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GERMAN ATVDVWK
RULES AND STANDARDS
ATVDVWK STANDARD ATVDVWKA 110E
Hydraulic Dimensioning and Performance Verification
of Sewers and Drains
September 2001
ISBN 3936514305
Distribution: GFA Publishing Company of ATVDVWK Water, Wastewater and Waste
TheodorHeußAllee 17 • D53773 Hennef • Postfach 11 65 • D53758 Hennef
Telephone: +492242/872120 • Telefax: +492242/872100
Email: vertrieb@gfaverlag.de • Internet: http://www.gfaverlag.de
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
2
Die Deutsche Bibliothek [The German Library]– CIPEinheitsaufnahme
ATVDVWK, German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste:
ATVDVWK Set of Rules and /ATVDVWK, Water, Wastewater, Waste.
Hennef: GFA Publishing Company of ATVDVWK. Previously under the title:
German Association for Water Pollution Control (ATV): ATV Set of Rules and Standards
Standard
A 110E. Hydraulic Dimensioning and Performance Verification of Sewers and Drains 
2001
ISBN 3934984037
All rights, in particular those of translation into other languages, are reserved. No part of
this Standard may be reproduced in any form  by photocopy, microfilm or any other
process  or transferred into a language usable in machines, in particular data processing
machines, without the written approval of the publisher.
Publisher: ATVDVWK German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste,
TheodorHeussAllee 17, D53773 Hennef, Germany
Marketing: GFA  Publishing Company of ATVDVWK, Hennef
Original German version set and printed by:
DCM, Meckenheim, Germany
© GFA Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e.V. Hennef 2001
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
3
Preamble to the August 1988 Edition
The revision of ATV Standard A 110 had to give consideration to a host of suggestions
from practice, to realise the firm ideas of the ATV Advisory Board and to deal with
fundamental relationships. The questions relating to the recalculation of existing sewer
networks (performance verification), in particular, made it necessary to expand the
theoretical part of the draft of the new version to a greater extent than is customary in a
standard, which is not meant to be a manual.
Consequently, the Working Group first devised a comprehensive draft  the October
1985 version  which contained more information, explanations and source material than
was necessary for this Standard. The final print is an abbreviated version which is
essentially limited to describing the procedure in individual practical cases and no longer
contains any explanatory information or justifications.
The following accompanying publications to this ATV Standard appeared in Vol. 1/1989
of the Korrespondenz Abwasser:
Howe, H.O.: Grundzüge des neuen ATVArbeitsblattes A 110 [Main features of the new
ATV Standard A 110.]
Haendel, H.: Auswirkungen der Neufassung des ATVArbeitsblattes A 110 auf die
hydraulische Nachrechnung von Abwasserkanälen [Effects of the new
edition of ATV Standard A 110 on the hydraulic recalculation of sewers].
Knauf. D.: Fließtiefen und Durchflüsse für gegliederte Querschnitte [Flow depths and
throughflows for structured crosssections].
Ueker, K.J.: Abfußberechnung in Abwasserkanälen unter Berücksichtigung seitlicher
Zuflüsse [Flow calculation in sewers taking into account lateral inflows].
Unger, P.: Grundlagen der k
b
wertFestlegung im Arbeitsblatt A 110 [Bases of the
determination of the k
b
value in Standard A110].
Preamble to the present Edition
Due to suggestions received, amendments and corrections which have become
necessary and due to having to take into account the European Standard DIN EN 752
“Drain and sewer systems outside buildings”, Part 4 “Hydraulic design and environmental
considerations”, it has become necessary to revise the August 1988 edition of ATV A
110.
ATV Standard ATVA 110 is, within the framework of European standardisation, a source
for additional information in accordance with DIN EN 752, Part 4, Section 4, and thus a
component part of this European Standard.
The results of various ATV research projects have flown into the revised edition.
Fortunately the following were available for this:
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
4
 Beeinflussung der Leistungsfähigkeit von Kanalstrecken durch konstruktive
Veränderungen im Bereich der Schächte [Influencing of the efficiency of sewer
reaches through design changes in the area of shafts] (ATV/Deutsche
Bundesstiftung Umwelt [German Federal Foundation of the Environment]
 SIMK  Simulation von Teilfüllungenskurven [Simulation of partially filled curves] (ATV
25/97 and ATV 31/99)
 Schießender Abfluß in Krümmerschächten [Supercritical outflow in shafts for change
of flow direction] (ATV 09/98).
Important amendments in comparison with the August 1988 edition are:
 separation of the procedure with dimensioning and with performance verification
 revised, expanded representation of flow losses in shafts with and without
impounding
 new type of treatment of flow in shaft structures with supercritical discharge with
simultaneous flow diversion
 analytical treatment of flow in noncircular profiles and with partial filling conditions
 dropping taking into account the form coefficient f
 generalisation of the treatment of discontinuous flow by the introduction of the
factor m
 calculation of the energy conversion in the outlet area of steep sections
 expanded new version of the treatment of flat reaches and deposits
 revision of the calculation for open channels and structured crosssections.
With the calculation of surface curves the uninterrupted transfer from partial filling via
complete filling to pressure discharge (impounding) also taking into account the
impounding of shafts, is possible. Simplified mathematical models require modelspecific
approaches, which would lie outside the scope of ATV Standard A 110.
For reasons of easier reading and comparability with the August 1988 edition of ATV
A 110, the use of new [German] spelling rules introduced in some Federal German
States has been dispensed with.
Dr.Ing H. O. Howe, Chairman
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
5
Authors
This Standard has been revised by the ATVDVWK Working Group "Hydraulic
Calculation of Sewers and Drains” within the ATVDVWK Specialist Committee “Planning
of Drainage Systems”.
The Working Group has/had the following members:
Prof. Dr.Ing. E. Billmeier, Köln
Dr.Ing. P. Drewniok, Leipzig
Dr.Ing. N. Engel, Berlin (from 1998)
Dipl.Ing. KH. Flick, Köln (Chairman from 10/2000)
Dipl.Ing. H. Haendel, München, r.i.p.s.
Prof. Dr. sc. techn. W. H. Hager, Zürich
Dr.Ing. Harald O. Howe, Köln (Chairman to 9/2000)
BD Dr.Ing. H. Krier, Frankfurt
Dipl.Ing. G. Milkov, Hamburg
Obering. H. Schmidt, Erkrath
Dipl.Ing. F. Schweinebraten, Kassel (from 1996)
Prof. Dr.Ing. W. Tiedt, Darmstadt
Dr.Ing. P. Unger, Lich
Prof Dr.Ing. F. Valentin, München
Dipl.Ing. D. Wengler, Rheinfelden (from 1996)
Dipl.Ing. G. Zanker, München (to 1996)
ATVDVWKA 110E
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Contents Page
Preamble to the August 1988 edition 3
Preamble to the present edition 3
Authors 5
Notes for users 8
1 Scope 8
2 Hydraulic principles 8
2.1 Forms of discharge and discharge processes 8
2.2 Defining equations 9
2.3 Drag coefficient 12
2.4 Loading assumptions and limiting values 15
3 Formulas for calculation in the standard case 15
3.1 Closed channels 15
3.1.1 Complete filling 15
3.1.2 Partial filling 16
3.1.3 Special profiles with dry weather channel 20
3.2 Open channel 20
3.2.1 Calculation of flow depths 20
3.2.1.1 Normal water depth h
n
20
3.2.1.2 Critical depth h
crit
21
3.2.1.3 General flow depth h(x) 21
3.2.2 Calculation of flows 22
3.2.2.1 Normal discharge Q
n
22
3.2.2.2 Critical discharge Q
crit
22
3.2.2.3 Discharge curve Q = f(h) 23
3.2.3 Flow depths and flows for structured crosssections 24
4 Dimensioning and performance verification 26
4.1 Determination of roughness 26
4.1.1 General measure of roughness k 26
4.1.2 Operational roughness k
b
27
4.2 Calculation of individual losses 28
4.2.1 Loss coefficients as a result of positional inaccuracies and changes (ζ
Pi
) 29
4.2.2 Loss coefficients for pipe connections (ζ
PC
) 29
4.2.3 Loss coefficients at inlet fixtures (ζ
in
) 29
4.2.4 Loss coefficients for control shafts (ζ
C
) 30
4.2.5 Loss coefficients for special shafts (ζ
S
) 32
4.2.6 Loss coefficients (ζ
fd
) and verifications for flow diversion 33
4.2.6.1 Subcritical flow 34
4.2.6.2 Supercritical flow 34
4.2.7 Loss coefficients for combining structures (ζ
CS
) and verification for
flow merging 36
4.2.7.1 Subcritical discharge 36
4.2.7.2 Supercritical discharge 38
ATVDVWKA 110E
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4.2.8 Other loss coefficients 38
4.3 Dimensioning 38
4.4 Performance verification 39
5 Flow with lateral inflow (discontinuous flow) 40
5.1 Effect of lateral inflow 41
5.2 Simplified procedure 41
5.2.1 Dimensioning (selection of a constant replacement flow) 41
5.2.2 Performance verification 42
6 Flat stretches and depositing 42
7 Steep stretches and air transfer 45
7.1 Steep stretches  inflow 46
7.2 Steep stretches  throughflow 46
7.3 Steep stretches  outflow 47
8 Special structures 49
9 Pressure and vacuum drainage, compressed air flushed
wastewater transport pipelines, wastewater pumping stations
with pressure pipelines 50
10 Private property drainage 51
11 Cost aspects 52
12 Literature 53
13 Symbols, units and definitions 56
Appendix 59
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
8
Notes for Users
This ATV Standard is the result of honorary, technicalscientific/economic collaboration
which has been achieved in accordance with the principles applicable for this activity
(statutes, rules of procedure of the ATV and ATV Standard ATVA 400). For this,
according to precedents, there exists an actual presumption that it is textually and
technically correct and also generally recognised.
Everyone is at liberty to apply this Standard. However, an obligation for application can
arise from legal or administrative regulations, a contract or other legal reason.
This Standard is an important, however, not the sole source of information for correct
solutions. With its application no one avoids responsibility for his own action or for the
correct application in specific cases; this applies in particular for the correct handling of
the margins described in the Standard.
1 Scope
ATV Standard A 110 “Guidelines for the hydraulic calculation of sewers” in its original
version (October 1965) [not translated into English] had presented the calculation of the
discharge capacity and flow rate on theoretically better assured bases. Building on the
results from Prandtl and Colebrook, the discharge condition, which is based on a
dimensioning, can be better described. Furthermore, the ever increasingly important
subsequent calculations of existing networks, without application of the bases, would
contain considerable uncertainties.
The first revision (August 1988) updated this Standard ATVA 110 [translated into
English as ATV Standard ATVA 110E] as “Standards for the Hydraulic Dimensioning
and Performance Verification of Sewers and Drains”. This second revision builds further
on this.
A summary of the rules due to European standardisation and their adoption through DIN
EN 7524 serves for current orientation. The symbols and terms used are  as far as
possible  in agreement with DIN 4044 “Hydromechanics in hydraulics; definitions”, DIN
4045 “Wastewater engineering; vocabulary” and DIN EN 752 “Drain and sewer systems
outside buildings”, Part1 “Generalities and definitions”.
2 Hydraulic Principles
2.1 Forms of Discharge and Discharge Processes
The discharge in sewers and drains is characterised by a great number of
simultaneously possible forms of discharge, the most important of which in the area of
sewer systems are compiled in Table 1 below. All details refer to parameters in the
direction of flow.
Under the given prerequisites and ignoring further terms of the complete differential
equation there result gradually simplified calculation statements, which are put together
in Table 2 with their associated designations. The equations in Line (0) describe in detail
the discharge process in sewers and drains in a generally valid form. Line (1) applies for
transport pipelines without lateral in or outflows along the calculated stretch.
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
9
Further simplifications to Line (2) to Line (6) result through random omission of individual
influencing elements. Neglecting the elements
x
v
g
v
and
t
v
g
1
∂
∂
⋅
∂
∂
⋅
errors occur which can have the opposite tendency.
For transport pipelines the application of the equations in Line (4) should therefore
definitely be given preference over the calculation methods according to Line (2) or Line
(3). A more extensive assessment of the correctness of the various simplified
assumptions has to date not been possible, instead one is reliant on control calculations
in individual cases.
The necessary numerical assumptions (increments ∆x, ∆t; their ratio; convergence
criteria) are to be observed for solutions based on the complete statements in Lines (0)
or (1). Simplification according to Line (7) is applied for the calculation of partial filling
conditions (see Sect. 3.1.2), but describes a discharge form which  with the exception
of very long transport pipelines  does not occur in the practical operation of sewers and
drains. Nevertheless the use of this relationship, represents a useful estimation on
whose accuracy no exaggerated demands should be placed and whose limits are
redefined in this standard.
2.2 Defining Equations
The defining equation for the mean flow rate is
A
Q
v = (1)
In which the following apply
v the mean velocity in the direction of flow [m/s]
Q the flow also known as discharge or volume flow
1)
[m
3
/s]
A The flow crosssection, in the case of the completely filled circular pipe [m
2
]:
with
4
d
A
2
⋅ π
=
d as the actual internal diameter of the circular pipe (clear width) [m].
The resistance formula
2)
for the friction losses, taken as being evenly distributed along
the flow stretch in the direction of flow, is
g 2
v
r 4
l
h
2
hy
f
⋅ ⋅ λ = (2)
In which the following apply:
__________________
1) In wastewater engineering the flow is usually expressed in l/s; for general considerations m
3
/s is selected for reasons of
dimensioning.
2) This resistance formula was developed by D’Aubuisson de Voisin (1834) and Weisbach (1845); it is often erroneously attributed
to Darcy and also incorrectly referred to as the “DarcyWiesbach Equation”
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
10
h
f
energy fall
λ a nondimensional resistance coefficient [1]
r
hy
the hydraulic radius [m], defined as
) filling half / complete with pipe circular the for (
4
d
l perimeter wetted
A tion sec cross flow
r
P
hy
=
−
=
l the length [m] of the drain or sewer section.
Converted Eqn. (2):
g 2
v
h 4
1
l
h
J
2
ry
f
E
⋅ ⋅ λ = = (3)
Here, J
E
is the designation for the gradient of the energy curve.
In the case of steadystate, uniform discharge (Line 7 of Table 2), the socalled normal
discharge, the gradient of the energy curve J
E
is equal to the sole gradient J
so
. This can,
in general, be formed with the projection length of the pipeline. Up to a gradient of some
200 ‰ the inherent error is less than 2 %. On the other hand, with steep stretches, the
actual pipeline length is to be applied.
Table 1: Forms of discharge in sewers and drains
Designation Criteria Designation Criteria
steadystate
0
t
()
=
∂
∂
unsteady
0
t
()
≠
∂
∂
uniform
0
x
()
=
∂
∂
nonuniform
0
t
()
≠
∂
∂
continuous q = 0 discontinuous q ≠ 0
subcritical Fr < 1 supercritical Fr > 1
laminar Re < 2320 turbulent Re > 2320
singlephase wastewater multiphase wastewater + air
With the hydraulic dimensioning and calculation tasks within wastewater engineering,
there are not only continuously active influences such as wall friction to be taken into
account but also the effects of locally occurring individual losses to be included in the
calculation.
In this the following apply (assuming onedimensional streamtube theory):
t
()
∂
∂
the variability of a flow value (), e.g. Q, h, v with time t
x
()
∂
∂
the variability of a flow value (), e.g. Q, h, v with flow path x
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
11
q the lateral inflow per unit of length in the direction of flow [m
3
/(s
⋅
m)]
Fr Froude Number [1]
Re Reynolds Number [1]
Table 2: Calculation formulations for flow processes in sewers and drains
Line Type of motion Motion equation Continuity equation
0 unsteady
nonuniform
discontinuous
F So
J J
x
h
A g
q v
m
x
v
g
v
t
v
g
1
− =
∂
∂
+
⋅
⋅
⋅ +
∂
∂
⋅ +
∂
∂
⋅ q
t
A
x
Q
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
1 unsteady
nonuniform
F So
J J
x
h
x
v
g
v
t
v
g
1
− =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
⋅ +
∂
∂
⋅ 0
t
A
x
Q
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
2 unsteady
simplified
nonuniform
F So
J J
x
h
t
v
g
1
− =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
⋅
0
t
A
x
Q
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
3 simplified unsteady
nonuniform F So
J J
x
h
x
v
g
v
− =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
⋅
0
t
A
x
Q
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
4 simplified unsteady
simplified nonuniform
F So
J J
x
h
− =
∂
∂
0
t
A
x
Q
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
5 steadystate
nonuniform F So
J J
x
h
x
v
g
v
− =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
⋅
0
x
Q
=
∂
∂
6 steadystate
simplified nonuniform
F So
J J
x
h
− =
∂
∂
0
x
Q
=
∂
∂
7 steadystate
uniform
(normal discharge)
0
x
h
=
∂
∂
0
x
Q
=
∂
∂
In which the following apply
Q throughflow [m
3
/s]
q lateral inflow per unit of length in the
direction of flow (assumed steady
state) [m
3
/(s
⋅
m)]
A flow crosssection perpendicular to
the sole [m
2
]
J
so
sole gradient (with open channel
possibly not constant) [1]
J
F
friction gradient
3)
[1]
x path coordinate in direction of flow [m]
t time coordinate [s]
h filling height in profile or depth of water (perpendicular to
sole) or the pressure head in completely filled drains at
the sole of the pipe or profile [m]
v mean velocity [m/s] in a crosssection in direction of flow
g acceleration due to gravity [m/s
2
]
m factor with inclusion of additional losses [1] (see also Eqn.
52)
In the general, comprehensive form which includes these individual losses, Eqn. 2
becomes:
g 2
v
)
r 4
l
( h
2
hy
f
⋅ ς Σ + ⋅ λ = (4a)
_________________
3)
The friction gradient J
F
, with sufficient accuracy, may be replaced by the energy gradient J
E
(see also Eqn. 3)
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
12
or for the circular pipe
g 2
v
)
d
l
( h
2
f
⋅ ς Σ + ⋅ λ = (4b)
Here ζ designates a nondimensional coefficient (see Sect. 4), through which the size of
the individual losses h
f,i
, referred to the velocity head v/2g, is determined
g 2
v
h
2
i , f
⋅ ς = (4c)
With the inclusion of Eqn. 1 one obtains the general flow formula
E hy
hy
J r 4 g 2
l
r 4
1
A v A Q ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
ζ Σ ⋅ + λ
⋅ = ⋅ = (5a)
and thus for the circular pipe
E
2
J d g 2
l
d
1
4
d
v A Q ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
ζ Σ ⋅ + λ
⋅
⋅ π
= ⋅ = (5b)
For simplified handling, the combination of the various loss coefficients into one
operational drag coefficient λ
b
is proposed. This is defined as
ζ Σ ⋅ + λ = λ
l
r 4
hy
b
(6)
With this Eqns. 5a and 5b become
E hy
b
J r 4 g 2
1
A Q ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
λ
⋅ = (7a)
and thus for the circular pipe
E
b
2
J d g 2
1
4
d
Q ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
λ
⋅
⋅ π
= (7b)
2.3 Drag Coefficient
In connection with the resistance coefficient, a distinction is made between the following
cases and ranges for turbulent flow (laws of resistance):
1) Ideal or hydraulically smooth behaviour (smooth curve) according to Prandtl:
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
13


.

\

λ ⋅
⋅ − = − λ ⋅ ⋅ =
λ Re
51 . 2
lg 2 8 . 0 ) lg(Re 2
1
(8)
2) Completely or hydraulically rough behaviour (completely rough area) according to
Prandtl


.

\

⋅ ⋅ − = +


.

\

⋅ =
λ
hy
hy
r 4
k
71 . 3
1
lg 2 14 . 1
k
r 4
lg 2
1
(9)
3) Technically rough behaviour (transitional area) according to Colebrook
(
(
¸
(
¸
⋅ +
λ ⋅
⋅ − =
λ
hy
r 4
k
71 . 3
1
Re
51 . 2
lg 2
1
(10)
Only Eqn. 10 is of practical importance for use in sewers and drains. It is generally
designated as the PrandtlColebrook equation.
Here the following apply:
λ drag coefficient [1]
Re Reynolds Number


.

