrial Wastewater With planned commercial and industrial areas usually no precise details are given on the type and size of the concerns to be sited there. the calculation approaches should be examined in order to prevent overdimensioning.5 to 1.2. 4. To this also counts precipitation water flowing in wastewater sewers with rainfall.With existing commercial and industrial areas as well as for larger hotels.2 to 0. The hourly peak discharges [m3/h] from experience lie between 1/8 (rural areas) and 1/16 (large towns) of the daily value [m3/d]. barracks. It is recommended that. through which various false discharges can be caused (Table 1). The daily variations with the determination of the specific peak discharge have to be taken into account for the dimensioning of sewers and drains.2.
ATV-A 118 E Combined sewers Groundwater penetrating (leaks) Inflowing drainage and spring water Stormwater sewers Groundwater penetrating (leaks) Inflowing drainage. insofar as the location-specific circumstances allow this. For new planning an infiltration water discharge giw of 0. qr. 4. specifically for the location.g.05 to 0. While infiltration water for combined and stormed water sewers is not.t. b) Unavoidable stormwater discharge in the normal sewer of separate areas Qr.2 to 0.2 Calculation of the Wastewater and Infiltration Water Discharge The size of the dry weather discharge Qdw is derived from the sum of the individual components domestic wastewater flow Qd commercial wastewater flow Qc infiltration water discharge Qiw (4) as follows: Qdw = Qd + Qc + Qiw [l/s] November 1999 13 . in addition to the infiltration water flowing off with dry weather an additional formulation for infiltrating stormwater (e.in addition to the infiltration water with dry weather .t an be determined through comparable discharge measurements with dry and wet weather.be taken into account through a stormwater discharge rate.ha) (in justified cases even more) With existing normal sewers the component Qr. as a rule.7 l/(s.ha) appears sufficient. m = 0. spring water and water from streams*) Inflowing wastewater (false discharges) Wastewater sewers Groundwater penetrating (leaks) Inflowing drainage and spring water Inflowing wastewater (via manhole covers.1 to 1. It can . with the dimensioning of normal sewers. springs and streams into stormwater sewers is to be checked in individual cases. from the surface via manhole covers) should be made.0 (in justified cases even > 1) Existing measurement results from comparable and/or neighbouring areas can be applied for the infiltration formulation with the dimensioning of new sewer. This addition depends very much on local conditions and can be several times the wastewater discharge. relevant for dimensioning. a) Infiltration water discharge with dry weather Qf The size of the infiltration discharge with dry weather can be specified.15 l/(s. via an infiltration water discharge qiw.t = 0. c) Global value as multiple m of the wastewater discharge Qww With insufficient information the infiltration water discharge in normal sewers can be estimated globally as multiple m of the wastewater discharge. false discharges) *) The admissibility of the discharge of water from drainage.
g. From the European standard specification DIN EN 752 the flooding frequency is specified as the measure for flood protection of drainage systems. the surface area of the sewered catchment area AC. they cannot be designed in such a manner that.s.2 [l/s] qc AC. For economic reasons.T = qr . 3 are met as far as possible optimally.s = (7) infiltration water discharge rate (with dry weather) [l/(s.2.1 ID q d ⋅ ID ⋅ A C.2.3 [l/s] qr.T = AC. however.T ⋅ A C.ha)] surface area of the commercial and industrial area covered by the sewer system [ha] The infiltration discharge Qiw with dry weather is determined as follows in accordance with Sect.s.ha)] surface area of the catchment area (general) covered by the sewer system [ha] With the dimensioning of normal sewers the unavoidable stormwater run-off Qr.3 (a) using a location-specific infiltration discharge rate qiw: Q iw = qiw ⋅ A C. 4. Therefore target values for a reasonable “drainage comfort” have to be defined whose observation is assured through the selected sewer cross-section and other drainage elements. 4 l/(s.1.1000I)) surface area of the residential area covered by the sewer system (ha) population density of the catchment area [I/ha] The commercial wastewater discharge Qc.2.s [l/s] qiw = AC.2 = = (6) commercial wastewater discharge rate [l/(s.s.T is to be applied as additional infiltration water component: Q r.s with the discharge rate qc given in Sec.s 1000 = = = [l/s] (5) specific daily amount of domestic wastewater per inhabitant (e.s and the population density ID: Qd = qd AC. an absolute protection against flooding or the ground becoming waterlogged is guaranteed. It corresponds with the frequency of occurrence of flooding.1. is determined as follows: Q c = qc ⋅ A C. flooding is connected 14 November 1999 . In German drainage practice. with rainfall. using the catchment area AC.1 Target and Verification Parameters Drainage systems of built-up areas are to be so conceived and dimensioned that the principles formulated in Chap.T due to the stormwater discharge rate qr.s. 4.The domestic wastewater discharge Qd is calculated using the specific wastewater qd.s = (8) stormwater discharge rate in the normal sewer [l/(s. by which “wastewater and/or stormwater escapes from a drainage system or cannot enter this and either stays on the surface or penetrates buildings” (DIN EN 752-1).ha)] surface area of the catchment area covered by the normal sewer system [ha] Alternatively the infiltration water discharge (with normal sewers consisting of dry and wet weather components) can be determined globally as multiple m of the normal wastewater discharge: Q iw = m ⋅ (Q d + Q c ) [l/s] (9) 5 Precipitation Runoff 5.
raising of curbs.g. improved through design measures (e. The European standard specification DIN EN 752-2 (1996) contains the requirements on the protection against flooding. which are recommended for the design of new systems as well as with existing systems so far as no appropriate specifications are laid down by the responsible office. low areas of individual properties in relation to the road level). the situation with regard to receiving waters. residential areas. low lying point. Table 2: Frequencies recommended in DIN EN 752 for the design (from DIN EN 752-2. With this. underpasses). to a high degree dependent on local conditions (e. underpasses 1) For design rainfall no overloading may occur For the dimensioning of drainage networks without the carrying out of verification (new planning). DIN EN 752 recommends that the measure of flooding protection is determined via the specifications on permitted flooding frequencies. without 1 in 5 examination for flooding 1 in 10 Underground 1 in 50 traffic facilities. The requirements on flooding protection are to be selected dependent on the respective locality. industrial and commercial areas) and to facilities which have to be specially drained (underground traffic systems. city centres. In addition. precipitation events.ATV-A 118 E with damage occurring or functional disruption (e. drainage of low points using lifting devices). 1996) Frequency of Location Frequency of design rainfall1) flooding (once in “n” (once in “n” years) years) 1 in 1 Rural areas 1 in 10 1 in 2 Residential areas 1 in 20 City centres. the topographic situation of the area (mountain or hillside position. The process of flooding is. printed in Table 2. proximity to bodies of surface water).g.g. the local conditions. however. Din EN 752-2 gives frequencies of design rainfall which apply for the employment of flow time procedures. in the first instance. industrial and commercial areas: 1 in 2 with 1 in 30 examination for flooding. in particular where significant damage or hazards can occur. if required. with underpasses) due to the escape of water or the impossibility of water entering the drainage system as a result of overload. Here. For larger drainage systems and generally with the application of discharge simulation models. differentiation should take place according to type of structural utilisation (rural areas. the danger of flooding of the surface waters and possibilities for discharge via the road system or via areas which have not been built on as well as the respective potential for damage are to be taken into account. the determined maximum discharges for the respective discharge capacity with complete filling may not be exceeded. The actual flooding frequency can thus be determined to a great extent only through observations and experience with existing sewers and. As technical modelling to represent flooding is not possible with the current state of the art the overdamming frequency is introduced below as additional target parameter for the mathematical November 1999 15 . locally different hazards with the occurrence of overloading of the drainage system. Here attention is drawn to justified deviations which are possible in individual cases.
