Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW

2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255

PUMP CLINIC 1 Centrifugal Troubleshooting
TABLE 1 - IDENTIFICATION CHART
POSSIBLE CAUSES (See definitions Table 2)

SYMPTOMS

1. Pump does not deliver liquid 2. Insufficient capacity delivered 3. Insufficient pressure developed 4. Pump loses prime after starting 5. Pump requires excessive power 6. Pump vibrates or is noisy at all flows 7. Pump vibrates or is noisy at low flows 8. Pump vibrates or is noisy at high flows 9. Shaft oscillates axially 10. Impeller vanes are eroded on visible side 11. Impeller vanes are eroded on invisible side 12. Impeller vanes are eroded at discharge near centre 13. Impeller vanes are eroded at discharge near shrouds or at shroud/vane fillets

1/2/3/510/12/13/14/16/21/22/25/30/32/38/40 2/3/4/5/6/7/7a/10/11/12/13/14/15/16/17/18/21/22/ 23/24/25/31/32/40/41/44/63/64 4/6/7/7a/10/11/12/13/14/15/16/18/21/22/23/24/25/ 34/39/40/41/44/63/64 2/4/6/7/7a/8/9/10/11 20/22/23/24/26/32/33/34/35/39/40/41/44/45/61/69/ 70/71 2/16/37/43/44/45/46/47/48/49/50/51/52/53/54/55/ 56/57/58/59/60/61/67/78/79/80/81/82/83/84/85 2/3/17/19/27/28/29/35/38/77 2/3/10/11/12/13/14/15/16/17/18/33/34/41 17/18/19/27/29/35/38 3/12/13/14/15/17/41 12/17/19/29 37 27/29 27/29 1/3/12/28/29/38/42/43/45/50/51/52/53/54/55/57/58 /59/60/61/62/77/78/82 66 3/28/29/45/50/51/52/53/54/55/57/59/61/62/66/77 63/64/65 53/63/64/65 8/9/45/54/55/57/68/69/70/71/72/73/74 8/9 45/54/55/57/58/62/75/76 45/54/55/57/58/62/75/76 3/29/41/42/45/50/51/54/55/58/77/78/79/80/81/82/ 83/84/85 45/50/51/54/67

14. Impeller shrouds bowed out or fractured 15. Pump overheats and seizes 16. Internal parts are corroded prematurely 17. Internal clearances wear too rapidly 18. Axially split casing is cut through wire-drawing 19. Internal stationary joints are cut through wire-drawing 20. Packed box leaks excessively or packing has short life 21. Packed box sleeve is scored 22. Mechanical seal leaks excessively 23. Mechanical seal has damaged faces, sleeve bellows 24. Bearings have short life 25. Coupling fails

Pump Clinic 1 Centrifugal Troubleshooting

28/03/06

Page 1 of 4

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255

TABLE 2 - DEFINITIONS

Suction Troubles 1. Pump not primed 2. Pump suction pipe not completely filled with liquid 3. Insufficient available NPSH 4. Excessive amount of air of gas in liquid 5. Air pocket in suction line 6. Air leaks into suction line 7. Air leaks into pump through stuffing boxes or through mechanical seal 7a. Air in source of sealing liquid 8. Water seal pipe plugged 9. Seal cage improperly mounted in stuffing box 10. Inlet of suction pipe insufficiently submerged 11. Vortex formation at suction 12. Pump operated with closed or partially closed suction valve 13. Clogged suction strainer 14. Obstruction in suction line 15. Excessive friction losses in suction line 16. Clogged impeller 17. Suction elbow in plane parallel to the shaft (for double-suction pumps) 18. Two elbows in suction piping at 90º to each other, creating swirl and pre-rotation 19. Selection of pump with too high a suction specific speed Other Hydraulic Problems 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. Speed of pump too high Speed of pump too low Wrong direction of rotation Reverse mounting of double-suction impeller Uncalibrated instruments Impeller diameter smaller than specified Impeller diameter larger than specified Impeller selection with abnormally high head coefficient Running the pump against a closed discharge valve without opening a bypass Operating pump below recommended minimum flow Static head higher than shut-off head Friction losses in discharge higher than calculated Total head of system higher than design of pump Total head of system lower than design of pump Running of pump at too high a flow (for low specific speed pumps) Running pump at too low a flow (for high specific speed pumps) ---Too close a gap between impeller vanes and volute tongue or diffuser vanes Parallel operation of pumps unsuitable for the purpose Specific gravity of liquid differs from design conditions Viscosity of liquid differs from design conditions Excessive wear at internal running clearances Obstruction in balancing device leak-off line 43. Transients at suction source (imbalance between pressure at surface of liquid and vapour pressure at suction flange)

Pump Clinic 1 Centrifugal Troubleshooting

28/03/06

Page 2 of 4

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255

Mechanical Troubles - General 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. Foreign matter in impellers Misalignment Foundation insufficiently rigid Loose foundation bolts Loose pump or motor bolts Inadequate grouting of baseplate Excessive piping forces and movements on pump nozzles Improperly mounted expansion joints Starting the pump without proper warm-up Mounting surfaces of internal fits (at wearing rings, impellers, shaft sleeves, shaft nuts, bearing housings, etc) not perpendicular to shaft axis Bent shaft Rotor out of balance Parts loose on the shaft Shaft running off-centre because of worn bearings Pump running at or near critical speed Too long a shaft span or too small a shaft diameter Resonance between operating speed and natural frequency of foundation, baseplate or piping Rotating part rubbing on stationary part Incursion of hard solid particles into running clearances Improper casing gasket material Inadequate installation of gasket Inadequate tightening of casing bolts Pump materials not suitable for liquid handled Certain couplings lack lubrication

Mechanical Troubles - Sealing Area 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. Shaft or sleeves worn or scored at packing Incorrect type of packing for operating conditions Packing improperly installed Gland too tight, prevents flow of liquid to lubricate packing Excessive clearance at bottom of stuffing box allows packing to be forced into pump interior Dirt or grit in sealing liquid Failure to provide adequate cooling liquid to water-cooled stuffing boxes Incorrect type of mechanical seal for prevailing conditions 76. Mechanical seal improperly installed Mechanical Troubles - Bearings 77. Excessive radial thrust in single-volute pumps 78. Excessive axial thrust caused by excessive wear at internal clearances or by failure or, if used, excessive wear of balancing device 79. Wrong grade of grease or oil 80. Excessive grease or oil in anti-friction bearing houses 81. Lack of lubrication 82. Improper installation of anti-friction bearings such as damage during installation, incorrect assembly of stacked bearings, use of unmatched bearings as a pair, etc 83. Dirt getting into bearings 84. Moisture contaminating lubricant 85. Excessive cooling of water-cooled bearings

Pump Clinic 1 Centrifugal Troubleshooting

28/03/06

Page 3 of 4

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255

TABLE 3 - DIAGNOSIS FROM APPEARANCE OF STUFFING BOX PACKING
SYMPTOMS CAUSES

Wear on one or two rings next to packing gland (other rings OK) Wear on outside diameter of packing rings Charring or glazing of inner circumference of rings Inside diameter of rings excessively increased or heavily worn on part of inner circumference

Improper packing installation Packing rings rotating with shaft sleeve or leakage between rings and inside diameter of box. Wrong packing size or incorrectly cut rings Excessive heating. Insufficient leakage to lubricate packing or unsuitable packing Rotation eccentric

TABLE 4 - VIBRATION
VIBRATION FREQUENCY CAUSES

Several times pump r/min Twice pump r/min Running speed

Bad anti-friction bearings Loose parts on rotor, axial misalignment of coupling, influence of twin-volute when gap is insufficient Imbalance of rotor, clogged impeller, coupling misalignment Vane passing syndrome – insufficient gap between impeller vanes and collector vanes. This is also sometimes seen during operation with suction recirculation Oil whirl in bearing Internal recirculation in impeller or cavitation Usually resonance Hydraulic excitation of resonance

Running speed times number of impeller vanes One-half running speed Random low frequency Random high frequency Sub synchronous frequency at 70% to 90%

Pump Clinic 1 Centrifugal Troubleshooting

28/03/06

Page 4 of 4

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255
PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE

PUMP CLINIC 2 Introduction to Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head

Cavitation in Centrifugal Pumps When the pressure of flowing liquids drops to, or below the liquid’s vapour pressure, the liquid boils and vapour cavities (bubbles) form locally inside the liquid. If the pressure within the flow path subsequently increases above the vapour pressure, the vapour cavities implode, releasing energy. The formation and sudden collapse of these bubbles is called Cavitation. The generation of head in a centrifugal pump does not commence until the liquid enters the vane area and is accelerated towards pump discharge. As the liquid flows between the pump inlet flange and vanes, several points of head loss occur due to: a) Friction in the suction nozzle. b) Acceleration losses as the liquid velocity increases from the suction nozzle to the impeller eye. c) Shock losses as the liquid contacts the leading edges of the impeller vanes. The sum of these losses is known as the entry loss. If the suction head minus the entry loss reduce the liquid pressure to or below the vapour pressure, then a condition for cavitation exists. Figure 1 Page 2 illustrates the above.

Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) The net positive suction head is a statement of the minimum suction conditions required to prevent cavitation. The required NPSH (referred to as NPSHR) is the minimum value of NPSH required at the pump inlet for satisfactory pump operation and must be determined by test and is stated by manufacturers (appears on the pump performance curve as an NPSHR curve). The NPSHR is equivalent to the entry loss as shown in Figure 1.

Pump Clinic 2 Introduction to Cavitation & Net Positive Suction Head

03/05/06

Page 1 of 6

com.au www.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Pump Clinic 2 Introduction to Cavitation & Net Positive Suction Head 03/05/06 Page 2 of 6 .

Please note that the units of the terms in the formulae are metres absolute of the liquid being pumped. To avoid cavitation. In some cases. it is likely that most situations would call for no remedial action. 3) The vapour cavities will impede the flow of liquid through the impeller. continual cavitation causes mechanical and operational problems as follows: 1) Erosion of impeller. Problems Caused By Cavitation The presence of cavitation due to inadequate NPSH can be diagnosed during pump operation by a steady crackling noise in and around the pump suction. This should not be confused with a random crackling noise with high intensity knocks which indicates another condition termed suction recirculation (not covered in these notes).com. the erosion can cause loss of pump efficiency and out-of-balance problems with the impeller. If the problem was one of noise alone.au www. This will result in reduced capacity plus reduced and/or unstable developed head. Pump Clinic 2 Introduction to Cavitation & Net Positive Suction Head 03/05/06 Page 3 of 6 .Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. In some cases. Apart from the damage to the parts.com. the casing itself will show signs of erosion. The extent of damage experienced is significantly affected by product-related factors such as corrosion and abrasion. the flow may be completely blocked. However. NPSHA must always be greater than NPSHR at the design flow. 2) The vibrations caused by cavitation and unbalanced loads significantly accelerate the rate of bearing and mechanical seal failures. Figure 2 Page 4 shows four typical suction systems with the NPSHA formulae applicable to each.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE The available NPSH (referred to as NPSHA) is a function of the suction side pumping system and is defined as the absolute pressure head on the liquid surface. The discharge pumping system has no effect on NPSHA.kelairpumps. particularly at the leading edges of the impeller vanes. plus the static liquid level above the pump centre line (negative for suction lift) minus the friction loss in the piping system leading to the pump minus the vapour pressure head at the pumping temperature.

au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Pump Clinic 2 Introduction to Cavitation & Net Positive Suction Head 03/05/06 Page 4 of 6 .com.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.kelairpumps.com.au www.

valves. resist the use of suction strainers that can clog. This would normally mean installation of a larger pump as they generally have a better NPSHR value for the same flow rate. This can be done in the case of a flooded suction by raising the liquid level in the suction tank. e. long radius elbows and full flow ball valves should also be considered. On the system side.kelairpumps.g. raising the suction tank to a higher level or lowering the pump. mounting the pump off the sump side or building a dry sump beside the existing sump.com.g. The selection of a larger pump is sometimes required with speed reduction. This will require the user to accept reduced pump performance c) Reduce the pump speed and install a larger diameter impeller. e. e.g.g. e.au www. the liquid level in the sump or suction tank can be raised or the pump can be lowered. The solutions to existing cavitation conditions can be determined by considering both NPSHA (the system) and NPSHR (the pump). Most users would agree that the majority of pump vendors are sufficiently competent in giving customers what was asked for in the specifications. Having said this. one floor down. This will have a two-fold effect as lower speed means lower NPSHR and in many cases the larger impeller diameter has lower NPSHR characteristics. b) Reduce the friction losses by increasing pipe sizes and reducing the length of pipe runs and the number of fittings.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. c) Reduce the vapour pressure by reducing the temperature of the product. cooling annulus on the suction pipework. d) Install a different pump. Pump Clinic 2 Introduction to Cavitation & Net Positive Suction Head 03/05/06 Page 5 of 6 . tees. Care must be taken to ensure that the flow rate is not reduced below the minimum flow rate recommended by the manufacturer. Selection of fittings with lower friction loss. b) Reduce the pump speed as this reduces NPSHR. This can be done by reducing the operational temperature of the process (if feasible) or cooling the temperature in the suction line. it is imperative that the issue of NPSHA vs NPSHR is properly understood and considered by both user and supplier. the NPSHA can be increased by one or more of the following: a) Increase the static liquid level above the pump or reduce the suction lift. In the suction lift situation. In particular.g. It must be noted the reduction of vapour pressure by reducing the temperature is rarely possible.com. The remedies detailed below can be applied to the pump: a) Reduce the flow rate by throttling on the pump discharge. This will generally reduce NPSHR (always check the pump curve) and increase NPSHA (due to reduced friction losses).au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE What Can be Done? The obvious answer is to ensure proper pump selection at the initial stage. e. bends.

com. these topics appear mysterious or. Circuitous suction pipework: This will lead to increased friction loss. 6. from cast iron to stainless steel. Conclusion Cavitation and NPSH seem to be some of the least understood topics associated with pump applications. It should also be stated that although these notes are based on application to centrifugal pumps. High suction lift applications 5. To some engineers.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. 1.kelairpumps. Many highly technical research papers have been written on this subject. High temperature or boiling liquids: This will increase the vapour pressure head. 2. Pump Clinic 2 Introduction to Cavitation & Net Positive Suction Head 03/05/06 Page 6 of 6 . 3. the majority of the principles apply equally to all other types of pumps. Volatile liquids: These have a high vapour pressure head. 4. are only partially understood.au www. Please consider this in your pump selections and if in doubt. These notes are an attempt to give a simple introduction to cavitation and highlight areas where some critical thought should be applied. This does not eliminate cavitation but will reduce the impact of cavitation. e.com. at best. Suction tank under vacuum: This will reduce the absolute pressure head on the liquid surface. discuss the matter with the pump supplier. What Types of Installations Are More Likely To Encounter Cavitation Problems? The presence of any of the conditions detailed below significantly increases the possibility of low NPSHA values and cavitation. A high number of fittings in suction pipework: This will increase friction losses.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE e) Change the impeller material to one that is more resistant to erosion.g.

com.au www. as shown in Figure 1 Page 1 and travels upstream with a rotational velocity approaching the peripheral velocity of the diameter. The high shear rate between the rotating annulus and the axial flow through the core produces vortices that form and collapse. The capacities at which suction and discharge recirculation begin can be controlled to some extent by design. This takes place at all capacities but does not usually contribute to raising the liquid temperature very much unless operation is near shut-off. Pump Clinic 3 What is Recirculation & Separation 24/05/06 Page 1 of 4 . producing noise and cavitation in the suction of the pump. Discharge recirculation is the reversal of flow at the discharge tips of the impeller vanes. as shown in Figure 2 Page 1. All impellers have a critical capacity at which recirculation occurs. The shear rate between the inward and outward relative velocities produces vortices that cavitate and usually attack the pressure side of the vanes.kelairpumps. a secondary flow called recirculation begins. but recirculation cannot be eliminated.com. Recirculation is a flow reversal at the suction and/or at the discharge tips of the impeller vanes. A rotating annulus of liquid is produced upstream from the impeller inlet and through the core of this annulus passes an axial flow corresponding to the output capacity of the pump. A portion of the flow is directed out of the eye at the eye diameter.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 3 What is Recirculation and Separation? There is a small flow from impeller discharge to suction through the wearing rings and any hydraulic balance device present. Suction recirculation is the reversal of flow at the impeller eye. When the capacity has been reduced by throttling (or as a result of an increase in system head).Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.

Figure 3: Suction-specific speed S at best efficiency flow. the closer will be the beginning of recirculation to the capacity at best efficiency.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.kelairpumps.com. For water pumps. single suction or one side of double suction (to obtain S in SI units. The higher the suction-specific speed.6123) Pump Clinic 3 What is Recirculation & Separation 24/05/06 Page 2 of 4 . the minimum operating flows can be as low as 60% of the suction recirculation values shown for continuous operation and as low as 25% for intermittent operation.au www.6123) Figure 4: Suction-specific speed S at best efficiency flow.000 (6123) specific speed. single suction or one side of double suction (to obtain S in SI units. multiply by 0.com. For hydrocarbons. Figure 3 Page 2 shows the relation between the suction-specific speed and suction recirculation for pumps up to 2500 (1530) specific speed and Figure 4 Page 2 shows the same relation for pumps up to 10. the minimum operating flows can be as low as 50% of the suction recirculation values shown for continuous operation and as low as 25% for intermittent operation. multiply by 0.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE The capacity at which suction recirculation occurs is directly related to the design suction-specific speed S of the pump.

com. Diagnosis of Suction and Discharge Recirculation Cause and Effect: Recirculation occurs at reduced flows and is the reversal of a portion of the flow-back through the impeller.au www. the tongue or diffuser vanes may show cavitation damage on the impeller side from operation in discharge recirculation. of the vane.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE The high turbulence produced by recirculation and separation accounts for most of the high power consumed at shut-off. This may vary from about 30% of the normal power for pumps of very low-specific speed to nearly three times the normal power for propeller pumps. cavitation may take place on the casing tongue or diffusion vanes at very low capacities. Operation near shut-off causes not only excessive heating.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. possibly. the pressure side would be the invisible. Pump Clinic 3 What is Recirculation & Separation 24/05/06 Page 3 of 4 . Similarly. Separation and. Guide vanes in the suction may show cavitation damage from impingement of the back-flow from the impeller eye during suction recirculation.com. Recirculation at the outlet of the impeller is discharge recirculation. Damage to the pressure side of the vane from discharge recirculation is shown in Figure 6 Page 3. Recirculation at the inlet of the impeller is known as suction recirculation. Figure 5: Examining the pressure side of the inlet vanes for suction recirculation. Figure 5 Page 3 shows how a mirror can be used to examine the pressure side of the inlet vane for cavitation damage from suction recirculation. Diagnosis From Pump Operation: Suction recirculation will produce a loud crackling noise in and around the suction of the pump. Viewed from the suction of the impeller. Discharge recirculation will produce the same characteristic sound as suction recirculation except that the highest intensity is in the discharge volute or diffuser. Recirculation noise is of greater intensity than the noise from low NPSH cavitation and is a random knocking sound. Diagnosis From Visual Examination: Suction and discharge recirculation produce cavitation damage to the pressure side of the impeller vanes. Figure 6: Damage to the pressure side of the vane from discharge recirculation. but also vibration and cavitation.kelairpumps. or underside. which may cause serious mechanical damage. Suction and discharge recirculation can be very damaging to pump operation and should be avoided for continuous operation.

com. Bleed air into the suction of the pump to reduce the intensity of the noise. These characteristics are inherent in the design and cannot be changed without modifying the design.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Corrective Procedures: Every impeller design has specific recirculation characteristics. 3.au www.com.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Increase the output capacity of the pump. 4. vibration and cavitation damage.kelairpumps. 1. Substitute a harder material for the impeller to reduce the rate of cavitation damage. An analysis of the symptoms associated with recirculation should consider the following as possible corrective procedures. Pump Clinic 3 What is Recirculation & Separation 24/05/06 Page 4 of 4 . 2. Install a bypass between the discharge and the suction of the pump.

When pumps have double-entry impellers. depending upon the special properties of the liquid. For medium and high viscosities.com. (This diagram may also be used as an aid in the selection of a pump for required duty). is reduced.kelairpumps. The diagram may only be used for homogeneous Newtonian fluids.. Table 4 is not applicable to side-channel pumps.com. the power requirement increases considerably. one half of the flowrate must be used in the calculations. providing the characteristics for pumping water are known. ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ Pump Clinic 4 Viscosity-How does it affect centrifugal pump performance 27/02/08 Page 1 of 4 .Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. The diagram may only be used if sufficient NPSH (NPSHavail ) is available to prevent cavitation.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 4 VISCOSITY IMPACT ON CENTRIFUGAL PUMP PERFORMANCE The performance of centrifugal pumps will vary when viscous liquids are pumped. For gelatinous liquids. The limits of centrifugal pumps are: For nominal discharge pipe diameters. widely-scattering results are obtained in practice. With multistage pumps. The correction factors established from the diagram are sufficiently accurate for general application within the limits given below. a test should be performed with the particular liquid. whilst the head. With the aid of Table 4 (Page 3). ≤ 50mm approx 120 – 130 mm²/s ≤ 150mm approx 300 – 500 mm²/s > 150mm approx 800 mm²/s Limitations and notes on the use of Table 4 ∗ The diagram should only be used for centrifugal pumps with radial impellers within the normal Q-H range. When pumping highly-viscous liquids.au www. it is recommended that the running costs are investigated to establish whether other types of pump (eg rotary positive-displacementtype) could be more economic due to the steep drop in efficiency of centrifugal pumps under these conditions. and to a lesser extent the flowrate. the head per stage must be used in the calculation. the characteristics of centrifugal pumps pumping viscous liquids can be calculated. If more accurate values are required. The diagram must not be used for pumps with mixed flow and axial flow impellers or for special pumps for viscous or heterogeneous liquids.

0.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.5m = 31.au www.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Determining the size of a pump for a viscous liquid (Approximate determination of an equivalent operating point for water) Subscripts: vis = viscous liquid w = water opt = best efficiency point Qvis in m³/h. ρvis in kg/dm³ Qw in m³/h } Hw in m } Pvis in kW to determine a suitable pump for which only performance data relating to water are known to determine the driver power Given: Required: To establish the correction factors from the diagram.90kg/dm² From the diagram the correction factors are found as follows: CH = 0.94 CQ = 0. To determine the correction factory CH for total head.90 kW = 13.94 ρvis ≈ Qvis · Hvis · ρvis = 100 · 29. thence vertically up to the intersection with the lines of the different correction factors. This gives: Qw ≈ Qvis .6 kW 367 · vis 367 · 0.5m Hw ≈ Hvis CH v .98 C = 0.70 · 75% = 53% Hw ≈ 29.5 · 0.0 x Qopt is to be used. then proceed horizontally (to the right-hand side or to the lefthand side) to the intersection with the viscosity v of the liquid. vis = 0. ≈C x w Example: = 100mm²/s ρvis = 0.kelairpumps.53 Pump Clinic 4 Viscosity-How does it affect centrifugal pump performance 27/02/08 Page 2 of 4 . kinematic viscosity v in mm²/s Hvis in m. move vertically up to the intersection with the required head H. the following procedure is used: Starting with the flowrate Q on the horizontal axis. CQ Qvis = 100m³ Hvis = 29. Therefore.98 A pump with w = 75% is used.com. the curve l.70 With this data the water values can be calculated: Qw ≈ 100m³/h ≈ 102m³/h.4 0.com. vis .

1 x Qopt Respectively.au www. in most cases. Pump Clinic 4 Viscosity-How does it affect centrifugal pump performance 27/02/08 Page 3 of 4 .9 x Qopt or > 1.kelairpumps.com.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. this procedure has sufficient accuracy for preliminary pump selections. as the numerical values for rate of flow and total head shown in the diagram apply to water.com. However. the selection should be checked by the more accurate method given in the following section. If the flowrate is: Qw < 0.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE This procedure is to be considered as an approximation only.

com.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Pump Clinic 4 Viscosity-How does it affect centrifugal pump performance 27/02/08 Page 4 of 4 .kelairpumps.com.au www.

Back to what we would all consider true centrifugal pumps. Positive displacement Rotodynamic Rotodynamic pumps are rotary machines in which energy is continuously imparted to the pumped liquid by a rotating impeller. many peripheral flow pumps have the ability to handle quantities of vapour mixed with liquid for substantial periods. for the purpose of this discussion. Slurry pumps Pump Clinic 5 Centrifugal or Positive Displacement 04/05/06 Page 1 of 3 . Finally. Open Impellers 3.com. when do we use a peripheral pump (sometimes called side-channel or regenerative turbine pumps)? They are most definitely not suited to handling solids because for efficient operation. Closed impeller 2. 1.com. they depend on close clearances between their impellers and guide plates which also limits their viscosity-handling capabilities to under 20mm²/sec. plus they have a built-in self-priming capability. we can.kelairpumps. Before going on to review centrifugal pumps which account for probably well over 95% of Rotodynamic applications. However. let us take a look at the two classifications in question and define both classes discussing the merits of individual types of pumps in each class. they are ideal for low capacities limited to 10 l/sec at quite high heads up to 310 metres through multi-staging.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 5 CENTRIFUGAL OR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT Which pump to choose? Firstly. Rotodynamic (which the main sub-classification is centrifugal) 2. propeller or rotor. For this discussion we will not consider the special category as they are rarely used and only under very specific conditions.au www. consider the following classes: 1.