\

ν
⋅
=
hy
r 4 v
[1]
k the hydraulically effective roughness of the internal pipe wall, defined by the Prandtl
Colebrook Equation and to be determined precisely through hydraulic trials only [mm;
m].
r
hy
the hydraulic radius, calculated from the clear dimensions of the flow  in the case of
circular pipes it is 4r
hy
= d [m].crosssection.
In the socalled Moody diagram, Fig. 1, the relationships expressed in the above
formulas are represented in graphic form. A detail of the part of this diagram interesting
for the most frequent cases in practice is contained in Appendix A5.
The application of the relationships according to Eqns 8, 9 and 10 is permitted for both
circular crosssections and noncircular crosssections and that is for closed profiles and
also open channels. Even in the case of crosssections, which are far from circular, the
taking into account of a form coefficient f is dispensed with for the correction of the
hydraulic radius r
hy
4)
. The kinematic viscosity is defined as
] s / m [ v
2
ρ
η
= (11)
Here the following apply:
η dynamic viscosity [kg/(m
⋅
s)]
ρ density [kg/m
3
]
The dependence of kinematic viscosity on the temperature is shown in Table 3.
_________________
4) For this see also the report of ATV Research Projects 25/97 and 31/99
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
14
Fig. 1: Moody diagram for completely filled circular pipes
Table 3: Kinematic viscosity for various temperatures (values for pure water)
T [°C] 5 10 15 20 25 30
ν
⋅
10
6
(
¸
(
¸
s
m
2
1.52 1.31 1.15 1.01 0.90 0.80
With the calculation of sewers and drains as a rule the following is set:
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
15
(
¸
(
¸
⋅ = ν
−
s
m
10 31 . 1
2
6
Within this the normally higher temperatures and the other composition of wastewater
compared with pure water are taken into account.
2.4 Loading Assumptions and Critical Values
The load assumptions for determining the flow and water surface profiles can be found in
ATV Standard ATVA 118E. Information concerning the surface runoff (e.g. percolation,
pit losses and flow times) is given in ATVA 118E and ATVM 165.
DIN 1986, Part 2 applies together with DIN EN 12056 for private property drains within
buildings; outside of buildings the standard series DIN EN 752 applies.
With the dimensioning of sewers and drains, for reasons of correct operation, attention is
to be paid to the observance of critical values for flow velocities. Flat stretches (see Sect.
6) are characterised by operation in the vicinity of the minimum velocity, steep stretches
(see Sect. 7) by operation with relatively high velocities.
Global critical values for both ranges are no longer suitable. The recommended
procedure is dealt with in detail in Sects. 6 and 7.
3 Formulas for Calculation in the Standard Case
3.1 Closed Channels
The dimensioning of new construction and renovation of sewers and drains is normally
oriented towards complete filling (Index: V), whereby this should not be exploited to the
full. If the dimensioning discharge reaches 90 % of the discharge capacity Q
v
, it is
recommended to select the next largest crosssection. This gives global consideration to
the following:
 undercutting of nominal dimensions within the permissible framework in accordance
with DIN 4263, Sect. 2.1,
 reductions of crosssection due to unavoidable deposits of up to 3 % of the total
crosssectional area even if sewers and drains are maintained regularly,
 equation of the actual sewer length l with its projection l’.
With performance verification of sewers and drains the respective permitted backup
heights or the overdamming frequency are relevant (see DIN EN 7522). Procedure for
dimensioning is presented in Sect. 4 of this standard.
3.1.1 Complete Filling
For circular profiles the general discharge formula is:
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
16


.

\

⋅ ⋅ ⋅
(
(
¸
(
¸
⋅
+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
ν ⋅
⋅ − ⋅
⋅ π
=
E
E
2
J d g 2
d 71 . 3
k
J d g 2 d
51 . 2
lg 2
4
d
Q (12)
For noncircular profiles the general discharge formula is:


.

\

⋅ ⋅ ⋅
(
(
¸
(
¸
⋅
+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
ν ⋅
⋅ − ⋅ =
E hy
hy
E hy hy
J r 4 g 2
r 84 . 14
k
J r 4 g 2 r 4
51 . 2
lg 2 A Q (13)
A mathematical consideration of the deviation of any profile (form coefficient f) from the
circular profile is dispensed with, as for all normal crosssection shapes in sewer
systems, f can be set = 1.
Eqn. 13 applies for all profile shapes used in sewer systems such as, for example, oval,
tapering and channel crosssections, also with considerable deviation from a circular
shape.
In the case of steadystate, uniform discharge in pipes filled to the top, Eqns. 12 and 13
the energy gradient J
E
is replaced by the sole slope J
So
.
In keeping with the details given in Sect. 4.1, the roughness k can be replaced by the
operational roughness k
b
. In all cases  circular profile as well as noncircular profile 
DIN 4263, Sect. 3.2 (clear width) is valid without restriction and must be observed
5)
.
3.1.2 Partial Filling
Simplified assumptions can be made for the calculation of discharge processes with
partial filling. For steadystate, uniform discharge (normal discharge) the energy gradient
and water surface profile run parallel to the sole (Fig.2). With partial filling curves the
partial filling values are referred to complete filling.
Water surface profile calculations are absolutely essential with nonuniform discharge
(see also Sect. A3.)
Degree of filling h/H and the therefrom calculated geometrical parameters (see Table 14)
are nondimensional; with circular pipes H = d. The profile H is always measured
perpendicular to the pipe axis The filling height h must therefore also be measured
perpendicular to the pipe axis. The filling height is thus not the same as the depth of
water h’, but rather linked with this parameter h’ by the relationship
' h cos / h = φ (14)
and therefore with cleaned sewers is always somewhat smaller than the depth of water
6)
.
____________________
5)
Clear widths are the actual dimensions of the crosssections. The dimension of the clear width should correspond with the
characteristic value of the nominal width. For the purpose of hydraulic dimensioning in wastewater engineering and in general
hydraulic engineering may only be assumed to be equal to the nominal width if the undercutting of the crosssection, referred to
the numerical value of the nominal width, does not exceed 5 %. In this case the average clear diameter undercuts the
characteristic value of the nominal width by ca. 2.5 %.
6)
With gradient values ≤ 200 ‰ (0.200; 1:5) h = h’ and l = l’ can be set; the resultant error is ≤ 2 %. Eqns 14 and 15 are to be used
for calculation with larger sole gradients
For the length the following applies
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
17
φ = cos / ' l l (15)
For the calculation of partial filling conditions in all forms of crosssection the form
coefficient f = 1 is also applied.
Fig. 2: Normal discharge with partially filled sewers
The partial filling curves  see also
7)8)9)
 the following applies for flow velocities
625 . 0
V , hy
T , hy
V
T
r
r
v
v


.

\

= (16)
and for discharges
625 . 0
V , hy
T , hy
V
T
V
T
r
r
A
A
Q
Q


.

\

⋅ = (17)
_________________
7)
Franke, P.: Die Rauhigkeitsverhältnisse im teilgefüllten Rohr [Roughness conditions in the partially filled pipe].
8)
Tiedt, W.: Hydrodynamische Untersuchungen des Teilfüllungsproblems [Hydrodynamic investigations of the partial filling
problem].
9)
Sauerbrey, M.: Abfluß in Entwässerungsleitungen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Fließvorgänge in teilgefüllten Rohren
[Discharge in drainage pipelines under special consideration of flow procedures in partially filled pipes].
Investigations have shown that the unrestricted application of Eqns. 16 and 17 is justified
for all forms of crosssection
10)
. In addition to this, the possibility is pointed out of
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
18
calculating the normal depth of water in partially filled crosssections directly using
iterative evaluation of Eqn. 13.
The theoretical investigations by Tiedt
8)
have confirmed the practical experiments by
Sauerbrey
9)
insofar as the influence of air friction on the discharge behaviour of partially
filled, closed crosssections can be neglected. The partial filling curves thus have a
reverse bending part with a discharge maximum with partial filling, to which the greatest
possible stable normal depth of water is to be assigned.
Due to the problems of aeration or air entrainment in sewer pipelines, combined with the
resultant risk of the surcharging of the pipelines, the partial filling curves for discharges
are terminated at
0 . 1
Q
Q
V
T
=
With profiles with a flat roof it is recommended that the partial filling curves for discharges
are terminated, dependent on the width of the crosssections, 10 to 20 cm below the
crown, whereby the following is possible in these cases:
0 . 1
Q
Q
V
T
>
Fig.3: Partial filling curves for circular, oval and tapering profiles
__________________
10)
ATV: SIMK  Simulation von Teilfüllungskurven,. Abschlußbericht des Forschungsvorhabens (ATV 25/97 and ATV 31/99)
[Simulation of partial filling curves, final report of the research project (ATV 25/97 and ATV 31/99)].
In Fig. 3 is shown the plot of the partial filling curves for the forms shown in Fig. 4 (oval
profile) and Fig. 5 (tapering profile), whereby the curve for the oval profile lies above the
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
19
middle curve for the circular profile (Fig. 3) and below it for the tapering crosssection.
Profiles with similar hydraulic behaviour can be grouped together for the practical
calculation of the partial filling values (for this see also Appendix A2).
The partial filling curves for the flow velocities are also terminated and that is at the point
h
T
/d at which Q
T
/Q
V
= 1.0 is reached. For profiles with flat roofs this also takes place at
10 to 20 cm below the crown.
Fig. 4: Oval profile with a) full filling and b) partial filling
Fig. 5: Tapering profile with a) full filling and b) partial filling
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
20
3.1.3 Special Profiles with Dry Weather Channel
The calculations with complete filling for this type of profile are carried out using Eqn. 13
over the complete crosssection, without hydraulic structuring in the partial profile.
The calculation for partial filling is in accordance with Sect. 3.2.3.
3.2 Open Channel
Sewers in the form of open channels pose questions with the hydraulic dimensioning as
well as with later performance verification, which in part deviate from the treatment of
closed profiles. Nevertheless, it should be noted that, in the case of the calculation of
water surface profiles, the conditions in partially filled, closed profiles correspond with
those, which are dealt with here for open channels. In this respect the statements of this
section are also valid for general solutions for sewers and drains in the operational state
of partial filling.
Under normal conditions of operating open, natural channels the Reynolds No. is so high
that, in the sense of the definition in accordance with Eqn. 9, one has, as a rule, to
reckon with flow in the completely rough range.
Therefore it is possible in this case also to apply other relationships for the determination
of the energy gradient. As an alternative to the treatment according to PrandtColebrook
the relationships according to ManningStrickler can be recommended here. For the flow
formula these are
2 / 1
E
3 / 2
hy St
J r k v ⋅ ⋅ = (18)
and for the discharge formula
2 / 1
E
3 / 2
hy St
J r k A Q ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = (19)
using the coefficient
(
¸
(
¸
s
m
k
3 / 1
St
in accordance with ManningStrickler,
which, in the fully rough range, is dependent on wall roughness only (see Appendix A7).
3.2.1 Calculation of Flow Depths
3.2.1.1 Normal Water Depth h
n
In special cases, for example in the case of long, disturbancefree flow sections, normal
discharge prevails. Under this term are gathered those discharge processes with which,
in the flow direction x, none of the flow parameters involved changes or with which the
assumption of this idealised flow condition is necessary for reasons of convenience
(estimation, analytical simplification). Under these circumstances the friction gradient J
F
,
the energy gradient J
E
, the water profile gradient J
W
and the sole gradient J
So
are,
mathematically, equal to each other: Thus the following applies
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
21
J
F
= J
E
= J
W
= J
So
(20)
The depth of water with which the condition in accordance with Eqn. 20 is met, is called
the normal water depth h
n
, whose calculation takes place with the aid of Eqns. 13 and 20
or 19 and 20.
If Q, J
So
, d, k
b
and v are specified in Eqn. 13, or Q, K
St
, and J
So
, and the form functions A
= f(h) and r
hy
= f(h) in Eqn. 19, then the flow depth sought, the normal water depth h
n
can
be determined mathematically by iteration.
Whichever formula is selected for the calculation of the normal depth of water the
associated discharge can result as subcritical (Fr < 1), supercritical (FR > 1) or also in
the transition condition (FR = 1) (see Table 1) Thus whether subcritical or supercritical
normal discharge is present is decided by the size of the Froude number.
3.2.1.2 Critical Depth h
crit
Initial relationship for each dealing with flow characteristics in the boundary area, with
velocity distribution assumed to be uniform, is the relationship
1
A g
b Q
Fr
3
2
2
=
⋅
⋅
= (21a)
where
Fr Froude Number [1]
b water level width [m].
For partially filled circular sections the following approximation applies
4
2
2
h d g
Q
Fr
⋅ ⋅
= (21b)
Attention is drawn to ATV Standard ATVA 111 (Sect. 3.2) for oval and tapering profiles.
Warning is given on the simplified definition of the Froude Number h g / v Fr ⋅ = as h
signifies the actual flow depth in the special case of the rectangular crosssection only.
The critical depth always appears with transition between subcritical and supercritical
discharge. Within wastewater engineering it is to be observed with large differences in
the sole gradient of neighbouring reaches (e.g. drops, change of crosssection). Places
at which the critical depth appears mark a decoupling of parts of the wastewater network,
which is to be noted when dealing with the subject mathematically.
3.2.1.3 General Flow Depth h(x)
Discharge takes place unevenly, unsteadily and discontinuously. The usual form of the
approximation originates from Line 5 of Table 2 and uses the relationships for the
unsteady, uneven discharge only, i.e. the water depth rises (backwater curve) or falls
(decline curve) in the direction of flow with the result that neither the friction gradient nor
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
22
the energy gradient nor, as a result of this, the water surface profile are known from the
outset.
Under these conditions the flow depth sought h varies from place to place, that is h = f(x)
and can only be found by integration of the differential equation of the water surface
gradient. This results from the relationships relevant in the case under consideration in
accordance with Line 5 of the tables is
2
F So
Fr 1
J J
dx
dh
−
−
= (22)
whose integration delivers the desired result.
a
x
2
F So
h dx
Fr 1
J J
) x ( h +
−
−
=
∫
(23)
As both J
F
and Fr
2
represent functions of h this also succeeds only by iteration. The initial
water depth h
i
, to be accounted for as additive constant, is either specified (e.g. as
design retention level) or is to be calculated from the flow parameters of designated
positions, socalled monitoring crosssections, for example in the form of a critical depth
h
l
. If the discharge is supercritical (Fr > 1), integration is to be downstream.; if there is
subcritical discharge present in the integration zone (Fr < 1), then integration as a rule
is to be taken against the direction of flow (upstream).
The calculation of flow resistance or energy head losses can be according to Prandtl
Colebrook or ManningStrickler.
3.2.2 Calculation of Flows
3.2.2.1 Normal Discharge Q
n
Normal discharge is the throughflow or volume flow in an open prismatic channel present
with normal water depth.
In these cases, i.e. with uniform discharge with J
F
= J
E
= J
W
= J
So
, the throughflow can be
determined directly knowing the parameters J
SO
, k
b
, g, ν (applying the PrandtlColebrook
equation) or J
So
, k
St
(applying the flow formula according to ManningStrickler) as well the
form functions A = f(h), r
hy
= f(h) and the flow depth h = h
n
from Eqn. 13 or Eqn. 19.
3.2.2.2 Critical Q
l
The critical discharge Q
crit
is that throughflow or volume flow which discharges in an open
channel under local or continuous critical conditions, i.e. with Fr of Fr
2
= 1.
If one resolves Eqn. 21a which is relevant for this, then one obtains the following
conditional equation for the critical discharge in an open channel
b
A g
Q
3
crit
⋅
= (24a)
and as approximation for partially filled circular crosssections
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
23
4
crit
h d g Q ⋅ ⋅ = (24b)
3.2.2.3 Discharge Curve Q = f(h)
The graphic or numerical assignment of flow depths h or water levels h
NN
to
throughflows Q at designated positions x
i
of open channels is designated as discharge
(also rating or level) curve. In the special case of normal discharge requires only an
evaluation of Eqn. 13 or Eqn. 19.
On the other hand, in the normal case, i.e. with nonuniform discharge, a water surface
profile calculation is required in advance which, for these purposes, is to be repeated
with the specification of various throughflows and which produces, dependent on the
throughflow, different results for J
F
, Fr and, if required, h
A
.
If, however, flow depths and associated water level gradients known through onthespot
measurements, then the discharge curve can be determined semiexperimentally and
presented in a selfcontained form. In the sense of sufficient accuracy such
measurements should be carried out with steady discharge and as far as possible at a
point which lies in the region of a decline curve for the water level profile.
The relevant flow formulas for this for the case of prismatic channels are given below:
a) for evaluation in accordance with the PrandtlColebrook equation
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
(
(
¸
(
¸
⋅
+
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
ν ⋅
− ⋅ =
E hy
hy
E hy hy
J r 4 g 2
r 84 . 14
k
J r 4 g 2 r 4
51 . 2
lg 2 A Q (13)
b) for evaluation in accordance with the ManningStrickler flow formula
2 / 1
R
2 / 1
hy
hy
3 / 1
hy
2
St
So
J r
A g
r b
dx
dh
r k
1
J
dx / dh
1
A Q ⋅ ⋅
⋅
⋅ ⋅
−
⋅
−
⋅ = (25)
with


.

\

⋅
⋅
− ⋅ − =
3
2
So F
A g
b Q
1
dx
dh
J J (26)
as well as h and
dx
dh
(or ∆h/∆x), which are produced experimentally.
Note: Q must be calculated iteratively.
3.2.3 Flow Depths and Flows for Structured CrossSections
In structured channel profiles and in particular with small flow depths above the
benching, different flow depths, different flow velocities and thus also secondary flows
arise in the partial discharge areas.
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
24
Through this the hydraulic efficiency reduces as the kinetic part of the energy reduces
with the nonuniformity of the velocity distribution, and the friction or loss component
increases through additional interactions between the flow channel and lateral flow cross
sections. The additional energy necessitated by the secondary flows is mathematically
accounted for through the correction factor α with α > 1. With this water depths and
discharges are to be determined only with involvement of the energy curve. A calculation
of normal flow over the sole gradient is excluded.
With crosssectional shapes with discontinuous increase of the wetted perimeter and
with only small change to the water depth (as, for example, with profiles with dry weather
channel and doublesided benching) the different flow velocities cannot be ignored.
The influence of nonuniform distribution of velocities can be neglected if the flow depth
above the benching exceeds the depth of the channel (h
B
> H
Ch
).
In the region of smaller flow depths over the lateral benching (h
B
≤ H
CH
) the following
simplified approximation procedure is recommended for the calculation of the hydraulic
efficiency and the associated characteristic values of the flow conditions:
 separation of the structured crosssection in the partial flow region such that the
variations in velocity in the individual partial crosssection are insignificant. In this
case the delineation can be by imaginary, perpendicular interfaces.
 Increase of the geometrically wetted perimeter I
p,Ch
of the flow channel through the
correction factor ∆l
p
* to the hydraulically effective wetted perimeter. For the
calculation of , with h
B
≤ H
Ch
, the following applies as approximation:


.

\

+
− = ∆
Ch B
B
B p
H h
h 2
1 h * l (27)
The following results from this:
R , p
*
L , p
*
Ch , p
Ch , p
*
l l l l ∆ + ∆ + = (28)
 calculation of the water levels and low conditions which are to be set with specified
discharge with the aid of the generalised Bernoulli Equation.
With known geometry, specified discharge and progress of the energy gradient, the
respective water level position can be determined only by iteration (see Appendix A3),
whereby in the case of structured crosssections it is additionally complicated in that the
relevant velocity head and the kinetic energy component can be given only with known
discharge distribution.
Assuming a hydrostatic pressure distribution in all partial crosssections (parallel flow)
the energy head results from
∫
=
α + = ⋅
⋅
+ =
n
1 I
2
NN
3
i NN E
g 2
v
h dA v
Q g 2
1
h h (29)
In this n is the number of partial crosssections.
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
25
As characteristic value for the degree of irregularity of the distribution of the velocity the
correction value α in Eqn. 29 can be estimated in a simplified form from
∑
⋅
⋅
= α
i
3
i
2
A v
v Q
1
(30)
With single crosssections α = 1, with structured crosssections α can lie between 1 and
2. With crosssections normally used in wastewater engineering α = 1 may be set.
Taking different partial discharge crosssections into account leads to the following
discharge equation
11)
∑
⋅ =
2 / 1
E i
J c Q (31)
with
c hydraulic control value of a partial crosssection i
J
E
energy gradient
For the calculation of the flow process, the hydraulic control values are to be determined
separately for the partial discharge crosssections (see also Fig. 6). Depending on the
selection of resistance law or flow formula you obtain the following conditional equations:
Fig. 6: Designations in the structured flow crosssections
Calculation in accordance with PrandtlManning, Eqn. 9  completely rough area
( )
i i , hy i , hy i i
k / r 84 . 14 lg 2 r 4 g 2 A c ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = (32)
Calculation in accordance with ManningStrickler, Eqn. 18
3 / 2
i , hy i , St i i
r k A c ⋅ ⋅ = (33)
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
26
For threepart structured profile crosssections (left  Index L; middle, channel  Index Ch;
right  Index R) the following discharge equation is, for example, to be derived from Eqns.
31 and 33
( )
2 / 1
E
3 / 2
R , hy R , St R
3 / 2
Ch , hy Ri , St Ch
3 / 2
L , hy L , St L
J r k A r k A r k A Q ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ = (34)
The iterative solution of this equation produces the discharge distribution in threepart
structured flow crosssections.
4 Dimensioning and Performance Verification
The calculations for dimensioning and for performance verification take place using the
same hydraulic bases which, with regard to flow losses (roughness, individual losses) are
described below in detail in 4.1 and 4.2. The procedure for the calculation range are
described in 4.3 and 4.4.
4.1 Determination of Roughness
4.1.1 General Measure of Roughness k
Every calculation which makes use of the PrandtlColebrook resistance law requires
knowledge of the equivalent sand roughness or the natural roughness of the inner wall of
the channel in question. This degree of roughness is to be determined beforehand, as a
rule on the basis of experimental data, if required, however, also through an appropriate
estimation or determination on the basis of operational experience. The same applies for
the roughness coefficients of each type of flow formula thus, for example, also for the
coefficient k
St
of the ManningStrickler flow formula, whose arithmetic value corresponds
with the degree of roughness k of the PrandtlColebrook resistance law (see Appendix
A7). The special cases of deviating types of roughness (sand roughness, ripple
roughness) are dealt with in Appendix A6.
If one solves the PrandtlColebrook resistance law for technical roughness behaviour
(transitional region)


.