Depending on the calculation method. Here the overdamming and flooding frequency corresponds with the value “1 in 50” given in Table 2. 6). 6.2. 6.g. With the selection of the overdamming frequency. with the exceeding of this value. to examine and. underpasses 1) With underpasses notice is to be taken. in the first instance. Table 3: Recommended overdamming frequencies for the mathematical verification with new planning and/or after rehabilitation (here: reference level: “ground line”). the values in accordance with Table 3 are recommended for the verification of overdamming frequency with new planning and/or after rehabilitation (reference level: “ground line”).2. synthetic rainfall or historical heavy rainfall have been used as initial details for the dimensioning of the sewer cross-section. below which measures against backflow are to be taken within the drainage system. can orient itself on the target parameters given in ATV (1995b). On the basis of the details in DIN EN 752-2 (see Table 2) and subject to the determination of other values by the responsible office. These initial dimensioning details assume that the stormwater discharge produced from the area of the residential surfaces have to be discharged. in the first step. could be flooding or other obvious system overloading occurring in the past (frequently). industrial and commercial areas Underground traffic less often than 1 in 10 1) facilities. there is an escape of water on to the surface of the ground (surface of the road) and the possibility of flooding exists. Statements on the scope can be found in Chap. for example through a hydraulic recalculation in accordance with Sect.verification of drainage systems. This height. The efficiency of existing drainage systems should. substantial 16 November 1999 . if necessary. The assessment of the overdamming frequency determined with this. with regard to the necessity for rehabilitation. corresponds with the level of backwater laid down in the municipal drainage bylaws. to carry out the mathematical verification according to the target parameter overdamming frequency and.new planning and/or after rehabilitation (once in “n” years) 1 in 2 1 in 3 less often than 1 in 5 Rural areas Residential areas City centres.2. as a rule flooding follows so far as non-specific local safety measures exist. to secure through structural measures the respectively required flooding protection considering the local conditions (see Chap. see above) are to be taken into account appropriately. that with overdamming above the ground. These are seen as “mean efficiency” of existing systems designed according to previous dimensioning practice. in the second step. Location Overdamming frequencies . almost exclusively rainfall data in the form of block rain (rainfall duration frequency curve. It is recommended. 5. in many cases.2 Initial Details on Precipitation Loading Up until now. The carrying out of the mathematical verification using the overdamming frequency in accordance with Table 3 can basically take place with the various precipitation loads according to Sect. 5. the local conditions (hazard and damage potential. as well as planned discharge-relevant expansion and structural modifications within the catchment area. Reason for a systematic examination of the efficiency. height of the manhole cover) is selected as the reference level of the calculated maximum water level as. In many cases the surface of the ground (e. be assessed on their actual discharge behaviour. Overdamming is understood to be the exceeding of a certain reference level by the calculated maximum water level.
1 shows the average rainfall intensity r of the precipitation duration of 15 min for various frequencies for four German cities and illustrates the considerable regional differences.1 Rainfall Duration Frequency Curve and Block Rain The calculation of the stormwater run-off according to specified rainfall duration frequency curves proceeds from the knowledge that heavy rainfalls are of short duration.2. As an example. For the dimensioning of sewer networks it is nevertheless insufficient to apply the rainfall intensity with a duration of 15 minutes only as. rainfall duration D and frequency n [1/a] is determined through the statistical evaluation of precipitation registrations in accordance with ATV Standard ATV-A 121. With the introduction of concepts of stormwater management in the residential drainage system there is a possible additional initial target detail in that only so much precipitation run-off is to be discharged via the sewer system. as is desirable or permissible from the water management aspect and/or is absolutely necessary due to local conditions. according to Table 4.ATV-A 118 E discharges and or relevant water levels (hydrodynamic methods) are calculated from the initial rainfall details. depending on the local conditions (ground slope. 1997). extent of hardened surfaces. The average rainfall intensity i [mm/min] or the rainfall intensity r [l/(s. 5. dependent on the ground slope and the extent of the hardened surfaces. The relationship between average rainfall intensity r. The shortest rainfall duration to be considered should be selected. Fig. shorter or longer rainfall durations can be relevant. flow times).ha)]. slight rainfall on the other hand continues for longer. 1997) November 1999 17 . Fig. Common target of both approaches is the guaranteeing of an adequate drainage comfort within the residential areas. 1: Average rainfall intensity r for the rainfall duration of 15 minutes for various frequencies n as an example for four stations (DWD. The hereby resultant (permitted) inflows to the sewer system as a rule lie significantly below those of the bare discharge conception. Full-coverage heavy rainfall assessments of the German Weather Service (DWD) are available for the whole of the Federal Republic of Germany (DWD. with the same statistical frequency. reduce with increasing rainfall duration.
which is determined from an assessment in phases of the rainfall intensity duration curve. The next lower intervals are joined on to the left of the time axis until the point in time t = 0 is reached. The rainfall should be at least twice the longest relevant flow time in the drainage network.3 Measured Heavy Rainfall Series The above-given initial precipitation details . A3).2 Synthetic Rainfall Groups As critical discharge conditions. Otter and Königer. can be brought about in large catchment areas.2. frequency of excesses and typified time history are first determined. 18 November 1999 . 5. direct rainfall events with actually occurring duration and time history are used. Further rainfall intervals follow the time axis to the right after the peak interval and fill the time period up to the end of the synthetic rainfall. The characteristic intensity progression of the various rainfall durations is determined on the basis of statistic assessments of measured precipitation (comp. The intensity distribution is carried out based on the statistical evaluation of heavy rainfall.2. Synthetic rainfalls can be employed as individual rainfall or rainfall group for discharge models.2. 1986.Table 4: Relevant shortest rainfall duration in dependence on the average ground slope and the extent of hardened surfaces Average ground slope <1% 1 % to 4 % >4% Hardened surface ≤ 50 % > 50 % ≤ 50 % > 50 % Shortest rainfall duration 15 min 10 min 10 min 10 min 5 min 5. The aim is that individual rainfalls of a synthetic rainfall group cover the rainfall frequency duration curve by phase respectively in the range of their rainfall duration. with the initial details from heavy rainfall series. 1999). A2. 5. with longer flow times in the network. which are selected and extracted from existing rainfall records (Appx.2. That means in every maximum precipitation section of the synthetic rainfall the average rainfall intensity must be the same as that of the rainfall duration frequency curve with the appropriate duration. Schaardt.1 Individual Synthetic Rainfall With the creation and usage of individual synthetic rainfalls their duration and intensity progression with regard to time are to be so selected that the associated rainfall duration frequency curve completely covers the relevant area for the sewer network.2. whereby duration. Procedures for the systematic selection of the heavy rainfall series are described by SARTOR (1994) and SIEKER (1997).are derived statistically from rainfall duration frequency curves and/or rainfall amount curves. On the other hand.2. 5. both from short-term heavy rainfall (by area) and also through long periods of continuous rainfall with large amounts of precipitation. One possibility for the creation of synthetic rainfall groups is presented in Appx.block rain and intensity-variable synthetic rainfall or synthetic rainfall groups .3 times the synthetic rainfall duration and rounded down to a multiple of five minutes.2 Intensity Variable Synthetic Rainfall Synthetic rainfalls show a variable intensity over the selected rainfall duration. so-called synthetic rainfall groups should be employed for dimensioning and the overdamming verification in place of an individual synthetic rainfall event of different duration. With synthetic rainfall according to EULER (Type II) the point in time for the start of the rainfall intensity is determined with the highest precipitation intensity with 0.
It can take place fundamentally both for the complete area of a new development as well as for the new exploitation of larger plots of land with connection to existing systems. a large number of rainfall events. The minimum necessary recording period depends on the overdamming frequency to be verified. for each individual event. however. on the sewer network calculation . the number of years on which the heavy rainfall series is based: nai = x : M Table 5: Recommended guidance values for the minimum duration of precipitation records Overdamming frequency 1 in 1 to 1 in 2 years 1 in 3 years 1 in 5 years 1 in 10 years Minimum period for recordings 10 years 15 years 20 years 30 years According to VERWORN (1999) this simple counting provides sufficiently reliable statements on the annual frequency of overdamming.g.g. This boundary condition is always met for the recurrence time for which the verification is to be carried out. It is recommended that the statistical representation of the selected heavy rainfall events are assessed using precipitation statistics. in connection with sewer network controls). also directly. Here. However. In view of the associated enormous calculation expense and the profusion of data to be assessed. the continuum consideration is currently to be seen as still being a special application (e. 5. recorded. e. so that the pre-selection of relevant heavy rainfall can be dispensed with.5 Defining of Permitted Discharges The defining of permitted discharges and/or discharge intensities for a catchment area or an area thereof can be occasioned by network-related and surface water-related targets. An extensive differentiation of overdamming events is possible if.2. the duration of the overdamming process and the volume of the water escaping are given in the calculation. The verification calculation using heavy rainfall series provides maximum water levels of the respective events for the individual shafts. Here the problem-matching limitation of individual overdamming events must be carried out for the calculation of associated frequencies according to common initial details. By limiting the precipitation run-off with the aid of decentralised measures of stormwater management the hydraulic overloading in the network can be avoided or reduced and the loading of surface waters can be reduced through stormwater overflows and stormwater outfall structures.4 Precipitation Continuum Fundamentally the precipitation continuum including the dry periods can be based. which are not relevant for dimensioning are. is exceeded. The annual frequency nai of these excesses (“overdamming frequency”) follows from this in the simplest way in that the number of excesses x is divided by the figure M. today such durations are still not available. whereby the guidance values can be taken from Table 5. November 1999 19 . if the minimum duration of recording according to Table 5 is observed. Through counting there results the figure x the number of times the laiddown reference level. the surface of the ground. 5.analogous to the pollutant load calculation.ATV-A 118 E For the production of heavy rainfall series a recording period of the precipitation of 30 years or more is desirable. if x ≥ 3.2.