However. For clean liquids of low viscosity. the larger the centrifugal pump. Positive Displacement Positive displacement pumps are rotary or reciprocating machines in which energy is periodically added by application of force to movable boundaries of enclosed fluid containing volumes. and likewise ‘lightly muddy’ water is about the worst solids they can handle. it can handle up to 800mm²/sec. Open impellers can handle solids up to 5% provided that the individual solids can fit through the impeller passage-ways and remembering that high velocities within a centrifugal pump encourage high abrasive wear. again many positivedisplacement pumps can handle these liquids.com. should not be used for liquids of viscosity greater than.kelairpumps.e.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. generally beginning at 80mm. including rubber-lined parts.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE In considering these classes we must look at how they handle solids and viscous liquids.com. if that is a characteristic of the solids. 50mm²/sec because the viscous nature of the liquid creates too many internal losses to operate efficiently. multiple-screw and some forms of lobe pumps. plus wear plates and components which are readily replaceable. Pump Clinic 5 Centrifugal or Positive Displacement 04/05/06 Page 2 of 3 . These are built with large clearances with internal adjustment for wear. gear.au www. Closed impeller pumps below 80mm for example. firstly these can be handled in sewage style pumps with single and twovane impellers that have passages able to pass solids the size of the suction connection. All positive displacement pumps can handle viscous liquids generally to very high viscosities and most are capable of handling substantial solids with the exception of vane. many rotary types do not do it economically because of slippage of thin liquids (low viscosities) through their clearances i. say. However. In these cases. such that at over 150mm for example. gear. For serious solid volumes. Then we come to true slurry centrifugal pumps which can handle high volume solids. resulting in a direct increase in pressure. lobe and multiple-screw pumps. say to 5060% generally at under 100 metres heads. a positive displacement pump with its lower internal speeds could be a more economic option as appropriate materials must be selected to accommodate the wear and this can be expensive. the higher the viscosity it can efficiently pump.

the capital costs generally are similar to centrifugal pumps. after that.au www.com. consult your pump supplier. the positive displacement pump rapidly increases in cost. If in doubt.kelairpumps. 180 metres total head positive displacement pumps should be considered. Pump Clinic 5 Centrifugal or Positive Displacement 04/05/06 Page 3 of 3 .5 l/sec should be positive displacement pumps To conclude. b) For clean liquid duties below 3 l/sec and above. there are some important instances which do not follow these basic conclusions: a) Slurry applications. c) For viscous liquid applications with up to 800mm²/sec viscosity and capacities above 70 l/sec a centrifugal pump should be considered.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE For positive displacement pumps it should be remembered that in sizes up to say 50mm discharge. e. the basic conclusion that: 1. Centrifugal pumps are for low viscous clean fluids 2. such that a 150mm discharge-type pump can cost many times that of a standard centrifugal water pump. raw sewage applications should use centrifugal pumps e) All applications below 0.com.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. However. d) Generally. every pump application should be individually considered as to the type of pump most suitable. Positive displacement pumps are for slurries and viscous liquids However. 80mm discharge and above and generally below 100m head should be centrifugal.g. in general. Conclusion The above supports.

com.5 230 800 75 313 1500 73 77 386 2200 67 87 460 2800 56 84 507 * kW may be read from the power curve where efficiencies are not detailed or may be calculated using the formula. The mathematical relationships between flowrate. it is assumed that efficiency remains constant. the efficiency if slightly less at lower speeds since friction and drag constitute a larger proportion of hydraulic power.e. power and speed which enable this are known as the Affinity Laws. head. Example: If you have a pump performance at a speed of 1300rpm.e. It is important to note that these laws do not apply to NPSH. It is important in pump applications to be able to develop performance curves corresponding to various speeds from standard performance curves. the following laws apply: a) Pump flow rate (Q) varies directly with the speed (N) i.com.kelairpumps.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. what is the performance at 880rpm (refer to following performance curve Page 2). 84% efficiency becomes 0. For variation in speed with constant impeller diameter. H1/H2 = (N1/N2)² c) Power absorbed varies with the cube of the speed (N) i.e.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 6 SPEED VARIATION WITH CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS Affinity Laws There are fundamental laws which can be used to predict changes in pump performance with variations in speed.84 k = 102.2 if flow is in l/sec = 368 if flow is in m³/hr Pump Clinic 6 Speed Variation with Centrifugal Pumps 08/06/06 Page 1 of 11 . The first step is to select 5 operating points on the 1300rpm performance and tabulate as shown below: Flow (m³/hr) Head (m) Efficiency kW * 0 75.au www. Q1/Q2 = N1/N2 b) Pump head (H) varies with the square of the speed (N) i. kW = Flow x Head x SG k x Efficiency Where: Flow is in l/sec or m³/hr Head is in metres SG is specific gravity Efficiency is to a decimal point i.e. P1/P2 = (N1/N2)³ In using the above formulae. In practice.

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.e.6 71.4 97 1015 33.3 542 34. 0.e.458 i.4 77 119.au www.com.6 1896 25.7 1490 30.310 The new performance for the pump at 880 rpm is tabulated below: Flow (m³/hr) Head (m) Efficiency kW 0 34.kelairpumps.com. 0.677 i.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Using the Affinity Laws.7 84 157 Pump Clinic 6 Speed Variation with Centrifugal Pumps 08/06/06 Page 2 of 11 . the following factors can be applied to the 1300 rpm performance figures when operating at 880 rpm: Flow (880/1300) (880/1300)² (880/1300)³ i. 0.e.7 87 142.

The following must be taken into consideration to determine the maximum capacity of the plant: · · · Provision for increasing demand Excess demand for pumping capacity in exceptional circumstances.au www. An average pumped quantity Qm may be only a fraction of the maximum pump capacity Qp. In the event of emergencies. Forms of Control Since pumps are selected for the maximum plant capacity. eg when the tanks are being emptied or refilled.com. a form of control must be provided to regulate the volume of flow for variation in pumping demands. the pump may operate at reduced capacity. Pump Clinic 6 Speed Variation with Centrifugal Pumps 08/06/06 Page 3 of 11 . The duration curve in Figure 1.kelairpumps. heavy rainfall etc.com.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. valves and tanks must always be designed to cover for the maximum pumped volume.2 below illustrates for example. such as fire.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Pumps should be selected for maximum flow The pump and the associated plant equipment such as pipes. how for the most part of over a one-year period.

au www.3) and besides. This results in a waste of energy because the pump is continuously working against the high pressure imposed by the valve. stress due to frequent starting and stopping may cause damage to the pipes and other plant equipment. Its efficiency is.com. Its efficiency is often also poor (Figure 1. very low when compared with speed control.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. which in many cases gives more than a 50% saving in energy. however.com. even today. Pumps at waterworks and sewage water treatment plants are normally controlled by means of start-stop control. The power consumed by the pump can be calculated from the formula: P=QxHxρ 368 x η Where : P = Power (kW) Q = Pumped quantity (m³/hr) H = Pump head (m) ρ = Specific gravity of the liquid η = Pump efficiency Pump Clinic 6 Speed Variation with Centrifugal Pumps 08/06/06 Page 4 of 11 . by means of a frequency converter Throttle control is. Energy Efficient Throttle control means that the flow of liquid in the pipes is restricted by means of a valve.kelairpumps. the most commonly used control form in industrial applications.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Speed control is more economical than other forms of control The pump flow can be controlled by using the following control methods: · · · Throttle (or choke) control by means of a valve Start-Stop control of the pump Speed control eg.

com. When the power saving is known.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. the power requirement with speed control is less than half of that with throttle control.1 and 2.2 illustrate the power requirements which are represented by the hatched areas in both figures.com.au www.kelairpumps. Figures 2. It can be seen that in this example.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE The above formula shows that the power requirement P is directly dependent on the product of the pumped quantity Q and the pump head H. The methods of calculation are described in more detail (Page 1). the saving in energy can always be calculated by multiplying the power saving by the time factor. Figure 3 shows how much energy saving can be at different pumped volumes. The saving obtained in energy depends essentially on the average pumped quantity. Pump Clinic 6 Speed Variation with Centrifugal Pumps 08/06/06 Page 5 of 11 .

au www. increases costs. Reduced need for tanks Pressure tanks and upper water tanks are used for keeping a uniform pressure in the pipes in applications where the pump runs on intermittent duty as. in waterworks. the tanks can be made smaller or may be totally dispensed with.kelairpumps.com. Pump Clinic 6 Speed Variation with Centrifugal Pumps 08/06/06 Page 6 of 11 . If the pump is provided with a frequency converter. Improved control with a lesser capital cost is achieved if a single large pump is provided with the control as shown in Figure 4.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Fewer pumps required Control of flow is often arranged by means of two or more parallel-connected pumps which are of different sizes.com.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. a better control result is achieved. Parallel-connected pumps and motors require additional valves and piping which again. for example. In addition to the lower investment costs. which means a more uniform pressure at the consumer end. Step by step control is thus achieved by running the pumps in turn.

the electrical distribution equipment can be made smaller and be purchased at a lower price. compensation is normally effected by means of capacitors near to the motor. Pump Clinic 6 Speed Variation with Centrifugal Pumps 08/06/06 Page 7 of 11 . A typical objective for saving purposes may be a standby generator for critical pumps.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com. The frequency converter generates the reactive power required by the motor and no compensating capacitors are needed. The cost of investment is reduced and an optimum compensation effect achieved. the generator size need only be 30 to 50% of that previously required. When a frequency converter is used for the speed control of the pump. On account of this. Compensating capacitors can be dispensed with Squirrel cage motors need reactive power which somehow needs to be generated.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Savings in electrical distribution costs The starting current which a pump provided with a frequency converter takes from the electrical supply line is but a fraction of the starting current required by direct starting. To avoid loading the distribution network unnecessarily with reactive power.com.au www.kelairpumps.

au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Improved control effect An improved control effect is more easily achieved with speed control than with other non-linear forms of control.kelairpumps.com. the pump. whilst the curve (T) of intermittent control is stepped.au www. Reduced maintenance costs When the control is used. the flow or pressure. Figure 8 shows the control graph of a plant with three parallel-connected pumps P1. A drawback of intermittent duty. Dynamic stresses are far lower with a smooth control than with an intermittent start-stop control. P2 and P3.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. and the service life may even be doubled. is the discontinuity of the control. a linear control curve (R) is obtained. Pressure strokes (Figure 9) which wear the pipes and other plant equipment can thus be avoided. · · Static stress is reduced because the system need not operate with a high pumping pressure all the time as with choke control. for example. pipes and valves experience less wear. When one of the pumps (P1) is provided with the control. An accurate and linear control is achieved with the converter. for example. Pump Clinic 6 Speed Variation with Centrifugal Pumps 08/06/06 Page 8 of 11 .com. The controlled parameters. which means increased service life and reduced maintenance (particularly with plastic pipes). which can lead to abrupt variations in the pumped volume of liquid. keeps varying. The pressure is as high or low as required.

tt = Kp [cost] Ks [money saved per annum] Pump Clinic 6 Speed Variation with Centrifugal Pumps 08/06/06 Page 9 of 11 . the pump curves η1 and η2 as well as the corresponding power curves P1 and P2 are found.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. (b) Or by means of calculation If the complete power characteristics are not available.9 x ta 4.9 is the approximate efficiency of the motor.kelairpumps. Cost pay-off time The cost pay-off time is obtained by comparing the cost difference Kp between the speed control and the choke control with the achieved saving per year Ks. The power requirements can be read at the point where QM and the power curves intersect.com. Choke control P1: P1 = QM[m³/h] x H1 [m] x ρ 368 x η1 kW Speed control P2: P2 = QM[m³/h] x H2 [m] x ρ 368 x η2 kW 2. When QM and the system characteristics are known. Saving in money The saving in money per year is obtained when the energy saving is multiplied by the unit price of energy k. Ks [money saved per annum] = WS [kWh/a] .au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Calculate the savings yourself 1. Calculate the power saving The power saving obtained by means of control is: PS = P 1 – P2 0. P1 and P2 are determined according to Figure 10.au www. 3. Calculate the energy saving The saving in energy per year is obtained when the power saving is multiplied by the operating hours. P1 and P2 are calculated from the following formulae.k [price/kWh] 5.9 Where the divisor 0. Power requirement is determined: (a) Either by means of the pump characteristics The power requirement with choke control P1 and with speed control P2 can best be determined by means of the pump characteristic curves. provided that complete curves are available. that is: W S = P S x ta = P1 – P2 0.com.

we obtain: H1 = 73m H2 = 31m η1 = 0. what are the comparative power costs for throttling versus speed control.0 = 389kW 368 x 0.145 = 271kW 0.com.0 = 145kW 368 x 0.com.765 (throttling) η2 = 0.765 Power with speed control: P2 = Power saving: PS = 389 . By drawing system characteristics for the pump curves.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. If a secondary flowrate of 1500m³/h is required for 50% of the time.9 1500 x 31 x 1.87 (speed control to 880 rpm) Power with throttling control: P1 = 1500 x 73 x 1.87 Pump Clinic 6 Speed Variation with Centrifugal Pumps 08/06/06 Page 10 of 11 .au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Example The pump (as per following curve Page 11) is designed for a nominal duty of 2200m³/hr at 67.kelairpumps.5 metres head.au www.

com.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.kelairpumps.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Energy Saving: (assuming 8000 hrs/annum total operating time) WS = 271kW x 4000 hr/a = 1084000 kW/a The saving in money and the cost pay-off time can be calculated by inserting the right values for the unit price of energy k and the capital cost difference Kp in the following formulae: Saving in money: (based on power cost of 8¢ / kW hr) Ks = 1084000 kW hr/a x 8¢ [cost/kW hr] = $86720 per annum Cost pay-off time: tt = Kp [cost] Ks [money saved per annum] Pump Clinic 6 Speed Variation with Centrifugal Pumps 08/06/06 Page 11 of 11 .com.au www.

au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 7 INSTALLATION AND PIPING INSTALLATION Instruction Books Instruction books are intended to help keep the pumps in an efficient and reliable condition at all times. it should be stored in a dry location. Preferably. grit and other foreign matter. where it is assembled and aligned with the pump on a common baseplate. such as grease. that instruction books be available to all personnel involved in this function. For protection during shipment and erection. kerosene or antifreeze. Vaseline.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Pump Location Working space must be checked to assure adequate accessibility for maintenance. It is necessary. the pump internals should be coated with protective liquid such as light oil. but the final dowelling is performed in the field after final alignment. The inner assembly of radially split multistage centrifugal pumps is removed axially.com. it should be removed completely before final installation and the bearings should be relubricated. such as bearings and couplings. The bearings and couplings must be carefully protected against sand. pipe openings and nozzles are protected by wooden flange covers or by screwed-in plugs. all pipe flanges. It should be carefully dried internally with hot air or by a vacuum-producing device to avoid rusting of internal parts. the unit is shipped assembled with pump and driver on the baseplate.au www.com. all accessible parts. Once free of moisture. The protective flange covers and coatings should remain on the pumps. the pump centreline should be placed below the level of the liquid in the section reservoir. Space must be provided so that the assembly can be pulled out without canting it. dried and coated with Vaseline or acid-free heavy oil and then properly tagged and stored. Pumps should be located as close as practicable to the source of liquid supply. Preparation for Shipment After a pump has been assembled in the manufacturer’s shop. the baseplate should be drilled at the job site.kelairpumps. Axially-split casing horizontal pumps require sufficient headroom to lift the upper half of the casing free of the rotor. When size and weight permit. Care of Equipment in the Field If the pumping equipment is received before it can be used. a travelling crane or other facility for attaching a hoist should be provided over the pump location. should be dismantled.Foundation bolt) Pump Clinic 7 Installation and Piping 29/06/06 Page 1 of 11 . More thorough precautions are required if a pump must be stored for an extended period of time. If rust preventive has been used on stored parts. (Figure 1 . Usually the driver is delivered to the pump manufacturer. Wherever possible. all flanges and exposed machined metal surfaces are cleaned of foreign matter and treated with an anti-corrosion compound. therefore. For large pumps with heaving casings and rotors. The baseplate is drilled for driver mounting. or heavy oil. If drivers are shipped directly to be mounted in the field.

the suction and discharge flanges are vertical or horizontal as required. Mounting of vertical wet-pit pumps A curve ring or soleplate must be used as a bearing surface for the support flange of a vertical wet-pit pump. Misalignment is corrected with shims. beams or walls and should be supported so that the baseplate cannot be distorted or the alignment disturbed by any yielding or springing of the structure. Alignment When a complete unit is assembled at the factory. or planed surface of the pump casing. Each foundation bolt should be surrounded by a pipe sleeve three or four diameters larger than the bolt. The mounting face must be machined because the curb ring or soleplate will be used in aligning the pump. If vertical wet-pit pumps are very long. If the discharge pipe is located above the support flange (aboveground discharge). sleeve. the curb ring or soleplate must be large enough to pass the discharge elbow during assembly. very large equipment may be mounted directly on the foundations by using sole plates under the pump and driver feet. The coupling bolts should be removed before the unit is levelled and the coupling halves are aligned. or of the baseplate.au www. The steel supporting strips or shim stock under the baseplate should be adjusted until the pump shaft is level. the pipe is held solidly in place but the bolt may be moved to conform to the corresponding hole in the baseplate. The pump is usually dowelled to the baseplate at the factory. it should be placed directly over.com. The pump casing should be attached securely to some rigid structural members with tie rods.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Foundations Foundations may consist of any structure heavy enough to afford permanent rigid support to the full area of the baseplate and to absorb any normal strains or shocks. A rectangular ring should be used. If the discharge pipe is located below the support flange of the pump (belowground discharge). After the concrete foundations are poured. The shim stock should extend fully across the supporting edge of the baseplate. When a unit is mounted on steelwork or some other structure. the baseplate is placed on a flat. or as near as possible to. Concrete foundations built up from solid ground are the most satisfactory. allowing a space of ¾ to 2 inches (2 to 5 cm) between the bottom of the baseplate and the top of the foundation for grouting. some steadying device is required irrespective of the location of the discharge or of the type of pipe connection. When the baseplate has been levelled. A typical method of arranging a grouted soleplate for vertical pumps is shown below. or a small clearance around a flange can be used to prevent excessive displacement of the pump in the horizontal plane. but the driver is left to be dowelled after installation at the site. The unit should be supported over the foundation by short strips of steel plate or shim stock close to the foundation bolts.com. The space required by the pumping unit and the location of the foundation bolts is determined from the drawings supplied by the manufacturer. it is necessary to determine the movement that may be imposed on the structure. The pump and driver are mounted on the baseplate and the coupling halves are accurately aligned using shims under the pump and driver mounting surfaces where necessary.kelairpumps. If the discharge is belowground and an expansion joint is used. Tie rods can be used to connect the unit to a wall. and the pump is at the specified height and location. it is preferable to place the level on some exposed part of the pump shaft. Where possible. even surface.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. a round curb ring or soleplate should be provided with clearance on its inner diameter to pass all sections of the pump below the support flange. Although most pumping units are mounted directly on baseplates. Pump Clinic 7 Installation and Piping 29/06/06 Page 2 of 11 . the nuts on the foundation bolts should be made handtight. the main members.

au www.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Pump Clinic 7 Installation and Piping 29/06/06 Page 3 of 11 .Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.kelairpumps.com.

that is all readings on the dial should be made with the button on the chalk mark. both radial and axial alignment can be checked.au www. rotate it while holding the other coupling half stationary and check the alignment at each quarter turn of the half being rotated. Pump Clinic 7 Installation and Piping 29/06/06 Page 4 of 11 . including parallelism of the coupling faces. Sometimes coupling halves are not true circles or are not of identical diameter because of manufacturing tolerances. exact alignment exists when the distance between the faces is the same at all points and when a straightedge lies squarely across the rims at any point. the amount may be determined by the straightedge and feeler gauges.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE During this levelling operation. If one coupling is higher than the other.kelairpumps. After any movement. With the indicator bolted to the pump half of the coupling. and at the same time. For all alignment checks. The same procedure is used to align gear couplings but the coupling covers must first be moved back out of the way and all measurements should be made on the coupling hubs. If the faces are not parallel. A variation within manufacturing limits may be found in either of the halfcouplings and proper allowance for this must be made when aligning the unit. both shafts should be pressed over to one side when taking readings.com. or moved to either side. A more exact method for checking alignment that is recommended requires the use of a dial indicator. A straightedge should be placed across the top and sides of the coupling. When the peripheries of the coupling halves are true circles of equal diameter and the faces are flat and perpendicular to the shaft axes. For any check (top. With the button resting on the periphery of the other coupling half. accurate alignment of the unbolted coupling halves must be maintained.508 mm) the driver must be raised or lowered by shimming or moved to one side or the other by half of this reading. if the dial reading at the starting point is set to zero and the diametrically opposite reading at the bottom or sides shows + 0. For example. the faces of the coupling halves should be checked with a tapered thickness gauge or with feeler gauges to see that they are parallel. bottom or sides) both shafts should be rotated the same amount. This method is called face-and-rim alignment.202 in (+ 0. To check the trueness of either coupling half. the dial should be set at zero and a mark chalked on the coupling half at the point where the button rests. Then the half previously held stationary should be revolved and the alignment checked. lowered. it is necessary to check that the coupling faces remain parallel to one another. the thickness gauge or feelers will show variation at different points.com. The dial readings will indicate whether the driver must be raised.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.

au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE When an extension coupling connects the pump to its driver.com. For large installations.au www. Pump Clinic 7 Installation and Piping 29/06/06 Page 5 of 11 . Changing the arm from one hub to the other provides an additional check.kelairpumps. they are included with the manufacturers’ instructions. The final alignment must be made with the pump and driver at their normal temperatures and adjusted as required before the pump is placed into permanent service. the magnetic centre of the motor will determine the running position of the motor half-coupling. the expansion of the pump or turbine at operating temperature will alter the vertical alignment. Such procedures permit checking the effect of temperature changes and machine strains caused by piping stresses while the unit is in operation. rub. a dial indicator should be used to check the alignment. a limited-end float coupling is used between the pump and the motor on all large units to restrict the motor rotor. The dial extension bracket must be checked for sag. and readings must be corrected accordingly. This position should be checked by running the motor uncoupled. When such procedures are recommended. and alignment is checked for both concentricity of the hub diameters and parallelism of the hub faces. and as it will seek its magnetic centre. an axial force of rather small magnitude can cause it to move off this centre. The clearance between the faces of the coupling hubs and the ends of the shafts should be such that they cannot touch. move the motor shaft in both directions as far as the bearings will permit and adjust the shaft centrally between these limits. Sufficient clearance will allow unhampered endwise movement of the shaft of the driving element to the limit of its bearing clearance. The motor rotor is permitted to float. Large horizontal sleeve-bearing motors are not generally equipped with thrust bearings. The dial indicator is mounted on this arm. The amount of this clearance may vary with the size and type of coupling used. Sometimes it will move enough to cause the shaft collar to contact and possibly damage the bearing. more sophisticated alignment methods are sometimes employed using proximity probes and optical instruments.com. The extension piece between the coupling halves should be removed to expose the coupling hubs. particularly with steam-turbine-driven pumps.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. The unit should then be assembled with the correct gap between the coupling halves. The setting of axial clearances for such units should be given by the manufacturer in the instruction books and elevation drawings. The coupling nut on the end of the shaft should be used to clamp a suitable extension arm or bracket long enough to extend across the space between the coupling hubs. Alignment should be made at ambient temperature with suitable allowances for the changes in pump and driver centrelines after expansion. When the pump handles a liquid at other than ambient temperature or when it is driven by a steam turbine. On motor-driven units. If current is not available at the time of installation. To avoid this. or exert a pull on either pump or driver. This will also permit checking the directon of rotation of the motor.

for misalignment may develop from piping strains after a unit has been operating for some time. When the grout is sufficiently set so that the forms can be removed. the hold-down bolts should be finally tightened and the coupling halves rechecked for alignment. When the grout is hard (72h or longer). This can be done by loosening the bolts and reading the movement of the pump. it is best to mix the grout and let it stand for a short period then remix it thoroughly before use without adding any more water. The pump and driver alignment should be occasionally rechecked. the exposed surfaces of the grout and foundations are finished smooth.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. This is especially true when the pump handles hot liquids as there may be a growth or change in the shape of the piping. The usual mixture for grouting a pump baseplate is composed of one part pure Portland cement and two parts building sand. the baseplate is grouted before the piping connections are made and before the alignment of the coupling halves is finally rechecked. The purpose of grouting is to prevent lateral shifting of the baseplate to increase its mass to reduce vibration and to fill in irregularities in the foundation. the hold-down bolts should be gently and evenly tightened before grouting.com. The pump and driver alignment must be rechecked thoroughly after the grout has hardened permanently and at reasonable intervals thereafter. A stiff wire should be used through the grout holes to work the grout and release any air pockets.au www. There is less danger is not removing the strips or wedges with rotating machinery.kelairpumps. Erectors can follow their own preference in this matter. The alignment must be rechecked after the suction and discharge piping has been bolted to the pump to test the effect of piping strains. The best practice is to remove these in all cases for reciprocating machinery because pounding action or vibration will ultimately loosen the unit from the foundation. The space formerly occupied by shims or wedges must be re-grouted. if any. The strips or wedges can also be removed from a rotating unit. The exposed surfaces of the grout should be covered with wet burlap to prevent cracking from toorapid drying. A wooden form is built around the outside of the baseplate to retain the grout. Pump Clinic 7 Installation and Piping 29/06/06 Page 6 of 11 . Pipe flanges at the pump should be disconnected after a period of operation to check the effect of the expansion of the piping and the adjustments should be made to compensate for this. The grout holes in the baseplate serve as vents to allow the air to escape.com. with dial indicators. To reduce settling. The top of the rough concrete foundation should be well saturated with water before grouting. There is considerable controversy over whether the levelling strips or wedges should be removed after grouting. Grout is added until the entire space under the baseplate is filled to the top of the underside. with sufficient water to cause the mixture to flow freely under the base (heavy cream consistency).au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE When the unit has been accurately levelled and aligned. provided care is used in mixing the grout material and there is no shrinkage or drying. Grouting Ordinarily.

Generally. This is a special and complex subject and the manufacturer should be consulted). Where a static suction head will exist. (The exception to this recommendation is in the case of boiler-feed pumps where difficulties may arise during transient conditions of load change if the suction piping volume is excessive.au www.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. If a long suction line is required the pipe size should be increased to reduce frictional losses.com. If the source of supply is above the pump. Large pumps handling hot liquids are usually dowelled near the coupling end. the suction line is larger than the pump suction nozzle and eccentric reducers should be used. the pump suction piping should slope continuously downward to the pump. If such a change is necessary. dowelling of both the pump and its driver should be delayed until the unit has been operated. PIPING Suction piping The suction piping should be as direct and short as possible. it is advisable to use properly vented concentric reducers. the suction piping should be laid out with a continual rise toward the pump avoiding high spots in the line to prevent the formation of air pockets. Installing eccentric reducers with a change in diameters greater than 4 inches (10 cm) could disturb the suction flow. Flow velocity should be less than 2m per second and the pipe diameter should be calculated accordingly.com. the straight side of the reducer should be at the bottom.kelairpumps.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Dowelling of pump and driver When the pump handles hot liquids. Where the pump must lift the liquid from a lower level. A final re-check of alignment with the coupling bolts removed and with the pump and driver at operating temperature is advisable before dowelling. allowing the pump to expand from that end out. Pump Clinic 7 Installation and Piping 29/06/06 Page 7 of 11 . Sometimes the other end is provided with a key and a keyway in the casing foot and the baseplate.

or when major temperature changes are expected. If a common suction head for two or more pumps is used.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Elbows and other fittings next to the pump suction should be carefully arranged. The check valve is placed between the pump and the gate valve and protects the pump from reverse flow in the event of unexpected driver failure.com. strainers. material stress in pump nozzles resulting from forces and bending movements. With large pumps. On occasion. More often. The gate valve is used when priming the pump or when shutting it down for inspection and repairs. the pump manufacturer generally indicates to the user the maximum movements and forces that can be imposed on the pump by the piping. the pump so that strain will be transmitted to the pump casing. both a check valve and a gate valve are installed in the discharge line. If steel suction or discharge piping is used.com. etc should be supported and anchored near to. and distortion in pump supports and baseplates resulting in driver coupling misalignment.a Y-piece is recommended. Long-radius elbows are preferred for suction lines because they create less friction and provide a more uniform flow distribution than standard elbows.au www. but independent of. distortion of internal moving parts affecting critical clearances. There are four factors to be considered in determining the effect of nozzle loads. Piping flanges must be brought squarely together before the bolts are tightened. they are of the slip-joint or corrugated- Pump Clinic 7 Installation and Piping 29/06/06 Page 8 of 11 . or from reverse flow from another operating pump. The suction and discharge piping and all associated valves.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. In some cases. Piping should not impose excessive forces and movements on the pump to which it is connected.kelairpumps. expansion joints are formed by looping the pipe. Manually operated valves that are difficult to reach should be fitted with a sprocket rim wheel and chain. T-pieces should not be used . There should be a straight length of pipe minimum 10 x pipe diameter before the pump inlet. or by expansion when hot liquids are handled. Piping Strains Cast iron pumps are never provided with raised face flanges. or the flow into the pump impeller will be disturbed. the pipe flanges should be of the flat-face and not the raised-face type. Expansion Joints Expansion joints are sometimes used in the discharge and suction piping to avoid transmitting any piping strains caused by misalignment. Pumps should not be connected near any fitting. discharge gate valves are motorised and can be operated by remote control. Full-face gaskets must be used with cast iron pumps. since these might spring the pump or pull it out of position. Discharge Piping Generally. branches should be designed so that flow disturbance before the pump inlets is not caused. stresses in pump hold-down bolts.