\

⋅
+
λ ⋅
⋅ − =
λ
hy
r 84 . 14
k
Re
51 . 2
lg 2
1
(10)
for k, you obtain


.

\

λ ⋅
− ⋅ =
λ −
Re
51 . 2
10 r 84 . 14 k
) 2 /( 1
hy
(35)
as determining equation for the degree of roughness k
with
ν
⋅
=
hy
r 4 v
Re (36)
2
F hy
v
J r 4 g 2 ⋅ ⋅
= λ (37)
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
27


.

\

⋅
− ⋅ − =
b / A g
v
1
dx
dh
J J
2
So F
(38)
The relationship is to be evaluated using local measured data and, with k, provides a
local, theoretically founded degree of roughness of the wetted channel sides. If the
channel sides display technical roughness as assumed based on the PrandtlColebrook
resistance law, then a sufficiently constant k value is to be expected independent of the
experimental data used.
4.1.2 Operational Roughness k
b
If local flow resistances or energy head losses together with losses as a result of wall
friction are to be reflected in an augmented coefficient of roughness, together with losses
resulting from wall friction, i.e. if discontinuous flow resistances or losses are to be
included in an operational roughness k
b
, this can be done in the manner shown in Sect.
2.2, Eqn. (5a) ff. If the loss coefficients ζ of all disturbance sources located in the area of
a channel reach l are known, and if λ is used to represent the resistance coefficient
resulting from natural roughness and λ
b
that resulting from operational roughness, the
following definition equation applies:
∑
ζ ⋅ + λ = λ
l
r 4
hy
b
(6)
If the operational coefficient of resistance λ
b
is calculated, knowing Re, k, r
hy
and Σζ, and
if λ and Re are introduced into the resistance law, then k
b
/4r
hy
and from this the degree of
roughness k
b
sought can be obtained. This increased degree of roughness produces
mathematically the same total falls in energy as if one had applied continuous and local
energy falls separately and then combined these. This operational degree of roughness
k
b
is not dependent alone on the actual wall friction k and the incorporated individual
resistances Σζ, but additionally on r
hy,l
as well as normally on the Reynolds Number Re.
Global determination for k
b
must take this situation into account.
Under these preconditions it is possible and permitted, for dimensioning, for certain
combinations of types of loss to function with a global value k
b
for operational roughness.
Classification and justification are according to Table 4 dependent on the various types
of sewer. Attention is drawn to Sect. 4.3 for preconditions and limitations.
Table 4: Global values for operational roughness kb [mm]
Type of sewer Design of shaft
Control
shafts
Shaped
shafts
Special
shafts
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
28
Transport sewer
Main sewers ≤ DN 1000
Main sewers > DN 1000
Brickwork sewers, onsite
concrete sewers, sewers made
from nonstandard pipes without
special verification of roughness
0.50
0.75

1.50
0.50
0.75
0.75
1.50
0.75
1.50
1.50
1.50
Throttle lengths (1), pressure
pipelines (1,2,3), siphons (1) and
relining lengths without shafts
0.25
1) Excluding inlet, outlet and bend loses
2) Excluding pressure network (see also Sect. 9)
3) Effects on pumping stations see Sect. 9
4.2 Calculation of Individual Losses
The method presented in Sect. 4.1 for dealing with questions associated with the so
called operational roughness contains an detailed analysis of all individual influences
from which those variables arise which can be combined mathematically into a k
b
value.
With knowledge of the individual influences it is of course possible to collate deviating
preconditions into an individual and justified treatment. For this purpose the following
evaluation of available details and documents serves for individual losses as a result of
 positional inaccuracies and modifications,
 pipe conditions,
 inlet fittings,
 shaft structures of standard design (straight passage)
(12)
,
 shaft structures of special design (straight passage),
 curved structures and
 conjunction structures.
The loss coefficients for this refer to
g 2
v
h
2
i , f
⋅ ζ = (4c)
__________________
12)
ATV Arbeitsblatt [Standard]A 157
4.2.1 Loss Coefficients as a Result of Positional Inaccuracies and Changes (ζ’
Pi
)
The loss coefficients ζ
Pi
are to be taken from Table 5. They apply for the possible
positional inaccuracies and changes for each pipe connection. With n points of
connection the loss coefficient ζ
Pi
is to be applied n times.
Table 5: Loss coefficients ζ
Pi
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
29
DN ζ
Pi
100
125
150
200
250
300
400
500
600  1000
> 1000
0.023
0.022
0.020
0.017
0.015
0.014
0.012
0.010
0.005
0
4.2.2 Loss Coefficients for Pipe Connections (ζ
PC
)
The loss coefficients ζ
PC
are to be taken from Table 6. They apply for the possible
positional inaccuracies and changes for each pipe connection. With n points of
connection the loss coefficient ζ
PC
is to be applied n times.
Table 5: Loss coefficients ζ
PC
DN ζ
PC
100
125
150
200
250
300
400
500
600  1000
> 1000
0.020
0.016
0.012
0.009
0.007
0.006
0.004
0.003
0.0015
0.001
4.2.3 Loss Coefficients at Inlet Fixtures (ζ
in
)
The loss coefficients ζ
in
are to be taken from Table 7. They apply for every position at
which an inlet fixture in the main sewer is planned or is present. With n such points of
inlet domestic connections, road gullies) the loss coefficient ζ
in
is to be applied n times.
These loss coefficients cover only the effects of the geometry of the inlet fittings; the
hydraulic effects of the inlet flow on the flow in the main sewer are covered in Sect. 5
Table 7: Loss coefficients ζ
in
H
d
Z
ζ
in
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
30
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.000
0.002
0.004
0.007
0.011
0.016
0.022
0.029
0.036
0.045
2
in
in
H
d
045 . 0 
.

\

⋅ = ζ (39)
with
d
in
diameter of an inlet pipeline
H profile height of main sewer
4.2.4 Loss Coefficients for Control Shafts (ζ
C
)
Control shafts within the meaning of this Standard are shafts whose benching reaches
up to the crown of the outgoing pipe (see Fig.7).
The values listed in Table 8 characterise the losses with subcritical discharge by ζ values
gained experimentally. Slight impounding leads to considerable increase of the losses.
All losses contain every influence as a result of losses with inflow, throughflow and
outflow, however, not the pipe friction component over the length of the shaft. The loss
for respectively one shaft is to be applied per sewer reach.
The ζ values for shafts with straight passage can be applied up to a change of flow
direction of maximum 10° within a shaft using
ζ
C
= 0.05 to 0.25
Shafts with change of direction of > 10° to 45° are to be taken into account using a ζ
value of
ζ
C
= 0.1  0.7.
ATVDVWKA 110E
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31
Fig. 7: Control shaft with raised benching
Table 8: Loss coefficients ζ
C
ζ
C
for changes of direction of
Discharge
situation
d
h
0  10° >10°  45° >45°
Partial filling < 10 0.05 0.1 0.15
Crown filling 1.0 0.1 0.2 0.5
Impounding,
complete
filling under
overpressure
> 1.0 0.25 0.7 1.0
Channel with
cover plate
for all h/d 0.05 0.1 0.2
The values in Table 8 are applicable for the relative shaft diameter B
Sh/d
and deflection
radii r/d carried out with this normal in sewer systems. In the absence of detailed
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
32
investigations the above given values can, until further notice, also be applied for shafts
in sewers with noncircular profiles (oval profile, tapering profile).
4.2.5 Loss Coefficients for Special Shafts (ζ
S
)
Special shafts within the meaning of this Standard are shafts in which the benching does
not reach up to the crown of the outgoing pipe and with which, therefore, higher loss
coefficients are to be applied mathematically.
Fig. 8: Special shafts with lowlying benching
The values listed in Table 9 characterise the losses with subcritical discharge by ζ values
gained experimentally. Slight impounding leads to considerable increase of the losses.
All losses contain every influence as a result of losses with inflow, throughflow and
outflow, however, not the pipe friction component over the length of the shaft. The loss
for respectively one shaft is to be applied per sewer reach.
The ζ values for shafts with straight passage can be applied up to a change of flow
direction of maximum 10° within a shaft using
ζ
S
= 0.15 to 0.85
Shafts with change of direction of > 10° to 45° are to be taken into account using a ζ
value of
ζ
S
= 0.3  1.3.
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
33
In the absence of detailed investigations the above given values can, until further notice,
also be applied for shafts in sewers with noncircular profiles (oval profile, tapering
profile). The profile height H appears in the place of the diameter d.
Table 9: Loss coefficients ζ
S
ζ
S
for changes of direction of
Discharge
situation
d
h
0  10° >10°  45° >45°
Partial filling < 10 0.15 0.3 0.5
Crown filling 1.0 0.3 0.4 1.0
Impounding,
complete
filling under
overpressure
> 1.0 0.85 1.3 2.5
Channel with
cover plate
for all h/d 0.05 0.1 0.2
The values in Table 8 are applicable for the relative shaft diameter B
Sh/d
and deflection
radii r/d carried out with this normal in sewer systems.
The values according to Table 8 for bends of 0  10° are to be applied for coupled shafts.
4.2.6 Loss Coefficients (ζ
fd
) and Verifications for Flow Diversion
In the case of flow diversion, with regard to the verification to be carried out, one must
differentiate strictly between subcritical discharge (Fr < 1) and supercritical discharge (Fr
> 1).
For subcritical discharge loss coefficients ζ
fd
can be determined and included in the
hydraulic verification (see Sect. 4.2.6.1).
For supercritical discharge this procedure is not possible. The verification losses is
replaced by design and operational details, which are to guarantee a disruptionfree flow
without unwanted effects on operation (see Sect. 4.2.6.2).
Transcritical discharge conditions with
0.75 < Fr < 1.5
are hydraulically unstable and therefore are, as far as possible, to be excluded (see also
ATV Standard ATVA 111, Sects. 3.2 and 3.6).
4.2.6.1 Subcritical Flow
The additional loss as a result of diversion with a bend radius of r referred to the sewer
axis can be applied using
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
34
ϕ ⋅ ⋅ = ζ sin
r
d
3
2
(40)
with
r average diversion radius
ϕ diversion angle.
Loss coefficients as a result of flow diversion in shafts are already contained in the
values in Tables 8 and 9.
4.2.6.2 Supercritical Flow
The flow in shafts with diversion with supercritical discharge is characterised less by
resultant additional losses rather much more by wave formation at the outer edge of the
bend, whereby the inner edge remains quasi “dry”. This influence rises with increasing
Froude Number.
The wave height can be greater than the diameter of the exiting pipe. The wastewater
then strikes against the shaft outlet wall and can lead to a collapse of the supercritical
flow. Then a hydraulic jump occurs in the shaft which can move into the inlet pipe and
which places the shaft under pressure discharge. The air inflow in the in the submerged
pipe is then cut off; pulsation can then occur which effects a build up of the water level in
the shaft and leads, finally, to the familiar phenomena of lifting of the manhole cover and
increase of the noise loading.
The following conditions, which are fundamentally to be observed, result from detailed
investigations into this
13)
:
 the loading of the inlet sewer (Q
T
/Q
V
) may not exceed 50 %
 the design of the shaft channel is always to be with raised benching (control shafts in
accordance with Sect. 4.2.4.
 diversions of 90°, with the same r/d lead to smaller disturbances than with 45° (and
shorter layout of the flow path)
 diversions of 45° can be held operationally more stable with an open straight
extension (l ≅ 3d
o
)of the shaft
 covers in the area of the shaft are of particular advantage, especially with
retrofitting/rehabilitation of existing facilities.
__________________
13)
ATV: Schießender Abfluß in Krümmerschachten. Abschlußbericht des Forschungsvorhanens (ATV 09/98) [Supercritical
discharge in elbow shafts. Final Report]
For the flow in shaft structures verification of
height (h
M
)
and
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
35
position (θ)
of the wave maximum is to be carried out for Fr
o
.
Fig. 9: Unobstructed elbow shaft; a) plan, b) longitudinal section
( )
2
2
o
o
M
B 50 . 0 1
h
h
⋅ + = (41)
2
o M
) Fr ( 8 . 2 tan ⋅ ρ ⋅ = θ (42)
Here
2 / 1
o o
Fr B ρ ⋅ = (43)
B  Bend Number
ρ = r/d
o
(44)
ρ  relative bending of the shaft diversion referred to the diameter d
o
of the inlet pipe and
r  radius of the elbow axis
For verification the following applies:
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
36
u M
d h <
and θ < ϕ
In addition the energy head in the shaft
(h
o
+ v
o
2
/2g)
is to be determined and compared with the upper surface of the ground.
With the nonobservance of the abovegiven requirements either
 a covering using a cover plate in the shaft structure
or
 the modification of the shaft dimensions
has to be planned.
4.2.7 Loss Coefficients for Combining Structures (ζ
CS
) and Verification for Flow
Merging
The effects of losses in combining structures with subcritical flow are not included in the
k
b
values according to Table 4. Verification in individual cases is always to be carried
out(see also SIA 40).
4.2.7.1 Subcritical Discharge
For the loss coefficients
13
CS
ζ loss coefficients for the flow from Sewer 1 to Sewer 3 in
) CS ( f
13
h energy head loss as a result of flow combining of Trains 1 and 3
) CS ( f
13
h = g 2 / v
2
3 LC
13
⋅ ζ (45)
23
CS
h loss coefficients for the flow from Sewer 2 to Sewer 3 in
) CS ( f
23
h energy head loss as a result of flow combining of Trains 2 and 3
) CS ( f
23
h = g 2 / v
2
3 CS
23
⋅ ζ (46)
applies with
14)
X,Y,Z,a
1
,a
2
auxiliary parameters
ß
1
,ß
2
combining angle
Q
i
flow in Sewer i always larger than zero!
A
i
flow crosssection in Sewer i [m
2
]
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
37
v
i
average velocity in Sewer i [m/s]
i sewer indexing (i = 1;2;3) [1]
Table 10: Auxiliary parameters of loss coefficients for combining structures
15)
ß
1
[°] ß
2
[°] 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
X(ß
1
) X(ß
2
) 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.94 0.94 0.93 0.90 0.82 0.73 0.63
a
1
(ß
1
) a
2
(ß
2
) 1.00 0.97 0.90 0.80 0.68 0.56 0.45 0.35 0.26 0.19
ß
1
[0] ß
2
[0] 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180
X(ß
1
) X(ß
2
) 0.58 0.55 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.50 0.50
a
1
(ß
1
) a
2
(ß
2
) 0.15 0.12 0.11 0.12 0.16 0. 21 0.28 0.37 0.48
Z
A Q
A Q
X 1
2
1 3
3 1
CS
13
−


.

\

⋅
⋅
⋅ + = ζ (47)
Z
A Q
A Q
Y 1
2
2 3
3 2
CS
23
−


.

\

⋅
⋅
⋅ + = ζ (48)
and the auxiliary quantities according to Table 10 and the auxiliary relationship for Z in
accordance with Eqn. (49
(
(
¸
(
¸
⋅


.

\

⋅ + ⋅


.