roads) and unhardened surfaces are to be separated from each other as accurately as possible. gravel paths) and surfaces deliberately decoupled from the sewer system are to be taken into account in a suitable fashion. mainly between 1 and 10 l/(s. determined on local conditions and the structure of the development. It can be applied as 0. is appropriate. 5.5 . As a rule it is dependent on the event. These vary.0. inter alia. usually be observed for one building development so that a residential area-based “increase”. The discharge coefficient designates the ratio of discharge to precipitation for the surface under consideration (see Sect. With hydraulic bottlenecks in existing systems the permitted discharge density would have to be determined directly on the hydraulic efficiency of the drainage network. (a1) Wetting loss The wetting loss is deducted as initial loss from the first precipitation intervals. The values given under (a1) and (a2) apply in form only for the consideration of individual rainfall. ground slope.3 Stormwater Runoff The precipitation discharge process in residential areas can be subdivided into the phases run-off formation. strength and duration of the rainfall. evaporation and percolation into the ground. (a) Impermeable hardened surfaces With impermeable hardened surfaces there are always significant wetting and depression losses. (a2) Depression loss The scale of the depression loss according to previous experience for hardened dried surfaces is 0. 5.0 mm. run-off concentration and sewer discharge. Permeable hardened surfaces (e. depending on regional characteristics and overdamming frequency.3. type of hardened surface. which has fallen. type of soil and vegetation (permeable surfaces) The degree of hardening corresponds with the measurable element of the hardened surfaces of the area AC.3.2). depending on the type of hardening and ground slope. The evaporation with the heavy rainfall events relevant for the sewer network calculation are negligible.1. Distribution by time can take place according to various assumptions. Separate consideration is to be given for continuum simulation.3 .It would be ideal if the defining of permitted discharge values for a construction area were oriented to the flooding discharge intensity of the original unbuilt-up area. The parts of the precipitation which do not reach the discharge are designated as losses.s in the (partial) catchment area covered by the sewer system.1 Run-off Formation The run-off formation includes the physical processes which lead to a conversion of the precipitation.7 mm for dried surfaces depending on their properties. The size of the precipitation with an effect on the discharge depends above all on the following influencing factors: proportion of hardened surfaces.1 Individual Loss Approaches Due to their different discharge behaviour hardened surfaces (roofs. A procedure for the detailed determination of the degree of hardening in residential areas is described by LAUBE and WILLEMS (1991). Such a strict limitation cannot.1. 5. in ATV Advisory Leaflet ATV-M 165.g. A detailed representation on this can be found. 20 November 1999 .3. into a run-off from the surface (stormwater run-off): wetting. filling of depressions.ha). however. paved covering.2. 5.
27 0.70 0.55 0.5 9) 0.70 0.83 0-89 0.18 0.60 0.88 0.78 0. The possible amounts of loss vary due to the heterogeneous surfaces in significantly larger areas. groundwater conditions.6 4) 0.37 0.44 0.65 0.15 0. Special local conditions with regard to the roof surface component and type of roof as well as slope of the drainage surfaces are to be taken into account appropriately.66 0.s).72 0.36 0.10 0.28 0.87 0.86 0.76 0.84 0.18 0.81 0.82 0.37 0.44 0.2 Discharge Coefficient While detailed discharge models for sewer network calculation normally calculate the stormwater run-off directly from the specification of the degree of hardening (and other model parameters).55 0. which describes the relationship between the resulting maximum discharge intensity and the associated rainfall intensity.44 0.00 0.97 100 0.92 0.64 0.39 0. in particular with non.80 0.63 0.5 0.38 0.89 0.58 0.47 0.56 0.64 0. percolation additionally from the type of soil and conditions at the start of rainfall.75 0.52 0.87 0. The combination of larger non-built-up external areas with sewered catchment areas generally requires a separate consideration due to the different discharge conditions and different relevant rainfall events.86 0.61 0.82 0.46 0.15 0.20 0.92 Group 1 SG < 1 % 130 0.88 095 0.71 0.87 0.65 0.91 0. They are related to the area of the sewered catchment area (AC.50 0.72 0.89 0.or slightly hardened (part) catchment areas.63 0.80 0.79 0.28 6 0.09 0.30 0.86 0.87 0.23 0.3.42 0.51 0.56 0.82 0. The peak discharge coefficients given apply only for flow lengths of from 40 .39 0.97 *) degrees of hardening ≤ 10 % as a rule require separate consideration November 1999 21 .47 0.78 0.19 0.63 0.31 0.87 0.50 0.5 5) (0.95 Group 2 SG > 10 % 130 0.4 0.00 0.23 0.84 0. saturation behaviour of the ground etc.ha)] of 130 180 225 100 130 0.30 (0.96 0.94 Group 2 1 % ≤ SG ≤ 4 % Group 2 4 % < SG ≤ 10 % 180 (0.80 0.57 0.63 0.70 m.68 0.86 0.60 0.42 0.95 225 0.83 0.90 0.7 5 (0.76 0.70 0.74 0.92 180 0.94 0.70 0. discharge intensity /associated rainfall intensity q [l/(s. the ground slope group and the relevant reference rainfall intensity r15 in accordance with Table 6 are recommended.83 0.) are to be brought in.98 ) 0*) 10*) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 for r15 [l/(s.37 0.96 225 (0.77 0.ATV-A 118 E (b) Permeable and partially permeable surfaces With (partially) permeable surfaces percolation into the ground is additionally to be taken into account.50 0.1.55 0.79 0. 1977) Degree of hardening [%] 100 0.91 0.80 0.76 0. For the sewer network calculation the peak discharge coefficient ψp is relevant.67 0. ψp = = max.4 5) 0.93 0.77 0.43 (0.28 0.35 0.68 0.65 0. Taking account of this in the sewer network calculation is to be examined in each individual case for the relevant recurrence times and local conditions and is to be agreed with the responsible office.96 100 0.46 0.. Table 6: Recommended peak discharge coefficients for various rainfall intensities with a rainfall duration of 15 min (r15) dependent on the average ground slope SG and the degree of hardening (for flow time methods from ATV Standard ATV-A 118.72 0.50 0. Occasionally they provide incorrect discharge values.83 0. The scale of individual losses is influenced by the ground slope.71 0.95 0.61 0.97 225 (0.93 0. 5.83 0.56 0.62 0.37 0.27 0.43 0.55 0.55 0.10 0. the surface properties and vegetation.90 0.77 0. Here supplementary information with regard to local characteristics (geology.53 0.64 0.20 0.96 0.35 0.7 7) 0.28 0.35 0.72 0.31 0.09 0.ha)] / r [l/(s.76 0.74 0. The contribution to run-off from unhardened surfaces is difficult to quantify particularly as it is does not drain directly into the sewer system. normal methods for sewer network calculation work with the specified discharge coefficients or those derived from the degree of hardening and other influencing parameters.18 0.71 0.70 0.93 0.58 0.ha)] For the employment of flow time methods the peak discharge coefficients ψp dependent on the hardened surface component.50 1) 0.6 0) (0.96 180 (0.31 0.