An orifice is provided in this jumper line to regulate the amount of the warm-up flow. into the pump and out into the suction header. Consequently. In such an installation. Suction Strainers Except for certain special designs. Then a temporary strainer of appropriate size should be installed in the suction line as close to the pump as possible. or to keep it ready to start at rated temperature. toxic or corrosive fluids must be connected in such a way that they endanger neither the operating personnel.com. provision should be made for a warm-up flow to pass through the pump.kelairpumps. The recommended practice is to flush all piping to waste before connecting it to the pump. the piping must first be thoroughly cleaned and flushed. as when the pump is to be dismantled).au www. These forces can be of very significant magnitude.com. the pumped liquid can be permitted to drain out through the pump casing drain connection to some point at a pressure lower than the suction pressure. etc to withstand them. This temporary strainer may have a finer mesh than the permanent strainer installed after the piping has been thoroughly cleaned of all possible mill scale or other foreign matter. Therefore. Warm-Up Piping When it is necessary for a pump to come up to operating temperature before it is started. and suction piping be subjected to full discharge pressure. times the pressure in the pipe.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Pump Clinic 7 Installation and Piping 29/06/06 Page 9 of 11 . such foreign matter can clog the pump. If the particles are sufficiently large. However. reduce its capacity. On the other hand. vents from pumps handling flammable. Alternately. Small particles of foreign matter may cause damage by lodging between close-running clearances. these valves need not be piped up away from the pump because their use is infrequent and the vented air or vapours can be allowed to escape into the surrounding atmosphere. and it is impractical to design the pump casings. Alternately. a suitable pipe anchor must be installed between them and the pump proper. The suction vents of pumps taking liquids from closed vessels under vacuum must be piped to the source of the pump suction above the liquid level. some liquid can be made to flow back from the discharge header through a jumper line around the check valve. Venting and Draining Vent valves are generally installed at one or more high points of the pump casing waterways to provide a means of escape for air or vapour trapped in the casing. nor the installation. Care must be exercised in such an installation to maintain the suction valve open (unless the warm-up line valve is closed. they transmit to the pump a force equal to the area of the expansion joint. proper suction strainers may be required in the suction lines of pumps not specially designed to handle foreign matter. when expansion joints are used. The size of the mesh is generally recommended by the pump manufacturer. lest the entire pump. In most cases. pumps are not intended to handle liquid containing foreign matter. If the pump is operated under positive pressure on the suction. suction valve. or even render it altogether incapable of pumping. The manufacturer’s recommendations should be sought in all cases as to the best means of providing an adequate warm-up procedure. There are a number of arrangements used to accomplish this. tie rods can be used to prevent the forces from being transmitted to the pump. These valves are used during the priming of the pump or during operation if the pump should become air or vapour-bound. baseplates. All drain and drip connections should be piped to a point where the leakage can be disposed of or collected for re-use if worth reclaiming.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE diaphragm-type.

but unless operation against a closed discharge is both infrequent and of very short duration. Some pumps are provided with internal integral relief valves. a relief valve with an external return connection must be used and the liquid from the relief valve must be piped back to the source of supply.com.kelairpumps. a pressure relief valve must be used. To protect these pumps against excessive pressures when the discharge is throttled or shut off.com.au www.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Relief Valves Positive displacement pumps.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Pump Clinic 7 Installation and Piping 29/06/06 Page 10 of 11 . such as rotary and reciprocating pumps can develop discharge pressures much in excess of their maximum design pressures.

In addition. a check should be maintained on the quantity of these leak-offs by measuring orifices and differential gauges installed in the leak-off lines. reciprocating pump installations require surge chambers when the suction or discharge lines are of considerable length. such as a balancing device or pressurereducing labyrinths. The type. Pumps operating in important or complex services. vibration monitors.kelairpumps.com. size and arrangement of the surge chamber should be chosen on the basis of the manufacturer’s recommendations. indicating meters may be supplemented by recording attachments. when there is an appreciable static head on the discharge.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Surge Chambers Generally. or when it is desirable to smooth out variations in the discharge flow. In many cases however. and bearing or casing temperature indicators. centrifugal pumps do not require surge chambers in their suction or discharge piping.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Pump Clinic 7 Installation and Piping 29/06/06 Page 11 of 11 . A compound pressure gauge should be connected to the suction of the pump and a pressure gauge should be connected to its discharge at the pressure taps which may be provided in the suction and discharge flanges. may have additional instrumentation such as speed indicators. Whenever pumps incorporate various leak-off arrangements. The gauges should be mounted in a convenient location so that they can be easily observed. or operating completely unattended by remote control.com. Depending upon the importance of the installation. Reciprocating pumps may have a suction and discharge piping layout that does not require compensation for variations in the flow velocity in the piping system.au www. it is advisable to provide a flow-metering device. when the liquid pumped is hot. Instrumentation There are a number of instruments which are essential to maintaining a close check on the performance and condition of a pump.

with few exceptions. The pump casing would heat up.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. There are. except by increasing the speed. Operation of Centrifugal Pumps at Reduced Flows There are certain minimum operating flows which must be imposed on centrifugal pumps for either hydraulic or mechanical reasons. however.com. it is imperative to adhere to the minimum flow limits recommended by the pump manufacturer The thermodynamic problem that arises when a centrifugal pump is operated at extremely reduced flows is caused by the heating up of the liquid handled. Four limiting factors must be considered: · · · · Radial thrust Temperature rise Internal recirculation Shape of the power curve For sustained operation.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMP CLINIC 8 START-UP AND OPERATION OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS OPERATION Pumps are generally selected for a given capacity and total head when operating at rated speed. the pump operating capacity may be altered either by throttling the pump discharge (hence altering the system-head curve. mechanical. This makes the centrifugal pump very flexible in a wide range of services and applications which require the pump to operate at capacities and heads differing considerably from the rated conditions.au www. the power losses would be equal to the shutoff power and since there would be no flow through the pump.com. nor can they operate at lower flows except by reducing their operating speed or bypassing some of the flow back to the source of supply. represent those conditions at or near which the pump will operate the greatest part of the time. On the other hand. Pump Clinic 8 Startup & Operation of Centrifugal Pumps 29/06/06 Page 1 of 5 . all this power would go into heating the small quantity of liquid contained in the pump casing. Positive displacement pumps can not operate at any greater flows than rated. These characteristics are referred to as ‘rated conditions of service’ and. If the pump were to operate against a completely closed valve. Because a centrifugal pump will always operate at the intersection of its head-capacity and system-head curves. from near zero flow to well beyond the rated capacity. The difference between the power consumed and the water power developed represents the power losses in the pump. or by varying the pump speed (changing the pump head-capacity curve).kelairpumps. and a certain amount of heat would be dissipated by radiation and convection to the atmosphere. some limitations imposed upon such operation by hydraulic. except for a small amount lost in the pump bearings. or thermodynamic considerations. These power losses are converted to heat and transferred to the liquid passing through the pump. centrifugal pumps can operate over a wide range of capacities.

The various methods and arrangements used for priming pumps are available from Kelair. The minimum capacity based on thermodynamic considerations is then established as that capacity at which the temperature rise is the maximum permitted. However.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. such as rotary or screw pumps. In such cases. it is generally safer to ignore the dissipation of heat through radiation and the absorption of heat by the casing. The pump manufacturer’s recommendations on minimum flows dictated by these considerations should always be followed. priming connections should be piped to a supply above the pump. A mechanical seal should not normally show a leak. As a rule of thumb. the pump may completely dry out when it is idle. However. The NPSHR curve becomes increasingly unstable at low flows. some of the liquid to be pumped should be introduced through the discharge side of the pump to wet the rotating element. This rule has to be considered in conjunction with other issues detailed in this section. That is. Alternately. a foot valve should be used to help keep the pump primed.au www. depending on the type of service and installation. Priming With the exception of self-priming pumps. fill the bearing housing with the correct quantity and quality of oil (as per manufacturer’s recommendations). In recent years. if quick starting is required. because the temperature rise in the liquid pumped could be quite rapid. correlation has been developed between operation at low flows and the appearance of hydraulic pulsations both in the suction and in the discharge of centrifugal impellers. Calculations for determining the temperature rise in the liquid are available from Kelair. foot valves are usually not required because liquid is retained in the clearances and acts as a seal when the pump is restarted. until it has been filled with the liquid pumped and all the air contained in the pump has been expelled. in principle. With oil-lubricated bearings. no centrifugal pump should ever be started until it is fully primed. do not operate pumps at flowrates lower than that equivalent to the left-hand end of the NPSHR curve.com. FINAL CHECKS BEFORE START-UP A few last-minute checks are recommended before a pump is placed into service for its initial start.com. There are also hydraulic considerations which may affect the minimum flow at which a centrifugal pump can operate. before the initial start of a rotating positive displacement pump. · Pump Clinic 8 Startup & Operation of Centrifugal Pumps 29/06/06 Page 2 of 5 . Positive displacement pumps of the rotating type. have clearances that allow the liquid in the pump to drain back to the suction.kelairpumps. Reciprocating pumps of the piston or plunger type are. a vacuum device may be used to prime the pump. · Lubricate the bearings with fresh grease if the pump has been standing for a long time since delivery. The maximum permissible temperature rise in a centrifugal pump varies over a wide range. self-priming.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 However. Open any sealing and cooling liquid valves where applicable. It has been proven that these pulsations are caused by the development of an internal recirculation at the inlet and discharge of an impeller at certain flows below the best efficiency capacity. When pumping low viscosity liquids. but a soft-packed gland should drip during the start-up period and be adjusted as required. When handling liquids of higher viscosity.

com. Such pumps should be started against a closed discharge valve to reduce the starting load on the driver. If a bypass line is not installed. A check valve is equivalent to a closed valve for this purpose. if required to prevent backflow. 7. or through a filling pipe. Prime the pump. the starting procedure is as follows: 1. close the valve. and that it is to be started against a closed or cracked open gate valve.au www. 6.kelairpumps. where applicable. an over-tightened gland or pipe stresses causing the impeller to seize in the casing. The check valve will not lift until the pump being started comes up to a speed sufficient to generate a head high enough the lift the check valve from its seat.com. they should be started with the discharge valve wide open against a check valve. When the pump is warmed up. standby pumps are generally held ready for immediate starting. The methods followed in starting are greatly influenced by the shape of the power-capacity curve of the pump.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 · · · Check that the cooling/sealing liquid outlet pipes are not blocked. Check the direction of rotation by running the motor for a few seconds. · It is recommended when checking the direction of rotation. For example. If a pump is started with a closed discharge valve. Open the valve in the recirculating line if the pump should not be operated against dead shutoff (if fitted) or slightly crack open the discharge valve. that its shutoff power does not exceed the safe motor power. which could cause damage to the pump. Low head pumps (high specific speed) of the mixed flow and propeller type. Starting and Stopping Procedures The steps necessary to start a centrifugal pump depend upon its type and upon the service on which it is installed. as long as another pump is already on the line. High and medium head pumps (low and medium specific speeds) have power curves that rise from zero flow to the normal capacity condition. start the pump with the discharge valve cracked open. opening the suction valve. or ventcocks when fitted. Open the warn-up valve of a pump handling hot liquids if the pump is not normally kept at operating temperature. Assuming that the pump in question is motor-driven. Vent casings by opening the discharge valve. have power curves that rise sharply with a reduction in capacity. If it does not. Start the motor. Fill the pump casing by opening the suction valve. 3. check for foreign matter in the pump. 5.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Pump Clinic 8 Startup & Operation of Centrifugal Pumps 29/06/06 Page 3 of 5 . closing the drains. 4. that coupling halves are disconnected to eliminate the risk of loosening the impeller. the recirculation bypass line must be open to prevent overheating. Open the valve in the sealing liquid supply if the pump is so fitted. 2. The suction and discharge gate valves are held open and reverse flow through the pump is prevented by the check valve in the discharge line. etc to prepare the pump for operation. Ensure the pump shaft turns freely by hand. where applicable. Open the valve in the cooling water supply to the bearings. Open the valve in the cooling water supply if the stuffing boxes are water-cooled.

There is. 7) Close the suction valve. In general. 6) If the sealing liquid supply is not required while the pump is idle. 3) Close the gate valve. eliminates the need for the steps listed for the cooling and sealing supply. noise vibration. Close the valve in the recirculating line once there is sufficient flow through the pump to prevent overheating. If the packing is new. As a rule. Open the discharge valve slowly. some turbines require turning gear operation if they are kept on the line ready to start up. In certain cases. Check the general mechanical operation of pump and motor eg. This.com. Observe the leakage from the stuffing boxes and adjust the sealing liquid valve for proper flow to ensure the lubrication of the packing. the starting and stopping of steam-turbine-driven pumps require the same steps and sequence prescribed for a motor-driven pump. except the discharge gate valve is opened prior to the motor being started. always start the pump with the recirculation bypass valve open. Finally. Similarly. close the valve in this supply line. open the drain valves. 10. bearing temperature.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Generally the steps followed to stop a pump which can operate against a closed gate valve are: 1) Open the valve in the recirculating line. the steps are the same. 5) Close the valve in the cooling water supply to the bearings and to the water-cooled stuffing boxes. a notable exception and that is: Never operate a positive displacement pump against a closed discharge.com. 11. 9. the stopping procedure depends upon the type and service of the pump. The operator should therefore follow the steps outlined by the turbine manufacturer in starting and stopping the turbine. etc as required by the particular installation or if the pump is to be opened up for inspection. Most of the steps listed for starting and stopping centrifugal pumps are equally applicable to positive displacement pumps. Pump Clinic 8 Startup & Operation of Centrifugal Pumps 29/06/06 Page 4 of 5 . however. If the pump is to be started against a closed check valve with the discharge gate valve open. Just as in starting a pump. 4) Open the warm-up valve if the pump is to be kept at operating temperature. steam turbines have various drains and seals which must be opened or closed before and after operation.au www. but let the packing run in before reducing the leakage through the stuffing boxes. 2) Stop the motor. the cooling water to the bearings and the sealing water to the seal cages are provided by the pump.kelairpumps. of course. If the gate valve on the discharge must be closed. do not tighten up on the gland immediately. many turbines require warming up before starting.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 8.

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. and several methods of operation are available for the auxiliary services. It is also the case when the sealing supply is used to prevent air infiltration into a pump when it is operating under a vacuum. Because pumps operating on a suction lift may lose their prime during the time that power is off. whether the pump is running or on standby service. certain cases where sealing liquid supply to the pump stuffing boxes must be maintained. however. such as the cooling water supply to the bearings or to watercooled stuffing boxes: a) A constant flow may be kept through the bearing jackets. there is generally no reason why the pump would be permitted to restart once current has been re-established. or if some protection device is incorporated so that the pump can not run unless it is primed. Restarting Motor-Driven Pumps after Power Failure Assuming that power failure will not cause the pump to go into reverse rotation. oil coolers and through the stuffing box lantern rings. b) The service connections may be opened automatically whenever the pump is started up eg via solenoid valves. whether the pump is running or not. Whether the pump will start again automatically when power is restored will depend on the type of motor control logic used. and the operator may be instructed to open them shortly after the pump has been put on line automatically. that a check valve will protect the pump against reverse flow. of course. c) The service connections may be kept closed while the pump is idle. This is the case when the pump handles a liquid which is corrosive to the packing or which may crystallise and deposit on the shaft sleeves. Pump Clinic 8 Startup & Operation of Centrifugal Pumps 29/06/06 Page 5 of 5 . it is preferable to use starters with low load protection for such installations to prevent an automatic restart. This does not apply. seal plates. The choice among these methods must be dictated by the specific circumstances surrounding each case.com.com. if the pumps are automatically primed.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Auxiliary Services on Standby Pumps Standby pumps are frequently started up from a remote location. that is. There are.kelairpumps.au www.

com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMP CLINIC 9 NOISE ESTIMATION (SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS) FOR GENERAL PUMPING EQUIPMENT INTRODUCTION Maximum noise levels for pumping machinery are being increasingly specified by customers as part of the overall performance requirements. queries are being raised by users on the noise levels that can be expected from their existing pumps. Additionally.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www. Additionally. If guaranteed figures are required. the noise levels that can be estimated from the use of this data should be used with caution and never form part of a contractual agreement.kelairpumps. There is difficulty sometimes in relating a sound pressure level (SPL) to a real practical situation. there is the necessity to comply with statutory Occupational Health and Safety requirements. IMPORTANT: It should be recognised that noise levels emitted from similar sized machines and drivers can vary between quite wide limits. For this reason. the overall SPL is a function of high intensity sound producing vibrations over a wide range of frequencies audible to the human ear. These requirements are as a direct result of increasing awareness of the damage and nuisance to health of operators that can result in prolonged exposure to high noise levels which in extreme cases can lead to permanent loss of hearing. consult your pump supplier. The graph below indicates typical noise levels by octave band frequencies for various real situations: Pump Clinic 9 Noise Estimation (Sound Pressure Levels) for General Pumping Equipment 14/12/06 Page 1 of 6 . Alternatively.

1 52. add 3 to the dBA values in Table A.0 b) For S G > 1. For flow rates outside this range.2-67. c) For flows in the range 38%-49% of BEP.6-41.2 20.0 700.0 670.0-537. vortex or vertical mixed flow and axial flow pumps. add 2 to the dBA values in Table A.com.0 use actual S G The values given in Table A are valid for flow rates that fall within the range of 75 .2 26.0 970.5 metres above the floor.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Estimation of Overall Noise Level The information that follows may be used to determine the expected sound pressure levels (SPL) expressed in decibels (dB) for conventional single-stage and multi-stage centrifugal pumps.7-57.9 33.0-1045.1 11.1-29.9-26.6 164.1 41. These cannot be used for solids-handling.0 1680. b) Values are at a distance of 1 metre horizontally from pump surfaces and 1.0-418.5-70.5 3. Pump Clinic 9 Noise Estimation (Sound Pressure Levels) for General Pumping Equipment 14/12/06 Page 2 of 6 .0-11.8 268.1 29.2 208. Table A below shows overall SPL for single.2-17.0-1345.7 5.6 67.0 1045.1-36. The values are based on test data and the following conditions: a) Background noise 10dB (minimum) below all noise levels in each octave band.0 141.0 1345.0-52.Overall Noise Level .8 2.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.0 16.9 85.0-670.1 36.5 dBA 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 Absorbed kW @ BEP Multistage 1 & 2 stage (3 & over) 42. c) Overall noise level in dBA (“A“ scale) and octave mid band frequencies are basis “C” scale.2-2.1 70.5 104.0-970.9-85.0 17. two-stage and three or more stage pumps based on best efficiency point (BEP) power consumption unit: Table A .0-522.DBA dBa 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 Absorbed kW @ BEP Multistage 1 & 2 Stage (3 & over) 1.9-23.0 261.4-20.8-2.5-4. add 4 to the dBA values in Table A.0 418. use the following specific gravity figures: a) For S G < 1.0 When calculating absorbed kW.0 7.5 335.7-7.2 23.0 use S G = 1.1-33.0-373. add 1 to the dBA values on Table A.0-1120.0-700.3 57.2 2.au www.0-840.125% of BEP flow.1-104.6-42.5-261.5 4.0 373. b) For flows in the ranges 50%-61% and 137%.0 186.0 522.7 82.5-134.0-9.9 9.kelairpumps.2-14.3-164.8-186.0-1680.9-268.6-108.1-208.8-3.0-820.9 134.com.0 820.0-335.5-5. d) For flows in the range 25%-37% of BEP.0-2100. a correction is required as detailed below: a) For flows in the ranges 62%-75% and 126%-136% of BEP.0 108.6 14.2-141.0 840.1-82.50% of BEP.0 537.

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.com.kelairpumps.au www.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Estimation of Noise Levels at Octave Mid-Band Frequencies To estimate the noise levels at mid-band frequencies. dB Single & 2-stage Multi-stage (3 & over) 31. Table B Octave Mid-Band Frequency Hz Pump Type Deduct from dBA level. subtract the appropriate value as shown in Table B from the overall dBA level.5 4 11 63 6 9 125 4 7 250 3 5 500 4 3 1K 5 3 2K 6 3 4K 9 7 8K 12 12 Combined Noise Levels for Pump and Driver Components When two or more sources produce the total combined noise level (mid-bands) may be obtained by a simple addition of dB values according to Graph II: Pump Clinic 9 Noise Estimation (Sound Pressure Levels) for General Pumping Equipment 14/12/06 Page 3 of 6 .

au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Noise Reduction at Various Distances To obtain noise levels (either dBA or any mid-band frequency) for distances greater than 1 metre from equipment.au www. reduce the levels using the values shown in Graph III: Calculation of Overall SPL from Known Mid-Band Frequency dB Values Noise at constant level of emittance does not have the same irritation at all frequencies. Pump Clinic 9 Noise Estimation (Sound Pressure Levels) for General Pumping Equipment 14/12/06 Page 4 of 6 .kelairpumps.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. For a given noise level.com.com. the higher the frequency the more objectionable the noise becomes.

0 85 3.0 78 85 -9 76 84 -3 81 2.0 88 83 0 83 82 +1 83 1. power absorbed at BEP kW = l/sec x metres x S G 102.au www.0 102. the impeller diameter is 540mm and pump efficiency is 83% Best efficiency point (BEP) conditions are: Flow Head Efficiency 722 l/sec (2600M³/hr) 30.com.7 84.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.5 x 1.2 x efficiency 722 x 30.88 244.5 metres 88% Using the formula below.5 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 1000 frequency (Hertz) SPL in dB for frequency A scale weighting factor dB SPL dB(A) dB correction for addition of SPLs Note 1 SPL dB(A) Note 2 dB correction for addition of SPLs Note 1 SPL dB(A) Note 2 dB correction for addition of SPLs Note 1 SPL dB(A) Note 2 dB correction for addition of SPLs Note 1 SPL dB(A) Note 2 Note 1: Obtained from Graph II Note 2: Obtained by adding dB correction to higher of noise levels 84 -39 45 .au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 The impact of this can be seen by the A scale weighting factor shown on the example below: Figure Conversion of sound pressure levels at octave band mid frequencies to an overall SPL in dB(A) Octave Band mid 31.kelairpumps.2 x .88 kW = = Pump Clinic 9 Noise Estimation (Sound Pressure Levels) for General Pumping Equipment 14/12/06 Page 5 of 6 .5 0 78 0 88 0 82 -26 56 84 -10 74 2.7 79 +1 80 76 +1 77 0 77 0 77 0 0 +6 - Worked Example Find the maximum expected noise levels of a single stage pump at the following design conditions: Flow Head SG 490 l/sec (1768m³/hr) 38 metres 0.5 56.94 For the above duty.

com.88kW is 87 dBA.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Note for S G value below 1. Pt. we use 1. The correction is +1 dB.Hz 125 250 500 1K 2K 83 84 83 82 81 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 84 85 84 83 82 Noise @ BEP PL Correction Noise @ Cond. A correction needs to be applied to this value as the duty flow rate (490 l/s) is 68% of the BEP flow rate. Using Table A the expected overall SPL at a BEP power of 244. This will give an overall SPL at the duty point of 88 dBA. The chart below summarises the estimates for dB values at mid band frequencies utilising Table B: Mid Band Frequency .au www. Pump Turbine Gear Using Graph II: 88 dBA 82 dBA 91 dBA 88-82 = 6 .Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.0 as the S G. find the combined noise level of the equipment at 1 metre and also at a distance of 15 metres.Add 2 to 91 = 93 dBA 93 dBA Total System Noise @ 1 metre For a distance of 15 metres from the equipment .kelairpumps.5 83 +1 84 63 81 +1 82 4K 78 +1 79 8K 75 +1 76 Assuming that the pump is driven by an 82 dBA turbine and a 91 dBA gear box. dB dBA 87 +1 88 31.Add 1 to 88 = 89 dBA 91-89 = 2 .subtract 23dB for: 93-23 = 70 dBA @ 15 metres away Using Graph III: Pump Clinic 9 Noise Estimation (Sound Pressure Levels) for General Pumping Equipment 14/12/06 Page 6 of 6 .

com.kelairpumps.au www.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMP CLINIC 10 PUMP OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Index Page 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 7 8-9 10 10-11 Centrifugal Pumps Fault-finding Table 1 Reciprocating Pumps Fault-finding Table 2 Reciprocating (Piston) Pumps Fault-finding Table 3 Reciprocating Pumps (Direct Acting Rotary Pumps Lobe-Rotor Pumps Condition Monitoring Rotary Pumps Fault-finding Table 4 Lobe-Rotor Pumps Fault-finding Table 5 Mean Time Between Repair (MTBR) Pump Protection Pump Clinic 10 Pump Operation and Maintenance 05/07/06 Page 1 of 11 .