\

⋅ ⋅ =
2
3
2
3
2
2
1
3
2
3
1
1
A
A
Q
Q
a
A
A
Q
Q
a 2 Z (49)
In the absence of detailed investigations the above relations can be applied until further
notice also for combining structures in sewers with noncircular profiles (oval cross
section, tapering crosssection).
___________________
14)
Note: this calculation instruction is based on the combined employment of the principle of linear momentum, equation of energy
and equation of continuity for “short structures” (equation of supporting force premises)
15)
Prof. W thiedt, TH Damstadt
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
38
Fig. 10: Designations in combining structures
4.2.7.2 Supercritical Discharge
No final details can be given in the relationships in combining structures with supercritical
discharge as the ATVDVWK research project on this is not yet completed. From
previous available results
16)
findings are to be expected which require the treatment of
this section similarly as under Sect. 4.2.6.2. In order not to delay the publication of this
Standard, a detailed report will be published in the near future from which a formulation
for this section can be presented to the specialist world for discussion. The amendment
of this section will be implemented at the end of this discussion.
4.2.8 Other Loss Coefficients
Attention is drawn to Sect. 8 and the Literature for losses as a result of cases other than
those dealt with.
4.3 Dimensioning
For the calculation case of dimensioning it is recommended that the global concept
described in Sect. 4.1.2 is employed.
Here, it is emphasised that, with the global concept offered, the utilisation of the k
b
values
in accordance with Table 4 for standard pipes without further verification is permitted and
is to be taken as the standard case. Within the framework of the global approach with
dimensioning, the effective wall roughness for pipes currently standardised by the DIN
Standards Committee for Hydroscience is set uniformly with k = 0.1 and the flow rate as
v = 0.8 m/s in order, with this also to cover the area of partial filling. For nonstandard
pipes without special verification, the effective wall roughness both for brickwork and
local concrete sewers is to be set as k
b
= 1.5 mm.
_________________
16)
See trials report in KA 04/2001
The global approach for k
b
values as a rule includes the influences of
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
39
 wall roughness,
 positional inaccuracies and changes,
 pipe connections,
 inlet fittings and
 shaft structures.
Values according to Table 4 include the influences of shaft structures up to and including
crown filling h/d ≤ 1.0 and are therefore applicable without limitation with dimensioning.
Not included in this global definition of k
b
values are the influences of
a) undercutting of nominal widths,
b) effects of impounding and overdamming,
c) combining structures and
d) inlet and outlet structures of throttle stretches, pressure pipelines and siphons.
In these cases the following principles apply:
To a)
 one should calculate using the effective mean clear width or the mean clear space;
 with the dimensioning (planning), undercutting within the scope of DIN 4263 is
permitted and, within the sense of Sect. 3.1, is covered through the design with
0.9 Q
v
.
To c)
 the losses in combining structures are to be verified in the individual case;
 verification can be dispensed with if a bottom drop ∆z of
20
d
z ≥ ∆
with d the diameter or profile height H of the outgoing sewer
is planned or exists; further a verification can be dispensed with if the loading of the
continuing sewer, within the sense of Sect. 3.1, is limited with some 0.85 Q
v
instead
of some 0.9 Q
v
, as long as this sewer is operated without backup.
4.4 Performance Verification
For the performance verification of wastewater networks (existing or in planning) the
individual concept
is to be used, i.e. detailed taking into account of all loss influences in the individual case.
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
40
Alternatively a suitably matched
synthetic individual concept
can also be used as the basis for the network to be calculated. Here k
b
values can be
calculated and applied by reach or by area. An example calculation is contained in
Appendix A8 for dealing with the individual case.
Depending on the impounding or overdamming which occurs, the loss coefficients for the
shaft structure are to applied separately or by reach with the values for h/d > 1.0.
With the employment of the individual concept the losses as a result of wall roughness k
and the individual losses arising are to be verified by reach, whereby k is fundamentally
to be applied, also with regard to the change of characteristics of the pipe wall in long
term operation.
With performance verification of existing networks, if the effective clear width in the
individual case is not or cannot be determined, one is to reckon basically with 95 % of
the nominal width in which the crosssection reduction as a result of normal depositing is
also covered.
With this, a special general k
b
value table for impounding, overdamming and flooding
verification is impossible.
This procedure converts DIN EN 7524, Sect. 9.2.3.
5 Flow with Lateral Inflow (Discontinuous Flow)
In sewer networks calculation is to be carried out along a calculation stretch, for example
between two shafts with a flow increase as a result of lateral discharges (domestic
connections, street gullies). An exception is formed only by pure transport sewers,
throttle lengths and pressure pipelines. With collectors with lateral inflow, contrary to the
details in Table 6, one has to work with a formulation for discontinuous flow. This
requires the following system of equations:
Motion equation
F So
J J
dx
dh
A g
q v
m − = +
⋅
⋅
⋅ (50)
Continuity equation q
dx
dQ
= (51)
In the differential equation for the water surface profile to be derived from this, the
lateral inflow then has the form that the righthand side of this equation has to be
expanded by an additional term to take into account change of the velocity head
with which the energy which is required for the acceleration of the laterally
discharged volume flow to the velocity of the main stream, is taken into account.
Due to the lateral inflow the velocity distribution in the flow crosssection is also
modified so that the previously employed formulation for the friction losses is no
longer sufficient. The resistance behaviour, due to the complex flow, up to now
could only be recorded in special cases. With the lack of sufficiently sound
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
41
findings the additional loss can, in comparison with continuous flow, be taken into
account approximately through the repeated approach of the modification of the
velocity head. In general this results in
2
q F So
2
2
F So
Fr 1
J J J
Fr 1
A g
q Q m
J J
dx
dh
− −
=
−
⋅
⋅ ⋅
− −
= (52a)
with m as factor with the inclusion of additional losses (see Table 2). Due to the
formulation described previously, m = 2 and thus
2
q F So
2
F So
2
2 2
F So
Fr 1
J J J
Fr 1
A g
q Q 2
J J
Fr 1
A g
q Q
A g
q Q
J J
dx
dh
− −
=
⋅
⋅
− −
=
−
⋅
⋅
−
⋅
⋅
− −
= (52b)
The application of this formulation is not permitted for combining
structures!
The following statements apply for the case of steady state, simplified non
uniform discontinuous flow. They can be transferred analogously to other types of
calculation in accordance with Table 2.
5.1 Effect of Lateral Inflow
The flow loss depends on the following factors:
 total throughflow Q [m
3
/s],
 size and distribution of the lateral inflow q [m
3
/(s.m)],
 flow crosssection (with all partial influences),
 bottom gradient and flow rate.
With unfavourable conditions  i.e. in particular if a large lateral inflow is discharged into a
relatively small main stream over a short sewer length  the loss element J
q
can reach
several times J
F
.
5.2 Simplified Procedure
Depending on the tasking, simplified procedures are recommended for the application of
Eqn. 52. These are different for the planning stage (dimensioning) and for the verification
of existing networks (performance verification).
5.2.1 Dimensioning (Selection of a Constant Replacement Flow)
In order to avoid the costly evaluation of Eqn. 52 the energy head loss along a
calculation stretch for a collector sewer, as a rule, is so determined that one determines
the friction loss for a constant  that is not discontinuous  assumed flow (equivalent
flow).
On the other hand, with the application of the throughflow Q
e
at the end of the calculation
stretch as constant equivalent flow over the complete reach, a higher friction loss is
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
42
determined with which the usually additional discharge loss of discontinuous flow is
recorded.
Within the scope of justifiable accuracy, one can calculate using this simplification if, for
the component ∆Q of the lateral inflow along a reach, the criteria in accordance with
Table 11 are met in the various nominal width ranges.
Table 11: Limits on the validity of the calculation using Q
e
.
Relative lateral inflow
Nominal width range ∆Q/Q
e
DN 200 to DN 500
DN 600 to DN 1000
DN 1100 to DN 2000
DN> 2000
No limitation
≤ 0.30
≤ 0.10
≤ 0.05
∆Q = Q
e
 Q
i
With the exceeding of the validity limits for the equivalent flow the relationships presented
using Eqn. 52 are to be investigated
17)
and, if required, a higher equivalent flow is to be
employed.
5.2.2 Performance Verification
For the performance verification it can be assumed that the inventory of the network for
which the verification is to be carried out has, in all respects, been recorded. This
includes the position and admission of the lateral inflow from private properties and street
drainage. With this it would be possible to record analytically the individual conditions
existing at all discharge points and to deviate from the assumed evenly distributed lateral
inflows according to Eqn. 52. This presumes that for each discharge point the geometric
and hydraulic conditions are described and taken into account via an additional individual
loss which has to be applied.
The combination of the described effects by reach and the application of an equivalent
flow remains an option.
6 Flat Stretches and Depositing
Wastewater is a mixture of water with most nonuniform substances amongst which
settleable matter is also to be met. Its sedimentation within the pipeline system can be
prevented through suitable selection of the relevant parameters. A traverse wall stress of
τ = 1.0 N/m
2
should, under no
circumstances, be undercut. Attention is drawn to the
Literature for the fundamental detailss
18)
.
__________________
17) Ueker, K.J.: Abflußrechnung in Abwasserkanälen unter berücksichtigung seitlicher Einflüsse [Flow calculation in sewers taking
into account lateral inflows].
18) Macke, E.: Über Feststofftransport bei niedrigen Konzentrationen in teilgefüllten Rohrleitungen [On solid matter transport with low
concentrations in partially filled pipelines].
Deposits are prevented if a necessary minimum wall traverse stress, which is dependent
on the volume concentration of settleable solid matter, is achieved or exceeded. The
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
43
necessary minimum wall traverse stress τ
min
in N/m
2
, for concentrations of C
T
= 0.05 ‰
for combined wastewater and stormwater and C
T
= 0.03 ‰ for wastewater
τ
min
= 4.1Q
1/3
(for stormwater and combined sewers) (53a)
τ
min
= 3.4Q
1/3
(for normal sewers) (53b)
with Q in m
3
/s and that is independent of diameter and gradient of the pipeline
considered.
The respectively available wall traverse stress τ
avail
is calculated from
F hy avail
J r g ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ρ = τ (54)
Assuming an operational roughness k
b
= 1.5 mm lower critical values J
c
of the sole
gradient for the different nominal width ranges of oval profiles and degrees of filling of
h
T
/d = 0.1 to 0.5 and for τ ≥ 1.0 N/m
2
according to Tables 12a and 12b
19)
.
Both tables also contain ranges which are characterised by the maintenance of τ
min
= 1.0
N/m
2
. The details for these are underlaid in grey. For filling heights of h < 3 cm the
conditions of an even concentration with steady state discharge no longer exist. In these
cases it is recommended that gradients are determined with J ≥ 1:DN with DN in mm.
The critical values of Tables 12a and 12b can be applied with sufficient accuracy for all k
b
values = 0.25 mm to k
b
= 1.5 mm
18)
.
If, in the individual case, other values for c
T
are relevant then attention is drawn to
evaluation in accordance with footnote
18)
, whereby higher concentrations lead to greater
critical velocities. These are not to be seen as permitted minimum velocities but rather as
indication of the occurrence or the prevention of deposits.
With the as a rule nonconstant discharges, the discharge Q relevant for this
consideration is determined in that the time with deposits (τ
avail
< τ
min
) is no longer double
the time without deposits (τ
avail
≥ τ
min
).
The values of Tables 12a and 12b can also be used for profiles which, in the area of the
sole, do not significantly deviate from circular profiles. Here d = B/2 applies for oval
profiles and d = B for tapering crosssections.
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
44
Table 12a: Limiting values for depositfree operation of stormwater and
combined wastewater sewers
Circular
xsection d
h
T
/d ≥ 0.10 h
T
/d ≥ 0.20 h
T
/d ≥ 0.30 h
T
/d ≥ 0.50
J
c
v
c
τ
min
J
c
v
c
τ
min
J
c
v
c
τ
min
J
c
v
c
τ
min
mm ‰ m/s n/m
2
‰ m/s n/m
2
‰ m/s n/m
2
‰ m/s n/m
2
200
*)
*)
*)
4.23 0.43 1.00 2.98 0.46 1.00 2.04 0.48 1.00
250
*)
*)
*)
3.38 0.45 1.00 2.39 0.47 1.00 1.63 0.49 1.00
300 5.35 0.43 1.00 2.82 0.46 1.00 1.99 0.49 1.00 1.48 0.53 1.09
350 4.59 0.44 1.00 2.42 0.47 1.00 1.70 0.50 1.00 1.45 0.58 1.24
400 4.02 0.44 1.00 2.11 0.48 1.00 1.61 0.51 1.05 1.42 0.63 1.39
450 3.57 0.45 1.00 1.88 0.49 1.00 1.53 0.55 1.15 1.40 0.67 1.54
500 3.21 0.46 1.00 1.69 0.50 1.00 1.50 0.59 1.26 1.38 0.71 1.69
600 2.68 0.47 1.00 1.61 0.54 1.14 1.47 0.66 1.48 1.34 0.79 1.97
700 2.29 0.48 1.00 1.59 0.61 1.32 1.43 0.71 1.68 1.31 0.86 2.25
800 2.01 0.49 1.00 1.55 0.64 1.47 1.40 0.77 1.88 1.29 0.93 2.52
900 1.88 0.51 1.05 1.52 0.68 1.62 1.38 0.82 2.08 1.26 0.99 2.79
1000 1.84 0.54 1.15 1.50 0.73 1.78 1.36 0.87 2.28 1.24 1.05 3.05
1100 1.81 0.56 1.24 1.48 0.77 1.93 1.35 0.93 2.49 1.23 1.11 3.31
1200 1.79 0.60 1.34 1.46 0.81 2.07 1.32 0.96 2.66 1.21 1.17 3.57
1300 1.77 0.63 1.43 1.44 0.84 2.22 1.30 1.00 2.84 1.20 1.22 3.82
1400 1.75 0.65 1.53 1.43 0.88 2.37 1.30 1.06 3.05 1.18 1.27 4.07
1500 1.73 0.67 1.62 1.41 0.91 2.50 1.28 1.09 3.22 1.17 1.32 4.31
1600 1.71 0.71 1.70 1.40 0.95 2.65 1.27 1.12 3.39 1.16 1.37 4.55
1800 1.69 0.75 1.89 1.38 1.01 2.93 1.25 1.22 3.77 1.14 1.46 5.03
2000 1.66 0.79 2.06 1.36 1.07 3.22 1.23 1.28 4.11 1.12 1.54 5.50
2200 1.64 0.83 2.24 1.34 1.13 3.48 1.21 1.35 4.46 1.11 1.63 5.97
2400 1.61 0.86 2.41 1.32 1.18 3.74 1.19 1.41 4.80 1.09 1.70 6.42
2600 1.59 0.92 2.58 1.30 1.23 3.99 1.17 1.45 5.11 1.08 1.78 6.87
2800 1.58 0.96 2.75 1.29 1.29 4.27 1.16 1.52 5.45 1.07 1.85 7.32
3000 1.56 0.99 2.92 1.27 1.32 4.50 1.15 1.58 5.78 1.05 1.92 7.76
3200 1.54 1.01 3.07 1.26 1.37 4.78 1.14 1.64 6.11 1.04 1.99 8.19
3400 1.53 1.05 3.24 1.25 1.42 5.01 1.13 1.70 6.44 1.03 2.05 8.62
3600 1.51 1.07 3.39 1.24 1.46 5.27 1.12 1.74 6.74 1.03 2.12 9.05
3800 1.50 1.11 3.56 1.22 1.49 5.48 1.11 1.82 7.09 1.02 2.18 9.47
4000 1.49 1.16 3.73 1.21 1.54 5.75 1.10 1.85 7.39 1.01 2.24 9.89
*)
J ≥ 1/DN
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
45
Table 12b: Limiting values for depositfree operation of normal sewers
Circular
xsection d
h
T
/d ≥ 0.10 h
T
/d ≥ 0.20 h
T
/d ≥ 0.30 h
T
/d ≥ 0.50
J
c
v
c
τ
min
J
c
v
c
τ
min
J
c
v
c
τ
min
J
c
v
c
τ
min
mm ‰ m/s n/m
2
‰ m/s n/m
2
‰ m/s n/m
2
‰ m/s n/m
2
150
*)
*)
*)
5.64 0.41 1.00 3.98 0.44 1.00 2.72 0.45 1.00
200
*)
*)
*)
4.23 0.43 1.00 2.98 0.46 1.00 2.04 0.48 1.00
250
*)
*)
*)
3.38 0.45 1.00 2.39 0.47 1.00 1.63 0.49 1.00
300 5.35 0.43 1.00 2.82 0.46 1.00 1.99 0.49 1.00 1.36 0.51 1.00
350 4.59 0.44 1.00 2.42 0.47 1.00 1.70 0.50 1.00 1.18 0.52 1.01
400 4.02 0.44 1.00 2.11 0.48 1.00 1.49 0.51 1.00 1.16 0.56 1.13
450 3.57 0.45 1.00 1.88 0.49 1.00 1.33 0.52 1.00 1.14 0.60 1.26
500 3.21 0.46 1.00 1.69 0.50 1.00 1.22 0.53 1.03 1.12 0.64 1.37
600 2.68 0.47 1.00 1.41 0.51 1.00 1.20 0.59 1.20 1.09 0.71 1.61
700 2.29 0.48 1.00 1.30 0.55 1.07 1.16 0.63 1.36 1.07 0.78 1.83
800 2.01 0.49 1.00 1.26 0.58 1.20 1.14 0.69 1.53 1.05 0.84 2.06
900 1.78 0.50 1.00 1.25 0.63 1.33 1.12 0.73 1.69 1.03 0.90 2.27
1000 1.61 0.50 1.00 1.23 0.67 1.45 1.11 0.78 1.86 1.01 0.95 2.49
1100 1.49 0.52 1.02 1.21 0.69 1.57 1.09 0.82 2.01 1.00 1.00 2.70
1200 1.46 0.54 1.09 1.19 0.73 1.69 1.08 0.87 2.17 0.99 1.05 2.91
1300 1.45 0.56 1.17 1.18 0.77 1.82 1.07 0.92 2.33 0.98 1.10 3.11
1400 1.44 0.60 1.25 1.16 0.79 1.93 1.06 0.95 2.48 0.96 1.15 3.31
1500 1.41 0.61 1.32 1.16 0.83 2.05 1.04 0.98 2.62 0.96 1.19 3.51
1600 1.40 0.63 1.40 1.14 0.86 2.16 1.03 1.01 2.76 0.95 1.23 3.71
1800 1.38 0.68 1.55 1.12 0.91 2.38 1.01 1.07 3.05 0.93 1.31 4.10
2000 1.35 0.71 1.68 1.10 0.96 2.60 1.00 1.15 3.35 0.91 1.39 4.49
2200 1.34 0.76 1.83 1.08 1.01 2.82 0.99 1.22 3.64 0.90 1.47 4.86
2400 1.32 0.79 1.97 1.07 1.06 3.04 0.97 1.26 3.90 0.89 1.54 5.23
2600 1.30 0.82 2.10 1.06 1.11 3.25 0.96 1.33 4.18 0.88 1.61 5.60
2800 1.29 0.86 2.25 1.05 1.16 3.47 0.95 1.39 4.46 0.87 1.67 5.96
3000 1.27 0.88 2.37 1.04 1.20 3.67 0.94 1.43 4.72 0.86 1.73 6.32
3200 1.25 0.90 2.50 1.03 1.25 3.89 0.93 1.49 5.00 0.85 1.80 6.68
3400 1.24 0.94 2.63 1.02 1.29 4.10 0.92 1.53 5.25 0.84 1.85 7.03
3600 1.23 0.97 2.76 1.01 1.32 4.29 0.91 1.56 5.49 0.84 1.91 7.38
3800 1.23 1.01 2.91 1.00 1.36 4.48 0.90 1.62 5.76 0.83 1.97 7.72
4000 1.22 1.03 3.03 1.00 1.42 4.71 0.90 1.68 6.03 0.82 2.02 8.06
*)
J ≥ 1/DN
7 Steep Stretches and Air Transfer
Within the meaning of this standard steep stretches are understood to be sewer sections
within which, with supercritical discharge, the air mixture is to be taken into account with
dimensioning. This applies if the Boussinesq Number (Eqn. 56) is greater than 6.
With the hydraulic dimensioning of a steep stretch there are three different sections to be
differentiated (see Fig.11):
 inflow with acceleration stretch without air uptake,
 throughflow with air uptake and equilibrium stretch,
 outflow with energy conversion.
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
46
Fig. 11: Section of a steep stretch
7.1 Steep Stretches  Inflow
As a rule, the critical depth h
crit
is passed through in the area of the inflow. Using a
determination of the line of the water surface profile, an estimation is to be made as to
how far the acceleration stretch reaches, i.e. in which area of the sewer the transition to
the normal water depth with supercritical discharge is achieved.
Retention of the sewer crosssection above the steep stretch up to the end of the
acceleration stretch or, if possible, creation of a continuous transition over the cross
section in the area of the throughflow of the steep stretch is recommended. Aim of this
measure is the avoidance of pulsing discharge conditions in sewer operation.
7.2 Steep Stretches  Throughflow
In this area of a steep stretch, a buildup of a waterair mixture takes place with
discharge (absorption stretch), whose safe discharge is to be guaranteed through the
appropriate dimensioning of the sewer crosssection (equilibrium stretch).
For sole gradients greater than 200 ‰, the friction gradient is to be determined with the
aid of actual length l of the sewer
9)
. The values Q and v are then to be determined for a
planned crosssection with complete filling as well as with partial filling. The admixture of
air is determined using the enlargement ratio fair (according to Volkart, see Appx. A4).
This is dependent on the flow rate, the flow crosssection and the operational roughness.
The value relevant for dimensioning is
air T DIM
f Q Q ⋅ = Q (55)
for which Q
DIM
< 0.75Q
v
(corresponds with h/d < 0.65) is to be maintained.
With the aid of the Boussinesq Number Bou
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
47
hy
T
r g
v
Bou
⋅
= (56)
the air concentration C is determined as
1 ) 0 . 6 Bou ( 02 . 0
1
1 C
5 . 1
+ −
− = (57)
The velocity v
M
of the waterair mixture is
) C 1 ( v v
2
T M
− = (58)
The air component Q
Air
is
( ) C 1 / C Q Q
T Air
− ⋅ = (59)
The filling height h of the waterair mixture in the area of the equilibrium stretch is
calculated as
G
A T
M
V
Q Q
A
+
= (60)
and the relationship h/d or h/H, which can be taken from Appx. A2, Tables 14 to 19 for
A
M
/A
V
(in place of A
T
/A
V
).
With consecutive sewer sections with changing gradient within a partial stretch, the air
component of the above lying sections is maintained for the following sections.
The hydrodynamic forces which occur are to be calculated with change of direction within
the throughflow stretches.
7.3 Steep Stretches  Outflow
The transition from supercritical to subcritical flow, as a rule, takes place in this area. The
energy conversion with this is to be localised; forces occurring are to be absorbed. For
this there are available various forms of energy conversion structures
20)
developed
specially for this area.
With transition with hydraulic jump in the subsequent sewer section without closure the
calculation of circular profiles takes place according to Eqns. 61 to 63.
4
1
T
1
h d g
Q
FR
⋅ ⋅
= (61)
The calculation of the Froude Number for the hydraulic jump in the subsequent sewer
section takes place with the water depth h
1
from h
T
(without taking account of the air
transfer) assuming unchanged flow velocity in the throughflow and outflow cross
sections.
_______________
20)
ATV: ATVHandbuch, Planung der Kanalisation [ATV Manual, Planning of the sewer system]
The ratio of the conjugated water depths before and after the hydraulic jump (Fig. 12) is:
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
48
9 . 0
1
1
2
Fr
h
h
= (62)
The length of the hydraulic jump is:
2 / 1
1
2
H
Fr 4
h
L
≅ (63)
The position of the hydraulic jump (Fig. 12) is determined through the calculation of a
backwater curve. Effects of a backingup of tail water are to be taken into account.
Fig. 12: Hydraulic jump in the steep section outflow (a: partial filling; b: complete
filling)
With closure with h
2
≥ d
u
the following applies
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
49
4
1 u
1
2
h d g
Q
h
h
⋅ ⋅
= (64)
The minimum diameter without closure is
3
2
h
2
u
h g
Q
d
⋅
≥ (65)
With hydraulic jump in the outflow area provision has always to be made for aeration and
ventilation.
8 Special Structures
The handling of the hydraulic calculation for the special structures employed in the sewer
system would exceed the scope of this set of rules and standards. Therefore there are
individual standards created for these which are
ATVA 111 for relief facilities  with the following detailing
Facilities/structures for the influencing of discharge under open channel
operation (overflows)
Vertical approach flow
Lateral approach flow (side weir)
Approach flow in bends and from overfalls
Siphon weirs
Movable obstructors
Leaping weir (stormwater overflow with bottom opening)
Special designs
Facilities for the influencing of discharge under pressure
Throttle devices
Throttle lengths
Throttle slide valves
Eddy devices (e.g. throttles, valves)
Outlet slots
Regulating devices
Control devices
and in
ATVA 112 all further structures not covered in ATVA 110 or ATVA 111 such
as
Siphons
Air cushion siphons
Drop structures
Drop structures with bypass
Drop structures with chute
Drop shaft with deflector or baffle
Vortex drop shafts
Discharge structures
ATVDVWKA 110E
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50
Curved structures
Diameter change in shafts
As supplement attention is drawn to SIA 40  Documentation 40  of the Swiss Engineers
and Architects Association.
Attention is drawn to the literature for structures and constructions which go beyond the
scope of this set of rules and standards.
9 Pressure and Vacuum Drainage, Compressed Air Flushed
Wastewater Transport Pipelines, Wastewater Pumping Stations
with Pressure Pipelines
On this subject the following European Standards are valid in the field of drainage
systems outside buildings:
DIN EN 1671 Pressure sewerage systems outside buildings
DIN EN 1091 Vacuum sewerage systems outside buildings
These are to be supplemented in the future by residual standard specifications in the
form of revisions of ATV Standard ATVA 116 and are:
ATVDVWKA 116 Part 1 Vacuum drainage systems outside buildings
ATVDVWKA 116 Part 2 Pressure drainage systems outside buildings
The following will be dealt with in a further document:
ATVDVWKA 116 Part 3 Compressed air flushed wastewater transport pipelines
Up until now a report has been available on the latter subject, which was published in KA
1/87.
Within buildings the following are to be noted
DIN EN 12109 Vacuum drainage systems inside buildings
For wastewater pumping stations with pressure pipelines attention is drawn to
DIN EN 752 Part 6 Pumping installations
together with the Standard
ATVDVWKA 134 Planning and construction of wastewater pumping facilities
10 Private Property Drainage
The harmonisation, initiated by the EG (EU) Commission 1991, of sets of technical rules
and standards in Europe (EU with EFTA, CEFTA and other associated members of CEN)
for wastewater, differentiates
Drainage systems
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
51
 outside buildings, and
 inside buildings.
For drainage systems outside buildings the follow series of standard specifications
applies
DIN EN Parts 1 to 7,
within buildings
DIN EN 12056 Parts 1 to 6 apply.
There is a duty to take over the European standard specification so that
DIN 1986
previously alone applicable in Germany is to be adapted and reissued as a socalled
residual standard specification.
In private property drainage systems there are connection, drop, collector and house
drains to be dimensioned. With this it is not only the undisrupted removal of discharged
wastewater which has to be guaranteed, but also that the air carried can also be
transported.
Table 13a: Permitted discharge, degree of filling 50 % (h/d = 0.5), wastewater
21)
Gradient DN 100 DN 125 DN 150 DN 200 DN 225 DN 250 DN 300
J Q
max
v Q
max
v Q
max
v Q
max
v Q
max
v Q
max
v Q
max
v
[cm/m] [l/s] [m/s] [l/s] [m/s] [l/s] [m/s] [l/s] [m/s] [l/s] [m/s] [l/s] [m/s] [l/s] [m/s]
0.5 1.8 0.5 2.8 0.5 5.4 0.6 10.0 0.8 15.9 0.8 18.9 0.9 34.1 1.0
1.0 2.5 0.7 4.1 0.8 7.7 0.9 14.2 1.1 22.5 1.2 26.9 1.2 48.3 1.4
1.5 3.1 0.8 5.0 1.0 9.4 1.1 17.4 1.3 27.6 1.5 32.9 1.5 59.2 1.8
2.0 3.5 1.0 5.7 1.1 10.9 1.3 20.1 1.5 31.9 1.7 38.1 1.8 68.4 2.0
2.5 4.0 1.1 6.4 1.2 12.2 1.5 22.5 1.7 35.7 1.9 42.6 2.0 76.6 2.3
3.0 4.4 1.2 7.1 1.4 13.3 1.6 24.7 1.9 39.2 2.1 46.7 2.2 83.9 2.5
3.5 4.7 1.3 7.6 1.5 14.4 1.7 26.6 2.0 42.3 2.2 50.4 2.3 90.7 2.7
4.0 5.0 1.4 8.23 1.6 15.4 1.8 28.5 2.1 45.2 2.4 53.9 2.5 96.9 2.9
4.5 5.3 1.5 8.7 1.7 16.3 2.0 30.2 2.3 48.0 2.5 57.2 2.7 102.6 3.1
5.0 5.6 1.6 9.1 1.8 17.2 2.1 31.9 2.4 50.6 2.7 60.3 2.8 108.4 3.2
_______________
21)
Source: DIN EN 120562:Gravity drainage systems within buildings, Part 2: Wastewater systems, planning and calculation
The dimensioning of collectors (within buildings) and house drains (outside and below
buildings) takes place in accordance with DIN EN 12056 Part2, according to Prandtl
Colebrook for the respective relevant gradient; for this Tables 13a and 13b are provided.
Table 13b: Permitted discharge, degree of filling 70 % (h/d = 0.7), wastewater
21)
Gradient DN 100 DN 125 DN 150 DN 200 DN 225 DN 250 DN 300
J Q
max
v Q
max
v Q
max
v Q
max
v Q
max
v Q
max
v Q
max
v
ATVDVWKA 110E
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52
[cm/m] [l/s] [m/s] [l/s] [m/s] [l/s] [m/s] [l/s] [m/s] [l/s] [m/s] [l/s] [m/s] [l/s] [m/s]
0.5 2.9 0.5 4.8 0.6 9.0 0.7 16.7 0.8 26.5 0.9 31.6 1.0 56.8 1.1
1.0 4.2 0.8 6.8 0.9 12.8 1.0 23.7 1.2 37.6 1.3 44.9 1.4 80.6 1.6
1.5 5.1 1.0 8.3 1.1 15.7 1.3 29.1 1.5 46.2 1.6 55.0 1.7 98.8 2.0
2.0 5.9 1.1 9.6 1.2 18.2 1.5 33.6 1.7 53.3 1.9 63.6 2.0 114.2 2.3
2.5 6.7 1.2 10.8 1.4 20.3 1.6 37.6 1.9 59.7 2.1 71.1 2.2 127.7 2.6
3.0 7.3 1.3 11.8 1.5 22.3 1.8 41.2 2.1 65.4 2.3 77.9 2.4 140.0 2.8
3.5 7.9 1.5 12.8 1.6 24.1 1.9 44.5 2.2 70.6 2.5 84.2 2.6 151.2 3.0
4.0 8.4 1.6 13.7 1.8 25.6 2.1 47.6 2.4 75.5 2.7 90.0 2.8 161.7 3.2
4.5 8.9 1.7 14.5 1.9 27.3 2.2 50.5 2.5 80.1 2.8 95.5 3.0 171.5 3.4
5.0 9.4 1.7 15.3 2.0 28.8 2.3 53.3 2.7 84.5 3.0 100.7 3.1 180.8 3.6
Attention is drawn to
DN EN 12056 Part 3
for roof drainage.
11 Cost Aspects
The consequent application of the dimensioning principles laid down in the standard aid
the production of operationally suitable systems and, with this, the minimisation of
subsequent costs. All calculation methods given contain sufficient information on justified
deviations (opening stipulations). This applies in particular for the proposal of working
using an individual or global concept with dimensioning or performance verification.
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
53
12 Literature [Translator's note: known translations are give in English, otherwise a courtesy translation
is provided in square brackets]
ATV ATVHandbuch, Planung der Kanalisation
[ATV Manual, Planning of the sewer system],
4th Edition, Verlag Ernst Sohn, 1994.
ATV Standard ATVA 111E, Standards for the hydraulic dimensioning and performance
verification of sewers and drains,
Hennef, February 1994.
ATV Arbeitsblatt ATVA 112, Richtlinien für die Hydraulische Dimensionierung und den
Leistungsnachweis von Sonderbauwerken in Abwasserkanälen und leitungen
[Standard ATVA 112, Standards for the hydraulic dimensioning and performance
verification of special structures in sewers and drains],
Hennef, January 1998.
ATV Standard ATVA 116E, Special Sewer Systems,
Sankt Augustin, September 1992.
ATV Standard ATVA 118E, hydraulic dimensioning and verification of drainage ,
Hennef, November 1999.
ATVDVWK Arbeitsblatt ATVDVWKA 134, Planung und Bau von Abwasserpumpanlagen
[Standard ATVDVWKA 134, Planning and construction of wastewater pumping
stations],
Hennef, June 2000.
ATVDVWK Arbeitsblatt ATVDVWKA 157, Bauwerke in Entwässerungsanlagen
[Standard ATVDVWKA 157, Structures in drainage systems],
Hennef, December 2000.
ATV Merkblatt ATVM 165
Anforderungen an NiederschlagsAbflußBerechnungen in der Stadtentwässerung
[Advisory Leaflet ATVM 165, Requirements on precipitation discharge calculations in
municipal drainage],
Hennef, April 1994.
ATV Beeinflussung der Leistungsfähigkeit von Kanalstrecken durch konstruktiven
Veränderungen im Bereich der Schächte
[Influencing of the efficiency of sewer lengths through design changes in the area of
shafts].
Final report of the research project (ATV 01/97), October 1999.
ATVDVWK Schießender Abfluß im 45°Vereinigungsschacht. Abschlußbericht des ATVDVWK
Forschungsvorhabens
[Supercritical discharge in a 45° combining shaft. Final report of the ATVDVWK
research project]
(ATVDVWK 01/2000).
ATV Druckluftgespülte Abwassertransportleitungen, Planungs, Bau und
Betriebsgrundsätze; Arbeitsbericht der ATVAG 1.1.6,
[Compressed air flushed wastewater transport drains, Planning, construction and
operational principles, report of the ATV WG 1.1.6]
Korrespondenz Abwasser 1/87, p. 70 ff.
ATV Schießender Abfluß in Krümmerschachten. Abschlußbericht des
Vorschungsvorhabens
[Supercritical discharge in elbow shafts. Final report of the research project]
(ATV 09/98), Korrespondenz Abwasser 8/99, p. 1247 ff.
DIN DIN EN 752, Drain and sewer systems outside buildings
Part 1, Generalities and definitions
Part 2, Performance requirements
Part 3, Planning
Part 4, Hydraulic design and environmental considerations
Part 5, Rehabilitation
Part 6, Pumping installations
Part 7, Maintenance and operations.
DIN DIN EN 1071, Unterdruckentwässerungssysteme außerhalb von Gebäuden
[Vacuum drainage systems outside buildings].
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
54
DIN DIN EN 1671, Pressure sewerage systems outside buildings.
DIN DIN 1986, Drainage systems on private ground
Part 2, Design of sizes of drain, waste and ventilation pipes.
DIN DIN 4044, Hydromechanik im Wasserbau; Begriffe
[Hydromechanics in hydraulic engineering; Terms].
DIN DIN 4045, Wastewater engineering; Terms.
DIN DIN 4263, Shapes, dimensions and geometrical values of sewers and drains for water
and wastewater engineering.
DIN DIN EN 12056, Gravity drainage inside buildings
Part 1, General and performance requirements
Part 2, Sanitary pipework, layout and calculation
Part 3, Roof drainage, layout and calculation
Part 4, Wastewater lifting plants. Layout and calculation
Part 5, Installation and testing, instructions for operation, maintenance and use
Part 6, (DRAFT  prEN) Inspection and testing.
DIN DIN EN 12109, Vacuum drainage systems inside buildings.
Franke, P.G.: Die Rauhigkeitsverhältnisse im teilgefüllten Rohr
[Roughness conditions in the partially filled pipe].
Die Wasserwirtschaft 46 (1956)
No. 12, p. 315318.
Schröder, R.C.M.: Hydraulische Methoden zur Erfassung von Rauheiten
[Hydraulic methods of recording roughness]
DVWK Publications No. 92, PaulPareyVerlag Hamburg und Berlin, 1990.
Gothe, E.;
Valentin, F.:
Schachtverlust bei Überstau.
[Shaft loss with additional impoundment]
Korrespondenz Abwasser 4/92, p. 470 ff.
Hager, W.H.: Fließformeln für turbulente Strömungen
[Flow formulas for turbulent flows],
Wasserwirtschaft (1987), No. 12.
Hager, W.H.: Abwasserhydraulik.
[Wastewater hydraulics]
Springerverlag Berlin 1995.
Hager, W.H.;
Del Guidice, G.;
Gisonni, C.:
Schießender Abfluß in Krümmerschächten. Gefördert mit Mitteln des
Forschungsfonds von ATV und GFA:
[Supercritical discharge in elbow shafts. Sponsored with resources from the ATV and
GFA research fund],
KA Korrespondenz Abwasser, 8/99, p. 1267 ff.
Hager, W.H.;
Gisonni, C.:
Schießender Abfluß im 45°Krümmersschacht
[Supercritical flow in the 45° bend shaft]
KA Wasserwirtschaft, Abwasser, Abfall, 7/2000, p. 10471052.
Hager, W.H.;
Del Guidice, G.:
Schießender Abfluß im 45°Vereinigungsschacht
[Supercritical flow in the 45° combining shaft]
KA 4/2001.
Höfer, U.: Beginn der Sedimentbewegung bei Gewässersohlen mit Riffeln oder Dünen
[Start of sedimentation movement with the bottom of surface waters with layers of
shale or dunes]
Technical report of the (German) Institute for Hydraulic Engineering (IHH), Technical
University Darmstadt, No. 32, 1984.
Kölling, C.;
Valentin, F.:
SIMKSimulation von Teilgefüllungskurven. Gefördert von ATV und GFA und fachlich
unterstützt durch die ATVArbeitsgruppe 1.2.2. „Hydraulische Berechnung von
Kanälen und Leitungen“
[SIMK simulation of partial filling curves. Sponsored by ATV and GFA and technically
supported by the ATV WG 1.2.2. “Hydraulic calculation of sewers and drains”].
KA Korrespondenz Abwasser, 3/99, p. 410 ff.
Kölling, C.;
Valentin, F.:
SIMKSimulation von Teilgefüllungskurven. Abschlußbericht des
Forschungsvorhabens (ATV 25/97 and ATV 31/99)
[SIMK simulation of partial filling curves. Final report of the research project (ATV
25/97 and ATV 31/99)]
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
55
KA Korrespondenz Abwasser, 3/99, p. 410 ff.
Macke, E.: Über Feststofftransport bei niedrigen Konzentrationen in teilgefüllten Rohrleitungen.
[On the transport of solid matter with low concentrations in partially filled pipelines]
Information of the Leichtweiß Institute for Hydraulic Engineering Technical University
Braunschweig, No. 69, Braunschweig 1980.
Merlein, J.;
Valentin, F.:
Beeinflussung der Leistungsfähigkeit von Kanalstrecken durch konstruktive
Veränderungen im Bereich der Schächte
[Influencing of the efficiency of sewer lengths through design changes in the are of the
shafts]
KA, Wasserwirtschaft, Abwasser, Abfall, 8/2000, p. 11761181.
Naudascher, E.: Hydraulik der Gerinne und Gerinnebauwerke
[Hydraulics of channels and channel structures]
SpringerVerlag, Wien 1992.
Pecher, R.;
Schmidt, H.;
Pecher, D.:
Hydraulik der Abwasserkanäle in der Praxis
[Hydraulics of sewers in practice]
PareyVerlag, Hamburg and Berlin 1991.
Sauerbrey, M.: Abfluß in Entwässerungsleitungen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der
Fließvorgänge in teilgefüllten Rohren.
[Discharge in drainage pipelines take particular account of flow procedures in partially
filled pipes].
Wasser und Abwasser in Forschung und Praxis, Vol. 1. ErichSchmidtVerlag,
Bielefeld 1969.
Schröder, R.
und Knauf, D.:
Über das hydraulische Widerstandsverhalten von Beton und Stahlbetonrohren im
Übergangsbereich
[On the resistance behaviour of concrete and reinforced concrete pipes in the
transition zone].
Das Gas und Wasserfach 113, (1972), No.11, p.536541.
SIA Sonderbauwerke der Kanalisationstechnik, Hydraulische Berechnungsgrundlagen und
konstruktiven Hinweise
[Special structures in sewer engineering, fundamentals of hydraulic calculation and
design information]
SIA documentation No. 40, Swiss Engineer and Architect Association, Zürich, 1980.
Tiedt, W.: Hydrodynamische Untersuchungen des Teilfüllungsproblems.
[Hydrodynamic investigations of partial filling problems]
Technical report of the German Institute for Hydraulics and Hydrology, Technical
University Darmstadt No. 7, Darmstadt 1971.
Ueker, K.J.: Abflußrechnung in Abwasserkanälen unter Berücksichtigung seitlicher Zuflüsse
[Discharge calculations in sewers taking into account lateral inflows].
Steinzeug (vitrified clay) Information 87, Specialist Association of the German Vitrified
Clay Industry, MaxPlanckStr. 6, 50858 Köln (Marsdorf), 1987.
Unger, P.: Grundlagen der k
b
WertFestlegung im Arbeitsblatt A 110
[Basics of k
b
value determination in ATV Standard ATVA 110]
Korrespondenz Abwasser 1/1989, p. 46 ff.
Volkart, P.: Hydraulische Bemessung steiler Kanalisationsleitungen unter Berücksichtugung der
Luftaufnahme.
[Hydraulic dimensioning of steep sewer pipelines taking into account air uptake].
Dissertation ETH Zürich, No. 6104, Zürich 1978, also appeared as Information of the
Research Centre for Hydraulic Engineering, Hydrology and Glaciology, ETH Zürich,
No. 30, Zürich 1978.
Volkart, P.: Hydraulische Bemessung teilgefüllter Steilleitungen
[Hydraulic dimensioning of partially filled steep pipelines]
GasWasserAbwasser 58 (1978), No. 11, p. 658667.
Zanker, G.: Neues Schachtsystem nach DIN 4034
[New shaft system in accordance with DIN 4034]
Abwassertechnik 3/87, p. 22 ff.
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
56
13 Symbols, Units and Terms [Translator’s note: For ease of comparison symbols used
in the German original, if different from those used in this English version, are in brackets after the
English symbols]
Symbols
α [1] Correction factor for nonuniform velocity distribution
A [m²] Flow crosssection perpendicular to the sole
A
E
(AG) [m²] Flow crosssection in the area of the equilibrium stretch
with the discharge of waterair mixture
ß
1
,ß
2
[°] Combining angle
b [m] Water level breadth
B [1] Bend number
B [m] Profile breadth
B
sh
[m] Shaft breadth, shaft diameter
Bou [1] Boussinesq Number
c
i
[m
3
/s] Hydraulic conductance for partial cross sections
c
S
[1] Loss
factor for lateral inflow
c
T
[1] Solid matter concentration in wastewater
C [1] Air concentration
d [m] Circular pipe diameter (clear diameter CD)
d
hy
[m] Hydraulic diameter
d
in
(d
z
) [m] Diameter of an inflow pipeline
DN [mm] Nominal diameter, nominal width
η [kg/m
⋅
s] Dynamic viscosity
ϕ [1] Ratio for partial crosssections i.a.w. DIN 4263
ϕ [°] Slope angle
ϕ [°] Deflection angle
f [1] Form coefficient
f
air
(f
luft
) [1] Enlargement factor with discharge of waterair mixture
Fr [1] Froude Number
χ [kN/m
3
] Specific gravity of flow medium
g [m/s
2
] Acceleration due to gravity
h [m] Filling height, flow depth, pressure head at the pipe or
profile sole with completely filled flowing pipelines
h′ [m] Water depth
h
B
[m] Water depth in the area of the benching of a
sectionalised crosssection
h
crit
(h
gr
) [m] Critical depth
h
E
[m] Energy head
h
f
(h
v
) [m] Energy fall
h
fi
(h
v,E
) [m] Individual energy fall, local energy fall
h
i
(h
a
) [m] initial water depth
h
L
[m] Local energy loss
h
M
[m] Height of wave maximum in the elbow shaft
h
n
[m] Normal water depth
h
NN
[m] Water level referred to MSL
h
x
[m] General flow depth
∆h [m] Difference in water level
H [m] Profile height with noncircular crosssections
H
Ch
(H
ri
) [m] Profile height of the flow channels of a sectionalised
crosssection
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
57
J
q
[1] Additional loss gradient as a result of lateral inflow
J
c
[1] Sole gradient with sedimentationfree operation
J
crit
[1] Sole gradient at which the transport of solids ends
J
E
[1] Energy gradient
J
F
(J
R
) [1] Friction gradient
J
Lim
(J
gr
) [1] Critical gradient
J
So
[1] Sole (bottom) gradient
J
W
[1] Water level gradient
k [mm; m] Hydraulically effective wall roughness
k
b
[mm; m] Operational roughness
k
L
[mm; m] Local loss coefficient (from DIN EN 752)
k
s
[mm; m] Sand roughness
k
St
[m
1/3
/s] Coefficient according to ManningStrickler
K [m
1/3
/s] Velocity coefficient according to ManningStrickler (DIN
EN 752)
λ [1] Drag coefficient as a result of natural roughness
λ
b
[1] Drag coefficient as a result of operational roughness
L
H
(L
w
) [m] Length of the hydraulic jump
l [m] Length (actual length)
l’ [m] Length (projection on to the horizontal
l
P
(l
u
) [m] Wetted perimeter
l
P,Ch
(l
u
,
Ri
) [m] Wetted perimeter of the flow channel of a sectionalised
crosssection
∆l
P
*
(l
u
*
) [m] Correction value
for the wetted perimeter of the flow
channel
l
P
*
,Ch
(l
u
*
,
Ri
) [m] Hydraulically effective wetted perimeter of the flow
channel
ν [m
2
/s] Kinematic viscosity
m [1] Factor with inclusion of additional losses
n [1] Number of partial crosssections with sectionalised
crosssections
q [m
3
/(s
⋅
m)] Lateral inflow per unit of length in the direction of flow
q
e
[m
3
/(s
⋅
m)] End discharge with surface runoffs
Q [m
3
/s] Throughflow, discharge, volume flow
Q
A
(Q
L
) [m
3
/s] Air component with discharge of a waterair mixture
Q
crit
(Q
gr
) [m
3
/s] Critical discharge
Q
DIM
[m
3
/s] Dimensioning discharge with waterair mixture
Q
e
[m
3
/s] Throughflow at the end of a calculation stretch
Q
i
[m
3
/s] Initial flow
Q
m
[m
3
/s] Mean value of throughflow
Q
n
[m
3
/s] Normal discharge
Q
s
[m
3
/s] Throughflow at the start of a calculation stretch
∆Q [m
3
/s] Inflow along a calculation stretch
ρ [°] Relative bending of the shaft deflection
ρ [kg/m
3
] Density
r [m] Radius
r
hy
[m] Hydraulic radius
Re [1] Reynolds Number
t [s] Time coordinate
∆t [s] Time coordinate step
T [°C] Temperature
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
58
τ [N/m
2
] Wall transverse stress
v [m/s] Average flow rate in a crosssection
v
c
[m/s] Flow rate for sedimentationfree operation
v
crit
[m/s] Average flow rate at which the transport of solids ends
v
lim
(v
gr
) [m/s] Limiting velocity
v
M
(v
G
) [m/s] Average flow rate of a waterair mixture
x [m] Path coordinate in the direction of flow
∆x [m] Step width of the path coordinate
ζ [1] Loss coefficient
ζ
C
(ζ
R
) [1] Loss coefficients for control shafts
ζ
CS
(ζ
VB
) [1] Loss coefficients for combining structures
ζ
fd
(ζ
u
) [1] Loss coefficients for flow diversion
ζ
in
(ζ
z
) [1] Loss coefficient for inflow fittings
ζ
PC
(ζ
RV
) [1] Loss coefficients for pipe connections
ζ
Pi
(ζ
L
) [1] Loss coefficient due to positional inaccuracies and
changes
ζ
PJ
(ζ
St
) [1] Loss coefficient for pipe joints
ζ
S
[1] Loss coefficient for special shafts
∆z [m] Bottom
Indices
avail Available value of a parameter
Ch Index for “flow in the area of the channel” with structured
crosssections
L Index for “flow in the area of the left benching” with
structured crosssections
max Maximum value of a parameter
min Minimum value of a parameter
o above
R Index for “flow in the area of the right benching” with ?
crosssections
T Partial filling
u Below
V Complete filling
Auxiliary parameters:
a
1
,a
2
,X,Y,Z
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
59
Appendix
As a series of new subjects had to be dealt with and existing details had to be presented
comprehensively with the revision of ATVA 110, the working group considered
somewhat broader information on the fundamentals and prerequisites to be necessary.
In order not to prejudice the clarity of the standard, this is separated from the actual text
and summarised in this appendix.
A1 Rules in accordance with Din EN 752, Part 4
General
(corresponds with DIN EN 7524, Sect. 9.1.1)
For the calculation of turbulent flows in drains and sewers, the equations from Prandtl
Colebrook
22)
and ManningStrickler
23)
are recommended.
PrandtlColebrook Equation
(corresponds with DIN EN 7524, Sect. 9.1.2)
The flow rate in circular shaped, completely filled pipes is calculated in accordance with
the equation:


.

\

ν ⋅
+
⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − =
) GJ 2 ( D
51 . 2
D 71 . 3
k
log gDJ 2 ( 2 v
E
10 E
(66)
With:
v the average velocity over the flow crosssection [m/s];
g acceleration due to gravity [m/s
2
];
D the internal diameter of the pipe [m];
J
E
energy gradient (energy loss per unit length) [];
k the hydraulic roughness of the pipeline [m];
ν the kinematic viscosity of the fluid [m
2
/s]
For partial filling or noncircular pipes the flow rate is calculated according to Eqn. (66), in
which D is replaced by 4R
h
. With this, R
h
is the hydraulic radius (flow face surface
divided by the wetted perimeter).
ManningStrickler Equation
(corresponds with DIN EN 7524, Sect. 9.1.3)
The flow rate for circular shaped and noncircular shaped crosssections is calculated
using the following equation for partial and complete filling:
2 / 1
E
3 / 2
h
J KR v = (67)
________________
22)
This equation is called the ColebrookWhite Equation in the English version and Colebrook Equation in the French version.
23)
This equation is called the Manning Equation in the English version and ManningStrickler Equation in the French version.
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
60
With:
K the velocity coefficient according to ManningStrickler [m
1/3
/s];
R
h
the hydraulic radius [m];
J
E
energy gradient (energy loss per unit length) [].
Energy losses in pipelines
(corresponds with DIN EN 7524, Sect. 9.2.1)
The hydraulic roughness of the pipeline (k) or the velocity coefficient take into account
energy losses due to pipe materials, the pipe connections and the sewer film.
Local energy losses
(corresponds with DIN EN 7524, Sect. 9.2.2)
In addition to the energy losses described under “General”, further losses occur with
combining, changes of crosssection, shafts, bends and other fittings. In case these
losses are calculated directly the following equation is to be used:
g 2
v k
h
2
L
L
=
with
h
L
the local energy loss [m],
k
L
the loss coefficient [1],
v the flow rate [m/s],
g acceleration due to gravity [m/s
2
].
Total energy losses
(corresponds with DIN EN 7524, Sect. 9.2.3, Paras 1 to 3)
there are two procedures for the determination of the total energy loss:
 local energy losses and the energy losses in the pipelines are added,
 taking into account the local energy losses by assuming a larger hydraulic roughness
of the pipeline with the calculation of the energy losses
If recommended hydraulic roughnesses are used for pipelines or velocity coefficients, it
is to be clarified whether local energy losses are taken into account in these. For a
roughness k values of 0.03 mm to 3.0 m are applied, for the velocity coefficient K values
from 70 m
1/3
s
1
to 90 m
1/3
s
1
Details on this are pointed out in DIN EN 752 Sect. 4 and are
contained in documents listed in DIN EN Appx. 4.
If longterm deposits cannot be avoided then the anticipated energy loss as a result of
reduced crosssection is to be taken into account in the calculation of the energy losses.
Velocity calculations according to Eqns. (66) and (67) can be compared approximately
using the following equation:
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
61

.

\

⋅ 
.