With normally designed sewer networks these were usually all hard surfaces (roofs. roofs with vegetation and percolation facilities can contribute. as its effect. the different design criteria in comparison with the public drainage system. nonlinear models) The differences in discharge behaviour of hard and permeable partial surfaces are to be observed also with the discharge concentration. Decentralised stormwater storage. With this. The stormwater run-off can be described according to various model approaches.4. 5. courtyards. e. inter alia: unit hydrograph storage models (individual linear storage. depending on the local conditions and . Hydrological methods use empirical approaches or transfer functions for discharge calculation. ATV Advisory Leaflet ATV-M165). as maximum values or with associated hydrographs. if required. the flow procedures on the surface (translation) and the delaying effects (retention) play a role.3.5. depending on the type of measure and depending on the amount of rainfall and chronological progress of an event. 5. Here.2 Run-off Concentration The run-off concentration describes the conversion of the precipitation.1 Hydrological Methods Hydrological methods first calculate the sewer discharge with the aid of defined transfer or storage functions.: time coefficient method time-flow parameter method 22 November 1999 .3 Taking Account of Measures for Decentralised Stormwater Management The above described approaches for the calculation of stormwater run-off refer to the effective run-off surfaces covered by the sewer system. roads. in particular the as-a-rule significantly larger delay in run-off with permeable surfaces. they are characterised as hydrological or hydrodynamic.partially also unhardened surfaces. paths and squares) and. can be different. Hydrodynamic calculation approaches are based on the solution of the Saint Venant Equations (comp.as a rule via normal discharge relationships. parking lots. following the exhaustion of storage and/or percolation capacity. This applies also for its transformation into existing systems. Associated water levels are determined separately . depending on the calculation. ATV-M 165). With normal procedures. Thus a discharge throttling to retain a permitted discharge rate during the complete event effects a constant inflow to the public drainage system. 5. distributed over the surface and which has an influence on the run-off.at least with heavy rainfall events . In many cases the same calculation approach using different model parameters is used for delay of run-off (translation and retention). These complex physical processes up to now could only be included approximately in the sewer network calculation. to the stormwater discharge into the sewer system. Details on the selection and size of the model parameters can be made only in connection with specific model approaches and are to be taken from the relevant model descriptions or specialist literature (Keser. Through the realisation of decentralised stormwater management the discharge behaviour in the catchment area becomes more complex. into the discharge hydrograph. are also to be observed The existence of this type of measure assumes a particularly high degree of care with the consideration of the drainage area and the mathematical reproduction of the discharge behaviour using calculation methods which can correctly describe the phenomena in their effect.g. Corresponding with the calculation approach for the sewer discharge. linear storage cascade.4 Calculation Methods for Sewer Discharge Sewer network calculation methods determine discharges and water levels from the initial details on dry weather discharge and the determined run-off from the surface.3. 1980.
n ) ⋅ ψ s ⋅ A C. Königer.a.4. Therefore the hydrological discharge models are not in a position to take into account the influence of overload conditions. ATV. More detailed information on the application of the time coefficient method and the other flow time methods are to be found in the relevant specialist literature (i.1.ATV-A 118 E hydrograph superposition flood plan method the calculation of maximum values are at the front. the flow rate also keeps its validity for various flow and system conditions. Verworn 1980.1 Time Coefficient Method The conventional calculation method employed most frequently is the time coefficient method (ATV. sewer sections are used as path increment. The leading stormwater discharge Qs is determined using the following formula: Q s = r(D. which corresponds with the “rational method” of the English language regions. As the differential equation system cannot be solved analytically.4. With this the peak discharge coefficient ψp according to Table 6 is applied. Using the time coefficient area the greatest stormwater discharge is determined under the assumption that the flow time in the sewer network is set to be the same as the standard rainfall duration. 5. 1997) there is an EDP program for the determination of location-specific amounts of precipitation and rainfall intensities of various duration phases D and recurrence times Tn (Disk). Even the direct inclusion of branching and special structures produces no principle difficulties. whereby the wave displacement (translation) and damping (retention) with the discharge process are taken into account. as the discharge calculation is built up substantially on the flow time. As a rule.1 and time coefficient ψ of a certain rainfall duration D and rainfall frequency n. 1985) and can vary over the range from seconds (explicit) up to several minutes (implicit).s [l/s] (8) The rainfall intensity r(D. In the atlas of the DWD “Heavy precipitation for Germany KOSTRA” (DWD. For the mathematical verification of overdamming frequency (Sect.2. however. The associated water levels are determined in a separate calculation process. 5.1.4) attention is drawn to the new definitions within the framework of the revision of ATV-A110E for the consideration of the influence of local losses (in particular shaft impounding). lead to a limitation of the validity and accuracy of the calculation results. through the permanent linking of discharge and water level as well as via the channel geometry. mathematical methods of approximation in the form of implicit and explicit differential procedures are used (i.a.2 Hydrodynamic Calculation Methods Hydrodynamic calculation methods build directly on the physical-hydraulic legitimacy of the flow process in sewers. 1995a). Through this the continuous discharge activity is considered discretely in path and time intervals. They are also designated as flow-time methods. 6. described mathematically through the Saint-Venant differential equations (ATV-A 110E). Overload conditions such as pressure discharge and backwater up to flow reversal are immediately taken into account and reflected realistically. November 1999 23 . Therefore they should only be applied to sewer networks in which backwater and flow reversal play only a subordinate role for the load cases considered.4.n) which was previously formed from the product of the reference rainfall intensity r15. can be obtained from the heavy precipitation data of the DWD (1997) or the locally available precipitation data and its evaluation in accordance with ATV Standard ATV-A 121. By solving the complete equation system the hydrodynamic calculation method. Simplifications in the movement equation in these cases. 5. 1991). 1996). The time intervals can be selected as constant or load-dependent (Schmitt.2 Hydrological Discharge Models Hydrological discharge models employ transfer functions in order to calculate the discharge hydrographs within the sewer network from the inflow waves to the sewer network.
value. values. 5. The meaningfulness for various combinations of calculation methods and precipitation loads are shown in Table 7. synthetic rainfall groups or heavy rainfall series are to be examined in the individual case. 6 Hydraulic Calculation and Implementation of Verification 6. Water levels above the crown of the sewer can only be calculated correctly using hydrodynamic methods.4): flow time methods hydrological flow models hydrodynamic flow models. which are characterised in more detail in Sect. verification of overdamming frequency. hydrograph) possible Synthetic rainfall groups Application not Discharge (Max. statistic) possible 1) Diagrammatic discharge hydrographs (“flood curves”) can be given with flood plan and cumulative methods 24 November 1999 . With the employment of discharge models. recalculation of existing systems. value.1 Application Criteria With the application of hydraulic calculations the following tasks. and to observe the linkages between the given criteria. Discharge and water level(Max. Table 7: Arrangement and meaningfulness of calculation methods and precipitation loading Flow time Hydrological models Hydrodynamic models methods Rainfall duration frequency curve. Thus flow time methods in general resort to the rainfall duration frequency curve or block rainfall. Sect. the use of individual synthetic rainfall. They are linked with the definition of certain precipitation loading (Sect. value. 5. hydrograph. on the basis of the complexity of the system as well as existing questions. Discharge and water level hydrograph) (Max. 6.1 Calculation Methods and Precipitation Loading Basically the following calculation methods are available (comp. hydrograph) possible Measured heavy rainfall series Application not Discharge (Max.2).1. statistics) value. are to be differentiated: re-dimensioning. 6.2.Further information on calculation methods can be found in ATV Advisory Leaflet ATV-M 165 and in DIN EN 752-4. Discharge and water level hydrograph) (Max. Calculation methods and precipitation loading are to be selected dependent on the respective objective and task as well as on the characteristics and constraints of the drainage system. Maximum Application not Application not recommended synthetic rainfall discharge 1) recommended Synthetic rainfall Euler (Type II) Application not Discharge (Max. value. hydrograph. calculation of rehabilitation variants.