au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 TABLE 1 . replace if necessary Check.com. circuit breakers Replace Check and adjust Check if slipping or broken. foot valve etc Check and clean if necessary Suction line too small. check line(s) for air leaks Check suction piping and pump for air leaks Check pump gaskets Check NPSH and fluid temperature to ensure that liquid in suction line is not ‘flashing’ As above & also check suction pipe.Centrifugal Pumps . causing excessive friction head Check that valves are open Check piping for obstructions or blockage Check total head Check that pump rev/min is consistent with manufacturer’s recommendations Check that impeller is not clogged Check that pump is running in the correct direction Bleed suction pipe to clear air lock Check that suction pipe is properly submerged Check adjustment.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. increasing pump speed might help.au www.Fault-finding Fault Pump not turning Cause Driver not running Keys sheared Drive belt slip Coupling fault Shaft or gears sheared Inlet valve closed Inlet clogged or restricted Air leaks on suction side Liquid drained or syphoned from system Worn pump impeller Remedy or Action Check fuses. check line(s) for leaks Fit check or foot valve to prevent draining Inspect. replace if necessary Open valve Check and clear Replace seals. check for dirt on valve seat Check seals. or too many fittings adding fluid friction Check and adjust as necessary Reduce system friction by re-design Inspect and replace if necessary As above Check against manufacturer’s specification Check that foot valve size is adequate (if fitted) Check for other possible obstruction Check that pump is adequate for the job Check suction pipe is properly submerged and in best position Pump not priming Lack of prime (see also above) Excessive suction lift Excessive discharge head No discharge Speed too low Pump clogged Wrong direction of rotation Vapour lock Relief valve not properly adjusted Air leak Air leaks Vapour lock Low NPSH or damage Clogged strainer(s) Excessive inlet friction Relief valve incorrectly set or jammed Excessive system back pressure Worn impeller Worn wear rings Wrong direction of rotation Construction in suction line Wrong pump size Poor suction Low delivery Pump Clinic 10 Pump Operation and Maintenance 05/07/06 Page 2 of 11 .com. also fitting foot valve Open all vent cocks to release trapped air and fill pump and suction pipe completely with fluid Check pump inlet for clogging etc.kelairpumps.

increase delivery line size(s) Check pump operating conditions Check product suitability Check for air leaks Check product/pump suitability Check and rectify Check that impeller is not damaged or clogged Check alignment with driver Check mounting for rigidity Check and replace if necessary Strip down and check for wear Re-adjust. decrease suction head Check operating rev/min against specification for pump performance Check that packing is not too tightly or badly fitted Check packing lubricant (where possible) Check that packing is consistent with manufacturer’s specification Check cooling flow (where applicable) Check oil level or lubricant condition Check if correct lubricant is being used Check bearing for misalignment or excessive tightness Check fitting and condition of oil seals Check that operating speed is not excessive Reduce fluid viscosity (eg by heating) Reduce pump speed.) Cause High fluid viscosity Excessive fluid temperature Speed too low Remedy or Action Check that fluid viscosity is consistent with anticipated performance Reduce speed and/or delivery.com. clogging etc Check bearings and packings (bearing temperature will be a clue) Check quantity and quality of lubricants Check that fluid viscosity is not too high for economic handling Stuffing box over-heats Over-heating Bearings over-heating Fluid too viscous Excessive pressure Cavitation Excessive fluid viscosity Entrained air High vapour pressure fluid Improper pump assembly Unbalanced impeller Misalignment Non-rigid mount Bent shaft. repair or replace as necessary As above As above As above As above Check quantity and quality of lubricant Use filter to remove Check that pump materials are compatible with fluid being handled Check against manufacturer’s recommendations for fluid viscosity Reduce speed or pressure.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 TABLE 2 .kelairpumps.au www.com. faulty bearings Pump wear Relief valve chattering Misalignment Out-of-balance Non-rigid mount Bent shaft Lack of vibration Dirt in pump Corrosion Too high operating speed Operating pressure too high Abrasives present in fluid Speed too high Misalignment Internal friction Pump requires excessive power Tight bearings Lack of lubrication High fluid viscosity Vibration and noise Excessive wear Pump Clinic 10 Pump Operation and Maintenance 05/07/06 Page 3 of 11 .Reciprocating Pumps .Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. eg change in system Check product/pump suitability Check against recommended rev/min Check alignment of pump and driver.Fault-finding Fault Low delivery (Cont. also foundations Check for rubbing contact.

leak or partially closed valve in steam system Loosen gland until leakage is apparent Check that pump is not operating against excessive system head Check cylinder bore for wear. re-face as necessary Modify suction intake as necessary Check against specification and adjust as necessary Replace liner. or suction lift excessive for fluid temperature Check for blockage in suction pipe. re-grind or re-set if necessary Check alignment Check for straightness Replace liner or re-bore Check that pump is compatible with fluid being handled Pump short strokes Piston short-strokes Excessive wear Pump Clinic 10 Pump Operation and Maintenance 05/07/06 Page 4 of 11 .com. or re-bore and fit oversize piston Close down as necessary to reduce stroke Replace piston packing. foot valve or strainer Check pump suction valves Check suction valves. or reduce suction lift Loosen gland Check that operating speed is consistent with specification Adjust cushioning valves to obtain stroke Check valve for leakage.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. also condition of piston packings and valves Check for blockage etc Check for excessive valve wear and leakage Check that valve timing is correct Check that system head is not excessive Check system for air leaks Check alignment of pump and possible distortion due to unsupported piping connected to pump cylinder As above Reduce fluid temperature.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 TABLE 3 .Fault-finding Fault Not primed Excessive suction lift Air leaks No discharge Vapour-bound Blockage Deterioration Low steam pressure Low discharge pressure Tight packing Excessive backpressure Deterioration Intermittent steam supply Pump stops or hesitates Valve trouble Excessive back pressure Air leaks Misalignment Variable delivery Excessive suction lift Vapour-bound Tight packing Excessive speed Excessive cushioning Worn valve Entrained gas Incorrect valve timing Worn bore Excessive cushioning Worn valve Entrained gas Incorrect valve timing Worn bore Cushion valves Piston over-strokes (hits head) Piston leakage Valve leakage Misalignment Bent piston rod Worn bore Fluid Cause Remedy or Action Prime Open vents on discharge side to release trapped air and leave open until all air is discharged Reduce suction lift or reduce suction friction with larger diameter pipe or eliminate bends etc Check system and eliminate air leaks by sealing etc Check fluid temperature and vapour pressure . replace worn liner or re-bore cylinder Check valves on liquid head for leakage.Reciprocating (Piston) Pumps . worn valves or badly scored cylinder Check for obstruction.fluid temperature may be too high.kelairpumps. or re-bore and fit oversize piston Adjust cushioning valves to obtain correct stroke Check valve for leakage.com. re-face as necessary Modify suction intake as necessary Check against specification and adjust as necessary Replace liner. piston packing. piston rod packing.au www.

Gaskets and packings will. the pump can first be tested to establish if head. vanes may usually be replaced merely by removing the cover plate or head plate. Valve seats may be re-ground. Power-driven reciprocating pump maintenance is largely confined to checking the valve condition together with periodic attention to seals or packings. Any deviation from such settings normally results in a marked reduction in pump life and loss of efficiency. With swinging vanes. it is advisable to check the material specifications against the liquid being handled as a replacement part of a better material may be available. The performance of many rotary pumps. After that. It is good practice to check the valves on a new pump after three months’ service unless there is some indication that earlier attention is needed. Operating time before such attention is required will vary widely with the type and design of pump and the service conditions. be a limit to the amount of wear which can be taken up purely by geometry and once this is exceeded. however. depending on the severity of the wear. the principal wear is on the vanes themselves and the liner or casing on which they rub.com. The manufacturer’s instruction book will. therefore. be the primary guide for maximum permissible wear on individual components. In vane pumps. together with keeping the seals in good condition. With both types. or replaced and ground in. depends on accurate timing and the maintenance of prescribed clearances between the rotating elements. corrosion or material defects. and clearance is checked against permitted tolerances. eg a spindle should be withdrawn in one direction only to avoid damage to a seal.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 In many designs of pump intended for severe service conditions. The importance of periodic timing and clearance checks is also emphasised. the shape of the pivoted portion of the rotor is such that a substantial degree of wear can take place without interfering with the sealing efficiency. maintenance periods can be based on experience. Pump Clinic 10 Pump Operation and Maintenance 05/07/06 Page 5 of 11 . There will. require periodic replacement and maintenance will be required to correct for mechanical wear etc. re-faced and ground. it is possible to reassemble a worn vane the other way round and so double its effective life. provision is made for easy inspection. There may be specific instructions for disassembly. removal and replacement of worn parts without completely stripping down the pump. it will be necessary to replace the vane. however.com.au www.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. In some designs. Reciprocating Pumps (Direct-Acting) Steam pumps are generally trouble-free in operation and require little attention other than routine lubrication. Disassembly normally follows a logical sequence when individual parts may be inspected for condition and wear. thus simplifying maintenance and making if both logical and economic to attend to maintenance at frequent intervals. leaving the rotor in position. Excessively worn or defective parts should be replaced. If this is suspected. The only reason that really justifies shut-down and complete dismantling of the pump for inspection and overhaul is a marked loss of performance. With sliding vanes replacement is usually a straightforward matter. hence maintenance is normally held to a minimum and is largely confined to inspection for wear. Disassembly is usually straightforward and a specific procedure is usually detailed in the manufacturer’s instruction manual. capacity or power input figures have deteriorated and whether remedial action is needed. Where corrosion is also present. particularly of the lobe rotor and multi-screw types. Rotary Pumps Rotary pumps in general have a minimum of moving parts and porting rather than valve systems.kelairpumps.

mechanical seals. e) Transmission . For shut-down and maintenance. Comprehensive condition monitoring in the form of documental reports and data should be kept to help identify recurring problems and determine optimum timing for scheduling preventative maintenance. gearbox parts. c) Glands . particularly in fields where safety is a major factor.packing sets. Be especially careful not to damage the means of alignment between rotor case and gear case. or machine diagnostics. Product wetted parts can often be cleaned with hot water and detergent. port connections. It is advisable to hold components of the following types in stock.com. springs. isolate the pump from electrical and hydraulic supplies.com.kelairpumps. Incorrectly stating the problem is one of the most common errors in troubleshooting pumps. If in doubt. are often used to anticipate pump failure and determine a probable cause. belts. service conditions and stocking policy: a) O-ring seals .au www. Tracking the mean time between repair (MTBR) for all pumps serviced can improve reliability and identify troublesome units.lubricating oil.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Lobe-Rotor Pumps Lobe-rotor pumps are precisely made machines. relief valve springs. Pump Clinic 10 Pump Operation and Maintenance 05/07/06 Page 6 of 11 .rotating and stationary sealing rings. shaft sleeve. f) Miscellaneous .pump head. fasteners. In the case of centrifugal pumps.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. The primary advantages of predictive maintenance are: · · · Reduced maintenance Increased machinery availability Improved plant safety Condition monitoring plays an important role in avoiding pump failure. d) Mechanical seals . Condition Monitoring The terms predictive maintenance. gear case. Quantities depend on pump design. b) Oil seals and joints . front valves. undue force must never be used during servicing.flexible coupling parts. preferably pre-formed rings.gear case. three areas of monitoring can be distinguished: 1) Monitoring the mechanical components 2) Monitoring the shaft seal 3) Monitoring the hydraulic components Automatic monitoring has become more widely used. obtain correct fitting length from manufacturer. Ensure that sealing surfaces of mechanical seal rings are not scratched or damaged in any way. Do not allow the product to solidify in the pumping chamber or on shaft sealing surfaces.

a larger pump will have to be used.Rotary Pumps . check gasket particularly Re-position suction inlet Setting may be too low.kelairpumps.au www.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 TABLE 4 . Check and re-set Check as above Check alignment of driver and pump and drive connection Bent or broken rotor If suspected.com. reduce speed for higher viscosities Check against pump rating for fluid viscosity handled Check that settings are correct Check that speed is consistent with rating for fluid viscosity As above Looped flow through relief valve will cause heating.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. adjust to correct setting consistent with pump rating Check for excessive wear or clearances on components If system pressure is too high for pump rating. or check that filter or strainer used is adequate Pipework loads transmitted directly to the casing may cause distortion See above Check that speed is consistent with pump specification for viscosity of liquid handled Check for bent or damaged shaft etc As above Check speed rating against actual viscosity of fluid.Fault-finding Fault Not primed Excessive suction lift No discharge Air leaks Blockage Excessive wear Wrong rotation Insufficient speed Insufficient speed Wrong rotation Excessive suction lift Air leaks Air entrainment Relief valve or bypass valve Excessive wear Misalignment (where applicable) Internal damage Unbalance Air entrainment Air leaks Cavitation Excessive pressure Deterioration Cause Remedy or Action Prime to fill pump Reduce suction lift or reduce friction in suction side with large pipe Check and rectify. may be relieved by separate relief valve discharging to tank Low discharge pressure or reduced capacity Excessive noise System pressure Excessive discharge pressure Relief valve or bypass valve System throttled Abrasive liquid Excessive wear Distortion Excessive pressure developed Excessive speed Damage Excessive pressure Excessive fluid viscosity Excessive speed Relief or bypass valves Excessive speed for fluid handled Excessive pressure Discharge throttle Excessive input power required Pump overheats Pump Clinic 10 Pump Operation and Maintenance 05/07/06 Page 7 of 11 . when some relief may be possible Check and re-set relief valve for correct pressure Discharge valve may be partially closed or system partially blocked Check that pump is suitable for handling liquid if abrasive solids are present. check rotor for static and dynamic balance Re-position suction inlet Check and rectify Check against causes of cavitation Relief valve set too high. check gaskets Check adjustment and setting Check components for wear against manufacturer’s permitted tolerances Check that pump is being rotated in the correct direction Check that pump is running at rated speed As above As above As above As above.com.

(Check with pump maker). Reduce speed. Decrease product temp. Simplify delivery time.com.kelairpumps.com.au www.Fault-finding Excessive power absorbed Product loss through gland Excessive gland/seal wear Pump stalls when starting Prime lost after starting Pump element wear Noise and vibration Irregular discharge Pump over-heats Motor over-heats Under capacity No discharge Seizure Cause Remedy or Action x x Incorrect direction of rotation Pump unprimed Reverse motor. Lower x x x x x Insufficient NPSH available x x x x Product vapourising in supply line x x x x Air entering supply line x x x x x Gas in supply line x x x x Insufficient head above supply vessel outlet Foot valve/strainer obstructed or blocked Product viscosity above rated figure Product viscosity below rated figure outlet position. Configuration & reduce length. Decrease product temp. Adjust gland. Expel gas from supply line and pumping chamber and Introduce liquid. Heat the product/pumping chamber. Increase product temperature Increase pump speed. Expel gas from supply line and pumping chamber and introduce liquid. Check for obstructions. Simplify supply line. Service system and revise to prevent problem recurring. Remake pipework joints. Clean the system.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 TABLE 5 . Fit strainer to supply line. check effect of increased viscosity on available permitted power inputs. x x x x x x x x x x x Service fittings Decrease pump speed.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Cool the product/pumping chamber. Adjust or repack gland. x x x x x x Product temperature above rated figure Product temperature below rated figure X X X x x x x x Unexpected solids in product x x x x x x x x Delivery pressure above rated figure x x x x x x x x x x Gland over-tightened Gland under-tightened Pump Clinic 10 Pump Operation and Maintenance 05/07/06 Page 8 of 11 .Lobe-Rotor Pumps . Raise product level. increase submergence of supply pipe. Slacken and readjust gland.. Increase supply line diameter and increase static suction head.

com. Check wear of sealing surfaces guides etc. Fit lock-washers to slack fasteners and re-tighten. Replace worn parts. Check rated and duty pressure.com. Readjust spring compression. Decrease pump speed.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 (TABLE 5 . Refer to pump maker’s instructions. replace as necessary.Lobe-Rotor Pumps .kelairpumps.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Check flange alignment and adjust mountings accordingly. Refer to pump maker. Fit new components Check pressure setting and readjust if necessary. x Rotor case strained by pipework x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Belt drive slipping Flexible coupling misaligned Insecure pump/driver mountings Shaft bearing wear or failure Worn unsynchronised timing gears Gear-case oil quantity/quality incorrect Metal-to-metal contact of pumping element Worn pumping element x x x Front cover relief valve leakage x x Relief valve chatter x x Relief valve incorrectly set DIAGNOSIS WILL BE GREATLY ASSISTED BY TAKING ON-STREAM PRESSURE READINGS AT THE PUMP’S INLET & OUTLET PORTS. Re-tension to maker’s recommendations. Support pipework. Refer to pump maker for advice and replacement parts. Valve should lift about 10% above duty pressure. Pump Clinic 10 Pump Operation and Maintenance 05/07/06 Page 9 of 11 .au www. Fit flexible pipes or expansion fittings.Fault-finding (Cont. Refer to pump maker for advice and replacement parts. Examine and clean seating surfaces. Increase pump speed Check alignment of pipes. Increase flow rate.) Excessive power absorbed Product loss through gland Excessive gland/seal wear Pump stalls when starting Prime lost after starting Pump element wear Noise and vibration Irregular discharge Pump over-heats Motor over-heats Under capacity No discharge Seizure Cause Remedy or Action x x x x x x x x x x x x x Gland flushing inadequate Pump speed above rated figure Pump speed below rated figure Check that fluid flows freely into gland.

au www. Some of the most common problems with pumps include misalignment. Before a pump is taken out of service. Sealless pumps generally require more monitoring than mechanical seal pumps. temperature. specific gravity. 2. Temperature measurement. incomplete priming and the absence of detailed up-to-date spare parts records. Measuring the bearing cap or casing vibration. as much hydraulic performance data as possible should be obtained.kelairpumps. viscosity etc around the pump and by consulting historical data and other useful information about its operating condition. 5.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Mean Time Between Repair (MTBR) Mean time between repair is calculated using the following formula: MTBR = (P-NR) x number of months data Number of repairs Where: P NR = = Total number of pumps in population Number of pumps that have installed spares such that one is normally not running An event that makes the pump unavailable for pumping Repair = Average pump life can be quite an accurate measure of pump reliability. 4. The objective in monitoring rotating machinery vibrations is to determine when the rate of change in vibration level begins to change. Canned motor pumps also require liquid level monitoring. These include improper selection of the pump. improper handling of the system and improper selection of protective devices. Simple vibration monitoring and analysis can be an accurate and rapid method for detecting mechanical problems in a pump. Measuring the shaft vibration relative to the bearing. Measuring the absolute shaft vibration.com. 2. 3. Protection for a pump falls into six broad categories: 1. low current trips (for cavitation protection) are all useful for magnetic drive pumps. Three basic measurements involve: 1. 6. the reasons for pumping system failure are other than the pumping system itself.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. bearing condition monitoring. pressure. Pump Protection In many cases. oil contamination. Against phase failure and unbalanced supply Against over-loading Against dry-running Against over-heating Against moisture Against under/over voltage Pump Clinic 10 Pump Operation and Maintenance 05/07/06 Page 10 of 11 . 3. This can be achieved by accurately measuring flows.

There is really no point in stripping of a machine if it is certain that it is operating satisfactorily.kelairpumps. the selection of appropriate protective devices should take into account the following points: a) b) c) d) e) f) It operates on the current sensing principle. It offers protection against overloading according to the thermal-withstanding characteristics of the motor. computers.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Typically. The development of sophisticated electronics.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Protective devices incorporating these characteristics will almost certainly lead to longer pump life.com. It is probable that the cost of monitoring will amount to less than the costs of routine maintenance disassembly. It senses the negative sequence components of the supply. sonic measurements. It offers protection against phase failure faults. and radio graphics have permitted the analysis and forecast of the life of any pump component so that opening up maintenance can be carried out at a reasonable period before expected failure. It offers protection against failure even at No-load conditions.com. particularly if predictive maintenance is employed. chemical analysis. vibration pickups. Pump Clinic 10 Pump Operation and Maintenance 05/07/06 Page 11 of 11 .au www. lasers. rpm or pressure. ultra-sonics. Dry running protection is not based on sensing the water level directly by a sensor but by means of indirect methods like sensing current. rather than at routine times.

au www.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.com.kelairpumps.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMP CLINIC 11 SPECIFYING AND PURCHASING PUMPS Page 1 2-4 Pump Purchasing Sequence Engineering of System Requirements -Fluid Type -System-Head Curves -Alternate Modes of Operation -Margins -Wear -Future System Changes Selection of Pump and Driver -Pump Characteristics -Code Requirements -Fluid Characteristics -Pump Materials -Driver Type Pump Specifications -Specification Types -Codes and Standards -Alternates -Bidding Documents -Technical Specification -Commercial Terms Special Considerations -Performance Testing -Pump Drivers -Intake -Drawing & Date Requirement Forms 5-7 7-10 10-11 Pump Clinic 11 Specifying and Purchasing Pumps 06/07/06 Page 1 of 11 .

equipment. The influence of such parameters as temperature. piping specialties etc. It is possible that documentation and testing requirements can be greater than the cost of the equipment.com. showing the various flow paths.au www. pressure and time upon the fluid properties.kelairpumps. elevation of system components and all valves. Depending upon the process and the system. and release of all data necessary for purchase order issuance.com. selection of supplier. Pump Clinic 11 Specifying and Purchasing Pumps 06/07/06 Page 2 of 11 . For example. purchasers provide the same degree of specification.000. chemical stability. which establish the system-head losses. If the fluid contains solids in suspension suitable types of pump seal designs and abrasion-resistant pump construction materials may have to be considered. the engineer is then ready to take the necessary steps to purchase the equipment. ‘resist using a sledgehammer to crack a walnut. The message is. can be divided into the following general steps: · · · · · · Engineering of system requirements Selection of pump and driver Specification of pump Bidding and negotiation Evaluation of bids Purchasing of selected pump In the process of specifying pumping equipment. Too often. It is imperative that a pragmatic approach be taken when specifying requirements. whether a pumpset is valued at $5000 or $500. select the pump type. and culminating with the purchase of the equipment. A preliminary design of the system should be made and include an equipment layout and a piping and instrumentation diagram (or other suitable diagram). lubricating properties. the degree of corrosiveness of the fluid will influence the engineer’s choice of materials of construction.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Pump Purchasing Sequence The sequence involved in obtaining a pumping system. Fluid Type One of the initial steps in the defining of the pumping equipment is the development of physical and chemical data on the fluid handled. some or all of these properties may have an important influence on pump and system design. their preliminary size and length. Fluid physical and chemical data of interest to the engineer should cover the entire expected operating range of the pumping equipment. the engineer is required to determine system requirements. evaluation of pump bids.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Having completed this phase of work. and develop all information and data necessary to define the required equipment for the supplier.’ Engineering of System Requirements The first decision the engineer must make is to determine the requirements and conditions under which the equipment will operate. should also be considered. such as viscosity. volatility and amount of suspended particles. following the initial decision that pumping equipment is required for a system. System-Head Curves The engineer should have a clear concept of the system in which the pumping equipment is to operate. These steps include issuance of the specifications for bids or negotiations. corrosiveness. write the pump specification. analysis of purchasing conditions.

Over any long period of time. The pump head must be at. Since hydraulic losses are a function of flow rate. This loss of a pump can occur no only by pump malfunction. pumps are used. Margins Pumps are frequently specified with margins over and above the normal rating. In calculating the hydraulic losses.au www. This run-out case should be evaluated when engineering the system and specifying the pump characteristics. it is possible that a system can operate at transient conditions. and for all flow paths the pumping equipment is expected to serve. 2 half-size pumps. 3 third-size etc. such as 2 full-size pumps and 3 half-size pumps. Where 2 half-size. piping sizes. reliability considerations will dictate the use of multiple pumps. each flow path in a system will have its own characteristic curve. and layout.com. loss of power supply. pressures and temperatures for various system operating conditions and calculate line. Alternate Modes of Operation The various modes of operation of the system are important considerations when specifying pumping equipment: · · · Is operation of the pumping equipment to be continuous or intermittent? Is the flow head to be fluctuating or constant? Will there be a great difference in flow and head requirements for different flow paths? These and other questions arising from different modes of operation greatly influence such decisions as to the number of pumps. external damage. where continuity is more important than full capacity. but by motor failure. such as may be caused by changes in modes of operation. Care must be taken when specifying pump characteristics to take into account the characteristic curve of each possible flow path served by the equipment. their capacities. With this information.com. loss of 1 pump will cause the others to run-out on their system-head curves. The engineer should also consider the continuity of service expected of the pumping system. and whether booster pumps are needed in some flow paths. The likelihood of these causes should be evaluated as part of the pump selection process. The resultant curve shows the total head required of the pumping equipment to overcome system resistance. flow rates. and estimate pipe runs. or.) The engineer should then determine the flow paths. This factor will influence the decision on number. or electric system disturbances. loss of control power etc. the engineer may need to include adequate allowances for corrosion and scale deposits etc. type and capacity of installed spares and the quality expected of the equipment. malfunction in system components. it is convenient to add the effect of static pressure and elevation differences to the system-head curve to form a combined system-head curve. In specifying pump equipment.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. or above. Pump Clinic 11 Specifying and Purchasing Pumps 06/07/06 Page 3 of 11 . in the system over the life of the plant. Frequently.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 System Head Curves (Cont. the combined system curve at all expected operating points. It is necessary for the engineer specifying the pumping equipment to examine the probability and duration of such transients and to specify adequate margins to allow the equipment to undergo such transients without damaging effects.kelairpumps. the engineer can develop system-head curves which show the graphic relationship between flow and hydraulic losses in a pipe system.

even at the end of equipment life. Thus.) This also involves an evaluation of the combined effects of equipment cost.com. including the pumps. inconvenience due to unavailability of the equipment and other economic and technological factors. The engineer should attempt to present future requirements based on projection of available data and then evaluate the possibility and desirability of designing the equipment to allow for the changes (such as providing extra flow or head margins or specifying a pump with impeller less than the maximum for a given casing size) versus the desirability of modifying the whole system.kelairpumps. Thus it is important to review the possibilities and effects of such future system changes as well as provide pumping equipment to satisfy the immediate system requirements. If the system changes can be predicted with any degree of certainty. electric voltage and frequency dips. or extremely hard alloys of cast iron. Future System Changes A final factor to be considered in the engineering system requirements for pumping equipment is the possibility of providing for future system changes. when the changes are made in the future. degree of criticality of the system. especially in power plants. Pump Clinic 11 Specifying and Purchasing Pumps 06/07/06 Page 4 of 11 . it must always be kept in mind that the equipment must operate satisfactorily in the present system and this should be a factor in whatever evaluation is being made. then adequate margins must be allowed in the pump rating. then the system can be designed to enable the changes to be effected with minimum disturbance to operation. certain design features may be included to allow the pumps to operate without damage through such transients as suction pressure dips which can cause cavitation. In addition. Wear Wear is an ever-present factor in equipment and system design.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Margins (Cont. The engineer should assess the extent of such wear over the life of the plant and provide adequate margins in the system parameters so that the pumps can provide the expected flow. plastic linings (including impellers) are also frequently chosen for these types of services. An over-sized pump could operate at capacities less than those recommended by the manufacturer which could present mechanical and hydraulic problems. corrosiveness).au www. the design life of a pump is a decision based on an evaluation of economic factors. No material that is handling fluids or used in contacting moving surfaces is free from wear. In some applications. Where abrasive or suspended materials are handled. In any event. The wear margin to be added is a function of such factors as mode of operation (continuous or intermittent) and fluid properties (abrasiveness. margins are added to the pump head and capacity to allow the pumping equipment to maintain rated flow in case of small electric frequency dips. If the maintenance of continuous flow is important. In addition. pumps with replaceable liners are frequently specified. operating characteristics of both the pumping equipment and the system can be expected to change due to wear as time goes by.com. Some transients often considered in design are pressure and temperature fluctuations. For example. Pumps should not be purchased for capacities greatly in excess of requirements. These liners are usually made of either resilient material such as rubber compounds. However.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. the expected pump life is specified as the same as plant life.