\

⋅ ⋅ =
k
D 7 . 3
log
D
32
g 4 K
10
6
1
(68)
with
K the velocity coefficient according to ManningStrickler in m
1/3
/s,
g acceleration due to gravity [m/s
2
],
D the internal diameter of the pipe in m,
k the hydraulic roughness of the pipeline in m.
Sources of additional information from other CEN countries
The informative Appendix A of DIN EN 7524 “Drainage systems outside buildings”
Part 4 “Hydraulic calculation and environmental aspects” contains all relevant details for
Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
A2 Compilation of partial filling curves; summary of profile groups; designation of
profiles, which deviate from DIN 4263
The calculation of discharge processes with partial filling is extensive because, in a
partially filled sewer pipe the filling height as initial value, is not known. For steady state,
uniform discharge  energy line and water level profile run parallel to the sole (Fig. 2), so
that filling curves can be used with which the partial filling values are based on complete
filling. For partial filling conditions between h/d from some 0.8 (depending on slight
differences according to profile type) up to 1.0 steady state, uniform discharge is
practically impossible (QT/QV > 1.0). Therefore for this range there are no partial filling
curves given. With nonuniform discharge a calculation of the water surface profile is
always required, with which, naturally, the range 0.8 ≤ h/d ≤ 1.0 can be dealt with
mathematically as then one is not concerned with normal water depths.
The degree of filling is without dimension. With circular pipes H = d. As the profile height,
which is always measured perpendicular to the pipe axis, is a constant value
independent of slope, the filling height must also be referred to the perpendicular to the
pipe axis (see also Eqn. (14)).
The creation of a partial filling curve for steady state discharge processes thus is reduced
to the calculation of geometrical relationship values for certain shapes of profile. In
accordance with Eqns. 16 and 17, the relationship values A
T
/A
V
and r
hy,T
/r
hy,V
are
required for the different degrees of filling.
The partial filling values for circular, oval and tapering crosssections are to be taken
from Figs. 13 to 15 as well as Tables 14 to 19.
For nontabulated crosssections the partial filling values for A and r
hy
= A/l
P
are to be
recorded and evaluated analytically or using plane geometry.
The following example serves to illustrate dealing with the thus obtained partial filling
curve:
Dry weather discharge: Q
T
= 38 l/s
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
62
Combined discharge: Q
m
= 1500 l/s
Sole gradient: J
So
= 2.5 ‰
Operational roughness: k
b
= 1.5 mm
Sewer profile: Circular DN 1200
Required: h
T
and v
T
for dry weather and combined discharges.
Discharge quantity according to Eqns. (12) and (20):
Q
v
= 1897 l/s, in which v
v
= 1.68 m/s
Dry weather discharge:
020 . 0
1897
38
Q
Q
v
T
= =
; 095 . 0
d
h
T
= h
T
= 0.095
⋅
1.20 = 0.12 m
; 413 . 0
v
v
v
T
= v
T
= 0.413
⋅
1.68 = 0.69 m/s
Combined wastewater discharged:
v
T
v
m
Q
Q
79 . 0
1897
1500
Q
Q
= = =
; 674 . 0
d
h
T
= h
T
= 0.674
⋅
1.20 = 0.81 m
; 103 . 1
v
v
v
T
= v
T
= 1.103
⋅
1.68 = 1.85 m/s
In Sect. 3.1.2 of the Standard it was pointed out that, for geometrically similar profile
shapes, the partial filling curves can be combined. It is thus recommended, under the
following listed profile shapes and their numbering (see Figs 16 and 17), to proceed as
follows:
Circular profile curve for Profile Nos.: 1; 4 and 5
Oval profile curve for Profile Nos.: 2; 6; 7; 8 and 15
Tapering profile curve for Profile Nos.: 3; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13 and 14
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
63
Fig. 13: Partial filling curve for circular sections
Fig. 14: Partial filling curves for oval sections
Fig. 15: Partial filling curves for tapering sections
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
64
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
65
Table 14: Partial filling values for circular crosssections dependent on Q
T
/Q
V
Q
T
/Q
V
v
T
/v
V
h/d A
T
/A
V
l
P,T
/l
P,V
r
hy,T
/r
hy,V
b
T
/B Q
T
/Q
V
v
T
/v
V
h/d A
T
/A
V
l
P,T
/l
P,V
r
hy,T
/r
hy,V
b
T
/B
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.338
0.413
0.464
0.503
0.537
0.065
0.095
0.116
0.134
0.149
0.030
0.048
0.065
0.079
0.093
0.168
0.200
0.221
0.238
0.252
0.176
0.243
0.292
0.334
0.369
0.504
0.587
0.640
0.680
0.712
0.51
0.52
0.53
0.54
0.55
1.005
1.009
1.014
1.018
1.023
0.506
0.512
0.518
0.524
0.530
0.508
0.515
0.523
0.530
0.538
0.504
0.508
0.511
0.515
0.519
1.008
1.015
1.022
1.029
1.036
1.000
1.000
0.999
0.999
0.998
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.565
0.590
0.613
0.633
0.652
0.163
0.176
0.188
0.200
0.211
0.106
0.119
0.131
0.142
0.153
0.265
0.276
0.286
0.295
0.304
0.401
0.430
0.457
0.482
0.505
0.739
0.762
0.782
0.800
0.815
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.59
0.60
1.027
1.031
1.035
1.039
1.043
0.536
0.542
0.547
0.553
0.559
0.545
0.553
0.560
0.568
0.575
0.523
0.526
0.530
0.534
0.538
1.043
1.050
1.057
1.063
1.070
0.997
0.997
0.995
0.994
0.995
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.670
0.686
0.702
0.716
0.730
0.221
0.231
0.241
0.250
0.259
0.164
0.175
0.185
0.195
0.205
0.312
0.319
0.326
0.333
0.340
0.527
0.548
0.567
0.580
0.604
0.830
0.843
0.855
0.866
0.876
0.61
0.62
0.63
0.64
0.65
1.047
1.051
1.054
1.058
1.061
0.565
0.571
0.577
0.583
0.589
0.583
0.590
0.598
0.695
0.612
0.542
0.545
0.549
0.553
0.557
1.076
1.082
1.088
1.094
1.100
0.991
0.990
0.988
0.986
0.984
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.743
0.756
0.767
0.779
0.790
0.268
0.276
0.285
0.293
0.301
0.215
0.225
0.235
0.244
0.253
0.346
0.352
0.358
0.364
0.370
0.622
0.639
0.655
0.670
0.685
0.886
0.894
0.903
0.910
0.917
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.70
1.065
1.068
1.071
1.075
1.078
0.595
0.601
0.607
0.613
0.619
0.620
0.627
0.635
0.642
0.650
0.561
0.565
0.568
0.572
0.576
1.106
1.111
1.117
1.122
1.127
0.982
0.980
0.977
0.974
0.971
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.800
0.810
0.820
0.829
0.838
0.309
0.316
0.324
0.331
0.339
0.262
0.272
0.281
0.289
0.298
0.375
0.380
0.385
0.390
0.395
0.700
0.714
0.728
0.741
0.754
0.924
0.930
0.936
0.941
0.947
0.71
0.72
0.73
0.74
0.75
1.081
1.084
1.087
1.090
1.092
0.625
0.631
0.637
0.643
0.649
0.657
0.664
0.672
0.679
0.687
0.580
0.584
0.588
0.592
0.596
1.132
1.137
1.142
1.147
1.152
0.968
0.965
0.962
0.958
0.955
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
0.30
0.847
0.856
0.864
0.872
0.880
0.346
0.353
0.360
0.367
0.374
0.307
0.316
0.324
0.333
0.341
0.400
0.405
0.410
0.414
0.419
0.767
0.779
0.791
0.803
0.814
0.951
0.956
0.960
0.964
0.968
0.76
0.77
0.78
0.79
0.80
1.095
1.098
1.100
1.103
1.105
0.655
0.661
0.667
0.674
0.680
0.694
0.702
0.709
0.717
0.724
0.600
0.604
0.609
0.613
0.617
1.156
1.161
1.165
1.169
1.173
0.951
0.947
0.942
0.938
0.933
0.31
0.32
0.33
0.34
0.35
0.887
0.894
0.902
0.909
0.915
0.381
0.387
0.394
0.401
0.407
0.349
0.358
0.366
0.374
0.382
0.423
0.428
0.432
0.436
0.440
0.826
0.837
0.847
0.858
0.868
0.971
0.974
0.977
0.980
0.983
0.81
0.82
0.83
0.84
0.85
1.107
1.109
1.112
1.114
1.116
0.686
0.693
0.699
0.706
0.712
0.732
0.739
0.747
0.754
0.762
0.622
0.626
0.630
0.635
0.640
1.177
1.181
1.184
1.188
1.191
0.928
0.923
0.917
0.911
0.905
0.36
0.37
0.38
0.39
0.40
0.922
0.928
0.935
0.941
0.947
0.414
0.420
0.426
0.433
0.439
0.390
0.399
0.407
0.415
0.422
0.445
0.449
0.453
0.457
0.461
0.878
0.888
0.898
0.907
0.916
0.985
0.987
0.989
0.991
0.993
0.86
0.87
0.88
0.89
0.90
1.117
1.119
1.121
1.123
1.124
0.719
0.726
0.733
0.740
0.747
0.770
0.777
0.785
0.793
0.801
0.644
0.649
0.654
0.659
0.664
1.194
1.198
1.200
1.203
1.206
0.899
0.892
0.885
0.878
0.870
0.41
0.42
0.43
0.44
0.45
0.953
0.958
0.964
0.970
0.975
0.445
0.451
0.458
0.464
0.470
0.430
0.438
0.446
0.454
0.462
0.465
0.469
0.473
0.477
0.481
0.925
0.934
0.943
0.952
0.960
0.994
0.995
0.996
0.997
0.998
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
1.125
1.127
1.128
1.129
1.129
0.754
0.761
0.769
0.776
0.784
0.809
0.817
0.825
0.833
0.841
0.669
0.675
0.681
0.686
0.692
1.208
1.210
1.212
1.214
1.215
0.862
0.853
0.843
0.834
0.823
0.46
0.47
0.48
0.49
0.50
0.980
0.985
0.990
0.995
1.000
0.476
0.482
0.488
0.494
0.500
0.469
0.477
0.485
0.492
0.500
0.485
0.489
0.492
0.496
0.500
0.968
0.977
0.984
0.992
1.000
0.999
0.999
1.000
1.000
1.000
0.96
0.97
0.98
0.99
1.00
1.130
1.130
1.131
1.131
1.130
0.792
0.800
0.809
0.818
0.827
0.850
0.858
0.867
0.876
0.885
0.699
0.705
0.712
0.719
0.727
1.216
1.217
1.217
1.217
1.217
0.812
0.799
0.786
0.772
0.756
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
66
Table 15: Partial filling values for circular crosssections dependent on h/d
h/d
v
T
/v
V
h/d A
T
/A
V
l
P,T
/l
P,V
r
hy,T
/r
hy,V
b
T
/B h/d
v
T
v
V
h/d A
T
/A
V
l
P,T
/l
P,V
r
hy,T
/r
hy,V
b
T
/B
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.1035
0.1592
0.2045
0.2440
0.2797
0.0002
0.0008
0.0018
0.0033
0.0052
0.0017
0.0048
0.0087
0.0134
0.0187
0.0638
0.0903
0.1108
0.1262
0.1436
0.0266
0.0528
0.0789
0.1047
0.1302
0.1990
0.2800
0.3412
0.3919
0.4359
0.51
0.52
0.53
0.54
0.55
1.0075
1.0154
1.0228
1.0299
1.0308
0.5167
0.5336
0.5504
0.5674
0.5843
0.5127
0.5255
0.5382
0.5509
0.5636
0.5064
0.5127
0.5191
0.5255
0.5319
1.0126
1.0248
1.0367
1.0483
1.0595
0.9998
0.9992
0.9982
0.9968
0.9950
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.3125
0.3430
0.3717
0.3989
0.4247
0.0077
0.0106
0.0139
0.0178
0.0221
0.0245
0.0308
0.0375
0.0446
0.0520
0.1575
0.1705
0.1826
0.1940
0.2048
0.1555
0.1805
0.2053
0.2298
0.2541
0.4750
0.5103
0.5426
0.5724
0.6000
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.59
0.60
1.0435
1.0499
1.0561
1.0620
1.0677
0.6013
0.6182
0.6351
0.6521
0.6689
0.5762
0.5888
0.6014
0.6140
0.6265
0.5383
0.5447
0.5511
0.5576
0.5641
1.0704
1.0811
1.0912
1.1011
1.1106
0.9928
0.9902
0.9871
0.9837
0.9798
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.4494
0.4730
0.4957
0.5175
0.5386
0.0269
0.0322
0.0379
0.0440
0.0507
0.0599
0.0680
0.0764
0.0851
0.0941
0.2152
0.2252
0.2348
0.2441
0.2532
0.2781
0.3018
0.3253
0.3485
0.3715
0.6258
0.6499
0.6726
0.6940
0.7141
0.61
0.62
0.63
0.64
0.65
1.0732
1.0785
1.0835
1.0883
1.0928
0.6857
0.7024
0.7190
0.7356
0.7519
0.6389
0.6513
0.6636
0.6759
0.6881
0.5706
0.5771
0.5837
0.5903
0.5970
1.1197
1.1285
1.1369
1.1449
1.1526
0.9755
0.9708
0.9650
0.9600
0.9539
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.5589
0.5786
0.5976
0.6161
0.6340
0.0577
0.0652
0.0732
0.0815
0.0903
0.1033
0.1127
0.1224
0.1323
0.1424
0.2620
0.2706
0.2789
0.2871
0.2952
0.3942
0.4167
0.4388
0.4607
0.4824
0.7332
0.7513
0.7684
0.7846
0.8000
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.70
1.0971
1.1012
1.1050
1.1086
1.1119
0.7682
0.7843
0.8002
0.8159
0.8313
0.7002
0.7122
0.7241
0.7360
0.7477
0.6037
0.6104
0.6172
0.6241
0.6310
1.1599
1.1667
1.1732
1.1793
1.1849
0.9474
0.9407
0.9330
0.9250
0.9165
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.6514
0.6684
0.6848
0.7008
0.7164
0.0994
0.1090
0.1190
0.1293
0.1401
0.1527
0.1631
0.1738
0.1845
0.1955
0.3031
0.3108
0.3184
0.3259
0.3333
0.5037
0.5248
0.5457
0.5662
0.5865
0.8146
0.8285
0.8417
0.8542
0.8660
0.71
0.72
0.73
0.74
0.75
1.1150
1.1178
1.1203
1.1226
1.1246
0.8466
0.8616
0.8763
0.8907
0.9048
0.7593
0.7708
0.7822
0.7934
0.8045
0.6380
0.6450
0.6522
0.6594
0.6667
1.1902
1.1950
1.1994
1.2033
1.2067
0.9075
0.8980
0.8879
0.8773
0.8660
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
0.30
0.7316
0.7464
0.7608
0.7748
0.7885
0.1511
0.1626
0.1744
0.1865
0.1990
0.2066
0.2178
0.2292
0.2407
0.2523
0.3406
0.3478
0.3550
0.3620
0.3690
0.6065
0.6262
0.6457
0.6649
0.6838
0.8773
0.8879
0.8980
0.9075
0.9165
0.76
0.77
0.78
0.79
0.80
1.1264
1.1278
1.1290
1.1299
1.1305
0.9185
0.9319
0.9448
0.9574
0.9695
0.8154
0.8262
0.8369
0.8473
0.8576
0.6741
0.6816
0.6892
0.6969
0.7048
1.2097
1.2123
1.2143
1.2158
1.2168
0.8542
0.8417
0.8285
0.8146
0.8000
0.31
0.32
0.33
0.34
0.35
0.8019
0.8149
0.8276
0.8400
0.8520
0.2117
0.2248
0.2382
0.2518
0.2658
0.2640
0.2759
0.2878
0.2998
0.3119
0.3759
0.3828
0.3896
0.3963
0.4043
0.7024
0.7207
0.7387
0.7565
0.7740
0.9250
0.9330
0.9404
0.9474
0.9539
0.81
0.82
0.83
0.84
0.85
1.1307
1.1306
0.9811
0.9922
0.8677
0.8776
0.8873
0.8967
0.9059
0.7129
0.7211
0.7294
0.7380
0.7468
1.2172
1.2171
1.2164
1.2150
1.2131
0.7846
0.7684
0.7513
0.7332
0.7141
0.36
0.37
0.38
0.39
0.40
0.8638
0.8753
0.8865
0.8974
0.9080
0.2800
0.2944
0.3091
0.3240
0.3392
0.3241
0.3364
0.3487
0.3611
0.3735
0.4097
0.4163
0.4229
0.4294
0.4359
0.7911
0.8080
0.8246
0.8409
0.8569
0.9600
0.9656
0.9708
0.9755
0.9798
0.86
0.87
0.88
0.89
0.90
0.9149
0.9236
0.9320
0.9401
0.9480
0.7559
0.7652
0.7748
0.7848
0.7952
1.2104
1.2071
1.2029
1.1980
1.1921
0.6940
0.6726
0.6499
0.6258
0.6000
0.41
0.42
0.43
0.44
0.45
0.9184
0.9284
0.9383
0.9478
0.9572
0.3545
0.3701
0.3858
0.4017
0.4177
0.3860
0.3986
0.4112
0.4238
0.4364
0.4424
0.4489
0.4553
0.4617
0.4681
0.8726
0.8880
0.9031
0.9179
0.9323
0.9837
0.9871
0.9902
0.9928
0.9950
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
0.9554
0.9625
0.9692
0.9755
0.9813
0.8060
0.8174
0.8295
0.8425
0.8564
1.1853
1.1775
1.1684
1.1579
1.1458
0.5724
0.5426
0.5103
0.4750
0.4359
0.46
0.47
0.48
0.49
0.50
0.9662
0.9750
0.9836
0.9919
1.0000
0.4340
0.4503
0.4668
0.4833
0.5000
0.4491
0.4618
0.4745
0.4873
0.5000
0.4745
0.4809
0.4873
0.4936
0.5000
0.9465
0.9604
0.9739
0.9871
1.0000
0.9968
0.9982
0.9992
0.9998
1.0000
0.96
0.97
0.98
0.99
1.00
1.0000
1.0000
0.9866
0.9913
0.9952
0.9983
1.0000
0.8718
0.8892
0.9097
0.9362
1.0000
1.1316
1.1148
1.0941
1.0663
1.0000
0.3919
0.3412
0.2800
0.1990
0.0000
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
67
Table 16: Partial filling values for oval crosssections dependent on Q
T
/Q
V
Q
T
/Q
V
v
T
/v
V
h/d A
T
/A
V
l
P,T
/l
P,V
r
hy,T
/r
hy,V
b
T
/B Q
T
/Q
V
v‘/v
V
h/d A
T
/A
V
l
P,T
/l
P,V
r
hy,T
/r
hy,V
b
T
/B
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.385
0.463
0.514
0.553
0.584
0.070
0.100
0.123
0.143
0.161
0.026
0.043
0.058
0.072
0.086
0.120
0.148
0.169
0.187
0.203
0.217
0.292
0.345
0.387
0.423
0.407
0.471
0.518
0.556
0.588
0.51
0.52
0.53
0.54
0.55
0.993
0.997
1.001
1.005
1.008
0.555
0.562
0.568
0.574
0.580
0.514
0.522
0.530
0.538
0.545
0.519
0.524
0.529
0.534
0.538
0.989
0.995
1.001
1.007
1.013
0.981
0.983
0.985
0.987
0.989
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.610
0.633
0.654
0.672
0.689
0.177
0.192
0.206
0.219
0.231
0.098
0.111
0.122
0.134
0.145
0.217
0.230
0.241
0.253
0.263
0.454
0.481
0.507
0.530
0.551
0.616
0.640
0.662
0.682
0.701
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.59
0.60
1.012
1.016
1.019
1.023
1.026
0.586
0.592
0.598
0.604
0.610
0.553
0.561
0.569
0.577
0.585
0.543
0.548
0.552
0.557
0.561
1.019
1.025
1.031
1.036
1.042
0.990
0.992
0.993
0.995
0.995
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.705
0.720
0.733
0.746
0.758
0.243
0.255
0.265
0.276
0.286
0.156
0.167
0.177
0.188
0.198
0.273
0.282
0.291
0.300
0.308
0.572
0.591
0.608
0.625
0.642
0.718
0.733
0.748
0.762
0.774
0.61
0.62
0.63
0.64
0.65
1.029
1.033
1.036
1.039
1.042
0.616
0.622
0.628
0.634
0.640
0.593
0.600
0.608
0.616
0.624
0.566
0.570
0.575
0.579
0.584
1.047
1.053
1.058
1.063
1.068
0.996
0.997
0.998
0.998
0.999
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.769
0.780
0.790
0.800
0.809
0.296
0.306
0.315
0.324
0.333
0.208
0.218
0.228
0.237
0.247
0.317
0.324
0.332
0.399
0.346
0.657
0.672
0.686
0.700
0.713
0.786
0.798
0.808
0.819
0.828
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.70
1.045
1.048
1.051
1.054
1.057
0.646
0.652
0.658
0.664
0.670
0.631
0.639
0.647
0.655
0.662
0.588
0.593
0.597
0.602
0.606
1.073
1.078
1.083
1.088
1.092
0.999
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.818
0.827
0.836
0.844
0.851
0.342
0.350
0.359
0.367
0.375
0.257
0.266
0.275
0.285
0.294
0.353
0.360
0.367
0.374
0.380
0.726
0.738
0.750
0.762
0.773
0.837
0.846
0.854
0.862
0.870
0.71
0.72
0.73
0.74
0.75
1.060
1.062
1.065
1.068
1.070
0.676
0.682
0.688
0.693
0.699
0.670
0.678
0.685
0.693
0.701
0.611
0.615
0.620
0.624
0.629
1.097
1.102
1.106
1.110
1.115
1.000
0.999
0.998
0.997
0.995
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
0.30
0.859
0.866
0.873
0.880
0.887
0.383
0.391
0.399
0.406
0.414
0.303
0.312
0.321
0.330
0.338
0.386
0.392
0.398
0.404
0.410
0.784
0.794
0.805
0.815
0.825
0.877
0.884
0.890
0.896
0.902
0.76
0.77
0.78
0.79
0.80
1.073
1.075
1.078
1.080
1.082
0.705
0.711
0.717
0.723
0.729
0.708
0.716
0.724
0.731
0.739
0.633
0.638
0.642
0.647
0.651
1.119
1.123
1.127
1.131
1.135
0.993
0.991
0.988
0.986
0.982
0.31
0.32
0.33
0.34
0.35
0.893
0.899
0.905
0.911
0.917
0.421
0.428
0.436
0.443
0.450
0.347
0.356
0.365
0.373
0.382
0.416
0.422
0.427
0.433
0.439
0.834
0.844
0.853
0.862
0.870
0.908
0.914
0.919
0.924
0.929
0.81
0.82
0.83
0.84
0.85
1.084
1.087
1.089
1.091
1.093
0.735
0.741
0.747
0.753
0.760
0.747
0.755
0.762
0.770
0.778
0.656
0.661
0.665
0.670
0.675
1.139
1.142
1.146
1.149
1.152
0.979
0.975
0.970
0.966
0.960
0.36
0.37
0.38
0.39
0.40
0.923
0.928
0.933
0.939
0.944
0.457
0.464
0.471
0.478
0.484
0.390
0.399
0.407
0.416
0.424
0.444
0.449
0.455
0.460
0.465
0.879
0.887
0.896
0.904
0.911
0.933
0.938
0.942
0.946
0.950
0.86
0.87
0.88
0.89
0.90
1.094
1.096
1.098
1.100
1.101
0.766
0.772
0.779
0.785
0.792
0.786
0.794
0.802
0.809
0.817
0.680
0.685
0.690
0.695
0.701
1.155
1.158
1.161
1.164
1.166
0.955
0.949
0.942
0.935
0.927
0.41
0.42
0.43
0.44
0.45
0.949
0.954
0.955
0.963
0.968
0.491
0.498
0.504
0.511
0.517
0.432
0.440
0.449
0.457
0.465
0.470
0.475
0.480
0.485
0.490
0.919
0.927
0.934
0.941
0.949
0.953
0.957
0.960
0.963
0.966
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
1.102
1.104
1.105
1.106
1.107
0.798
0.805
0.812
0.819
0.826
0.825
0.834
0.842
0.850
0.858
0.706
0.712
0.718
0.724
0.730
1.169
1.171
1.173
1.175
1.176
0.919
0.910
0.900
0.889
0.878
0.46
0.47
0.48
0.49
0.50
0.972
0.976
0.981
0.985
0.989
0.524
0.530
0.536
0.543
0.549
0.473
0.481
0.489
0.498
0.506
0.495
0.500
0.505
0.510
0.515
0.956
0.962
0.969
0.976
0.982
0.969
0.972
0.974
0.977
0.979
0.96
0.97
0.98
0.99
1.00
1.107
1.108
1.108
1.108
1.108
0.834
0.842
0.850
0.858
0.867
0.867
0.876
0.884
0.893
0.903
0.736
0.743
0.750
0.758
0.766
1.177
1.178
1.179
1.179
1.178
0.865
0.851
0.836
0.819
0.800
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
68
Table 17: Partial filling values for oval crosssections dependent on h/H
h/H
v
T
/v
V
h/d A
T
/A
V
l
P,T
/l
P,V
r
hy,T
/r
hy,V
b
T
/B h/H
v
T
/v
V
h/d A
T
/A
V
l
P,T
/l
P,V
r
hy,T
/r
hy,V
b
T
/B
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.1209
0.1848
0.2359
0.2797
0.3185
0.0002
0.0008
0.0018
0.0033
0.0051
0.0015
0.0042
0.0076
0.0116
0.0161
0.0439
0.0624
0.0768
0.0892
0.1003
0.0340
0.0671
0.0992
0.1302
0.1603
0.1706
0.2375
0.2862
0.3250
0.3571
0.51
0.52
0.53
0.54
0.55
0.9624
0.9694
0.9763
0.9830
0.9895
0.4389
0.4343
0.4699
0.4856
0.5015
0.4560
0.4683
0.4813
0.4940
0.5068
0.4848
0.4925
0.5001
0.5077
0.5154