of 90 % of the discharge capacity of the selected sewer profile (ATV-A 110E). Table 8: Recommendations on applications for the re-dimensioning of drainage systems Flow time methods Recommended Hydrological models Hydrodynamic models Rainfall duration frequency curve.a. The resultant dimensioning value for the stormwater or combined wastewater discharge is to be a max. with what frequency the areas to be connected lead to a disadvantageous overloading of the existing network (s. So far as nothing else is specified by the responsible office for catchment areas up to 200 ha (AC. It is therefore recommended with verification calculations to select the rainfall frequency of Euler synthetic rainfall according to the overdamming frequency required in the application case. If necessary.1. If possible the initial dimensioning should be corrected for so long until the required verification parameter (overdamming frequency) in the complete drainage system is maintained with as far as possible economical measures and taking into account the operating interests. Sect. 1997. larger differences can occur in individual cases with large flow times and existing system peculiarities. Reimers. occurs with heavy rainfall simulation with comparable recurrence times.1 Re-dimensioning of Drainage Networks With the re-dimensioning of smaller (simpler) drainage networks the dimensioning using flow time methods (time coefficient method.2. synthetic rainfall Synthetic rainfall Euler (Type II) Synthetic rainfall groups Measured heavy rainfall series Possible Not recommended Not recommended Possible Not recommended Not recommended November 1999 25 .2 Task 6. with deliberate utilisation of existing sewer storage volumes or with other applications of the sewer network management. Schmitt. In these cases the preferred employment of synthetic rainfall groups or the long-term simulation by means of heavy rainfall series is recommended. 6. the employment of discharge models is advised (comp. the effects of an uneven rainfall distribution over the catchment area with the relevant heavy rainfall events having limited area coverage. With the connecting up of new sewer networks with existing systems first a dimensioning of the planned network is required.2. 6.4). 5. Thomas. Stecker. In the above-mentioned comparative calculations the extensively equal value of verification calculations by means of Euler synthetic rainfall (Type II) and heavy rainfall simulation has been determined for a broad spectrum of catchment areas.2 Catchment Area The conditions and requirements of the drainage system are decisive for the selection of the calculation methods and the precipitation loading. with enlarged systems. sewers with storage capacity). Table 8 provides recommendations for the selection of the calculation methods and precipitation loading for the re-dimensioning.ATV-A 118 E Comparative calculations have shown that the shaft overdamming. 6. identified using the frequency determined using the Euler synthetic rainfall (Type II). However. Sect. and drainage systems which can have considerable effects on existing sewer systems. flood planning method) and block rainfall is generally sufficient.s) or flow times up to 15 min (“small catchment areas”) in accordance with DIN EN 752-4 simple empirical methods are recommended. The estimation of the overdamming frequency according to both methods thus agrees well. The flow time is approximated without taking into account the discharge process on the surface for flow rates with complete filling and here are related to the complete catchment area. over a wide range (i. in particular with drainage systems with increased storage volumes (stormwater tanks. With larger networks it is recommended to safeguard dimensioning through a verification calculation. 1997). In a subsequent recalculation it is to be examined whether and. For the calculation of larger developments (> 200 ha).2). if required. are to be taken into account.
the frequency and the effects of overloading which occur and thus from the defined flooding protection. determination of the water level relationships (e. measurements of discharge and water levels) and the inspection of the locality. synthetic rainfall Synthetic rainfall Euler (Type II) Synthetic rainfall groups Measured heavy rainfall series Possible Possible Possible Recommended Recommended Recommended Essential aims of the analysis could be: determination of the rates of utilisation and the functional hydraulic capability. if required with reduced scope of precipitation loading (Table 10). in particular structural condition of the sewers.6. deployments of the fire services. Table 9: Recommendations on applications for the recalculation of existing systems Flow time methods Possible Hydrological models Hydrodynamic models Rainfall duration frequency curve. overloaded systems). 6. For this case there are recommended selection possibilities with regard to calculation methods and precipitation loading which are to be found in Table 9. This can be determined through systematic observations (questioning of residents. From the assessment of the necessary rehabilitation methods and.2 Recalculation of Existing Systems The hydraulic recalculation should generally be a component of an overall consideration of the condition and function of existing drainage systems. The hydraulic recalculation should be supplemented through systematic observations of system behaviour with the occurrence of heavy rainfall events and through possibly existing measurements. necessity for/capacity of stormwater overflow structures in combined systems.2. identification of weak points and reserves. however. in addition to the hydraulic requirements of rehabilitation. further criteria are to be taken into account. general demands on water pollution control. This should take place using the same calculation methods as for the recalculation of the actual status. With the elaboration of rehabilitation concepts. establishment of the requirement for rehabilitation (note planning limits). if required. It can be occasioned in particular through apparent system overloads or flooding which has occurred in the past or pending changes in the sewer system catchment area. the levels of priority for possible rehabilitation measures based on the determined frequencies and the scale of calculated overloading can be established. if required. The level of the rehabilitation requirement of existing systems in this case.taking into account of the planning limits (≥ 50 years for drainage systems ) .2. which can influence the discharge.3 Calculation of Rehabilitation Variants According to the established (hydraulic) rehabilitation requirement . 26 November 1999 . does not result directly from the specifications of DIN EN 752-2 (see Table 2). but primarily from the actual discharge behaviour of drainage systems.possible rehabilitation measures are to be elaborated and investigated in a consideration of variants with regard to the effects on the discharge behaviour.g. different rehabilitation variants.
when complicated hydraulic conditions or special requirements for flood protection exist in the drainage area. Due to difficulties in reflecting the surface flooding process technically in a model.3 Safety against Flooding The European Standard Specification DIN EN 752-2 assumes the frequency of flooding as verification criteria (comp. Sect. always be carried out where doubts exist about sufficient protection against flooding. in particular in connection with pronounced storage effects. the frequency or recurrence time with which the water levels occur above a certain level (e. For the employment of Euler synthetic rainfall (Type II) it is recommended that the rainfall frequency be selected the same as the specified overdamming frequency (comp.1). It is always to be recommended. synthetic rainfall Synthetic rainfall Euler (Type II) Synthetic rainfall groups Measured heavy rainfall series Possible Possible Possible Recommended Recommended Recommended 6. an assessment of the conditions on site is absolutely necessary for the area with calculated overdamming. as result. 6. 6. available records on previous system behaviour are to be evaluated (fire service deployments and similar). The verification of security against overdamming should. With extended systems. 5. The application recommendations expressed in Table 11 apply for the carrying out of the verification calculation. In this case the statements in Sect. The flooding process on the surface and the flood protection are. Table 3).1 or at the end of the hydraulic recalculation. surface of a road).4 Verification of Overdamming Frequency The implementation of a verification calculation supplementary to re-dimensioning is recommended for large drainage networks. The possibility and danger of flooding in the case of overdamming of the sewer system is also to be checked in the case of a simple dimensioning in accordance with Sect. The verification action starts from the calculated or defined cross-section and delivers. possible effects of an uneven rainfall distribution could require attention. Verification calculations should identify. in addition. If required.1 with regard to recurrence times and overdamming frequencies apply (Table 3).ATV-A 118 E Table 10: Recommendations on applications for the calculation of rehabilitation variants Flow time methods Possible Hydrological models Hydrodynamic models Rainfall duration frequency curve. Table 11: Recommendations on applications for the verification of overdamming frequency Flow time methods Possible Hydrological models Hydrodynamic models Rainfall duration frequency curve.1. sufficiently comprehensive and locally accurate precipitation data have particular significance for the verification calculation with heavy rainfall series or synthetic rainfall groups. to a high degree dependent on the local situation and therefore require an assessment of the conditions in the local area. synthetic rainfall Synthetic rainfall Euler (Type II) Synthetic rainfall groups Measured heavy rainfall series Possible Possible Possible Recommended Recommended Recommended For complex system conditions. for network points with overdamming across the ground.2. 5. the volume of combined wastewater or stormwater which emerges or is not discharged as well as the duration of the calculated overdamming in order better to be able to assess the danger of flooding of neighbouring November 1999 27 .g. Water levels above the crown of the sewer can be calculated accurately using hydrodynamic methods.