That the output from a reciprocating pump will be pulsating is a factor to be considered. ANSI. This may be an important consideration in certain applications. to high-pressure applications. variable-capacity applications. code requirements and materials of construction. are not.au www. However. a pump is expected to fulfil the following functions: · · Pump a given capacity in a given length of time Overcome the resistance in the form of head or pressure imposed by the systems while providing the required capacity The behaviour of the system has a very important bearing on the choice of pump: · · · What are the required heads and capacities at different loads? Does the required head increase or decrease with changes in capacity? Does the required head remain substantially constant? These are some of the questions the engineer must answer. However. Where the available NPSH is limited. energy cost. Straight centrifugal pumps are generally used in low to medium. Where this is objectionable. However. This type of pump is available in a wide range of design pressures. and here a vertical turbine pump may be advantageous. Code Requirements The construction ratings and testing of most pumps normally used in industry are governed by codes such as the ISO. In some cases. It should be noted that some reciprocating and rotary pumps may be self-priming. Pump Clinic 11 Specifying and Purchasing Pumps 06/07/06 Page 5 of 11 . the engineer may have to investigate the use of a vertical canned-suction centrifugal pump to gain adequate NPSH. the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requires feed pumps to be capable of feeding the boiler when the highest set safety valves are discharging. system layout. rotary pumps may be required. the system layout can influence the decision on the choice of pump type. In general. Basically.com. For example.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Pump Characteristics Constant-speed reciprocating pumps are suitable for applications where the required capacity is expected to be constant over a wide range of system head variations. such as when a saturated liquid is being handled.com. and vertical pumps less floor space than horizontal pumps.kelairpumps. and the application calls for a centrifugal pump. from low to the highest produced. Centrifugal pumps are often used in variable-head. centrifugal pumps will require less floor space than reciprocating pumps. the application of rotary pumps is limited to low to medium-pressure ranges. the capacity is relatively small for the size of the equipment required.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Selection of Pump and Driver The selection of the pump class and type for a particular application is influenced by such factors as system requirements. In other cases. unless specifically designed as such. but centrifugal pumps. the design may call for the installation of a pump immersed in the liquid handled. intended life. fluid characteristics. while lowhead. other codes of regulatory bodies may impose additional requirements which can affect both pump rating and construction. Mixed-flow impellers are used in intermediate situations. more head room may be required for handling the vertical pumps during maintenance and installation. However. high-flow conditions suggest that an axial-flow pump may be more suitable. API or the Standards of the Hydraulic Institute.

or pumps with close clearances. usually less expensive equipment. eddy-current couplings. pumps may be driven by electric motors. chemical stability and solids content are also important factors for consideration.kelairpumps.com. will also influence the engineer’s decision. whereas centrifugal pumps can be used for both clean. clear fluids. For example. the decision as to type of driver and variability of pump speed should be based on a comparison to the total operating and capital costs for the pump system over the intended plant life for the several alternatives. Rotary pumps are suitable for use with viscous fluids. Variable speed can enable centrifugal pumps to operate along the system-characteristic curve and thus save on power for part-load operations. design. However. High-speed operation. Depending on the available energy sources. if allowed. Pump Materials Materials are affected by both the pumped fluid and the environment. building space etc and the operating cost should include such factors as energy costs. Operating factors.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Fluid Characteristics Fluid characteristics such as viscosity.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. maintenance. Resistance to corrosion and wear are two of the more important material properties in this regard. Also. steam engines. This comparison usually results in the choosing of a pumping unit that provides the lowest cost per gallon pumped over the useful life of the plant. critical or non-critical). portability. or internal combustion engines.au www. Internal combustion engine drives are usually chosen because of location (no electric power available). The life of the equipment cannot be predicted with certainty. gas turbines. Sometimes. pumps may be driven at constant speed or at variable speed. the handling of fluids having solids content will exclude the use of reciprocating piston pumps. steam turbines. the total first cost of the driving equipment to accomplish this would frequently be higher than for constant-speed equipment. fluid couplings. They can operate as either constant-speed for variable-speed drivers. such as type of service (continuous or intermittent. volatility. Often this becomes an evaluation for the desirability of specifying expensive long-life materials versus specifying cheaper materials which must be frequently replaced. the engineer must evaluate the effects of materials of construction. and the engineer should evaluate materials to determine which are most suitable and economical for the purpose intended.com. and gears and belts are frequently used where variable-speed operation is required. Steam turbines. and fluids with high solids content. equipment used in continuous and/or critical service will generally demand heavier duty design and construction than equipment for intermittent and/or non-critical service. Variable-speed operation would usually result in lower operating costs. before making a choice. for frequently the driver can cost more than the pump. and replacement costs. For a given life expectancy. or redundancy (loss of power back-up) requirements. In large. severity of service etc. For example. such as oil or grease. running speed preferences (high or low) and intended life. adjustable-speed motors. density. Electric motor drives are usually used in constant-speed service unless a hydraulic coupling or other speed-varying device is introduced into the system. On the other hand. if it is undesirable for the process liquid to come into contact with the moving parts. The first cost should include cost of equipment. complex installations where the equipment is to be operated continuously. Pump Clinic 11 Specifying and Purchasing Pumps 06/07/06 Page 6 of 11 . will permit the use of smaller. diaphragm pumps may have to be used. exceptionally severe service may rule out some classes of pumps at once. Driver Type The choice of driver type for the pumping equipment is as important as choosing the pump.

although certain details of construction are frequently established. are left to the manufacturer’s discretion. basically establishes ‘what’ not ‘how’. the time and cost required to write a specification and obtain and analyse competitive bids. while a formal specification may not be appropriate. manufacturers may respond and advise that since the purchaser has established certain design features of the pump. Pump Clinic 11 Specifying and Purchasing Pumps 06/07/06 Page 7 of 11 . and priced. From the standpoint of legal responsibility. the purchaser should have the requirements well established. or whether some abbreviated form of requirements will be suitable. Pump Specifications Specification Types When selecting a pump. In most cases. and performance and that care also be exercised by the purchaser to avoid any unnecessary assumption of responsibility for the proper performance of the pump. when requesting this quotation. and where the pump supplier is already established (replacement/duplication). The construction specification establishes in some detail the type of design. unless the purchaser has a high degree of assurance that the requirements called out in the specification can be met and that the pump supplier will not be relieved of responsibility. however. Thus. The performance specification. construction. offering. the specification will be of the performance type rather than the construction type. or for replacement pumps where duplication is desired. where either leak-off or mechanical shaft seals may be offered. such as prior satisfactory experience or excellent technical or service assistance which may dictate the final choice of pumping equipment.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Attached are four (4) data sheets that can be utilised for enquiry purposes. suitability. a specification is frequently not used. The performance specification basically establishes the performance which the pump must achieve and does not attempt to dictate pump design or construction methods.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Driver Type (Cont. frequently exceed the potential cost-savings. In this case.com. For inexpensive pumps. the performance specification usually states a preference. For example. Where a formal specification is indicated. important that care be taken when writing a construction specification not to relieve the manufacturer of responsibility for applicability. As a minimum.kelairpumps. unless there are unusual circumstances. it is far more appropriate to specify the pump on the basis of performance required. rather than construction. It is therefore. the first decision to be made is whether the procurement will be based upon a formal specification. It is important. For relatively simple or inexpensive pumps. details under Operating Conditions and the Quantity required are to be defined by the purchaser. to have the principal requirements well defined and known to the supplier so that they can be properly included in the technical.au www. if the performance specification is utilised. if a construction specification is used. and methods to be employed in designing the pump and certain other features which. the manufacturer cannot be responsible for the performance. a direct quotation is frequently requested from the supplier. In short.) It should be recognised that these are general guidelines and that there may be overriding nontechnical and non-economic factors. the type to be written is of fundamental importance. particularly where choices may exist.

industrial codes which apply to design. An example of this is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. instrumentation (pump-mounted).kelairpumps. the choice of whether or not to accept the alternates is fully up to the purchaser who may choose to reject any. erection supervision. Bidding Documents The bidding documents for pumps normally consist of two major parts: 1. in some cases. are extremely detailed in specifying pump construction and are a rather well-defined specification in themselves. including alternates. In all cases however. A typical specification might contain the following: 1. requirements for guarantees/warranties. spare parts. Technical specifications 2. shipping method. in many cases. normal inspection and expediting requirements. dimensions. Standards relating to quality of materials should be referenced ANSI. It is good practice to allow manufacturers to offer alternatives.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. lubricating oil pump and piping.com. These codes. This gives them an opportunity to present their best offer and also gives the buyer the advantage of obtaining potentially attractive. the commercial terms and conditions are relegated to second place. Technical Specification The technical specification should consist of a series of carefully defined and distinct sections. installation labour. Alternates It is extremely difficult for a specification to cover all possible pumps offered by various manufacturers. The more complete and specific the specification. time of delivery. method of payment. Scope of work: Pump.com. Commercial terms The technical specification establishes the performance requirements. there are. The commercial terms include the contract language and cover such items as the location of the work.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Codes and Standards When specifying a pump. It is. baseplate. interconnecting piping. anchor bolts. if a pump is to meet certain critical service requirements. motor starter Pump Clinic 11 Specifying and Purchasing Pumps 06/07/06 Page 8 of 11 . especially when standard inexpensive pumps are being bought. construction and application. such as SI or English. of course. Similarly. Work not included: Foundations. materials of construction and major technical features. 2.au www. the codes and standards that apply are of major importance. Others may include cross references to additional codes which the engineer may wish to exclude. the commercial terms can assume more significance than many of the performance requirements. Frequently. but in many cases. API or other industrial standards which establish such factors as metallurgy. and all bids. the more competitive will be the bid prices. Some codes and standards include alternate choices of material or inspection methods requiring selection by the engineer. alternate offerings. the codes which may apply to the construction and fittings of the pump and the industrial codes that apply to the application of the pump for the service intended. and the development work being performed by manufacturers. external wiring. the engineer must review each reference to ensure that it does not introduce conflict. and flange facing and drilling should be referenced where appropriate. ISO. Section III. tolerances. driver (if included). Coupled with that is the problem faced by a potential user in remaining up-to-date with the changing state-of-the-art. external piping. However. essential to establish the dimensional standards which apply.

accessories.com. place to which proposals are to be sent. metallurgical testings which may be required during manufacture. local panel requirements. and altitude (so that the motor drivers can be selected for the proper cooling). smooth-running. a sketch of the intake arrangement for wet-pit applications and special requirements regarding unique testing. information on ownership of documents. shaft seals. storage provisions (indoor or outdoor). 10. It is helpful to the pump supplier to provide system-head curves. test curves. couplings or clutches. 2. 4. recommended spare parts. off-standard operating requirements. balancing. free of cavitation and vibration. Cleaning: Cleaning. field testing. load conditions.com.au www. overpressure. Drawing and data: Drawings and data to be furnished. apart from performance testing. exhaust muffler. speed versus torque curves. and requirements for any supplementary quality control testing. materials. Evaluation basis: Power. run-out. The data sheets should be included with the technical specification. standards.kelairpumps. preparation for shipment. Pump data sheets are extremely useful in providing a summary of information to the bidder and also in allowing the ready comparison of bids by various manufacturers. cooling system. It should also state maximum temperatures. steam turbine. wiring standards. 5. electric devices. Tools: One set of any special tools. self-starting or manual. resistance temperature detectors. outline. WK² data. General: Name of buyer. instruments. Lubricating oil system (if applicable): System type. shop tests for pump and spare rotating elements. speed governing. type of casing. vents and drains. painting. 6. a specification on painting. fuel type preferred (or required). governing laws and regulations. piping. mode of operation. 11.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 3. transients. some of the items are filled in by the purchaser and the balance by the bidder to provide a complete summary of the characteristics of the pump.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. instruction manuals. instrumentation. 9. Location of plant site: This establishes the geographic area in which the equipment is to perform and in a broad way the scope of the work. flow. sketches of the piping system (dimensioned if this is significant). power supply and regulation. As can be noted. efficiency. Rating and service conditions: Fluid pumped. number of cylinders. hydrostatic tests. Performance testing: Satisfactory for service. speed range. Supplementing these may be technical specifications relating to other requirements of the order. special requirements for nozzle forces and movement (if known). supports. for example. Design and construction: Care should be taken to provide latitude in this section. time allowed to bid. flange and nozzle protection. bearing type. it is important that any unusual requirements be listed in the technical specification so that the manufacturers are aware of them. In addition. listing of piping and accessories required etc. insulation. such as specifications for the electric motor. humidity. 8. a specification on marking for shipment. proven design. storage requirements. weld-end standards. baseplates. Driver: Motor voltage standards. preference. as this borders on dictating construction requirements. temperature. completed data sheets. head. Examples of these are special requirements for repair of defects in pump castings. orientation. Pump Clinic 11 Specifying and Purchasing Pumps 06/07/06 Page 9 of 11 . chemical composition. by inspecting these sheets. weight etc. integral piping protection. components. 7. interlocks. allowable primers and finish coats. terminal boxes. stage arrangement. Codes. the materials to be furnished. or other type of driver. nozzle. Commercial Terms The commercial terms included with the bidding documents should cover the following information: 1. interconnecting piping. For internal combustion drivers.

The specification should establish the performance testing requirements for the pump and whether or not it is necessary the testing of the pump be witnessed. for larger pumps or pumps with more critical service requirements. small commercial pumps that are routinely produced by a manufacturer. This test requires the manufacturer to test the pump at several points on its performance curve to establish its exact head curve. and the manner in which the head will be varied. pumps using ‘monobloc’ construction (where the pump is mounted on. standardised curves of pump performance are available. Pump Drivers Pump drivers (motors. The actual performance testing in this case takes place following installation of the pump. pumps for special services or extremely large pumps cannot be tested in the manufacturer’s shop. be FOB manufacturer’s plant WFA (with freight allowed) to point of use. 5. Care should be taken in establishing this procedure to set forth the characteristics of the fluid and other variables which can affect the performance test. Pump Clinic 11 Specifying and Purchasing Pumps 06/07/06 Page 10 of 11 . Thus a bid could either include a freight allowance. there is not usually any cost-advantage to buying the driver separately. and supported by. the risk of loss remaining with the seller and that assumed by the purchaser should be clearly stated. With small pumps.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. the motor) and pumps built to special codes. engines etc) can be purchased either with the pumps or separately. it may not be possible to ship by truck and it may be necessary to either barge. that is. up to about 6in (150mm) are tested on a sample selection. Transportation: Transportation to and from point of use (or installation) is frequently a consideration. in which case freight is included. Examples of this are very large low-head pumps for circulating water service. liquidated damages 6. it is not necessary to require certified tests unless the pumps are to be used in critical service. such as ‘Underwriters’ engine-powered fire pumps. This method should include the number of points at which the head curve will be determined. manufacturing schedule. power curve must be furnished with the head curve. 4. number of copies. quality control basis and from that. Thus for pumps of this size. rail or ship the material. Proposal: This establishes the format of the proposal. retention. However. or be FOB point of use. It is important that the purchaser and the supplier agree upon a proper (field) test method in some detail. Since it is necessary to assure the pump driver is of the proper size. In either case. the applicable code. low-lift irrigation pumps and pumps for liquid-metal service. such as fire protection or boiler feed. a certified performance test should be required. In addition.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 3. can be a source of dispute between purchaser and supplier. turbines. Schedule: Including requirements for all drawings and design data submittals. owner’s right to accept or reject any bids. the specific method of traversing the pump discharge characteristics across the cross-section of the discharge pipe. Acceptable terms of payment. and equipment delivery. since with very large equipment.com.com. Special Considerations Performance Testing An important part of any specification is the requirement for testing. Normally. it is important to establish the method of shipment which may be used so that the bidder can include the proper allowance for freight and to establish responsibility for the risk of loss. Occasionally. Witnessing and furnishing of certified test data (including the test work done) are frequently priced separately and if not specified.kelairpumps. status of alternates.au www.

and special features required. The use of model testing is usually resorted to in these cases also. surge walls. Vertical Extended Spindle Pump Pump Clinic 11 Specifying and Purchasing Pumps 06/07/06 Page 11 of 11 . For very large drivers. if the geometry of the installation is not fixed. Factors to consider include clearance beneath the bottom of the suction bell and the floor of the pit. and selecting and fitting the couplings. insulation standards. spacing between pumps or between the pump and the pit walls (both side and rear). the as-built dimensions and the certifications which demonstrate that the pump meets the specified requirements. submergence and lack of uniform approach flow. Suction piping. speed range. Intake Vertical wet-pit pumps are sensitive to the geometry of their suction pit.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Pump Drivers (Cont. Positive Displacement Pump 2. as well as the recommendations of the pump manufacturer. If the driver is purchased separately and can be economically and conveniently shipped to the pump supplier’s plant. it is important to specify the driver enclosure type. Drawing and Date Requirement Forms The purchase should define the type of drawings and data required both for preliminary design purposes and for final information.com. should be treated in a similar manner When specifying vertical wet-pit pumps. assuring end-float compatibility and/or thrust-bearing loadings (including direction). For steam turbine drivers. The standards of the Hydraulic Institute include recommendations on the geometry of the intakes. sizing the driver for both accelerating and running loads. Seal/less Centrifugal Pump 3.com. To assure compatibility with the other drivers in the plant.) Where the driver is excluded from the pump scope of supply. throttle pressure. as do a number of universities and commercial testing laboratories.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. where complex or unusual.kelairpumps. as well as align and mount the driver (for common baseplate installations). the pump supplier should be required to mount the driver half of the coupling. exhaust pressure and control method should also be specified. or where it is costly or impractical to ship the driver to the pump supplier. Responsibility for proper pump performance will rarely be assumed by the bidder when the intake pit is of non-optimum size or shape. should be carefully reviewed. the specification should require the pump supplier to determine the proper characteristics of the driver. such as heaters and oversize junction boxes. In many cases. it may be necessary to add anti-vortexing baffles. Centrifugal Pump 4. that is. For moderate or large installations where any design question exists. Attached: 4 x Data Sheets 1. the approach angle of the floor of the pit (including surging and surcharge). Where the geometry is fixed. it will be necessary to perform this work at the point of installation. or flow-directing vanes (or walls) to avoid pump operating problems. bidders can recommend small changes to improve pump performance. These.au www. This includes establishing the proper motor speed. model testing may be considered. a layout of the installation should be furnished to the bidders for their information and comment. steam quality. Several pump manufacturers offer this as a service.

.

.

.

.

2) surrounding the impeller periphery. Diffuser pumps were once quite commonly called turbine pumps. but this term has recently been more selectively applied to the vertical deep-well centrifugal diffuser pumps usually referred to as vertical turbine pumps.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com. stuffing box and bearings In a centrifugal pump the liquid is forced by atmospheric or other pressure into a set of rotating vanes.au www. Pump Clinic 12 Radial & Axial Thrust in Centrifugal Pumps 12/09/06 Page 1 of 12 . enclosed within a housing or casing and used to impart energy to a fluid through centrifugal force. This velocity is converted to pressure energy by means of a volute (Fig 1. Thus. These vanes constitute an impeller which discharges the liquid at its periphery at a higher velocity. the major application of diffusion vane pumps is in vertical turbine pumps and in single-stage low-head propeller pumps. while those with diffusion vanes are called diffuser pumps. stripped of all refinements. Except for certain high-pressure multi-stage pump designs.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMP CLINIC 12 RADIAL & AXIAL THRUST IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS Radial Thrust A centrifugal pump consists of a set of rotating vanes. Pumps with volute casings are generally called volute pumps. The diffuser is seldom applied to a single-stage radial-flow pump.kelairpumps.1) or by a set of stationary diffusion vanes (Fig 1. A stationary element made up of a casing.com. A rotating element including an impeller and shaft 2. a centrifugal pump has two main parts: 1.

Thus a high-head pump with a large-diameter impeller will have a much greater radial reaction force at partial capacities than a low-head pump with a small-diameter impeller. joins the two into a common discharge. the pump manufacturer. Sustained operation at extremely low flows. At other capacities.3) uniform or near-uniform pressures act on the impeller when the pump is operated at design capacity (which coincides with the best efficiency). One solution is to use heavier shafts and bearings. In a diffuser-type pump which has the same tendency for over-capacity unbalance as a single-volute pump. standard designs compensated for reaction forces if maximum-diameter pump impellers were used only for operations exceeding 50% of design capacity. especially on high-head units. For any percentage of capacity. For sustained operations at lower capacities. In a centrifugal pump design. radial reaction forces and the torque to be transmitted.kelairpumps. The result is broken shafts. is a much more common practice today. Although a pressure unbalance Pump Clinic 12 Radial & Axial Thrust in Centrifugal Pumps 12/09/06 Page 2 of 12 . without informing the manufacturer at the time of purchase. A graphical representation of the typical change in this force with pump capacity is shown in (Fig 1. radial reaction is a function of total head and of the width and diameter of the impeller. if properly advised.com. The application of the double-volute design principle to neutralise reaction forces at reduced capacity is illustrated in (Fig 1. One of these is the double-volute casing design. this design consists of two 180º volutes.4) .au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 In a single-volute pump casing design (Fig 1. it has become desirable to design standard units to accommodate such conditions. Basically. The only practical answer is a casing design that develops a much smaller radial reaction force at partial capacities.com.5). Because of the increasing operation of pumps at reduced capacities. the minimum reaction occurs at design capacity. the pressures around the impeller are not uniform and there is a resultant radial reaction. A zero radial reaction is not often realised. shaft diameter and bearing size can be affected by allowable deflection as determined by shaft span. this solution is not economical. impeller weight.NOTE that the force is greatest at shut-off.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Formerly. also called twinvolute or dual-volute. the reaction is limited to a small arc repeated all around the impeller with the individual forces cancelling each other. would supply a heavier shaft. usually at a much higher cost. Except for low-head pumps in which only a small additional load is involved.au www. a passage external to the second.

forces F1 and F2 are approximately equal and opposite. Axial Thrust in Single-Stage Pumps The pressures generated by a centrifugal pump exert forces on both its stationary and rotating parts.kelairpumps. and counter-balancing the pressures on.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 exists at partial capacity through each 180º arc. a double-suction impeller is in hydraulic axial balance with the pressures on one side equal to. Theoretically.com. As reliable large-capacity thrust bearings are not readily available. if any. this balance may not be achieved for the following reasons: Pump Clinic 12 Radial & Axial Thrust in Centrifugal Pumps 12/09/06 Page 3 of 12 . radial force on the shaft and bearings. In practice. thereby producing little. the other (Fig 2. Axial hydraulic thrust is the summation of unbalanced impeller forces acting in the axial direction. The design of these parts balances some of these forces. but separate means may be required to counter-balance others.au www. axial thrust in single-stage pumps remains a problem only in larger units.1).Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.

To compensate for this. axial thrust towards the impeller suction is about 20% to 30% less than the product of the net pressure and the unbalanced area. Generally speaking. all centrifugal pumps. Actually. The two sides of the discharge casing may not be symmetrical. a piped connection to the pump suction replaces the balancing holes.au www. These conditions will alter the flow characteristics between the impeller shrouds and casing. the axial force acting towards the suction would be equal to the product of the net pressure generated by the impeller and the unbalanced annular area. Although we need not be concerned with the theoretical calculations for this pressure variation. incorporate thrust bearings. To equalise thrust area.3). (Fig 2. The ordinary single-suction radial-flow impeller with the shaft passing through the impeller eye (Fig 2. causing unequal pressures on the shrouds. with large single-stage suction pumps. Unequal leakage through the two leakage joints will tend to upset the balance. Leakage past the back wearing ring is returned into the suction area through these holes. 1. even those with double-suction impellers. However. Combined. creating disturbances. balancing holes are considered undesirable because leakage back to the impeller suction opposes the main flow.2) describes it qualitatively. The liquid trapped between the impeller shrouds and casing walls is in rotation and the pressure at the impeller periphery is appreciably higher than at the impeller hub.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 The suction passages to the two suction eyes may not provide equal or uniform flows to the two sides. Pressure approximately equal to the suction pressure is maintained in a chamber located on the impeller side of the back wearing ring by drilling so-called balancing holes through the impeller. pressure on the two single-suction impeller walls is not uniform.1) is subject to axial thrust because a portion of the front wall is exposed to suction pressure. 3. To eliminate the axial thrust of a single-suction impeller. or the impeller may be located off-centre.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. thus exposing relatively more back wall surface to discharge pressure. If the discharge chamber pressure were uniform over the entire impeller surface. Pump Clinic 12 Radial & Axial Thrust in Centrifugal Pumps 12/09/06 Page 4 of 12 . these factors create definite axial unbalance. In such pumps.kelairpumps.com. External conditions such as an elbow being too close to the pump suction nozzle may cause unequal flows to the suction eyes. 2. the inner diameter of both rings is made the same (Fig 2.com. a pump can be provided with both front and back wearing rings.

com. the additional axial force is very low. if the suction pressure is 100 psi. suction pressure magnitude does not affect the resulting axial thrust.au www. the force will be 314lb and acts in the opposite direction.com. Therefore.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Another way to eliminate or reduce axial thrust in single-suction is by use of pump-out vanes on the back shroud. Pump Clinic 12 Radial & Axial Thrust in Centrifugal Pumps 12/09/06 Page 5 of 12 .Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.2) there is an axial force equivalent to the product of the shaft area through the stuffing box and the difference between suction and atmospheric pressure. one on either side of the impeller. For example. or in the opposite direction.5) are definitely affected by suction pressure. if the shaft diameter through the stuffing box is 2” (area = 3.14 sq. when it is higher than the atmospheric. axial forces acting on an overhung impeller with a single stuffing box (Fig 2. as the same pump may be applied for many conditions of service over a wide range of suction pressures. On the other hand. two-box design (Fig 2. So far.06 psia). This force acts towards the impeller suction when the suction pressure is less than the atmospheric.kelairpumps. They must also be selected with sufficient thrust capacity to counteract forces set up under the maximum suction pressure established as a limit for that particular pump.in) and if the suction lift is 20ft of water (absolute pressure – 6. however. the thrust bearing of pumps with single-suction overhung impellers must be arranged to take thrust in either direction. In these pumps. the axial force caused by the overhung impeller and acting towards the suction will be only 27lb. The effect of these vanes is to reduce the pressure acting on the back shroud of the impeller (Fig 2. On the other hand. In addition to the unbalanced force found in a single-suction. When an overhung impeller pump handles a suction lift.4). is generally used only in pumps handling gritty liquids where it keeps the clearance space between the impeller back shroud and the casing free of foreign matter. This design. the discussion of the axial thrust has been limited to single-suction impellers with a shaft passing through the impeller eye and located in pumps with two stuffing boxes.