0.9406
0.9516
0.9623
0.9729
0.9833
0.9630
0.9676
0.9719
0.9758
0.9795
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.3534
0.3852
0.4139
0.4400
0.4641
0.0074
0.0101
0.0131
0.0164
0.0201
0.0209
0.0261
0.0316
0.0373
0.0433
0.1105
0.1201
0.1295
0.1388
0.1480
0.1894
0.2173
0.2438
0.2689
0.2928
0.3842
0.4075
0.4295
0.4509
0.4718
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.59
0.60
0.9959
1.0022
1.0088
1.0142
1.0201
0.5175
0.5336
0.5498
0.5662
0.5827
0.5196
0.5324
0.5453
0.5583
0.5712
0.5230
0.5306
0.5382
0.5458
0.5533
0.9935
1.0035
1.0133
1.0229
1.0323
0.9829
0.9859
0.9887
0.9912
0.9933
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.4866
0.5077
0.5277
0.5467
0.5648
0.0242
0.0285
0.0333
0.0383
0.0437
0.0496
0.0562
0.0630
0.0701
0.0774
0.1571
0.1662
0.1752
0.1841
0.1930
0.3159
0.3381
0.3596
0.3805
0.4009
0.4922
0.5121
0.5314
0.5502
0.5686
0.61
0.62
0.63
0.64
0.65
1.0257
1.0314
1.0367
1.0419
1.0470
0.5992
0.6159
0.6326
0.6494
0.6662
0.5842
0.5972
0.6102
0.6233
0.6363
0.5609
0.5685
0.5761
0.5836
0.5912
1.0415
1.0505
1.0593
1.0679
1.0763
0.9952
0.9967
0.9980
0.9989
0.9996
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.5821
0.5988
0.6149
0.6303
0.6453
0.0494
0.0555
0.0619
0.0686
0.0757
0.0849
0.0927
0.1007
0.1089
0.1173
0.2018
0.2106
0.2193
0.2279
0.2365
0.4208
0.4402
0.4592
0.4779
0.4962
0.5864
0.6038
0.6208
0.6373
0.6533
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.70
1.0520
1.0569
1.0616
1.0661
1.0705
0.6832
0.7001
0.7171
0.7341
0.7510
0.6494
0.6624
0.6755
0.6885
0.7015
0.5988
0.6064
0.6139
0.6215
0.6291
1.0845
1.0925
1.1003
1.1079
1.1152
0.9999
0.9999
0.9992
0.9975
0.9950
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.6598
0.6739
0.6876
0.7009
0.7138
0.0831
0.0908
0.0989
0.1073
0.1160
0.1260
0.1348
0.1438
0.1531
0.1625
0.2450
0.2535
0.2619
0.2703
0.2786
0.5142
0.5318
0.5492
0.5662
0.5830
0.6689
0.6841
0.6989
0.7132
0.7272
0.71
0.72
0.73
0.74
0.75
1.0747
1.0787
1.0826
1.0862
1.0896
0.7679
0.7847
0.8014
0.8180
0.8344
0.7145
0.7274
0.7403
0.7531
0.7658
0.6367
0.6444
0.6520
0.6598
0.6676
1.1222
1.1289
1.1354
1.1414
1.1471
0.9915
0.9871
0.9818
0.9755
0.9682
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
0.30
0.7264
0.7386
0.7506
0.7623
0.7737
0.1250
0.1343
0.1439
0.1538
0.1641
0.1721
0.1818
0.1917
0.2018
0.2121
0.2870
0.2952
0.3034
0.3116
0.3198
0.5996
0.6159
0.6319
0.6477
0.6632
0.7407
0.7539
0.7667
0.7790
0.7911
0.76
0.77
0.78
0.79
0.80
1.0927
1.0956
1.0983
1.1006
1.1027
0.8506
0.8665
0.8821
0.8975
0.9125
0.7784
0.7908
0.8032
0.8154
0.8275
0.6754
0.6833
0.6913
0.6994
0.7076
1.1525
1.1574
1.1618
1.1658
1.1694
0.9600
0.9507
0.9404
0.9290
0.9165
0.31
0.32
0.33
0.34
0.35
0.7848
0.7956
0.8063
0.8166
0.8268
0.1746
0.1854
0.1965
0.2079
0.2196
0.2225
0.2331
0.2438
0.2546
0.2656
0.3279
0.3360
0.3440
0.3520
0.3600
0.6786
0.6937
0.7085
0.7232
0.7376
0.8027
0.8140
0.8249
0.8354
0.8456
0.81
0.82
0.83
0.84
0.85
1.1045
1.1060
1.1071
1.1078
1.1082
0.9271
0.9412
0.9549
0.9680
0.9806
0.8393
0.8510
0.8625
0.8738
0.8848
0.7159
0.7244
0.7330
0.7418
0.7507
1.1724
1.1748
1.1767
1.1780
1.1787
0.9028
0.8879
0.8717
0.8542
0.8352
0.36
0.37
0.38
0.39
0.40
0.8367
0.8464
0.8559
0.8652
0.8743
0.2315
0.2437
0.2562
0.2689
0.2818
0.2767
0.2879
0.2993
0.3107
0.3332
0.3680
0.3759
0.3838
0.3917
0.3996
0.7519
0.7659
0.7797
0.7933
0.8067
0.8554
0.8649
0.8741
0.8829
0.8914
0.86
0.87
0.88
0.89
0.90
1.1082 0.9925 0.8956
0.9061
0.9263
0.9163
0.9357
0.7599
0.7693
0.7790
0.7890
0.7994
1.1786
1.1778
1.1763
1.1738
1.1705
0.8146
0.7924
0.7684
0.7424
0.7141
0.41
0.42
0.43
0.44
0.45
0.8832
0.8920
0.9005
0.9088
0.9170
0.2950
0.3085
0.3221
0.3360
0.3501
0.3340
0.3458
0.3577
0.3697
0.3818
0.4074
0.4152
0.4230
0.4308
0.4386
0.8198
0.8328
0.8456
0.8582
0.8705
0.8995
0.9073
0.9148
0.9219
0.9287
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
0.9448
0.9535
0.9618
0.9695
0.9767
0.8102
0.8216
0.8335
0.8463
0.8601
1.1661
1.1606
1.1538
1.1456
1.1356
0.6834
0.6499
0.6131
0.5724
0.5268
0.46
0.47
0.48
0.49
0.50
0.9250
0.9328
0.9405
0.9480
0.9553
0.3644
0.3789
0.3936
0.4085
0.4236
0.3940
0.4062
0.4186
0.4310
0.4435
0.4463
0.4540
0.4618
0.4695
0.4771
0.8827
0.8947
0.9065
0.9180
0.9294
0.9352
0.9414
0.9473
0.9528
0.9580
0.96
0.97
0.98
0.99
1.00
1.0000
1.0000
0.9833
0.9891
0.9940
0.9979
1.0000
0.8752
0.8922
0.9122
0.9381
1.0000
1.1235
1.1086
1.0897
1.0638
1.0000
0.4750
0.4146
0.3412
0.2431
0.0000
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
69
Table 18: Partial filling values for tapering crosssections dependent on Q
T
/Q
V
Q
T
/Q
V
v
T
/v
V
h/d A
T
/A
V
l
P,T
/l
P,V
r
hy,T
/r
hy,V
b
T
/B Q
T
/Q
V
v
T
/v
V
h/d A
T
/A
V
l
P,T
/l
P,V
r
hy,T
/r
hy,V
b
T
/B
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.304
0.372
0.419
0.458
0.491
0.064
0.089
0.107
0.123
0.136
0.033
0.054
0.072
0.087
0.102
0.222
0.262
0.288
0.305
0.318
0.149
0.205
0.248
0.286
0.320
0.611
0.717
0.786
0.827
0.856
0.51
0.52
0.53
0.54
0.55
0.998
1.003
1.007
1.012
1.017
0.471
0.477
0.483
0.489
0.495
0.511
0.519
0.526
0.533
0.541
0.513
0.517
0.520
0.523
0.526
0.996
1.004
1.012
1.020
1.027
0.979
0.977
0.975
0.973
0.970
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.520
0.546
0.570
0.592
0.612
0.149
0.160
0.171
0.181
0.191
0.115
0.128
0.140
0.152
0.163
0.328
0.337
0.345
0.352
0.358
0.351
0.380
0.407
0.432
0.456
0.878
0.896
0.910
0.933
0.933
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.59
0.60
1.022
1.028
1.030
1.035
1.039
0.501
0.507
0.513
0.519
0.525
0.548
0.556
0.563
0.570
0.577
0.530
0.533
0.536
0.540
0.543
1.035
1.042
1.049
1.056
1.063
0.968
0.966
0.963
0.961
0.958
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.631
0.649
0.665
0.681
0.696
0.200
0.209
0.218
0.226
0.234
0.174
0.185
0.195
0.206
0.215
0.364
0.370
0.375
0.380
0.385
0.479
0.500
0.521
0.541
0.560
0.942
0.950
0.957
0.964
0.969
0.61
0.62
0.63
0.64
0.65
1.043
1.047
1.051
1.055
1.059
0.531
0.537
0.543
0.549
0.555
0.585
0.592
0.599
0.607
0.614
0.547
0.550
0.553
0.557
0.560
1.070
1.077
1.083
1.089
1.096
0.655
0.952
0.949
0.946
0.943
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.710
0.724
0.737
0.749
0.761
0.242
0.250
0.257
0.265
0.272
0.225
0.235
0.244
0.254
0.263
0.389
0.394
0.398
0.402
0.406
0.579
0.596
0.614
0.630
0.647
0.974
0.978
0.982
0.986
0.989
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.70
1.062
1.066
1.070
1.073
1.076
0.561
0.567
0.574
0.580
0.586
0.621
0.628
0.636
0.643
0.650
0.564
0.567
0.571
0.574
0.578
1.102
1.108
1.114
1.119
1.125
0.940
0.936
0.933
0.929
0.925
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.773
0.784
0.795
0.805
0.815
0.280
0.287
0.294
0.301
0.307
0.272
0.281
0.289
0.298
0.307
0.410
0.414
0.418
0.422
0.425
0.662
0.678
0.692
0.707
0.721
0.991
0.993
0.995
0.997
0.998
0.71
0.72
0.73
0.74
0.75
1.080
1.083
1.086
1.089
1.092
0.592
0.598
0.605
0.611
0.618
0.658
0.665
0.672
0.679
0.687
0.582
0.585
0.589
0.593
0.596
1.131
1.136
1.141
1.146
1.151
0.922
0.918
0.913
0.909
0.905
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
0.30
0.825
0.834
0.843
0.852
0.861
0.314
0.321
0.327
0.334
0.341
0.315
0.324
0.332
0.340
0.349
0.429
0.433
0.436
0.440
0.443
0.735
0.748
0.761
0.774
0.787
0.999
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
0.76
0.77
0.78
0.79
0.80
1.095
1.098
1.101
1.103
1.106
0.624
0.630
0.637
0.644
0.650
0.694
0.701
0.709
0.716
0.724
0.600
0.604
0.608
0.612
0.616
1.156
1.161
1.166
1.170
1.174
0.900
0.895
0.890
0.885
0.880
0.31
0.32
0.33
0.34
0.35
0.869
0.877
0.885
0.393
0.900
0.347
0.354
0.360
0.366
0.373
0.357
0.365
0.373
0.381
0.389
0.447
0.450
0.454
0.457
0.460
0.799
0.811
0.822
0.834
0.845
1.000
1.000
0.999
0.999
0.998
0.81
0.82
0.83
0.84
0.85
1.108
1.111
1.113
1.115
1.117
0.657
0.664
0.670
0.677
0.684
0.731
0.738
0.746
0.753
0.761
0.620
0.624
0.629
0.633
0.637
1.179
1.183
1.187
1.190
1.194
0.874
0.869
0.863
0.857
0.850
0.36
0.37
0.38
0.39
0.40
0.907
0.914
0.921
0.928
0.935
0.379
0.385
0.391
0.398
0.404
0.397
0.405
0.412
0.420
0.428
0.464
0.467
0.470
0.474
0.477
0.856
0.866
0.877
0.887
0.897
0.998
0.997
0.996
0.995
0.994
0.86
0.87
0.88
0.89
0.90
1.119
1.121
1.123
1.125
1.126
0.691
0.699
0.706
0.713
0.721
0.768
0.776
0.784
0.791
0.799
0.642
0.646
0.651
0.656
0.661
1.197
1.201
1.204
1.207
1.210
0.844
0.837
0.829
0.822
0.814
0.41
0.42
0.43
0.44
0.45
0.941
0.947
0.953
0.959
0.965
0.410
0.416
0.422
0.428
0.434
0.436
0.443
0.451
0.459
0.466
0.480
0.484
0.487
0.490
0.494
0.907
0.917
0.926
0.936
0.945
0.993
0.992
0.991
0.990
0.988
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
1.128
1.129
1.130
1.131
1.132
0.728
0.736
0.744
0.752
0.761
0.807
0.815
0.825
0.831
0.839
0.666
0.671
0.676
0.682
0.688
1.212
1.214
1.217
1.218
1.220
0.805
0.797
0.788
0.778
0.767
0.46
0.47
0.48
0.49
0.50
0.971
0.976
0.982
0.987
0.992
0.440
0.446
0.452
0.458
0.464
0.474
0.481
0.489
0.496
0.504
0.497
0.500
0.503
0.507
0.510
0.954
0.963
0.971
0.980
0.988
0.987
0.986
0.984
0.982
0.980
0.96
0.97
0.98
0.99
1.00
1.133
1.134
1.134
1.134
1.134
0.769
0.778
0.787
0.797
0.807
0.847
0.856
0.864
0.873
0.882
0.694
0.700
0.707
0.714
0.721
1.221
1.222
1.223
1.223
1.223
0.757
0.745
0.732
0.719
0.704
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
70
Table 19: Partial filling values for tapering crosssections dependent on h/H
h/H
v
T
/v
V
h/d A
T
/A
V
l
P,T
/l
P,V
r
hy,T
/r
hy,V
b
T
/B h/H
v
T
/v
V
h/d A
T
/A
V
l
P,T
/l
P,V
r
hy,T
/r
hy,V
b
T
/B
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.0961
0.1479
0.1903
0.2275
0.2613
0.0002
0.0009
0.0020
0.0037
0.0060
0.0021
0.0058
0.0107
0.0164
0.0229
0.0875
0.1238
0.1517
0.1753
0.1961
0.0236
0.0470
0.0703
0.0936
0.1168
0.2445
0.3451
0.4219
0.4862
0.5426
0.51
0.52
0.53
0.54
0.55
1.0285
1.0357
1.0426
1.0492
1.0556
0.5756
0.5922
0.6088
0.6252
0.6417
0.5597
0.5718
0.5839
0.5959
0.6079
0.5350
0.5406
0.5462
0.5518
0.5574
1.0460
1.0577
1.0690
1.0799
1.0905
0.9642
0.9600
0.9555
0.9507
0.9457
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.2925
0.3217
0.3493
0.3756
0.4007
0.0088
0.0122
0.0161
0.0207
0.0258
0.0301
0.0379
0.0462
0.0551
0.0644
0.2150
0.2324
0.2486
0.2638
0.2783
0.1399
0.1629
0.1859
0.2087
0.2315
0.5932
0.6395
0.6823
0.7223
0.7599
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.59
0.60
1.0617
1.0676
1.0732
1.0780
1.0837
0.6580
0.6743
0.6905
0.7065
0.7224
0.6198
0.6316
0.6434
0.6550
0.6666
0.5631
0.5688
0.5746
0.5804
0.5862
1.1006
1.1103
1.1197
1.1287
1.1373
0.9404
0.9349
0.9229
0.9165
0.9165
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.4254
0.4504
0.4752
0.4994
0.5230
0.0316
0.0380
0.0451
0.0528
0.0610
0.0742
0.0844
0.0949
0.1057
0.1167
0.2914
0.3024
0.3121
0.3209
0.3291
0.2547
0.2791
0.3041
0.3293
0.3545
0.7935
0.8205
0.8432
0.8627
0.8800
0.61
0.62
0.63
0.64
0.65
1.0886
1.0932
1.0976
1.1018
1.1057
0.7382
0.7539
0.7694
0.7847
0.7998
0.6782
0.6896
0.7009
0.7122
0.7233
0.5920
0.5979
0.6038
0.6099
0.6160
1.1455
1.1533
1.1607
1.1677
1.1743
0.9098
0.9028
0.8955
0.8879
0.8800
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.5460
0.5682
0.5899
0.6108
0.6312
0.0698
0.0791
0.0889
0.0993
0.1100
0.1279
0.1392
0.1508
0.1625
0.1743
0.3367
0.3440
0.3509
0.3575
0.3640
0.3797
0.4048
0.4297
0.4544
0.4789
0.8952
0.9089
0.9212
0.9322
0.9422
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.70
1.1093
1.1127
1.1159
1.1188
1.1215
0.8147
0.8294
0.8438
0.8580
0.8720
0.7344
0.7453
0.7562
0.7669
0.7775
0.6221
0.6283
0.6345
0.6408
0.6472
1.1806
1.1864
1.1918
1.1968
1.2014
0.8717
0.8631
0.8542
0.8449
0.8352
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.6509
0.6701
0.6887
0.7067
0.7242
0.1212
0.1329
0.1449
0.1574
0.1702
0.1863
0.1983
0.2105
0.2227
0.2350
0.3702
0.3763
0.3822
0.3881
0.3938
0.5031
0.5270
0.5506
0.5739
0.5968
0.9512
0.9593
0.9665
0.9729
0.9786
0.71
0.72
0.73
0.74
0.75
1.1239
1.1261
1.1280
1.1297
1.1311
0.8856
0.8990
0.9120
0.9248
0.9371
0.7880
0.7983
0.8085
0.8186
0.8285
0.6536
0.6601
0.6668
0.6735
0.6803
1.2055
1.2093
1.2126
1.2155
1.2179
0.8251
0.8146
0.8037
0.7924
0.7806
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
0.30
0.7412
0.7577
0.7737
0.7892
0.8043
0.1834
0.1969
0.2107
0.2248
0.2397
0.2474
0.2598
0.2723
0.2848
0.2974
0.3994
0.4050
0.4105
0.4160
0.4214
0.6193
0.6415
0.6633
0.6848
0.7058
0.9835
0.9878
0.9914
0.9943
0.9967
0.76
0.77
0.78
0.79
0.80
1.1323
1.1331
1.1337
1.1340
1.1341
0.9492
0.9608
0.9720
0.9828
0.9931
0.8383
0.8479
0.8573
0.8666
0.8757
0.6872
0.6942
0.7014
0.7086
0.7161
1.2199
1.2214
1.2224
1.2229
1.2230
0.7684
0.7556
0.7424
0.7285
0.7141
0.31
0.32
0.33
0.34
0.35
0.8189
0.8330
0.8465
0.8599
0.8726
0.2538
0.2687
0.2838
0.2991
0.3145
0.3100
0.3226
0.3352
0.3478
0.3604
0.4268
0.4321
0.4375
0.4428
0.4482
0.7263
0.7465
0.7662
0.7854
0.8042
0.9984
0.9995
1.0000
0.9999
0.9997
0.81
0.82
0.83
0.84
0.85
0.8846
0.8934
0.9012
0.9102
0.9183
0.7236
0.7314
0.7393
0.7475
0.7558
1.2225
1.2215
1.2199
1.2177
1.2150
0.6991
0.6834
0.6671
0.6499
0.6320
0.36
0.37
0.38
0.39
0.40
0.8850
0.8970
0.9035
0.9197
0.9306
0.3301
0.3459
0.3618
0.3778
0.3940
0.3730
0.3856
0.3982
0.4108
0.4234
0.4536
0.4589
0.4643
0.4697
0.4750
0.8225
0.8403
0.8577
0.8747
0.8912
0.9992
0.9985
0.9975
0.9964
0.9950
0.86
0.87
0.88
0.89
0.90
0.9261
0.9337
0.9411
0.9482
0.9550
0.7644
0.7733
0.7825
0.7920
0.8020
1.2116
1.2075
1.2027
1.1972
1.1908
0.6131
0.5933
0.5724
0.5503
0.5268
0.41
0.42
0.43
0.44
0.45
0.9410
0.9512
0.9610
0.9705
0.9797
0.4102
0.4265
0.4430
0.4594
0.4760
0.4359
0.4484
0.4609
0.4734
0.4858
0.4804
0.4858
0.4912
0.4966
0.5021
0.9074
0.9231
0.9383
0.9532
0.9677
0.9934
0.9915
0.9894
0.9871
0.9846
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
0.9615
0.9676
0.9734
0.9789
0.9839
0.8124
0.8233
0.8350
0.8474
0.8609
1.1835
1.1753
1.1659
1.1552
1.1429
0.5081
0.4750
0.4461
0.4146
0.3800
0.46
0.47
0.48
0.49
0.50
0.9885
0.9971
1.0054
1.0134
1.0211
0.4925
0.5091
0.5258
0.5424
0.5590
0.4982
0.5106
0.5229
0.5352
0.5475
0.5075
0.5130
0.5185
0.5240
0.5295
0.9817
0.9954
1.0086
1.0215
1.0340
0.9818
0.9788
0.9755
0.9720
0.9682
0.96
0.97
0.98
0.99
1.00
1.0000
1.0000
0.9885
0.9925
0.9959
0.9985
1.0000
0.8757
0.8925
0.9123
0.9381
1.0000
1.1287
1.1120
1.0916
1.0644
1.0000
0.3412
0.2966
0.2431
0.1726
0.0000
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
71
A3 Calculation of backwater curves, water surface profile curves
In Sect. 3.2.1.3 it has already been explained that the discharge in open channels, as a
rule, takes place unevenly, that is for the flow depth the following applies h = f(x) which is
to be determined via Eqn. 23.
Possible water surface curves are sketched in Fig. 18 under the assumption that
h
n
≤ 0.8d for subcritical and supercritical normal outflow. The water surface profiles
marked respectively by the figures 1 to 3 have the following significance:
Fig. 18: Water surface lines  principle paths
(h
n
> h
crit
) subcritical normal outflow
(1) backwater curve with h(x) ≥ h
n
(2) depression curve (h
crit
) ≤ h(x) ≤ h
n
(3) retarded spill stream
h(x) < h
crit
with subsequent hydraulic jump
(h
n
< h
crit
) supercritical normal outflow
(1) backwater curve with h(x) > h
crit
(2) depression curve (h
crit
) ≥ h(x) ≥ h
n
(3) retarded spill stream
h(x) ≤ h
n
A4 Enlargement factor f
air
The dimension f
Air
, required in Sect. 7  Steep Stretches  Eqn (55), for the determination
of the air transfer with steep stretches, dependent on sole gradient diameter and
operational roughness is developed and published
24)
by P. Volkart, Zürich. The diagrams
required for the application of the standard are given below; interpolation can be applied
for deviating k
b
values.
An example calculation is given in
25).
_____________
24)
Volkart, P.: Hydraulische Bemessung steiler Kanalisationsleitungen unter Berücksichtigung der Luftaufnahme [Hydraulic
dimensioning of steep drains taking into account air takeup]
25)
Volkart, P.: Hydraulische Bemessung teigefüllter Steileitungen [Hydraulic dimensioning of partially filled steep pipelines]
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
72
Fig. 19: Enlargement factor f
Air
for kb = 0.1 mm
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
73
Fig. 20: Enlargement factor f
Air
for k
b
= 0.4 mm
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
74
Fig. 21: Enlargement factor f
Air
for k
b
= 1.0 mm
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
75
Fig. 22: Enlargement factor f
Air
for k
b
= 1.5 mm
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
76
A5 Section of a λRe Diagram (Moody Diagram)
During the preparation of this standard it was considered to be sensible and necessary to
enlarge the Moody Diagram (see Fig.1) and to reproduce more values for the parameter
d/k. This is carried out for the range
10
5
≤ Re ≤ 10
7
Fig. 23: Moody Diagram (enlarged section)
A6 Sand roughness, ripple roughness
The employment of the PrandtlColebrook equation for the determination of friction loss
assumes technically rough wall conditions, i.e. a statistically seen random distribution of
roughness investigations on the pipe wall. Diverging forms of roughness produce
deviating friction losses.
In the case of the sand roughness (according to Nikuradse) smaller losses occur in the
transition range; in the case of ripple roughness, that is systematic roughness occurring
transversely to the direction of flow, in part significantly higher losses occur. With regard
to the mathematical approaches and applicability attention is drawn to the literature
26)
27)
.
_________________
26)
Schröder, R and Knauf, D.: Über das hydraulische Widerstandsverhalten von Beton und Stahlbetonrohren im Übergangsbereich
[On the hydraulic resistance behaviour of concrete and reinforced concrete in the transition zone
27)
Schröder R.C.M.: Hydraulische Methoden zur Erfassung von Rauheiten, [Hydraulic methods for the recording of roughness],
DVWK Publications Series, No. 92, PaulPareyVerlag, Hamburg and Berlin 1990
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
77
A7 Linkage calculation PrandtlColebrook/ManningStrickler
One flow formula still employed today is stated by Manning and later confirmed
experimentally by Strickler. As proven by
28)
, Eqn. 19 according to ManningStrickler is, in
certain ranges, almost identical with the PrandtlColebrook formula (Eqn. 13). Namely, if
the discharge is in the completely rough zone, equivalent to
k > 30 υ (Q
⋅
(g
⋅
J
E
)
2
)
1/5
and in the range of relevant roughness of
2000 > d/k > 20
then the deviations in the throughflow Q between the two Eqns. 19 and 13 are smaller
than ± 5 %. If both the above given criteria are met then, with the aid of the formula
2 . 8
g
k k
2 / 1
6 / 1
St
=
⋅
a direct relationship between the hydraulically effective wall roughness k according to
PrandtlColebrook and the coefficient k
St
according to ManningStrickler is created. It
should be noted that both k as well as k
St
only define the wall roughness and are
independent of the other flow parameters. Table 20 shows the relationship between k
and k
St
.
A further approximation for the conversion of k
ST
to k and vice versa is given in DIN EN
752 Part 4 under Sect. 9.2.3
29)
as

