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Wastewater treatment processes
Stages of Wastewater Treatment
• Primary – Contaminants (60% of solids and 35% of BOD removed) • Oil & Grease • Total Suspended Solids (Css or TSS) – 60% Removed • Pathogens • BOD – 35% removed – Processes • Screens • Grit Settling • Scum Flotation • Primary Settling
Stages of Wastewater Treatment
• BOD – 90% Removed • TSS – 90% Removed
• Trickling Filter – rotating disk • Activated Sludge – Suspended and mixed • Oxidation ponds – lagoons (promote contact between microbes and contaminants)
.Stages of Wastewater Treatment • Tertiary – Contaminants • Nutrients • Dissolved solids (e. salt.g.) – Processes • Nitrogen removal (Denitrification) – bacteria • Phosphorus removal – precipitation or bacteria • Other chemicals – adsorption and precipitation . etc. other ions.
• A group of microorganisms called bacteria are ‘employed’ to do the job. .Secondary Treatment • This involves treating the liquid part of the wastewater biologically. It is carried out after primary treatment (which removes some of the solid material). • The purpose of this process is to remove the organic matter and the nitrogen from the wastewater.
This fluid is commonly called the “mixed liquor”. Example: Trickling filter.Secondary Treatment Two Types (based on growth condition) 1. Attached growth or Fixed Film Organisms attached to some inert media like rocks or plastic. Example: Activated sludge. . 2. Suspended Growth Organisms are suspended in the treatment fluid.
in suspension – Diverse microbiology – High energy aeration systems – Process control follows from modeling – Shocked more easily – Biomass recycled – High solids production. Fixed film biological treatment • Suspended growth: – Biomass well-mixed.Suspended growth vs. attached – More diverse (snails!). hard to settle (low floc formers) – Lower efficiency – Higher DO required – unreliable N & P removal . stratified microbiology – Frequently relies on draft for aeration – Process control is empirically based on organic and hydraulic loading – Resilient to shock loads – Biomass not typically recycled – Low solids production. easy to settle – High efficiency – DO 2 to 3 mg/L – Reliable N & P removal • Fixed film: – Biomass layered.
allowing the generated sludge to settle. so that the solids retention time in the process is much longer than the hydraulic retention time. • The solids formed are flocculent and can be removed from the liquid by settling. • During aeration sewage is mixed with a large mass of previously grown organisms.Activated Sludge Historical development • Invented in 1914 by Ardern and Lockett in England. decanting the supernatant. They aerated a batch of sewage. • Separate control is exercised over the solid and liquid phases. adding a fresh batch of sewage. .
→Flocs stay in suspension with mixing by aeration. • Recycle of the activated sludge is crucial to maintaining a high concentration of cells. iii) solids recycle. • Parts: i) aeration tank. and iv) a sludge wasting line • activated sludge: microbial aggregates (flocs) in the aeration tank.Characteristics of activated sludge Process • The mostly widely used biological process for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters. . • Strictly aerobicexcept anoxic variation for denitrification. ii) a settling tank.
H2O NO3.Basic Porcess of Activated Sludge Raw wastewater or effluent from primary treatment Effluent Aerobic reactor New biomass CO2 . PO4 Secondary settler Activated sludge + Wastewater + O2 Wastage sludge Recycle sludge . SO4 .
Schematic of Municipal Sewage Treatment .
• Floc formation is really key –individual bacteria do not settle fast enough to be captured in the settling tank. Cells not in flocs are washed out. • The suspended flocs particles are called “activated”.Characteristics of activated sludge Process • Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria are main “activated”organisms. . →Microbial community is highly diverse and competative.
.Why “activated sludge”? The process involves the production of an activated mass of microorganisms capable of aerobic stabilization of organic material in wastewater.
Activated sludge .
Activated sludge Microbiology Sludge particle Bulk mixed liquor with free floating microorganisms .
N deficient waste – Protozoa: gazing on bacteria – Rotifers: multicellular organism (help to floc formation) – Organic/ inorganic particle .Microorganisms in the activated sludge system • Activated sludge floc – Bacteria: major component – Fungi: low pH. toxicity.
8-1) 1. Plug-flow process .Process reactor configuration (fig.
Complete mix activated sludge (CMAS) or Complete stir tank reactor (CSTR) .Process reactor configuration 2.
Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) .Process reactor configuration 3.
to maintain bacteria population • Remainder of sludge is wasted . they grow and multiply Treated wastewater flows into secondary clarifier Bacterial cells settle.Activated Sludge Principles • • Wastewater is aerated in a tank Bacteria are encouraged to grow by providing • • • • • Oxygen Food (BOD) Nutrients Correct temperature Time • • • • As bacteria consume BOD. removed from clarifier as sludge Part of sludge is recycled back to activated sludge tank.
Schematic of activated sludge unit • Assumptions: • Effluent bacteria concentration is 0 • Concentration of substrate or BOD in sludge is 0 • Sludge waste flowrate (Qw) is much smaller than Q .
7-0.4 kgBOD / kgVSS．d .Key Characteristics and Terms • Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) – Indication of microbial population – Usually between 2000 and 5000 mg/L – Maintained by adjusting WAS – Mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) approx. = 0.1 – 0.8 × MLSS • Food to Microorganism ratio – Also termed sludge loading rate (SLR) – F traditionally on BOD basis but now often on COD basis – M biomass fraction under aeration only (MLSS or MLVSS) – F:M typically maintained between 0.