6) this increase becomes quite appreciable and causes additional casting difficulties. But there are definite shortcomings to this practice. If shaft diameter is increased to compensate for the longer span so as to maintain reasonable shaft deflection. As to the advantage of the axial balance it provides. Additional space is required for the extra passage leading to the second inlet of each successive stage. Most important. Pump Clinic 12 Radial & Axial Thrust in Centrifugal Pumps 12/09/06 Page 6 of 12 .au www. Even if a double-suction impeller is desirable for the first stage of a large capacity multistage pump.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. the use of double-suction impellers in a multistage pump adds needless length to the pump shaft span.com. therefore. The average multistage pump has relatively low capacity when compared to the entire range covered by modern centrifugal pumps.com. To reduce this pressure. the impeller inlet areas are correspondingly reduced. It is seldom necessary. Finally. it is hardly necessary for the remaining stages. The result of all these considerations is that most multistage pumps are built with single-suction impellers. In a pump with four or more stages (Fig 2.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Axial Thrust in Multistage Pumps It might seem that the advantages of balanced axial thrust and greater available suction area in a double-suction impeller would warrant applying such impellers to multistage pumps. The result is that the advantage of superior suction conditions usually offered by double-suction impellers is considerably reduced. to use double-suction impellers just to reduce the net positive suction head (NPSH) required for a given capacity. as it is impractical to arrange the various double-suction impellers in any but the ascending order of the stages. it must be considered that a certain amount of axial thrust is actually present in all centrifugal pumps and the necessity of a thrust bearing is therefore not eliminated. a pressure-reducing bushing must be interposed between the last-stage impeller and the stuffing box and this bushing further increases the overall length. the impeller at one end of the casing becomes the last stage impeller and the pressure acting on the adjacent stuffing box becomes the discharge pressure on the next-to-last stage.kelairpumps.

com. one half of these facing in an opposite direction to the second half. The axial thrust is then balanced by a hydraulic balancing device.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Two obvious single-suction impeller arrangements for a multistage pump are as follows: Several single-suction impellers may be mounted on one shaft. axial thrust on the one half is compensated by the thrust in the opposite direction on the other half (Fig 2.kelairpumps.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.8). This mounting of single-suction impellers back-to-back is frequently called ‘opposed impellers’.au www. each having its suction inlet facing in the same direction and its stages following one another in ascending order of pressure (Fig 2. With this arrangement.com. An even number of single-suction impellers can be mounted on one shaft. Pump Clinic 12 Radial & Axial Thrust in Centrifugal Pumps 12/09/06 Page 7 of 12 .7).

a balancing disk or a combination of the two. It is important to note that the opposed impeller arrangement completely balances axial thrust only under the following conditions: 1. The shaft must have a constant diameter. Some form of hydraulic balancing device must be used to balance this axial thrust and to reduce the pressure on the stuffing box adjacent to the last-stage impeller. Hydraulic Balancing Devices If all the single-suction impellers of a multistage pump face in the same direction. This hydraulic balancing device may be a balancing drum. most multistage pumps fulfil the first condition. is usually carried on the thrust bearing. But because of structural requirements. The drum is separated by a small radial clearance from the stationary portion of the balancing device. 3. being relatively small. The thrust magnitude (in pounds) will be approximately equal to the product of the net pump pressure (in pounds per square inch) and the annular unbalanced area (in square inches). Because such a construction would eliminate axial thrust only at the expense of reduced interchangeability and increased manufacturing costs. The impeller hubs must not extend through the interstage portion of the casing separating adjacent stages.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 An uneven number of single-suction impellers may be used with this arrangement. The balancing chamber at the back of the last stage impeller is separated from the pump interior by a drum that is either keyed or screwed to the shaft and rotates with it. Actually.com.1). Balancing Drums The balancing drum is illustrated in (Fig 3. called the ‘balancing drum head’ which is fixed to the pump casing. and therefore only one stuffing box.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.au www. A slight residual thrust is usually present in multistage opposed-impeller pumps. 2. the total theoretical hydraulic axial thrust acting towards the suction end of the pump will be the sum of the individual impeller thrusts.com. the last two conditions are not practical. this residual thrust. Except for some special pumps that have an internal and enclosed bearing at one end.kelairpumps. the axial thrust turns out to be about 70% to 80% of this theoretical value. unless impeller hubs or wearing rings are located on different diameters for various stages. The pump must be provided with two stuffing boxes. provided the correct shaft and interstage bushing diameters are used to give the effect of an hydraulic balancing device that will compensate for the hydraulic thrust on one of the stages. Pump Clinic 12 Radial & Axial Thrust in Centrifugal Pumps 12/09/06 Page 8 of 12 .

the pressures at two corresponding points on the opposite impeller faces (D and E Fig 3. This automatic compensation is the major feature that differentiates the balancing disk from the balancing drum. and because the slight but predictable unbalance can be carried on a thrust bearing. This pressure distribution and design data can be determined by test quite accurately for any one fixed operating condition and an effective balancing drum could be designed on the basis of the forces. The balancing drum satisfactorily balances the axial thrust of single-suction impellers and reduces pressure on the discharge side stuffing box. The first force is greater than the second thereby counter-balancing the axial thrust exerted upon the single-suction impellers. the virtue of automatic compensation for any changes in axial thrust caused by varying impeller reaction characteristics. resulting from this pressure distribution. the difference between the two being equal to the friction losses between this chamber and the point of return. The objection to this is not primarily the amount of the thrust but rather that the direction of the thrust cannot be pre-determined because of the uncertainty about internal pressures. of course. Toward the suction end. the discharge pressure multiplied by the front balancing area (Area B0) of the drum. varying head and capacity conditions change the pressure distribution.kelairpumps. The balancing drum performs no restoring function until such time as the drum force again equals the axial thrust. however.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 The balancing chamber is connected either to the pump suction or to the vessel from which the pump takes its suction. Still. the back pressure in the balancing chamber multiplied by the back balancing area (Area C) of the drum. the equilibrium of the axial forces can be destroyed. The forces acting on the balancing drum in (Fig 3. Furthermore. Pump Clinic 12 Radial & Axial Thrust in Centrifugal Pumps 12/09/06 Page 9 of 12 . pressure distribution over the impeller wall surface may vary with head and capacity operating conditions. and as the area of the balancing drum is necessarily fixed. Finally. It has been assumed in the preceding simplified description that the pressure acting on the impeller walls is constant over their entire surface and that the axial thrust is equal to the product of the total net pressure generated and the unbalanced area. The drum diameter can be selected to balance axial thrust completely or within 90% to 95% depending on the desirability of carrying any thrust-bearing loads.4).Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Unfortunately. 2. Thus the back pressure in the balancing chamber is only slightly higher than the suction pressure. The thrust bearing must then prevent excessive movement of the rotating element. the balancing drum is often designed to balance only 90% to 95% of total impeller thrust.com. a function of the differential pressure across the drum and of the clearance area.com. this pressure varies somewhat in the radial direction because of the centrifugal force exerted upon the water by the outer impeller shroud (Fig 2. The leakage between the drum and the drum head is.au www.1) may not be equal because of variation in clearance between the impeller wall and the casing section separating successive stages. In effect. if the axial thrust and balancing drum forces become unequal. Toward the discharge end. Actually.1) are the following: 1. Because 100% balance is unattainable in practice. the rotating element will tend to move in the direction of the greater force. it is advisable to pre-determine normal thrust direction as this can influence external mechanical thrust-bearing design. It lacks.

increasing the clearance. Now the pressure builds up in the balancing chamber and the disk is again moved towards the disk head until an equilibrium is reached. These vary from discharge pressure at its smallest diameter to back pressure at its periphery. whereas the disk face experiences a range of pressures.com. Pump Clinic 12 Radial & Axial Thrust in Centrifugal Pumps 12/09/06 Page 10 of 12 . This lowering of pressure automatically increases the pressure difference acting on the disk and moves it away from the disk head. and rotates with. The amount of leakage through the clearance is reduced so that the friction losses in the leakage return line are also reduced lowering the back pressure in the balancing chamber.2). the back pressure must be substantially higher than the suction pressure to give a resultant force that restores the normal disk position.au www. The higher pressure that can occur at the packing is also undesirable.kelairpumps.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Balancing Disks The operation of the simple balancing disk is illustrated in (Fig 3. The disadvantage of this arrangement is that the pressure on the stuffing box packing is variable a condition that is injurious to the life of the packing and therefore to be avoided. The inner and outer disk diameters are chosen so that the difference between the total force acting on the disk face and that acting on its back will balance the impeller axial thrust. the shaft. either to the pump suction or to the vessel from which the pump takes its suction. Thus. The leakage through this clearance flows into the balancing chamber and from there. The back of the balancing disk is subject to the balancing chamber back pressure. with the balancing disk wide open with respect to the disk head. the latter is moved towards the disk head. If the axial thrust of the impellers should exceed the thrust acting on the disk during operation. This can be accomplished by introducing a restricting orifice in the leakage return line that increases back pressure when leakage past disk increases beyond normal.com. It is separated by a small axial clearance from the balancing disk head which is fixed to the casing. To assure proper balancing disk operation. the change in back pressure in the balancing chamber must be of an appreciable magnitude.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. The disk is fixed to. reducing the axial clearance between the disk and the disk head.

the sum of the discharge pressure multiplied by Area A. with reduced leakage. In other words. the back pressure multiplied by Area C. Movement of the pump rotor towards the discharge end would have the opposite effect. Towards the discharge end. plus the average intermediate pressure multiplied by Area B. the simple balancing disk is seldom used. Here is how it works. increasing the average value of the intermediate pressure acting on Area B.com. The combination balancing disk and drum (Fig 3. radial clearance remains constant regardless of disk position.com.3) because of increased axial thrust. This rotating part incorporates a disk similar to the one previously described. The increase in intermediate pressure forces the balancing disk towards the discharge end until equilibrium is reached. Whereas the position-restoring feature of the simple balancing disk required an undesirably wide variation of the back pressure. The following forces act on this device: 1. 2. The rotating portion of this balancing device consists of a long cylindrical body that turns within a drum portion of the disk head.kelairpumps. Pump Clinic 12 Radial & Axial Thrust in Centrifugal Pumps 12/09/06 Page 11 of 12 .au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 Combination Balancing Disk and Drum For the reasons just described. it is now possible to depend upon a variation of the intermediate pressure to achieve the same effect. the pressure drop across the radial clearance decreases.au www. increasing the axial clearance and the leakage. the axial clearance is reduced and pressure builds up in the intermediate relief chamber. In this design. whereas the axial clearance varies with the pump rotor position. and decreasing the intermediate pressure acting on Area B. increasing the pressure drop across the axial clearance.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.3) was developed to obviate the shortcomings of the disk while retaining the advantage of automatic compensation for axial thrust changes. Towards the suction end. When the pump rotor moves towards the suction end (to the left in Fig 3.

Messina (USA:1986) Igor J. William C. Joseph P.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 There are now in use numerous hydraulic balancing device modifications. Karassik. Warren H. Fraser. One typical design separates the drum portion of a combination device into two halves. The virtue of this arrangement is a definite cushioning effect at the intermediate relief chamber thus avoiding too positing a restoring action which might result in the contacting and scoring of the disk faces.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd A Mace Group Company ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Call Direct: 1300 789 466 Facsimile: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Roy Carter.4).kelairpumps. Centrifugal Pumps (USA:1960) Pump Clinic 12 Radial & Axial Thrust in Centrifugal Pumps 12/09/06 Page 12 of 12 .au www. Karassik. one preceding and the second following the disk (Fig 3.Igor J. Pump Handbook ed.com. Krutzsch.com.

then the other. This allows each outer chamber to alternately fill and discharge. dry air will enhance pump performance.au www. The diaphragms are connected at their movable centers by a rod.com. Check Valves As fluid moves through the pump. check valves open and close.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Liquid moves through two manifolds and outer chambers of the pump. The two outer chambers are connected by suction and discharge manifolds. Clean. The directional air distribution valve and pilot valve. referred to as the "air end".kelairpumps. Generally.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 13 Sandpiper Air-operated diaphragm Pumps -Principle of Operation- Basic Design Features Most Warren Rupp (Sandpiper) diaphragm pumps are driven by compressed air. Information provided by Warren Rupp a unit of Idex Corporation Pump Clinic 13 Sandpiper Pumps Principle of Operation 28/03/07 Page 1 of 2 . This is the preferred mode of operation. The pumps are self-priming. No-Lube Air Distribution Valve During operation. the Air Distribution Valve controls alternate pressurising of one diaphragm. check valves are located at the top and bottom of each outer chamber or on a common manifold. between the inner and outer chambers. The check valves respond to differential pressures. Ball-type check valves can pass very small particles. The Valve automatically transfers air pressure to the opposite chamber after each stroke. Warren Rupp air valves require no lubrication. This provides alternating suction and discharge strokes.com. as the diaphragms move in parallel paths. referred to as the "wet end". are located in the center section of the pump. Diaphragms Flexible diaphragms are clamped at their outer perimeters.

com. through an open discharge check valve. the connecting rod pulls the right diaphragm inward on a suction stroke. and exits the pump at the discharge manifold. the diaphragm is pushed outward.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE The Pumping Cycle As the Air Distribution Valve directs pressurised air to the left diaphragm. which forces liquid from the left outer chamber.kelairpumps. which fills the left chamber with fluid.au www. Information provided by Warren Rupp a unit of Idex Corporation Pump Clinic 13 Sandpiper Pumps Principle of Operation 28/03/07 Page 2 of 2 . bottom or side. This is a discharge stroke. initiating another pumping cycle. the Air Distribution Valve automatically shifts the air pressure to the opposite diaphragm. Discharged liquid moves from the chamber. At the end of the cycle. moves through an open suction check valve and fills the chamber.com.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. The position of the discharge port can be top. As the left diaphragm is pressurised outward. Liquid enters the pump at the suction manifold.

Information kindly reproduced with permission of the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 14 24/05/07 Page 1 of 5 . Misalignment will cause many problems: · It can cause rotating mechanical seals to move back and forth axially two times per revolution. A perfectly aligned piece of junk is still a piece of junk. · Good wear rings with the proper clearance. · The shaft or sleeve can contact the stationery face of the mechanical seal. · The shaft can contact the disaster bushing in an API (American Petroleum Institute) gland. · Good bearings installed on a shaft with the proper finish and tolerances. The closer the seal is to the pump bearings the better off you are going to be. · The misalignment could be severe enough to cause contact between stationary and rotating seal components.com. · The impeller could contact the volute or back plate. · The shaft can contact the restriction bushing often found at the end of the stuffing box. and unfortunately that is where the seal is located in most pump applications.com. · The correct impeller to volute. · Misalignment will cause severe shaft or sleeve fretting if you use spring loaded Teflon® as a secondary seal in your mechanical seal design. · A good mechanical seal set at the proper face load. it is critical with sealed pumps especially if you are using rotating seal designs where the springs or bellows rotate with the shaft. · Packing could support a misaligned shaft. Although this alignment was always a consideration with packed pumps. You should also check the following: · A straight shaft that has been dynamically balanced. The more the seals move the more opportunity for the lapped faces to open. · The elimination of "soft foot". or backplate clearance. you must start with a pump and driver in good repair.au www.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 14 PUMP AND DRIVER ALIGNMENT In the pump business alignment means that the centerline of the pump is aligned with the centerline of the driver.kelairpumps. Regardless of the alignment method you select.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. · Eliminate all pipe strain. A mechanical seal cannot. · The wear rings can contact. · The pump bearings can become overloaded. A little misalignment at the power end of the pump is a lot of misalignment at the wet end.

com. · Most pump manufacturers should be able to supply you with the proper readings for a hot alignment. If the pump is aligned without being level.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. the oil level will be incorrect and you will develop bearing problems. The coupling manufacturer states that their coupling can take a reasonable amount of misalignment. The coupling is used to transmit torque to the shaft and compensate for axial thermal growth.kelairpumps. Most of the small pump designs are not equipped with "jack bolts" so this will be the most difficult part of the alignment procedure. And we do not do dynamic balancing of the rotating assembly either! · There is no time to do an alignment. you get the following comments: · Alignment is not important. · We purchase good couplings. and they will not allow me the time to do it properly. Here are some acceptable methods: The reverse indicator method is an acceptable method. There are plenty of schools that teach this method if you are interested in learning how to do it: Information kindly reproduced with permission of the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 14 24/05/07 Page 2 of 5 . You install a good coupling after you have made the pump to driver alignment. It turns out that there are at least three methods of getting a good pump to driver alignment. When you talk to the people that should be concerned. You cannot move the pump because it is connected to the piping. nothing else. These calculations must consider that the pump and driver operating temperature will probably be very different than the ambient temperature when you are taking the readings. They are the only people that know how their unit expands and contracts with a change in temperature. · You must now shim and move the driver to get the alignment. · You then take a series of radial and axial measurements to see where the pump is located in respect to its driver (motor). I have been working with pumps for years and we never do it at this facility.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE All pump to driver alignments consist of four parts: · You must level the pump and driver. and a good coupling is not one of them. Production wants the unit back on line. but it does take a great deal of time. I see lots of pumps that have never been aligned properly. not instead of making the alignment. · You make calculations to see how far the driver must be moved to align the centerline of the pump to the centerline of the driver.au www.

com. · An excellent method for large shaft diameters (8 inches or 200mm or greater) or if the diameters are equal to.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE · Very accurate especially for small diameter flanges · Not affected by axial float. The shaft to coupling spool method: · The best method when there are big distances between the shaft ends. registered fit to insure the alignment. · A simple method to use. · You have to rotate both shafts The laser is the latest method. or greater than the span from the bracket location to the face and rim location where the readings are to be taken.au www. · Not too good a method if there is axial float from sleeve or journal bearings. It solves most of the problems with thermal expansion. The "C or D" frame adapter is probably the easiest method of all and available from most quality pump manufacturers. You use a machined.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. It is also the most popular. Information kindly reproduced with permission of the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 14 24/05/07 Page 3 of 5 . · Most people rotate both shafts Face and rim method: · Use this method if one of the shafts cannot be rotated. There are lots of people that can teach you to use the equipment. · Can be used with a flexible coupling in place. once you have made the purchase.kelairpumps.com.

· The adapter is available for all quality end suction centrifugal pumps. The hull flexes making any conventional alignment ineffective. Some people use an adjusting wheel that attaches to shims.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Given a choice I would select the C or D frame every time: · The "C frame" is for inch sizes The "D frame" for metric sizes. Check with your supplier. and then do an alignment. They call the adapter a "bell housing". Above thirty-horse power (22 KW) you hang the pump on the motor. This will give you a very precise movement that is necessary for a proper alignment Information kindly reproduced with permission of the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 14 24/05/07 Page 4 of 5 . Some.au www. It does not all have to conduct through the shaft. and figured out all the calculations for how much to move the driver. now comes the fun part. · If your motor does not have a "C or D" end bell. If you do not have a C or D frame adapter you will be involved in the last three steps of the fourstep procedure.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com. but not all explosion-proof motors are available with a C or D frame end bell. · Up to about thirty-horse power (22 KW) you hang the motor on the pump. You can hit the motor with a big hammer. The same logic applies to off shore drilling rigs. and in which direction. moving the driver.com. but small dimensions are hard to get with this method. put in the recommended compensation for thermal expansion. · Automotive people use the same concept to align an automobile transmission to the engine. · The concept was originally developed for the marine industry where it would be impossible to bolt the motor and pump to the deck of the ship. · When given a choice. Check with your supplier for the availability of one for your pump. · The adapter does a better job of equalizing the heat transfer between the pump and the driver. Moving the pump driver: Once you have made all the measurements. · The adapter solves the problem of "there is no time to do an alignment". select a ductile rather than a cast adapter. one can be installed when the motor is rewound.kelairpumps.

com. Information kindly reproduced with permission of the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 14 24/05/07 Page 5 of 5 .Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Many mechanics make there own tools and these units also work very well for precise motor movement. It is the same logic you use towards the added cost and time spent balancing the tyres and wheels of your car. but we should.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Another method is to use an adjusting wheel that slips over the motor hold down bolts. The seals are leaking prematurely and the seal movement caused by pump to motor misalignment is a major contributing factor. and have no problem justifying the cost and time involved.kelairpumps.com. When we inspect the seals we remove from leaking pumps we find that in better than 85% of the cases there is plenty of carbon face left on the seals. A mechanical seal should run trouble-free until the carbon sacrificial face has worn away.au www. How concerned should you be about alignment? You do it on your automobile when you notice uneven tyre wear or the car drifts to one side of the road when you loosen your grip on the wheel. We do not always apply the same logic to our very expensive rotating equipment in the shop.

In many designs they are not The differential expansion between the seal face and its holder can cause the face to go out of flat The faces were not lapped at a cryogenic temperature and the seal is being specified for cryogenic service Bad packaging Poor heat conductivity · · · · · · · Carbon is a poor conductor of heat compared to most hard faces Many ceramics are not good conductors of heat Plated or coated faces can "heat check" due to a differential expansion rate between the coating and the base material The seal face is sometimes insulated by a gasket or elastomer Low expansion steel face holders are not usually corrosion resistant No vibration damping has been provided to prevent "slip stick" vibration problems.kelairpumps. and assist you in your troubleshooting function. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 15 20/06/07 Page 1 of 5 . and the cleaner or solvent used to clean or flush the system Face flatness problems: · · · · · · · The face cross-section is too narrow causing temperature or pressure distortion problems The material modulus of elasticity is too low The face is not hard enough All clamping forces must be "equal and opposite" to prevent face distortion. Bill McNally. This is a major problem with metal bellows seals Unbalanced seal designs require excessive flushing or cooling to remove unwanted heat Information reproduced with permission of author. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS “In my seminars I teach that mechanical seals fail prematurely because: · · The lapped faces open A seal component becomes damaged In the following paragraphs we will learn how these failures can be separated into: · · · Design problems Operation problems Maintenance problems The purpose of this paper is to give you an overview of the subject.com. The material is not compatible with the fluid you are sealing. MECHANICAL SEAL DESIGN PROBLEMS Problems with the Seal Faces: · Wrong carbon or hard face selected.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 15 MECHANICAL SEAL DESIGN.com.au www.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.

P Page 2 of 5 Information reproduced with permission of author.com. as a result.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE · The carbon must be dense enough to prevent entrained air pockets from expanding and causing pits in the carbon face.au www. This is a major problem if the fluid contains solids Failure to use "two way" hydraulic balance causes the inner faces to open with a reversal in barrier fluid pressure · Design problems that cause excessive shaft movement: · · · An elbow is installed too close to the pump suction inlet The mass of the foundation is not five times the mass of the pump and its driver Wrong size pump was specified because of safety factors and.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 15 20/06/07 . Springs and metal bellows are subjected to high stress Too much spring or bellows movement will cause an early fatigue of the metal The Dynamic Elastomer (the one that moves): · · · · Some elastomers do not move to a clean surface as the face wears Spring loaded elastomers stick to the shaft or sleeve and are sensitive to the shaft diameter and finish Elastomers positioned in the seal face are subject to the heat generated between the seal faces Dynamic elastomers are very sensitive to the shaft tolerance and finish Operating conditions too severe for the design: · · · · · · · Elastomers and some seal faces are sensitive to temperature extremes Excessive pressure can distort seal faces causing them to go out of flat Excessive pressure can cause elastomer extrusion High speed can separate the seal faces in rotating seal designs High speed can cause excessive heat at the seal faces Excessive shaft movement separates faces also Hard vacuum can "out gas" an elastomer causing it to leak Dual seals: · · · · · · Rotating "back to back" designs Centrifugal force throws solids into the inner faces Inner seal blows open if barrier fluid pressure is lost Inner stationary face is not positively retained to prevent movement if the pressure is lost between the faces When the outboard seal fails the inboard will fail also due to the pressure drop between the faces The inner seal has to move into the sealing fluid as the face wears. especially the small springs Stainless steel springs and bellows are sensitive to chloride stress corrosion problems A single spring can be wound in the wrong direction Thin bellows plates and small cross section springs are sensitive to abrasive wear Rubber bellows experience a catastrophic failure mode when the bellows ruptures Stressed metal corrodes faster.E. the pump is operating off the B.kelairpumps.com. Bill McNally. An "unfilled carbon" with four impregnates is the best The Springs or bellows: · · · · · · · Springs in the fluid can clog easily.

(25 m/sec.com. especially the elastomer All chemicals have the potential for corroding a seal component. is required. Cartridge versions are needed for this feature The pumping fluid is located at the inside diameter of the seal faces Solids will be thrown into the lapped faces destroying some face materials Solids will pile up in front of the movable faces. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 15 20/06/07 Page 3 of 5 . Centrifugal force can open rotating designs above 5000 fpm. Bill McNally.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE · · · The pump was selected oversize in anticipation of a future need A "centerline" design should have been selected when the operating temperate exceeded 200°F (100°C) The shaft L3/D4 is too high The pump is cavitating due to a design problem: · · · · · · · Too high a N. Hot oil is typical The fluid can attack one of the seal components.kelairpumps. and interfering with the seal movement Problems caused by the product you are sealing: · · · · · · · The fluid can flash or vaporize between the faces Viscous fluids open seal faces as they restrict seal movement Products that solidify will open and damage seal faces Crystallizing products restrict seal movement and open the faces Film building products cause the faces to open.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. You need a double suction pump The suction specific speed number is too high You are using too low a specific speed impeller A reducer has been installed up side down. causing them to wear.com.P. It is just a mater of time Some fluids are poor lubricants: Information reproduced with permission of author. preventing them from compensating for wear Most seal faces are weak in tension Hysteresis (delay) problems caused by the seal mass and sliding elastomers Poor packaging that allows face damage during shipment and storage Designs that frett (damage or groove) the shaft or sleeve High speed requires the use of stationary seal designs. letting an air pocket into the suction The impeller to cutwater clearance is too low There is too much suction resistance due to excessive piping Too much suction lift for the fluid temperature Other design problems: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Some seal designs cannot compensate for thermal shaft growth or impeller adjustment.au www.S.) The seal is positioned too far from the bearing housing Lack of a self-aligning feature is causing excessive face movement A tapered stuffing box can cause face damage No vent has been provided to vent the stuffing box in a vertical application Hardened shafts and sleeves can cause the seal set screws to slip A discharge recirculation line is aimed at the lapped faces.H.