Waste ATV-A 105E: “Selection of the Drainage System” ATV-A 110E: “Standards for the Hydraulic Dimensioning and Performance Verification of Sewers and Drains” ATV-A 111E: “Standards for the Hydraulic Dimensioning and Performance Verification of Stormwater Overflow Installations in Sewers and Drains” ATV-A 112: “Richtlinien für die hydraulische Dimensionierung und den Leistungsnachweis von Sonderbauwerken in Abwasserkanälen und -leitungen” [Standards for the Hydraulic Dimensioning and Performance Verification of Special Structures in Sewers and Drains] ATV-A 116E: “Special Sewer Systems . If a flooding of neighbouring properties is to be feared due to topographical and other local characteristics. suitable measures (design) with the layout of roads are to be implemented or the discharge of excess (waste-) water into no-endangered areas is to be examined.properties or of significant prejudicing of the function of important traffic facilities (underpasses).Vacuum Drainage Service . Evaluation of Precipitation Measurements] ATV-A 128E: “Standards for the Dimensioning and Design of Stormwater Overflows in Combined Wastewater Sewers” ATV-A 131E: “ Dimensioning of Single-Stage Activated Sludge Plants” ATV-A 138E: “Construction and Dimensioning of Facilities for Decentralised Percolation of Non-Harmful Polluted Precipitation Water” ATV-A 200E: “Principles for the Disposal of Wastewater in Rurally Structured Areas” ATV-A 400E: “Principles for the Preparation of German ATV Standards” ATV-M 101E: 28 November 1999 .Starkregenauswertung nach Wiederkehrzeit und Dauer. the contour line of the road should be included in the examination and harmless discharge assured.1 ATV Standards Wastewater. die Gestaltung und den Betrieb von Regenrückhaltebecken” [Standards for the Dimensioning. 7 Applicable Standard Specifications and Rules and Standards 7. So far as the latter is discharged on to the road surface or is stored. if required using structural measures.Pressure Drainage Service” ATV-A 117: “Richtlinien für die Bemessung. Design and Operation of Stormwater Holding Tanks] ATV-A 121: “Niederschlag . Niederschlagsmessungen Auswertung” [Precipitation .Heavy Rainfall Evaluation according to Recurrence Time and Duration.
St. landw. Publisher W. Rehabilitation and Replacement” ATV-M 165: “Anforderungen an Niederschlag-Abfluß-Berechnungen in der Stadtentwässerung” [Requirements on Precipitation Run-off calculations in Municipal Drainage Systems] European and DIN Standard Specifications DIN EN 752: “Drain and sewer systems outside buildings” Part 1: Generalities and definitions Part 2: Performance requirements Part 3: Planning Part 4: Hydraulic design and environmental considerations Part 5: Rehabilitation Part 6: Pumping installations Part 7: Maintenance and operations DIN EN 1091: “Vacuum sewerage systems outside buildings” DIN EN 1671: “Pressure sewerage systems outside buildings” DIN EN 12056: “Gravity drainage inside buildings” DIN 1986-2: “Drainage systems for buildings and private property. Schmutz.und Mischwasserkanälen“ [Standards for the hydraulic dimensioning of stormwater. otherwise a courtesy translation is provided in square brackets] Althaus. Vol.. ATV Standard ATV-A 118. Berlin/München ATV (1977): ATV (1995a): November 1999 29 . [Comparison of synthetic rainfall for sewer network calculation] Mitt. New Construction. Hydr. Inst. 56 (1984). u. Wasserwirt. Wasserbau TU Hannover. „Richtlinien für die hydraulische Bemessung von Regen-. J. normal and combined wastewater sewers] ATV Rules and Standards.: Vergleich von Modellregen zur Kanalnetzberechnung. Part 2: Determination of nominal widths for sewers and drains” Literature [Translator's note: known translations are give in English. 4th Edition. Augustin „Planung der Kanalisation“ [Planning of the sewer system] ATV Manual . Ernst und Sohn.ATV-A 118 E “Planning of Drain and Sewer systems.
Vol. p. Berichte aus Wasserwirtschaft und Gesundheitsingenieurwesen. (1997): DWD (1997): Engel. 15. (1994): Kesser. Hydrology and Agricultural Hydraulic Engineering]. Vol. 10.W. Offenbach/Main „Hydrologische Simulation der Ausflußtransformation in Kanalisationsnetzen“ [Hydrological simulation of discharge transformation in sewer networks] Technical reports on hydrological technology and hydraulics. 9 „Umfrageergebnisses zum Stand der Kanalnetzberechnungsverfahren und der Bemessungskriterien“ [Results of a survey on the status of sewer network calculation methods and the dimensioning criteria]. (1991): 30 November 1999 . (1981): Königer. ATV Report ATV Working Group 1. (1991): Neumann. J. 1336 ff. Vol. (1980): Königer. 37-62 „Bemessung von Misch. University of Darmstadt. Hydrologie und landwirtschaftlichen Wasserbau [Report of the Institute for Water Management. Korrespondenz Abwasser. G.2. 28 „Starkniederschlagshöhen für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland“ [Heavy precipitation amounts for the Federal republic of Germany]. Vol. Bayerisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft..91. Parts 1 and 2. May 1996 „Besonderheiten bei der hydraulischen Nachweisrechnung großer Kanalnetze“ [Peculiarities with the hydraulic verification of large sewer networks]. Selbstverlag des deutschen Wetterdienstes [Own publishing by the German Weather Service]. E. (1976): Laube. Willems. 47.6. p. Institut für Wasserbau [Institute of Hydraulic Engineering]. A.3-2 dated 01.definitions and areas of application] ATV Report ATV Working Group 1. 10.Definitionen und Anwendungsbereiche“ [Overdamming and flooding . Dohm. Vol. University of Hannover „Die Anwendung der Extremal-3-Verteilung bei der Regenauswertung und der Niedrigwasseranalyse“ [The application of Extremal-3 distribution with rainfall assessment and low water analysis] gwf-wasser/Abwasser 122.06. H. (1991): Meißner.ATV (1995b): ATV (1996): „Überstau und Überflutung .2. W. F. TU München.. „Ermittlung der befestigten Fläche zur Bemessung von Regenbecken“ [Determination of the hard surfaces for the dimensioning of stormwater tanks]. Korrespondenz Abwasser. p. W. W. Vol.und Regenwasserkanälen“ [Dimensioning of combined wastewater and stormwater sewers] Advisory Leaflet No. 4.1. Korrespondenz Abwasser. Zeitschrift für Stadtentwässerung und Gewässerschutz (SuG) [Journal for Municipal Drainage and Water Pollution Control]. Vol. 11. 46-466 „Hydraulische Grundlagen von Niederschlagsabflußmodellen“ [Hydraulic bases of precipitation discharge models] Zeitschrift für Stadtentwässerung und Gewässerschutz (SuG) [Journal for Municipal Drainage and Water Pollution Control]. Vol. Vol. Cassar. 5. 52 „Beitrag zur Qualifizierung der hydrologischen Parameter für Siedlungsgebiete“ [Contribution on the quantification of hydrological parameters for residential areas] Mitteilung des Instituts für Wasserwirtschaft. München 1991 „Der Oberflächenabfluß in städtischen Einzugsgebieten“ [The surface run-off in municipal catchment areas]. N.