M measured as volatile suspended solids concentration (VSS) F/M is the amount of BOD/day per amount of MLVSS in the aeration tank .Design of Activated Sludge Designed based on loading (the amount of organic matter added relative to the microorganisms available) Commonly called the food-to-microorganisms ratio. F/M F measured as BOD.
Y dS/dt Y is called the yield and is the mass of cells produced per mass of substrate used (g SS/g BOD) .Design of Activated Sludge Influent organic compounds provide the food for the microorganisms and is called substrate (S) The substrate is used by the microorganisms for growth. The rate of new cell production as a result of the use of substrate may be written mathematically as: dX/dt = . to produce energy and new cell material.
Activated sludge process modeling • Biochemical reaction (Chap. X (mg/L). increases as a function of time due to conversion of food to biomass: Where m is the specific growth rate constant (d-1). This represents the mass of cells produced/mass of cells per unit of time.7-6) • The concentration of biomass. .
e.• Biomass production • Where kd represents the endogenous decay rate (d-1) (i. microorganism death rate). – Substituting the growth rate constant: ..
4 .• Substrate utilization Where Y is the yield (mg of biomass produced/mg of food consumed) • Y range: – Aerobic: 0.0.8 mg/mg .
in the mixed liquor suspended solids.• Food to microorganism ratio (F/M) • Represents the daily mass of food supplied to the microbial biomass. X. MLSS • Units are Kg BOD5/Kg MLSS/day .
then F So M qX . q = V/Qo.• Since the hydraulic retention time (HRT).
Food/Microbe Ratio The higher the waste rate. . 0.2-0. the higher the ratio.5 lb/BOD5/day/lb MLSS is normal A low ratio means that the microbes are starving.
0 > 2.2.03 .0.8 0.Typical range of F/M ratio in activated sludge processes Treatment Process F/M Kg BOD5/Kg MLSS/day 0.8 .0 Extended aeration Conventional High rate .
Consider the system: θc = VX/QX = V/Q At SS the amount of solids wasted per day must equal the amount produced per day: θc = XV / [Y(dS/dt)V] = X / Y(dS/dt) .Mean Cell Residence Time(θc) or Solids Retention Time (SRT) or Sludge Age Mean cell residence time (MCRT. θc) is the mass of cells in the system divided by the mass of cells wasted per day.
HRT usually 6-24 hours .Mean Cell Residence Time(θc) or Solids Retention Time (SRT) • θc = 1/μ = 1 / μmax S/(KS +S) minimal θc = 1/μmax • SRT typically 4-20 days.
Now consider a CSTR with cell recycle: .
Activated sludge process modeling Mass balance of biomass production • Influent biomass + biomass production = effluent biomass + sludge wasted • Substitute biomass production equation • Assume that influent and effluent biomass concentrations are negligible and solve .
Mass balance of food substrate • Influent substrate + substrate consumed = effluent susbtrate + sludge wasted substrate • • Substitute substrate removal equation • • Assume that no biochemical action takes place in clarifier. Solve: • . Therefore the substrate concentration in the aeration basin is equal to the substrate concentrations in the effluent and the waste activated sludge.
q = V/Qo Substitute and rearrange: • Compute the F/M ratio .Overall equations – Combine the mass balance equations for food and biomass: • The cell residence time is: • and the hydraulic retention time is.
Other important Operating Parameters • Organic loading rate • Oxygen supply • Control and operation of the final settling tank Final settling tank Functions: Clarification Thickening sludge Sludge settleability is determined by sludge volume index (SVI) SVI (ml/g) = V x 1000 ___________ MLSS where V is volume of settled sludge after 30 min .
volume occupied by one gram of settled solids 1-L mL A high SVI (>150 ml/g) indicates bulking .e..SVI One-liter graduated cylinder.30 minute settling period SVI = (mL/L)/(g/L) = mL/g. i.
Settling Problem in Activated Sludge Processes Settling well Settling problem .
the bacteria will begin the process of breaking down this waste. grass clippings. robbing other aquatic organisms of the oxygen they need to live. If there is a large quantity of organic waste in the water supply. In this case.Definition of BOD Microorganisms (e. bacteria) are responsible for decomposing organic waste. As the waste is consumed or dispersed through the water.g. When this happens. sewage. the demand for oxygen will be high (due to all the bacteria) so the BOD level will be high. manure. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a measure of the oxygen used by microorganisms to decompose this waste.. BOD levels will begin to decline. leaves. or even food waste is present in a water supply. . there will also be a lot of bacteria present working to decompose this waste. When organic matter such as dead plants. much of the available dissolved oxygen (DO) is consumed by aerobic bacteria.
BOD bottles BOD as a function of time .
5-day BOD test P is volume fraction of 1 liter used in test D is dissolved oxygen concentration at Time=0 and Time = 5 days BOD5 (mg/l) = D0 – D5 P __________ .
D0 = 8 D5 = 2 P = 15 ml/300ml = 0.Sample calculation Determine the 5-day BOD for a 15 ml sample that is diluted with dilution water to a total volume of 300 ml when the initial DO concentration is 8 mg/l and after 5 days. has been reduced to 2 mg/l.05 .05 BOD (mg/l) = _______ = 8-2 120 0.