Bill McNally.H Air getting into the system through packing A stuffing box.P.E.P.com. especially the elastomer A product concentration change will affect corrosion A change of product Either a temperature or pressure change in the system will affect both Operations that cause the seal faces to open: · · · · · The seal is seeing frequent reversing pressures Loss or lack of an environmental control Flush not working Quench is shut off Barrier fluid not circulating Information reproduced with permission of author. and the shaft to deflect Pumping the supply tank dry.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 15 20/06/07 Page 4 of 5 . suction recirculation line is heating the incoming fluid A discharge bypass line is heating the suction fluid A discharge recirculation line is aimed at the seal face restricting its movement Water hammer is opening or damaging the lapped faces The piping system has been altered since the pump was installed The pump is being started with the discharge valve shut or severely throttled Starting a pump with the discharge valve open is just as bad Operations that cause excessive heat and corrosion problems: · · · · Cleaners or solvents used in the lines can attack a seal component. restricting seal movement as the face wears Agitation can cause some fluids to change their viscosity Cleaners or solvents are attacking a seal component OPERATION PROBLEMS Operations that cause excessive shaft movement that will open or damage the seal faces: · · · · Opening and closing valves in the suction and/or discharge causing the pump to operate off the B.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE · · · · · · · · · This can cause excessive wear Color contamination problems as the carbon wears "Slip stick" vibration problems Slurries clog up the sliding seal components and open the faces Cryogenic fluids can attack some carbon faces and most elastomers High temperature fluids attack elastomers and change the state of the fluid you are sealing Some fluids can cause the formation of ice outboard the seal.au www. causing excessive vibration and heat Series or parallel pump operation can cause shaft deflection Running at a critical speed will cause the shaft to defect Cavitation problems: · · · · · · · · · Low N.kelairpumps.S.

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255
PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE

· · · · · ·

Loss of heating or cooling Heating jacket clogged Pressure drop in the stuffing box Flushing with a dirty product Quenching with shop water leaves solids outboard of the seal that will cause a hang-up as the seal moves forward to compensate for wear The quenching steam pressure is too high. It is getting into the bearings

MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS
· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

The pump and driver are not aligned & emdash; causing excessive seal movement Pipe strain Thermal growth Bad installation techniques that can injure a seal component The wrong lubricant was put on the dynamic elastomer The impeller clearance was set after the seal installation The face is inserted backwards, only one side is lapped The seal is set at the wrong installation length The sleeve moved when the impeller was tightened to the shaft A lubricant was put on the seal face that froze when the product evaporated across the lapped faces The rotating assembly is not dynamically balanced The shaft is bent The sleeve is not concentric to the shaft Impeller clearance is not being maintained, causing vibration problems The impeller is positioned too close to the cutwater The seal has been set screwed to a hardened shaft No seal or gasket between the shaft sleeve and the solid shaft. This is a big problem with double ended pumps The seal environmental control is not being maintained Flushing fluid is being restricted or shut off Quenching steam is shut off The barrier fluid tank level is too low The convection tank is running backwards The cooling jacket is restricted due to a calcium build up You are running both a discharge recirculation line and a cooling jacket Out of tolerance shaft dimensions will restrict seal movement The impeller clearance was made without re-adjusting the seal face load The shaft sleeve was removed to accommodate a smaller diameter seal. The sleeve was providing corrosion resistance A gasket is protruding into the stuffing box restricting the seal movement.“

Information reproduced with permission of author, Bill McNally, the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 15 20/06/07

Page 5 of 5

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255
PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE

PUMP CLINIC 16
AN OVERVIEW OF SEAL TROUBLESHOOTING

“Seal problems are almost always associated with face leakage, but as we will soon learn, there are other leak paths in addition to the obvious one between the lapped seal faces. In the following paragraphs, we'll be looking at all these leak paths. Keep in mind that seals are classified into many categories: stationary, rotary, balanced, unbalanced, inside, outside, metallic, non-metallic, single, dual, elastomer, metal bellows, rubber bellows, cartridge, split, solid, etc. Try to keep these classifications in mind as we investigate the cause of seal failure. I will be presenting the troubleshooting hints in an outline form. You should not find these terms confusing because I've assumed you have a pretty good knowledge of mechanical seals or otherwise you wouldn't be attempting to troubleshoot them. LEAKAGE AT THE SEAL FACES The seal face is not flat. (Flatness should be measured within three helium light bands, (0,000033" or 1 micron) • • • • • • • • • The face was damaged by mishandling. Poor packaging. The seal should be able to survive a 39" (1 metre) drop. To ensure this, the seal must be shipped in a reusable box insulated with plenty of foam or any other adequate insulation. The face was distorted by high pressure or surges in pressure. "Water hammer" would be an example. The face was distorted when you tightened it against an uneven surface. The clamping is not "equal and opposite" across the stationary hard face. This is a common problem with "L" shaped and "T" shaped stationary faces. The "hard" seal face has been installed backwards. You're running on a non-lapped seal face. It is common practice to lap only one side of a hard face. The face is being distorted by a change in temperature. This happens when you forget to vent a vertical pump. The face never was flat. You have a bad part. The carbon metal composite was not stress-relieved after the carbon was "pressed in".

The face has been chemically attacked. • • • • Oxidizing agents attack all forms and grades of carbon graphite. Some de-ionized water will attack any form of carbon. Corrosion increases with a temperature increase. A 10°Centigrade (18°F) rise in temperature will double the corrosion rate of most corrosives. A cleaner or solvent is being flushed through the lines and is attacking the carbon.

Information reproduced with permission of author, Bill McNally, the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 16 26/07/07

Page 1 of 12

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255
PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE

You are using a poor grade of Carbon. Go to an unfilled grade such as Pure Carbon Company grade 658 RC. This is a common occurrence if the seal is being repaired by someone other than the original manufacturer.

The plating or hard coating is coming off the hard face. • • • All coatings are porous. The chemical is penetrating this porous coating and attacking the bond between the coating and the base material, or the base material itself. An inferior plating was originally put on the base material. Differential expansion of the dissimilar materials is causing them to separate.

The seal face is cracked, pitted or damaged. • • • • • • • • • High temperature is heat checking (cracking) the plated face. This is a common problem with cobalt based tungsten carbide. The nickel base version is less likely to crack. The product is solidifying between the faces and they're breaking at start up. Most face materials have high compressive strength, but tend to be weak in tension. Excessive vibration is causing the drive pins to crack the face. Low cost seals experience this problem quite often. There is a high temperature differential across the ceramic, 7 to 10 cycles can break even good ceramics in hot water or hot petroleum products. Air is trapped in the carbon face. Heat is causing it to expand and blow out pieces of the carbon face. The carbon usually blisters prior to blowing out. The solution is to go to a more dense carbon. The product is vaporizing and allowing solid material to blow across the lapped face. This is a common occurrence in boiler feed water applications. The seal faces have opened, solids penetrated and imbedded into the soft carbon are causing rapid wear in the hard face. The same problem occurs if the carbon was re-lapped using lapping powder. Lubricant on the faces is freezing in cryogenic (cold) applications. The elastomer is being chemically attacked and swelling up. This can break the face in those seal applications where the elastomer is positioned in the seal inside diameter. In some instances the swelling elastomer will open up the two faces, allowing the solids to penetrate. This can be a problem with boot mounted faces The rotating shaft, or sleeve, is hitting the stationary face. This can happen if the pump is running off of its B.E.P. which almost always occurs at start up. The seal is being mishandled during installation. Good packaging and proper training can solve many of these problems. The crack may have occurred during disassembly. Check to see if there is discoloration deep in the crack. Discoloration means that it occurred during, or before, operation. Petroleum products can "coke" at the face causing pieces of carbon to be pulled out as the face rotates. You will have to select two hard faces for this application. The rotating face is not centered in the stationary face and is running off the edge of the stationary face. Look for rubbing marks around the O.D. of the rotary unit. A bent shaft or out of balance rotating assembly is the most common cause. o You will notice a much wider wear track if you are experiencing this problem.
Page 2 of 12

• • • • •

Information reproduced with permission of author, Bill McNally, the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 16 26/07/07

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255
PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE

o

The seal will appear to "spit" as lubricant is dragged across the face and off the seal outside diameter. Dirt can be dragged across the faces as they separate.

o

The movable face is not free to follow whip, wobble or run out. • • • • The rotating face is hitting the I.D. of the stuffing box. The recirculation line from the pump discharge is aimed at the seal faces and interfering with their free movement. Dirt or solids are clogging the movable components. Magnetite is a very big problem in most hot water applications. The product is interfering with the free movement of the components. It is: o o o o o • • • Crystallizing ( like sugar) Solidifying (like glue) Viscous (molasses) Building a film on the sliding components (hard water or paint) Coking (oil or any other petroleum product)

The elastomer has been chemically attacked causing it to swell up and interfere with free movement of the face. Temperature growth of the shaft is interfering with the free movement of the movable face. The shaft or sleeve is the problem. o o o o It is over size - + 0.00" - 0.002" (0,00-0,05 mm.) is ideal. It is too rough; it should be at least 32 R.M.S. (0,8 microns) It is fretted, corroded or damaged in some way. Solids have attached themselves to that portion of the shaft where the dynamic elastomer is located.

• • • • •

A gasket or fitting is protruding into the stuffing box. Solids from outside the stuffing box are getting under the faces. This is a common problem with vertical pumps. The elastomer is spring loaded and the interference on the shaft is restricting the face movement. The elastomer has extruded because of high pressure or excessive clearance. A foreign object has passed into the seal chamber and is interfering with the free movement of the seal.

The product has plated, or formed on the face and a piece of it has broken off. • This problem occurs with products that are sensitive to temperature and/ or pressure changes.

The set screws have come loose.

Information reproduced with permission of author, Bill McNally, the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 16 26/07/07

Page 3 of 12

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255
PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE

• • • •

The shaft has been hardened. They have worked loose in a sleeve that is too soft. The hardened set screws have corroded. They were not replaced when the seal was rebuilt and as a result are not "digging" into the shaft.

The face has lost its spring load. • • • • • The initial setting was wrong. Temperature growth of the shaft has altered the original setting. The impeller has been adjusted towards the wet end of the pump. The sleeve moved when the impeller was tightened to the shaft. The cartridge seal was pushed on the shaft by pushing on the gland and the seal is now over compressed. o In a dual seal application this will over compress the inner seal and open up, or unload the outer seal.

The product is vaporizing and blowing the faces open. This happens in hot applications if there is water in the product. • It can also occur if the pump/seal was hydrostatically tested with a water base fluid.

The inner seal, of a dual seal application was not balanced in both directions and is opening up with reversing pressure. This is a common problem in unbalanced seals that are subject to both vacuum and pressure or if the barrier fluid pressure varies. The single spring, found in some seal designs, was wound in the wrong direction for the shaft rotation. The Bellows seal has lost cooling and the anti vibration lugs are engaging the shaft. Shaft movement will cause the faces to open. LEAKAGE AT THE ELASTOMER LOCATION Compression set (the elastomer has changed shape). • Either the product is too hot or there is too much heat being generated at the seal faces. You must vent vertical pumps to prevent this problem.

The elastomer is cracked. • • • • • The shelf life has been exceeded. Buna N (Nitrile) has a shelf life of only twelve months because of its sensitivity to ozone attack. High heat is the main cause. Chemical attack. In most cases the elastomer swells, but cracking and shrinking does occur in isolated cases. Cryogenic (cold) temperatures freeze the elastomer and it will crack when hit. The rubber bellows did not stick to the shaft because the wrong lubricant was used. The shaft turned inside the bellows causing high heat.

Information reproduced with permission of author, Bill McNally, the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 16 26/07/07

Page 4 of 12

Wedges. or fretted. The elastomer was slid over a rough spot on the shaft or sleeve. and chevrons do not have this ability. The shaft was turning inside the rubber bellows causing excessive heat.au www. It was extruded by high pressure. This is the most common cause and usually occurs within five to ten days The wrong lubricant was used at installation. The elastomer has swollen or changed color. O-rings groove.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE • The seal faces stuck together. As an example. Halogens can be recognized because most of them end in the letters "ine". such as bromine. The product is penetrating into the elastomer and blowing out the other side. splined shafts. Solids have "built up" or penetrated between the elastomer and the shaft. The elastomer is not seated properly. Solvents or chemicals used to clean the lines are not compatible with the elastomer.com. you should never put petroleum grease on EPR o-rings. key ways. • • • • • • It was twisted during installation. The shaft is oversized. U cups. Bill McNally. Remember that o-rings are the only elastomers that seal in both directions. Most o-rings can roll up to one half of their diameter. • • A common problem with unbalanced. • • • • • Mishandling. Excessive travel can cause the elastomer to "snake". The halogen will cause the elastomer to swell up. The elastomer leaks when pressurized in the opposite direction. etc. OTHER LEAK PATHS TO CONSIDER Between the carbon and its metal holder. damaged.kelairpumps. Two-way balanced seals are recommended for these applications. The shaft is corroded. astintine. Information reproduced with permission of author. Teflon jacketed o-rings can split in the presence of halogenated fluids. iodine. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 16 26/07/07 Page 5 of 12 . chlorine. Be careful of old set screw marks. The elastomer is cut or damaged.. The o-rings groove is damaged or coated with a solid material. Oxidizers can attack the carbon black in o-rings and other elastomers.com. You may need a backup ring. inside of the teflon jacket. dual seal applications. fluorine.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. This problem is a common occurrence when you are trying to seal ethylene oxide. etc. Steam can harm many elastomers including most grades of Viton®. • • • • • Product attack.

com. or too low a suction head. Page 6 of 12 Information reproduced with permission of author. Seal faces will not leak visibly if they are lapped flat and we keep them in total contact.D. double ended pumps have this problem because there's no gasket between the impeller and the sleeve that's holding it in place. Shaft movement is caused by many factors.com. At the pipe connections. Low expansion metal is available for these applications Between the shaft and the sleeve. Gland gasket or gasket surface leakage. A. Shaft movement is the main contributor to the opening of the seal faces and allowing solids to penetrate. or when either the impeller or wear ring clearance becomes excessive.D. A common problem with pumps that run in a vacuum or taking a suction from an evaporator or condenser. In the following paragraphs we'll be looking at most of them.D. "Pressed in" carbons can leak in a high temperature application because of the differential expansion between the carbon and its metal retainer. • This leak path should always be visible.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Stationary face gasket or elastomer leaking. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 16 26/07/07 . and most seal repair facilities. It often looks like face leakage. Distorted sleeve or shaft. • I found this one after every other troubleshooting avenue was exhausted. The vane passing syndrome form of cavitation occurs if the O. • The bearings are worn excessively.P. glue the carbon in place. At the weld location if a seal face holder is welded to the cartridge sleeve. Pipe flange leaking above the seal and dripping into the seal area. Internal recirculation.I. The glue may not be compatible with the product you're sealing. This clearance should be at least 4% of the impeller diameter in the smaller size impellers and at least 6% in the larger diameter impellers (greater than 14 inch or 355 mm. A scratch or nick in the o-ring groove. Gland fittings. of the impeller is too close to the pump cutwater. Occurs when the Suction Specific Speed is too high.) Turbulence.kelairpumps. and the I. Remember that up to 100 psi (6 bar) o-rings seal on the O. • This leak path isn't always visible. INCLUDING VIBRATION Cavitation • • • • Vaporization caused by too high a product temperature. • • Damaged gasket or gasket surface. Bill McNally. Grease or lip seals have a useful life of only 2000 hours (84 days). Air is entering the stuffing box. CAUSES OF EXCESSIVE SHAFT MOVEMENT.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE • • Some seal companies. • Contamination of the lubricant is the biggest cause. not the sides. and recirculation lines. Occurs if there's not laminar flow in the lines.au www. Many packed. ancillary hardware.

Bill McNally. Rubbing of a rotating component.com. The stationary seal face is not perpendicular to the rotating shaft. Information reproduced with permission of author. rotating face to move back and forth twice per revolution.kelairpumps. This causes the spring loaded. Serious misalignment.. or some other heavy device is hanging off the gland distorting it. The impeller diameter was reduced and the impeller was not re-balanced The impeller never was balanced.au www. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 16 26/07/07 Page 7 of 12 . Worn coupling. • • • Usually occurs during sleeve removal. Shaft deflection. Pressure surges or water hammer. • • • • The shaft is hitting the wear ring. Heating the shaft to remove the sleeve is another common cause The impeller is out of balance. Temperature growth. or if the bearing was installed with an arbor press. An unbalanced rotating assembly. • • • • The impeller was damaged by either wear or corrosion or cavitation. Improper storage with the long shaft supported only on the ends causing it to sag. or misalignment between the pump and its driver.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE • • Poor fit or installation. • • • • • • • • The stuffing box face is not square to the shaft. A seal rotating component is hitting the stuffing box I. or a stationary wear ring is contacting a rotating wear ring.com. A convection tank. The shaft is hitting the seal gland or stationary face. Pipe strain. The deflection can be caused by operating the pump off its best efficiency point. Bearing fit or wear.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Tightening the gland bolts through a gasket is cocking the stationary face. the rotating assembly is out of balance. The stuffing box face is often a rough casting. The misalignment can be the result of pipe strain. Coupling alignment. The pump is operating off its best efficiency point. The shaft is bent. A gasket or fitting is protruding into the stuffing box.D. Product has built up on the vanes or in the balance holes. or the shaft is bent.

The equipment is equipped with sleeve or babbitted bearings and has excessive end play. Hot water. The impeller was adjusted. Shaft thrust. EXCESSIVE AXIAL MOVEMENT OF THE SEAL • • • • • Temperature growth.au www. Solvents. Can occur at the seal face because of high face load caused by using unbalanced seals. Most harmonic vibration can be stopped by changing the speed of the equipment or "damping" the vibrating component. Too high a face load. o • • • You are using unbalanced seals. A discharge recirculation line aimed at the seal faces. or impeller adjustment.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE • Poor installation technique. to compensate for wear. after the seal was installed. The rotor motor. You are using a high friction face combination. moved to its magnetic centre at start up. Often occurs if you use two hard faces. The same thing that causes a rear view mirror to vibrate in an automobile.com. • • Happens with products that contain water. Information reproduced with permission of author. Gases Dry running applications.com. Some detergents.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. • Each time the impeller passes the recirculation connection it causes a pulse of fluid at the seal face.) caused by: • • • • • • • Poor lubricating fluids.kelairpumps. Bill McNally. and are operated at elevated temperature. Face load has changed because of temperature growth. Slipstick (an alternating slipping and sticking of the seal faces. Vaporization of the product at the seal face. VIBRATION AT THE SEAL FACES Harmonic vibration. Poor installation technique. • The seal is vibrating in harmony with some rotating component. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 16 26/07/07 Page 8 of 12 .

• • • • • • Installation error. Coupling misalignment. The impeller was adjusted after the seal was installed.com. the thrust is towards the wet end. THE SHAFT IS NOT CONCENTRIC WITH THE STUFFING BOX.au www. The mark is too wide. It bends at 60 degrees. depending upon how close the pump is operating to its best efficiency point. There is little to no movement at 65% of the pump’s best efficiency. this will cause a wiping action in stationary seals. Information reproduced with permission of author. A bolted on stuffing box has slipped. o • Vertical mixer shafts often lift vertically when solids are mixed with liquid. No print was used. or the mechanic cannot read the print he was given. Let's take a look at what's causing this heat. Poor bearing fit. o o • • • • • • • • It bends at 240 degrees. CAUSES OF HIGH HEAT AT THE SEAL FACES. The sleeve moved when the impeller was tightened. Heat is always an indication of wasted energy. Temperature growth causes the stuffing box to move relative to the shaft.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE o There is a thrust towards the bearings caused by the combination of the fluid changing direction in the impeller and acting on the shaft and/or impeller surfaces. from the cutwater. but it can also have a disastrous affect on seal life and performance. The seal is not concentric with the sleeve / shaft. This means that at start up the shaft moves in both directions accounting for a higher percentage of seal failure at start up.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. This thrust is offset by a thrust towards the wet end caused by the impeller shape. at low flow and high head.kelairpumps. The sleeve is not concentric with the shaft. The shaft installation reference was marked in the wrong location. Pipe strain.com.P. The back plate is not machined concentric to the stuffing box. Bill McNally.E. from the cutwater. Too much spring compression. The mechanic used the wrong marking tool. at high flow and low head. • The shaft is bending as you move away from the pump B. In centrifugal pumps the resulting force can be in either direction. Above 65% of its best efficiency. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 16 26/07/07 Page 9 of 12 . Below 65% of the best efficiency the thrust is towards the power or bearing end.

Many single spring designs are uni-directional requiring both right handed and left handed seals on a double ended pump. Interference from the sleeve elastomer has caused an over compression of the seal. • • • Heat conductivity is low in some materials. Problems with face materials. Spring loaded elastomers cause varying seal face loads.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Bill McNally. A 60/40 balance and a face load of 8 psi to 15 psi (0.M. They generate more heat than balanced seals.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE • A cartridge seal was installed on the shaft. The faces are running dry in a bubble. The carbon seal face is too narrow causing excessive heat from the spring pressure. Operating too close to the vapor point.P. • • Problems with some seal designs. Carbon / metal composite faces conduct heat better than plain carbon / graphite.2 n/mm2) would be normal. causing cavitation.07 to 0. by pushing on the gland. In some dual seal applications the outer seal will become under compressed. The shaft moved because of thrust.au www. • • • Operating off the B. An outside metal or elastomer bellows seal is almost impossible to vent. Stationary seal designs require clean flushing if solids are present. The carbon face is insulated by an elastomer.kelairpumps. Speeds above 5000 F. Some seal faces are glued in. The actual load depends upon shaft tolerance and installation dimension. Centrifugal force does not throw the solids away from the moveable (spring loaded) components.com. Teflon) The coefficient of friction varies with face combinations and various sealing products.E. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Unbalanced seals are supplied by original equipment companies. A vertical seal installation is not being vented. Many metal bellows designs lack effective vibration damping. Information reproduced with permission of author.com. (Ceramic. as long as there is a true interference fit and they're not glued together to hold them in place. The face is too wide causing the hydraulic force to generate excessive heat. (25 m/sec) require a special hydraulic balance and less spring load. The heat generated at the faces is affecting both the elastomer and the seal face. Problems with the pump operation that causes high heat at the faces.P The degree of the problem is determined by the L3/D4 ratio. The elastomer is located too close to the seal faces. The glue acts as an insulator preventing the face heat from conducting to the metal holder. Thermal growth of the shaft. carbon. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 16 26/07/07 Page 10 of 12 .

or sleeve is rubbing a stationary component. Other causes of high heat. running too close to the pump back plate. There is no carbon restriction bushing in the bottom of the stuffing box and you are using the cooling jacket. Page 11 of 12 Information reproduced with permission of author. A fitting. • There is not enough circulation around the seal.au www. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 16 26/07/07 . The bushing in the A.P.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. A pump wear ring. It is bent. The liquid is not a lubricant. Pump out rings on the back of the impeller. o • • The cooling jacket is clogged. Shutting off the flushing water. This often happens when the sleeve is removed.I. Gases.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE • • • • • • • • • • Running dry. Pumping a tank dry. is not straight. You can do this in almost every case except when you're pumping a product at its vapor point. Connect a recirculation line from the bottom of the stuffing box to the suction side of the pump. The shaft. or if the solids have a specific gravity lower than the fluid. or sleeve. Bill McNally. gland. Losing barrier fluid in a dual seal application. • The shaft. The shaft never was straight. The restriction bushing slows down the heat transfer. You should be able to get at least 1" (25 mm) all around the rotating unit.com. The stationary portion of a mechanical seal. Vertical pumps not vented in the stuffing box. o o o o It is bending. The rotating assembly is not balanced.kelairpumps. o Install a large diameter stuffing box. o o o o o o o • The gland. Vacuum applications. because the pump is operating off its best efficiency point. The bushing in the bottom of the stuffing box. Dry solids. A protruding gasket.com.

o o o o The flush is not constant. Either the suction or discharge recirculation line is clogged. The cooling jacket has become clogged by the calcium in the hard water. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 16 26/07/07 Page 12 of 12 . or separator. The double seal barrier fluid is not circulating.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE • Loss of an environmental control.” • Information reproduced with permission of author. • • • The filter. is clogged. Try condensate instead.com. Quenching steam or water has been shut off during pump shut down. Contact the manufacturer for the rules when using convection tanks and dual seals. Bill McNally. You may need a "built in" pumping ring. Solids in the stuffing box are interfering with a rotating component.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.kelairpumps. If you are using double seals. remember that two seals generate twice as much heat and conventional cooling may not be sufficient.com. The pressure is changing.au www.

The head will be measured in feet or meters and the capacity will be measured in gallons per minute or cubic meters per hour. This "head" loss is related to the condition of the system and makes the calculations difficult when you realise that older systems may have Information reproduced with permission of author. neither of you has much chance of coming up with the right pump. The resulting "pressure drop" is described as a "loss of head" in the system. restricted passages in the fittings and hardware that has been installed in the system. and can be calculated from graphs and charts provided by the pump and piping manufacturers. To create a system curve we plot the desired capacities against the required head over the total anticipated operating range of the pump. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 17 30/08/07 Page 1 of 6 .au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 17 UNDERSTANDING THE PUMP SYSTEM CURVE “All pump manufacturers would like to recommend the perfect pump for your application. they can plot pump curves on top of the system curve and hopefully select something that will come close to your needs. Once they have your system curve. Look at figure "A" and note that the piping discharge is below the maximum elevation of the piping system. This is the same action that lets you siphon petrol out of a vehicle into a storage can.P. you can find them in the Hydraulic Institute Manuals.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. it is subject to the friction caused by the piping inside finish. FIGURE "A" DYNAMIC OR SYSTEM HEAD As the liquid flows through the piping and fittings.com.au www. The pump will have to develop enough head to fill the pipe and then the siphoning action will take over. Some of the confusion begins when we realise that there are three different kinds of head: STATIC HEAD This is the vertical distance measured from the centre line of the pump to the height of the piping discharge inside the tank. To do this they would like you to provide an accurate system curve that would describe the capacity and head needed for your various operating conditions. The pump operating point should move back towards the best efficiency point (B. Without this system curve.kelairpumps.com. We do not use the maximum elevation in our calculations because the siphoning action will carry the fluid over this point once the piping is full of liquid.E. These charts are not included with this article. Bill McNally.) if the pump was selected correctly.