„Der instationäre Kanalabfluss in der Schmutzfrachtmodellierung“ [The unsteady sewer discharge in pollution load modelling] Gas-Wasser-Abwasser 58 (1978).G. 260-263. 124-128. 3rd Saarland Wastewater Day/ATV Federal State Group Conference Hessen/RheinlandPfalz/Saarland “Rainfall temporal patterns for design flood”. 81-95. Regenüberläufe und Regenbecken“. I. No.H. Vol. 47. M. 18. „Die Anwendung von Simulationsmodellen in der Stadtentwässerung“ (1999): [The application of simulation models in municipal drainage] Schriftenreihe für Zeitschrift und Gewässerschutz. Thomas. Journal of the Hydraulics Division ASCE 101. University of Kaiserslautern. November 1999 31 .. „Die Wahrscheinlichkeit des gleichzeitigen Auftretens maßgebender Abflußereignisse in Kanalisationsnetzen und natürlichen Gewässern“ [The probability of concurrent occurrence of relative discharge events in sewer system networks and natural surface waters]. p. 40. (1997): Sieker. (1997): Stecker. (1985): Schmitt. 658-667. Werp. (1994): Schmitt. „Untersuchungen zum rechnerischen Überstaunachweis auf der Basis von Modellregen und Regenserien“ [Investigations for the mathematical overdamming verification on the basis of synthetic rainfall and rainfall series]. Cordery. (1997): Verworn. F. stormwater overflows and stormwater tanks]. Hydrologie und Landwirtschaftlichen Wasserbau. „Bildung und Anwendung von Starkregenserien für den Überstaunachweis bei Mischund Regenwasserkanälen“ [Formation and application of heavy rainfall series for the verification of overdamming with combined and stormwater sewers] gwf Wasser Abwasser. p. Vol. M..ATV-A 118 E Otter.G. p. T. Final report of the ATV A 1. M.. W. W. „Hydrodynamische Kanalnetzberechnung und die Auswirkungen von Vereinfachung der (1980): Bewegungsgleichungen“ [Hydrodynamic sewer network calculation and the effects of simplification of the laws of motion] Mitteilungen des Instituts für Wasserwirtschaft. (1986): Pecker. (1975): Sartor. Königer. H. (1992): „Dimensionierung von Kanalnetzen in der Rechtsprechung des Bundesgerichtshofs“ [Dimensioning of sewer networks in the jurisdiction of the (German) Federal Supreme Court] Korrespondenz Abwasser. p. Vol. Berichte des Fachgebietes Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft. Vol.-R. Reimers.6 Project (unpublished). J. Vol.. [dimensioning rainfall for sewer networks. Gas-Wasser-Abwasser 66. A. 9. J. T. 5. D. 11.und Mischwasserkanälen im europäischen Vergleich“ [Dimensioning of stormwater and combined sewers in European comparison]. Vol. 3. Vol. „Vergleichende Kanalnetzberechnung mit Modellregen und Langzeit-Serien-Simulation“ [Comparative sewer network calculation using synthetic rainfall and long-term series simulation] Zeitschrift für Stadtentwässerung und Gewässetschutz (SuG). R.(1995): „Bemessungsregen für Kanalnetz. Pilgrim. „Bemessung von Regen.3. SuG-Verlag Hannover Verworn. HY 1. Hannover.
This synthetic rainfall. Fig. in general. with the flow time on the surface.6 60 18. delivers discharges and water levels which lie on the safe side.8 30 14.7 45 16. The damping of the discharge wave with longer flow paths on the surface. The duration of the synthetic rainfall peaks should.0: D (min) h (mm) 5 6. as a rule. A1-2 shows the synthetic rainfall obtained through transposition of the intervals. 32 November 1999 . The next lower intervals are joined on to the left of the time axis until the point in time t = 0 is reached.4 20 12.0 The rainfall amounts of the individual time intervals result through subtraction from the rainfall sums (Fig. The sum of all individual intervals up to the time t corresponds with the value of the rainfall amount curve With synthetic rainfall according to EULER (Type II) the point in time for the start of the rainfall intensity is determined with the highest precipitation intensity with 0. the following rainfall amount curves for n = 1. This corresponds. Fig. A1-1: Rainfall amount h in 5 minute intervals. be 5 minutes.5 15 11. A11).1 10 9.3 times the synthetic rainfall duration and rounded down to a multiple of five minutes. for example with outside areas. takes place within the framework of the calculation of the stormwater run-off. Further rainfall intervals follow the time axis to the right after the peak interval and fill the time period up to the end of the synthetic rainfall.Appendix A1 Creation of synthetic rainfall according to Euler Type II Given are. as a rule. for example.
013 5 0. not more than two or three events per year are taken out.358 3. on the other.834 0. The intensity progression of the rainfall event (including antecedent and successive rainfall) is standardised in that the individual intervals are so multiplied by a factor that their sum in the maximum stage of the corresponding duration gives the value 1 (table A2-2). A1-2: Individual synthetic rainfall according to Euler (Type 2) through transposition of the 5 minute intervals from Fig. While the centring of the crucial point with increasing rainfall duration effects a certain flattening of the rainfall progression.184 Date 27.158 0. which can take place through the chronological centring of the crucial point or the 5 minute peak intervals of precipitation. All rainfall events taken from the series are centred with regard to this critical point (Table A2-1).1956 08. centred on the critical point of the maximum 15 minute stage. Critica l point 3 3.795 6 0. there result pronounced precipitation peaks through the maximum value centring (Schaardt.480 9 0. With this. The method using the centring of precipitation critical points (Otter. A1-1 A2 Production of a synthetic rainfall group The compilation of the individual rainfall of different duration within a recurrence time determined for a synthetic rainfall group is based on the statistic evaluation of measured precipitation series.636 3.0 mm) in 5 minute intervals. That means.ATV-A 118 E Fig. at least 30 events per continuous period and. as with the frequency analysis of heavy rainfall (ATV.149 0 2 2.260 0.185 0.900 4 0. 1986) is illustrated below as an example.564 First.172 2. on one hand.590 0.1957 etc.531 8 0.08. Table A2-1: Measured heavy rainfall events (h15 > 4.913 0.450 0 0. 1999).149 0. that a minimum duration of the precipitation series of 10 to 20 years is required.06.944 7 0.201 0 0. 1 0. Königer.857 0. Rainfall events with which less than 2/3 of the maximum phase are filled by rain are excluded. the threshold values should be so selected that. November 1999 33 . 1985).1956 10.09. The progression of the precipitation characteristic for the respective rainfall duration is obtained by means of standardisation of the measured natural rainfall of the same rainfall duration. The critical points of the maximum phases (bold figures in Table A2-1) are determined and are rounded to an integral column number. maximum precipitation stages for various duration phases D are sought from a continuous rainfall series.546 1.260 0.
Fig.09 9 0. 34 November 1999 .66 6 0. the synthetic rainfall is present with a typical intensity progression corresponding with the rainfall duration. Now all intervals in a column are sorted according to size and the value determined which is equally exceeded or undercut (median.55 4 0.56 0.10 1.03 0 0.1957 etc.20) (3rd line) 1 0.09. DWD.38 Median value Synthetic rainfall h15 = 12.13 1.04 0.0 / (0. The start of the antecedent rainfall is achieved if the rainfall intensity undercuts a boundary intensity of some 0.20 2.02 0.55 0.02 0.56 + 0.260 5 0.1956 10.40 0.02 0.26 2 0.13 0.89 8 0.20 5 0.1 .18 2. A2-1: Synthetic rainfall D = 15 minute (example) For other duration phases the synthetic rainfall is derived statistically in the same way.07 0 0.18 + 0.15 3 0.14 0. The thus obtained intensity progression is multiplied by a factor (see Table A2-3) so that the amount of rainfall of the maximum phase corresponds with the desired frequency (e.1956 08.30 3 0.28 7 0.02 0 2 0.08.15 0.62 4 0. A2-2).16 6 0.0 mm With that.18 3 0.03 0.158 0.g. and does not exceed these in any interval Fig.g.0) 1 0. 1997) well in the area of their respective rainfall duration.56 7. 12 mm). Table A2-3: Median values per column of the standardised intensities (2nd line) and multiplication of all values by the factor 12.0.06.11 27.10 8 0.2 mm/5 min.Table A2-2: Standardised intensity progressions of the measured events (Σh15 = 1.03 0.07 0.19 7 0.42 0. Through plotting all synthetic rainfalls of the rainfall duration frequency curve a frequency can be examined as to whether the synthetic rainfall covers the rainfall duration frequency curve from the statistical precipitation evaluation (e.03 0. 50 % value).14 0.
however.ATV-A 118 E Fig. to an overdamming of the laiddown reference level. For security. however. For this. The series must at least contain all events which potentially can lead. be at least four hours. The as a minimum necessary registration period depends on the overdamming frequency to be verified. due to the required calculation times with the current state-of-theart with software and hardware. 1. 5. J. GasWasser-Abwasser 66. W.(1999: „Bemessungsregen für Kanalnetz. The effects of the rainfall events with regard to discharges and water levels within the sewer network.3) can be adopted.2. p. go on beyond the respective end of rainfall so that this can overlap the effects of a following event if the separation of the two events is very short. 5. however.. as a rule further pronounced events are also included in the series which would have only a low probability of leading to overdamming. Vol. The minimum chronological separation between individual events results from the emptying time of the drainage system.2.3. within the sewer network. A2-2: Rainfall duration frequency curves of the synthetic rainfalls D = 15 and 30 minutes and the rainfall duration frequency curve for the same frequency Further literature: Otter. Regenüberläufe und Regenbecken [Dimensioning rainfall for sewer networks. The employment of the complete series of all registered rainfall events would make a selection process superfluous. November 1999 35 . the guidance values given in Table 4 (Sect. stormwater overflows and stormwater tanks]“. gwf wasser Abwasser 140. 3. still not available today. Königer. V. which are selected according to certain criteria and taken from the available rainfall registers. Vol. however. 27-35 A 3 Compilation of heavy rainfall series With the defining of heavy rainfall series in accordance with Sect. rainfall events are applied with their actual duration and chronological progression. The gap in rainfall should. p. Smallest chronological separation between individual events Independent rainfall events are separated from subsequent events by precipitation-free periods. The separation between the events of a heavy rainfall series must take this into account. For the production of heavy rainfall series a recording period of precipitation of 30 years or more is desirable. it is too expensive and also not necessary. however. 124-128 „Belastungsannahmen bei der Kanalnetzberechnung größerer Einzugsgebiete [Loading assumptions with the calculation of sewer networks in larger catchment areas]“. (1986): Schaardt. Frequently data of this length of time are.