.

\
 ⋅
⋅ 
.

\

⋅ =
k
d 71 . 3
lg
d
32
g 4 k
6 / 1
St
(69)
The approximation formula also directly covers the influence of the relative roughness
d/k.
Table 20: Relationship between k and k
St
k [mm]
k
St
[m
1/3
/s]
Range of d or
4r
hy
[mm]
0.1
119
>200
0.25
102
>500
0.5
91
>1000
0.75
85
>1500
1.0
81
>2000
1.5
76
>3000
2.0
72
>4000
k [mm]
k
St
[m
1/3
/s]
Range of d or
4r
hy
[mm]
5.0
62
>100
10.5
55
>200
20.0
49
>400
50.0
42
>1000
100.0
38
>2000
_____________
28)
Hager, W.H.: Fließformeln für turbulente Strömungen [Flow formulas for turbulent flow]
29)
The appropriate Equation 4 in DIN EN 7524 contains a printing error which has been rectified here in Eqn (69)
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
78
A8 Example calculation for the individual concept
Given
Impounded combined wastewater sewer DN 500 (h/d > 1.0) with special shafts.
Section length L = 61 m, of which one shaft = 1 m
Individual pipe length l = 1.25 m (old stock)
Per section 10 inflow fittings d
in
= 150 mm
Sought
k
b
(mm)
(Note: in accordance with Sect. 4.3 b) due to impounding k
b
cannot be taken from
Table 4).
Loss coefficients
1. Loss coefficient ζ
L
according to Table 5 (Sect. 4.2.1)
ζ
L
for DN 500 = 0.1
2. Loss coefficient ζ
PC
according to Table 6 (Sect. 4.2.2)
ζ
PC
for DN 500 = 0.003
3. Loss coefficient ζ
i
according to Table 7 (Sect. 4.2.3)
ζ
i
for d
in
/H = 150/500 = 0.3 : 0.004
4. Loss coefficient ζ
fd,S
according to Table 9 (Sect. 4.2.5)
ζ
fd,S
for impounded shafts without diversion: 0.85
Calculation
a) Applying k = 0.1 mm for the effective wall roughness and v = 0.8 m/s for the flow rate
(comp. 4.3), λ from Eqn. (10) or Fig. 23 is
λ = 0.0162 (resistance coefficient as a result of natural roughness)
The sum of all loss coefficients is
514 . 1 85 . 0 004 . 0 10 003 . 0 25 . 1 / 60 01 . 0 25 . 1 / 60
ni
= + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ = ζ ⋅ Σ
The resistance coefficient λ
b
as a result of operational roughness according to
Eqn. (6) is now
λ
b
= 0.0162 + 0.5/60
⋅
1.514 = 0.0288
λ
b
applied in Eqn. (35) gives


.

\

⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
− ⋅ ⋅ =
−
0288 . 0 5 . 0 8 . 0
10 31 . 1 51 . 2
10
4
5 . 0
84 . 14 k
6
0288 . 0 2
1
b
) 10 04844 . 0 10 1317 . 1 ( 855 . 1 k
3 3
b
− −
⋅ − ⋅ =
mm 01 . 2 k
b
= for the given impounded pipeline
ATVDVWKA 110E
September 2001
79
b) With the conversion of the special shafts into control shafts (by raising the benching)
k
b
improves as follows:
914 . 0 ) 8 Table from ( 25 . 0 85 . 0 514 . 1
C , fd ni
= ζ + − = ζ ⋅ Σ
λ
b
= 0.0162 * 0.5/60
⋅
0.914 = 0.0238
k
b
= 0.97 mm
c) With additional channel covering the kb value again improves as follows:
05 . 0 85 . 0 514 . 1
ni
+ − = ζ ⋅ Σ
ζ
(fd,C)
from Table 8) = 0.714
λ
b
= 0.0162 + 0.5/60
⋅
0.714 = 0.0222
k
b
= 0.71 mm
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