the selection of 15 min as the shortest and of 6 hr as the longest continuous period has proved itself.71 ⋅ M / Tn with: N M Tn = = = number of the events to be taken into account. that several rainfall periods determined previously from various continuous periods belong respectively to the same closed event. For each so determined amount of rainfall the associated recurrence time is determined according to the statistical method of ATV Standard ATV-A 121. proceeding from the series of individual continuous periods. minutes up to the boundary duration of the event are selected in turn according the amount of rainfall. the final number of selected events compared with the product (N x no. both with regard to time and amount. . Procedure for the selection of relevant events A possible criterion for the selection of the events is the introduction of a limiting value for the sum of precipitation of the natural events. supported by the German Weather Service (DWD) evaluation “Heavy rainfall amounts for the Federal Republic of Germany” (KOSTRA).Lowest intensity of precipitation With the limitation of rainfall events compared with dry periods there is the question of which intensity or amount of precipitation a rain shower has to have within a certain period in order to apply. distributed over. for example. A3-1) the maximum interval of the various continuous periods of 5. For all events selected within the different continuous periods with which. 36 November 1999 . In practice. as part of the event. 1 hr most probably will not cause an overdamming. With this.1 mm in 5 min. With these series not only the natural closed events are taken into account but also all extreme rainfall periods within the closed events. or 0. As guidance value the following can. 10. via the determination of so-called frequency or recurrence time profiles allows a detailed preliminary estimate of the effects of the individual rainfall events on the network to be investigated. These recurrence times are entered as ordinate values above which the given continuous periods are entered as abscissa values. in accordance with ATV Standard ATV-A 121. in general. of duration levels) is reduced considerably. Overall it suffices to carry out the calculation for some 6 continuous periods. Fig. proceeding from the largest event duration of the precipitation series based on the evaluations (in years) recurrence time of the overdamming frequency to be verified (in years) It is to be estimated which continuous periods are relevant for the respective network. There is therefore interest to restrict further the selection of events. VERWORN (1995) specifies a procedure which further limits the number of relevant events and.. it is determined via the specification of the date and time of the associated self-contained rainfall event from which the rainfall period originates and are identified as relevant events for the verification calculation. In this respect the following can serve as approximate value: hN. The frequency or recurrence time profiles of a natural rainfall event is determined as follows: Proceeding from the data sequence of the digitalised event given in 5 minute steps (comp. apply as approximate value: Nmin = 10 mm. In this case it results. These events are arranged according to the continuous period of the amount of the precipitation. It should be noted that the abscissa in this diagram does not reflect the time axis of the natural event but the succession of the various continuous periods. As here the duration of the precipitation event is not taken into account and precipitation of 10 mm. at the same time. FUCHS (1994) recommends. for example. in general. according to these criteria alone an unnecessarily large number of events are included in the series. which are independent according to the above given criteria. 15. one is concerned with periods of rainfall and not self-contained rain showers.min = 0.5 mm in 1 hr. The number of events taken up in the series are then calculated for each continuous period as follows: N = 2..
a limiting value of Tn. A3-1 shows the amount of rainfall of a natural event of overall 5 hours duration in 5 minute steps and in cumulative form. all natural events.5 results. A3-2: Profile of the recurrence times November 1999 37 .perm = 2.e.lim is determined which a natural event at any possible point has to achieve or exceed its recurrence profile in order to be taken into the selection.perm upon which the sewer network is to be dimensioned.perm : 2. The selection and limitation of the relevant heavy rainfall can now be carried out very simply in that a limiting value Tn. The profile of the recurrence times for the continuous periods of 5 minutes to 360 minutes is presented in Fig. for example. This value. the above event is to be taken up as relevant event in the selection series. which at any point in the sewer network lead to an overloading. result from addition of 5 minute intervals of rainfall amount 0). If. This limiting value is made dependent on the permitted recurrence time Tn. are recorded with the specification of Tn. In general.ATV-A 118 E Fig. A3-2 (the continuous periods extended up to 6 hours compared with the natural rainfall duration. in the above example. a sewer network is to be dimensioned on a recurrence time of overloading of once in 5 years. i. in order to limit the event further. A3-1: Amount of rainfall of a natural event Fig. is exceeded in the continuous periods between 75 and 360 minutes. Fig.lim ≥ Tn.
verification calculation can be found in the further literature. with regard to the start of overdamming. and Verworn. (1994): „Bewertung der Häufigkeit extremer Regenereignisse in Bremen im Jahre 1993 [Evaluation of the frequency of rainfall events in Bremen in 1993]“. J. If the number of calculated incidents of exceeding at one shaft is. it is calculated for each individual precipitation event at which shafts of the sewer network the water level exceeds the defined reference level of the overdamming frequency (in general the road or ground surface). using defined heavy rainfall series (comp. The time-related relative frequency of the exceeding then results very simply in that the number of incidents of exceeding is divided by the period of registration of the heavy rainfall series. for example. which also allows an extrapolation beyond the time period of the registration period is. 27-35 „Iterative Sanierungsberechnung eines städtischen Kanalnetzes [Iterative rehabilitation of a municipal serer network]“. Vol 32 Kolbinger. The possibility of the employment of a statistical distribution function. Following implementation of the hydrodynamic calculation for all events of the defined heavy rainfall series the number of incidents of exceeding the overdamming level are counted for each shaft. p. 1. With mathematical verification. L. A.-R. (1995): Fuchs. that the specified overdamming frequency or recurrence time of the overdamming event is not exceeded at any shaft in the sewer network.2.ISYBAU . Sect. Zeitschrift für Stadtentwässerung und Gewässerschutz (SuG). 5. A further statistic evaluation in the sense of matching a statistic distribution function. in that this can be included for the assessment of the effects of the overdamming event in the vicinity of the shaft concerned with regard to the required maintenance of the target parameter flooding frequency.Hydraulic Concept (Draft)]“. (1995) 38 November 1999 . exists with regard to the simulation dimensions “exiting volume of water” and “duration of the overdamming procedure”.ISYBAU . In particular with new planning the objective of carrying out verification can also be for reasons of cost or general water management and to orient the layout to the required overdamming frequency. Vol. The volume of exiting water and the duration of the overdamming procedure can also serve as possible additional result of the calculation to be taken into account. however. there results the relative frequency of exceeding of nai = 5/20 = 0. Vol. M. 5 and if the heavy rainfall series is based on a period of registration of Tn = 20 years. Further information on the application of heavy rainfall series simulation in the steps actual status analysis. Further literature: Broll-Bickhardt. using a hydrodynamic precipitation run-off model. rehabilitation calculations. and Meggeneder.3). 32 „Integriertes System Bauwesen .Carrying out verification using heavy rainfall series In the carrying out of the verification of a sufficient hydraulic efficiency of new or existing sewer networks it is to be confirmed mathematically. not possible as here only the alternative statement “undercutting or exceeding the reference level” is available.Fachinformationssystem Abwasser Hydraulisches Konzept (Entwurf) [Integrated System for Civil Engineering . Zeitschrift für Stadtentwässerung und Gewässerschutz (SuG).. H.25 or the recurrence time for exceeding is Tn = 1/nai = 4 years. which can be useful for the evaluation of the flooding danger if a sufficiently large number of overdamming event is available.Specialist Information Systems . gwf wasser Abwasser 140.
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