1 x 100% of the change = 17.5m³/hr our system head changed to a total of 63.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.58m of resistance head 45 In other words. Centrifugal pumps always pump somewhere on their curve.5 = (1.25 x 7.25 x 23m = 51.. you will make an error in your calculations. What will it be at 67. this pressure must be converted to head and subtracted from the total head required by the pump. valves. strainers. Put a tachometer on the running motor and record the rpm. so if you fail to consider that the suction head will be either added to or subtracted from the discharge head. elbows.1). Unless you are using synchronous motors (you probably are using induction motors on your pumps) you will have to adjust the curves to match your actual pump speed. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 17 30/08/07 Page 2 of 6 . calculated from published charts (not included) is twenty-three metres (23m).6m.com. The B. Bill McNally. It will be positive if you are pumping from a tank located above ground.5m³/hr? 67.5)² = 2. You can use the pump affinity laws to approximate the change. You calculate the change in flow by dividing the new flow by the old flow and then square the number.6 metres at 45m³/hr.6m = 17. filters. A centrifugal pump will create a head/capacity curve that will generally resemble one of the curves described in figure "B" The shape of the curve is determined by the Specific Speed number of the impeller. This change would have to be added to the static and pressure heads to calculate the total head required for the new pump.. difference between your pump and the speed shown on the pump manufacturer's published curve.au www.1 new metres of head 45 In the original application system. loss was a combination of the loss through the piping and the loss through the fittings for a total of 30. What will the new loss be? 67.5) ² = 2. but should be selected to pump as close to the best efficiency point (B. etc. The manufacturer generated these curves at a specific R.M.P. When we increased the flow to 67.58 + 17.) as possible. when we went from 45m³/hr to 67. Information reproduced with permission of author. The suction head will be negative if you are lifting liquid from below ground or if you are pumping from a vacuum.75 x 90% of the change = 46.P.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE "product build up" on the piping walls. Please note that the pump is pumping the difference between the suction head and the discharge head.5 = (1. A general "rule of thumb" says that the friction loss in clean piping will vary approximately with 90% of the square of the change in flow in the piping.E.5m³/hr the piping resistance increased from 23m to 46. and 100% of the square with the change of flow in the fittings and accessories.kelairpumps.E. heat exchangers. will fall some where between 80% and 85% of the shut off head (maximum head).58m The loss through the fittings and hardware was calculated at 7. If the suction head is pressurized.P.com. making the published numbers somewhat inaccurate. As an example: At 45m³/hr the piping resistance.68m (46.

com. This is a very common application in many process systems or aboard a ship that is frequently changing speeds (answering bells). The curve will look like this if the majority of the head is either static or pressure head. • Information reproduced with permission of author. In this system.com. They look something like Figure "C".au www. the head remains a constant as the capacity varies. is the normal routine in most process plants.kelairpumps.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 17 30/08/07 Page 3 of 6 .au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS have a different shaped curve. This is a typical application for: • A boiler feed pump that is supplying a constant pressure boiler with a varying steam demand. Bill McNally. Filling a tank from the top and varying the amount of liquid being pumped.

kelairpumps. Bill McNally.com. Information reproduced with permission of author. Pumping to a non pressurized tank.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE The second system is the ideal one. Figure "E" describes it: In this system the entire head is system head so it will vary with the capacity. Look for this type of curve in the following applications: • • A circulating hot or cold water heating/ cooling system. Filling tank cars is a typical application.com.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 17 30/08/07 Page 4 of 6 .au www. a long distance from the source with little to no elevation involved.

E. The shape of his curve will be pretty much determined by the specific speed number of the impeller. pressure and system heads.. Once the pump manufacturer has a clear idea as to the shape of your system curve. It is a combination of static. Bill McNally.kelairpumps. This is especially true if you have replaced the packing with a mechanical seal and no longer have the packing to act as a support bearing when the shaft deflects. In addition to specific speed he can select impeller diameter.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE System curve "G" is a common one.com. The head of a centrifugal pump is determined by the impeller diameter and rpm. Check the rpm's on these pumps if you are experiencing any difficulties. impeller width. The sad fact is that most pumps are selected poorly because of the desire to offer the customer the lowest possible price. you add the capacities together.m. with a low L3/D4.p.au www. the stronger pump will throttle the weaker one.P. is still your best protection against seal and bearing premature failure when the pump is operating off of its best efficiency point. The capacity of a pump is determined by the impeller width and r. the more robust the pump you will need. A robust pump. Keep the following in mind as you select your pump: • A centrifugal pump will pump where the pump curve intersects the system curve. • • Information reproduced with permission of author.P. you go. pump rpm.). and the head and capacity numbers needed he can then select the proper centrifugal pump.com. Shaft deflection is always a major problem at start up. When you connect pumps in parallel.E. If the heads are different.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. or your desire for the pump to perform a specific task. This may bear no relationship to the best efficiency point (B. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 17 30/08/07 Page 5 of 6 . so the impeller diameters and rpm's must be the same if you connect pumps in parallel. The further off the B. and he also has the option of series or parallel operation along with the possibility of using a multi-stage pump to satisfy your needs.

P. You should also keep in mind that if the motor is running at its best efficiency point that does not mean that the pump is running at its B. Pressure recorders (not gauges) installed at the pump suction and discharge is another technique you can use to get a better picture of the system or dynamic head. You could also have a problem operating too far to the right of the best efficiency point with a possible motor "burn out".au www. 1750. is causing an alignment problem. because people tap into the lines.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. using the pumped fluid for a variety of purposes and after having done so forget to change or "mark up" the original system print.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE • If you connect the pumps in series.E. to make an accurate system head calculation.kelairpumps. Pump curves are based on a speed of 1450. The actual system always differs from that shown on the print. etc. Check that the shaft is not bent or the rotating assembly is not out of dynamic balance. 3500. Electric induction motors seldom run at these speeds because of "slip". In other words. rpm. you can do the following to resist some of the shaft displacement: • • • Use a solid shaft. and this is too high a number for reliable seal performance. A centre line design wet end can be used if pipe strain.E. 2900. you can install a sleeve bearing in the packing space to support the shaft when the pump is operated off of its B.com.com. You are going to have to "walk down" the system and note the pipe length. Sleeves often raise the L3/D4 number to over 60 (2 in the metric system). • • • • • Do not trust the system prints to make your calculations. This means that the variable speed motor will work best on a system curve that is exponential (Figure "F"). Unfortunately most process and boiler feed pump system curves are not exponential. Stop the cavitation if you are experiencing any. Once the seal has been moved closer to the bearings. You can estimate that a 2% to a 5% slip is normal in these pumps with the "slip" directly related to the price of the motor. or any time a pump discharge valve is operated. due to temperature expansion. The affect is almost the same as changing the diameter of the impeller. They will show you how the head is varying with changes in flow. Try to keep the mechanical seal as close to the bearings as possible. It is the mechanical seal that is the most sensitive to shaft deflection and vibration.” Information reproduced with permission of author. This is especially important at start up. the number of fittings. so the capacities must be the same or one of them will probably cavitate.P. Balance the rotating assembly. the pumps are connected in parallel and no body knows it.. • • • Since you will be using pumps that were supplied at the lowest cost. Use a "C" or "D" frame adapter to solve pump motor alignment difficulties. the heads will add together. Bill McNally. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 17 30/08/07 Page 6 of 6 . the best efficiency point comes down at an angle. When you vary the speed of a centrifugal pump. Do not be surprised to find that the discharge of your pump is hooked up to the discharge of another pump further down the line.

• Example: 50 metres³ per hour x 0. How much is required if you go to 3000 rpm? We would get: 9 x 8 (23) = 72 kW is now required. and as you would guess. As an example: NEW SPEED = A VALUE. • • • Example: A 9 kW motor was required to drive the pump at 1500 rpm.52) = 5 metre head The Power required changes by the cube of the number. Likewise if a 12 kW motor was required at 3000 rpm and you decreased the speed to 1500 the new kilowatts required would be: 12 x 0.5 = 25 Cubic metres per hour The head varies by the square of the number.com. OLD SPEED or 1500 RPM = 0.com. or amount of fluid you're pumping. There are four ways you could do this: • • • • Regulate the discharge of the pump by using a valve or orifice. but they give you an idea of how speed and impeller diameter affects other pump functions. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 18 25/09/07 Page 1 of 2 .53) = 1. varies directly with this number.125 (0. Purchase a new pump Of the four methods the middle two are generally the most sensible ones.5 3000 RPM The capacity. we will see what other characteristics of the pump are going to change along with these values. The net positive suction head required by the pump (NPSHR) varies by the square of the number.kelairpumps.au www. Since changing either one will have approximately the same affect we will refer to only the speed in this part of the discussion. Bill McNally.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 18 PUMP AFFINITY LAWS There are occasions when you might want to permanently change the amount of liquid you are pumping. or change the discharge head of a centrifugal pump. • Example : 20 metre head x 0.25 ( 0.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.5 kW required for the lower rpm. In the following paragraphs we'll learn what happens when we change either the pump speed or impeller diameter. Change the speed of the pump by changing the motor or using a variable speed drive Change the diameter of the impeller. what would be the NPSHR for the given pump if its speed was increased to 2900rpm A 3 metre NPSHR x 4 (22) = 12 metre NPSHR at 2900rpm Information reproduced with permission of author. To determine what is going to happen we begin by taking the new speed or impeller diameter and divide it by the old speed or impeller diameter. The following relationships are not exact. • • Example: If the NPSHR at 1450rpm is 3m.

Information reproduced with permission of author.52) or 0.0 mm per month.5 x 8 (23) or 4.25 (0.kelairpumps.au www.au QLD Fax: 07 3808 8758 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE The amount of shaft run out (deflection) varies by the square of the number • As an example you had 0. the housing is not coming down in size correspondingly so the affinity laws do not remain accurate below this 10% maximum number. Bill McNally.07 mm x 0. Friction loss through fittings and accessories varies by almost the square of the number.07 mm run out at 2900 rpm and you slowed that shaft down to 1450 rpm the run out would decrease to 0.com. The amount of friction loss in the piping varies by approximately 90% of the square of the number. We sometimes experience an increase in motor speed rather than a drop in amperage during these conversions and the affinity laws will help you to predict the final outcome of the change. We started this discussion by stating that a change in impeller speed or a change in impeller diameter has approximately the same effect.com. Likewise a decrease in speed would decrease the wear rate eight times as much. The affinity laws do however remain accurate for speed changes and this is important to remember when we convert from gland packing to a balanced mechanical seal. At 2900 rpm the rate would increase to: 0. the loss at 2900 rpm would be: 65 metres x 4 (22) = 260 x 0.5 mm per month.018 mm. This is true only if you decrease the impeller diameter to a maximum of 10% This is true because as you cut down the impeller diameter. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 18 25/09/07 Page 2 of 2 .Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.9 = 234 metres The wear rate of the components varies by the cube also • Example: At 1450 rpm the impeller material is wearing at the rate of 0. • As an example: If the system head loss was calculated or measured at 65 metres at 1450 rpm.

as the bubbles collapse. For the purpose of this article we will use a chart in imperial units. meaning that the fluid we are pumping will get hotter and in almost no cases is there any advantage in heating up the process fluid. We all know that if you throw dry ice into cold water it will bubble and vapourise.com. Bill McNally. Information reproduced with permission of author. In this article however we want to talk only about NPSH and what it means as it is a term that is misunderstood by many people. Since temperature is a variable with different fluids. causing the pumping capacity to diminish. • • • Bubbles or cavities form in a liquid when the fluid temperature gets too high. For the purpose of this article we will use vapourise and further state that a fluid will vapourise any time the pressure falls below its vapourisation point. there are charts that will give you the vapour pressure for any fluid at its various temperatures. The head also reduces because energy has to be expended to increase the velocity of the liquid used to fill up the cavities. This is called vapourisation. but it is not hot. This vibration can lead to pump failure. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 19 31/10/07 Page 1 of 5 . We do not want bubbles in our process fluid for a lot of reasons: • Bubbles take up space. You will note that the vapour pressure for 60˚F chlorine is 80 psi (540kPa). These numbers are required to calculate our NPSH available. It is these cavities that are going to cause a cavitation problem that will damage both the impeller and volute. A bubble is a hole or cavity in the liquid. Take a look at the following chart.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 19 ABOUT NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD (NPSH) In past Pump Clinic Articles we have talked about cavitation which most people who have any involvement with pumps will come across at some stage. or sometimes boiling although the word boiling tends to imply that the liquid is hot which need not be the case.com.kelairpumps.au www. or the fluid pressure gets too low. As the velocity goes up. the head or pressure goes down. and the vapour pressure for 68˚F fresh water is about 0.3 psi (2kPa). Air is a poor heat transfer medium. Excessive vibration can occur when part of the impeller is handling a liquid and another part is handling a vapour.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. This will diminish the position of the liquid level in respect to the pump centre line. This is referred to as "velocity head" As the fluid moves through piping. This can be referred to as a loss of "pressure head" Lift the liquid out of a hole. fittings. As its velocity increases its pressure will decrease. This is referred to as an increase in friction head. Bill McNally.kelairpumps. resulting in some loss of "positive suction head.au www.com. restrictions and valving.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE A fluid pressure can be lowered in several ways: • • • • Put the fluid in a container. and then pull a vacuum on the container." Information reproduced with permission of author. This can be referred to as a loss of "static head" Accelerate the fluid. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 19 31/10/07 Page 2 of 5 . This happens in the hot well of condensers. some friction losses occur that will drop the fluid pressure.

but it can occur several ways: • • Internal recirculation in the pump because of worn wear rings or failure to make an impeller adjustment. Here are the formulas you can use to convert from one to the other: Head= Pressure x 0.com.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Heating of the incoming fluid is not usually a problem. On the chart they are located at the bottom of the dotted lines and they run from 2 to 16. The attached pump curve shows the numbers. The values have been obtained by testing the pump at different capacities.com. An 11-inch impeller running at its best efficiency point would need 7 feet of NPSH required. This observed number is called the "Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR). converted to head. The larger the diameter. To determine the pressure we have to know the weight or "specific gravity" of the fluid we are pumping.au www. The faster the speed the higher the head. but we do know the head it can produce. the bigger the head. According to this graph a 13-inch impeller. and since any given centrifugal pump can move a lot of different fluids. with different specific gravities. Piping. exposed to the elements. it is simpler to discuss the pump's head and forget about the pressure. can heat up the liquid on hot and sunny days. running at its best efficiency point (60+%). and transferred to the pump curve. The head is a function of the shaft speed and the impeller diameter. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 19 31/10/07 Page 3 of 5 . throttling the suction side and waiting for the first signs of cavitation. Information reproduced with permission of author. would need a NPSH required of 9 feet. The pressure was noted. Bill McNally.1 In the above formula: • • Head is measured in metres (m) Pressure is measured in kilopascals (kPa) The pump manufacturer has decided how much head the pump needs to prevent cold water from vapourising at different capacities and these values are published on his pump curve. We do not know how much pressure a centrifugal pump will develop.kelairpumps.1 Specific gravity Pressure= Head x specific gravity 0. Remember this requirement is for cold water only.

and anytime the velocity of a liquid goes up. The pressure head.com. You get the number from charts showing pipes size vs flow. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 19 31/10/07 Page 4 of 5 . So why does the NPSH required increase as the capacity is increasing? It's because the velocity of the liquid is increasing. • The static head measured from the liquid level to the centre line of the pump. it comes out to 0.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.3 psi/ 2kPa vapour pressure for 68˚ water into the numbers. Bill McNally. There is almost always plenty of pressure on the discharge side of the pump to prevent the fluid from vapourising.com. using the above formula) to the static head if you have an open tank. and flow through fittings and valves.7 feet or 0. In other words atmospheric pressure is 101kPa at sea level so you will add that number (converted to metres. instead of atmospheric pressure. The friction loss in the piping will be a minus number. If the fluid is under vacuum we will convert the absolute pressure reading to head and use that number. Here we will be using only absolute numbers.kelairpumps. Now that we know what head is required. Generally we will be looking at three kinds of head.2 metres of head is required to stop the water from vapourising and forming cavities. • Information reproduced with permission of author. and remember we are only interested in the suction side of the pump.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Be sure to keep in mind that any discussion of NPSH or cavitation is only concerned about the suction side of the pump. • If we go back to our formula and put the 0. the pressure or head comes down.au www. If the liquid level is above the pump centre line you will have a positive number. If the level is below the centre line you will have a negative number. we can calculate the head we have available.

Most people involved in pumping system design demand an additional safety factor of 1m. All of the above.kelairpumps. NPSH available is defined as: NPSHA = Atmospheric pressure + static head + pressure head .Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.the vapor pressure of your product .au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE • The next thing we have to do is subtract the vapour pressure of our fluid (converted to feet of liquid) using the first formula I gave you.com. Bill McNally. NPSHA will always need to be greater than the NPSHR for the pump to operate without cavitation. valves and fittings. If this number is equal to. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 19 31/10/07 Page 5 of 5 . or more than the NPSH required by the pump manufacturer.au www. added together is the NPSH available.com. Information reproduced with permission of author. the liquid will not form bubbles or cavities on the suction side and the pump will not cavitate. In summary.loss in the piping.

There are a number of factors that can change the head of a pump while it is operating and this is the point where most people start adding in safety factors to compensate for some of the unknowns such as aging or clogged pipework or fittings with unknown resistance.kelairpumps. To get the total head you'll subtract the suction head from the discharge head. • o These heads need to be calculated for both the suction and discharge side of the pump. For other centrifugal pump applications. fittings and any valves or hardware that might be in the system. This system curve will then be given to the pump suppliers and they will try to match it with a pump curve that satisfies these needs as closely as possible. This means the flow rate usually in cubic meters per hour or litres per second.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. A boiler feed pump is an example of an application that needs a constant pressure with varying capacities to meet a changing steam demand The demand for boiler water is regulated by opening and closing a control valve on the discharge side of the pump with a discharge re-circulation line returning the unneeded portion back to a convenient storage place. A positive displacement pump is different. To clearly define the capacity and pressure needs of your system sometimes you may construct a system curve.au www. We need to begin by deciding what operating conditions the pump has to meet. such as the boiler we just discussed. You'll need enough pressure to : o o Reach the maximum static head or height the fluid will have to attain. Remember that with a centrifugal pump if you change its capacity you change the head also. Bill McNally. Overcome any pressure that might be in the vessel where the fluid is discharging. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 20 12/12/07 Page 1 of 5 . You must also consider if this capacity will change with the operation of your process. Generally when you approach a pump supplier you will be armed with this information. As an example: high-pressure nozzles can be tricky. This resistance is called the friction head. Remember that the net positive suction head required (NPSHR) number shown on the pump curve is for fresh water at 20°C and not the fluid or combinations of fluids you'll be pumping Information reproduced with permission of author. The pump itself requires a certain amount of net positive suction head (NPSHR) to prevent cavitation.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 20 PUMP SELECTION ‘HOW TO PICK THE CORRECT SIZE AND TYPE OF PUMP FOR YOUR APPLICATION’ Have you ever wondered why sometimes after giving two or more suppliers the same information they come back with quite different pump selections or. why sometimes pump suppliers ask a lot of questions? Many readers of these articles will know what goes into a good pump selection but here we will look at a few of the basics so anyone who is not as familiar with the pump selection process will understand where all the questions are coming from. These safety factors will almost always guarantee the selection of an oversized pump that will run off its best efficiency point (BEP) most of the time. • Decide the capacity you'll need. This value is shown on the pump curve. When you look at the curve you'll also note that the net positive suction head required (NPSHR) increases with any increase in the pump's capacity. Overcome friction resistance in the lines. you're going to have to calculate how much pressure will be needed to deliver different capacities to the location where you'll need them.com. especially if they clog up. This is called the pressure head. This is the head that the pump must produce to satisfy the application. It puts out a constant capacity regardless of the pressure. or the suction side of the pump. The total head of a pump seldom remains static.com.

Food products require high-density seal and pump materials that are easy to clean and sterilize. add a booster pump. If you • • Information reproduced with permission of author. the corrosion rate can change also. you should be looking at nonsparking materials for the pump components. Hard surfaces and chemically resistant materials are often incompatible. o o o o • Occasionally you'll find an application where metal is not practical. you'll need materials with good wearing capabilities. Cavitation is caused by cavities or bubbles in the fluid collapsing on the impeller.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. You might need a high head.com. Will you need any special materials for the pump components? o The pump supplier will try to choose pump metal components that are chemically compatible with what you're pumping.com. Since we all want to quote a competitive price we are now going to make some critical decisions: First we need to look at the style of pump we would recommend: • • If the capacity were going to be very low we would recommend a positive displacement (PD) pump. or go to a double suction or side channel pump design if you don't have enough net positive suction head available (NPSHA) Once the duty information has been established you need to look into materials of construction. Use a non-metallic seal or perhaps magnetic drive in these applications When the pump supplier has all of this information in his possession he can then hopefully select the correct size pump and driver for the job.au www. There are many monomer and polymer materials available for these applications. Some operating conditions dictate the need for a self-priming design.kelairpumps. how will the pump supplier know? Also. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 20 12/12/07 Page 2 of 5 . or a fire hazard. depending on the differential head we would probably select a single stage end suction centrifugal pump. If the product you're pumping is explosive. but their cost is generally higher than comparable metal parts. If you're not sure what materials are compatible with your product. If the temperature of the pumpage changes. • • You may have to install an inducer on the pump. They also sometimes affect the design of the pump internal and external components If there are abrasive solids in the pumpage. Between about 5 m3 /hr and 120 m3/hr. You may have to go to some type of coating on the pump wetted parts or select an expensive duplex metal. At higher capacities we may go to a split case or double suction design with a wide impeller or even use two pumps in parallel. the seal can't have metal parts in contact with the fluid for the same reasons the pump was manufactured from nonmetallic materials. Dangerous and radioactive materials will dictate special materials. This could be a gear or diaphragm type pump for small capacities. keep in mind that some of the fluids you'll be pumping could be proprietary products known only by their trade name. Do not depend totally upon the pump manufacturer to make this decision for you.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Either you or the pump supplier will be calculating the net positive suction head available (NPSHA) to be sure that the pump selected will not cavitate. low capacity pump in which case we may look at a positive displacement pump again or a multi stage centrifugal pump Does the pump need to be self-priming? A self priming pump removes air from the impeller eye and suction side of the pump. Be aware that if you're using a mechanical seal in a non-metallic pump. This can sometimes be a bit of a balancing act. Will the material selection have an impact on your stock levels or values if the materials are exotic. and volute and has been covered in previous Pump Clinic articles so we will not expand on it here other than to say its presence has harmful effects on most pump styles over time and it should be avoided wherever possible. as well as any cleaners or solvents that might be flushed through the lines. Bill McNally.

o o • • • • The supplier should recommend a centerline design to avoid the problems caused by thermal expansion of the wet end if you're operating at temperatures over 200°F (100°C)? Will you need a volute or circular casing? Volute casings build a higher head. will priming become a problem the next time you start the pump? • How will the pump be operated? o If the pump is going to run twenty-four hours a day. o • How important is efficiency in your application? High efficiency is desirable. Some suppliers like to recommend a high speed small pump to be competitive.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE do not have a self-priming pump and you're on intermittent service.kelairpumps. If fitted with a mechanical seal will it also have an oversized stuffing box and any environmental controls that might be needed? Will the pump have a jacketed stuffing box so that the temperature of the seal fluid can be regulated? How do you intend to control the stuffing box temperature? Will you be using water. API. steam or maybe a combination of both? Electric heating is sometimes an option. Bill McNally. A double volute centrifugal pump can eliminate many of the seal problems experienced when we operate off the pump's best efficiency point. It's easy to select a pump that'll run at its best efficiency point and at the best efficiency point (BEP) there's very little shaft displacement or vibration. You should be looking for performance. There are additional decisions that have to be made about the type of pump the supplier will recommend: • • • Will the pump be supplied with a mechanical seal or packing? If the stuffing box is at negative pressure (vacuum) a seal will be necessary to prevent air ingestion. Do you need a pump that meets a standard? ANSI. you will not need a heavy-duty pump.com. How will the open or semi-open impeller be adjusted to the volute casing or back plate? Can the mechanical seal face loading be adjusted at the same time? If not. but their efficiency is lower than conventional centrifugal pumps. seven days a week and you're not going to open and close valves. the seal face load will change and the seal life will be shortened.com.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. other suppliers might recommend a more expensive low speed large pump to lessen NPSH and wear problems. circular casing are used for low head and high capacity. etc. Too often the engineer specifies efficiency and loses the other two. but you pay a price for efficiency in higher maintenance costs and a limited operating window.au www. The problem is trying to find a supplier that will supply one for your application. thrust direction. o A magnetic drive or canned pump may be your best option if you can live with the limitations they impose. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 20 12/12/07 Page 3 of 5 . and efficiency in that order. vibration levels. reliability. The decision to use either a single or multistage pump will be determined by the head the pump must produce to meet the capacities you need. The main ones being their intolerance of dry running and solids A vortex or slurry pump design may be needed if there is a concentration of solids or "stringy" material in the pumpage. The following designs solve some operation and maintenance problems. • Information reproduced with permission of author. Intermittent service is sometimes the more difficult application because of changing temperatures. Although readily available for impellers larger than 14 inches (355 mm) in diameter they have become very scarce in the smaller diameters. DIN or ISO are some of the current standards.

Universal joints and ‘Hardi Spicer’ shafts are a potential problem for those not experienced with their use because they have to be misaligned to be lubricated properly Belt drives are an option that allows a reasonable amount of fine tuning of pump speed to be achieved as well as changes of speed later in the pumps life. but the maintenance costs can be much higher depending on the pump duty. or two pumps in series operation if you need a high head. This can be a problem for some induction motors or installations where identical location of the pumps is not possible. Pumps that run in parallel or series require that they are running at the same speed. but need manual adjustment to the volute or back-plate to get the proper impeller setting and prevent internal recirculation.com. Open and semi-open impellers are less likely to clog. If he has decided to use a variable speed drive or motor this becomes a possibility.au www. semi-open. The decision to use a closed impeller. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 20 12/12/07 Page 4 of 5 . but if he goes too far all of the internal clearances will have to be perfect to prevent cavitation problems. Closed impellers require wear rings and these wear rings present another maintenance problem. • • • • Information reproduced with permission of author. or will the pump to motor alignment have to be done manually using dual indicators or a laser aligner to get the readings? A close-coupled design can eliminate the need for an alignment between the pump and driver. You should consider one of the duplex metals because most corrosion resistant materials are too soft for the demands of a pump impeller. What type of coupling will you use to connect the pump to its driver? Couplings can compensate for axial growth of the shaft and transmit torque to the impeller. They cannot compensate for pump to driver misalignment as much as we would like them to although this is much better than it was a few years ago.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. capacity. Most manufacturers require that you disassemble the pump to check the wear ring clearance and replace the rings when this clearance doubles. Bill McNally.kelairpumps. Is the pump fitted with a metric motor frame adapter. They are often used on slurry applications. open impeller. The supplier may decide to run two pumps in parallel operation if you need a high capacity. If the wear ring clearance becomes too large the pumps efficiency will be lowered causing heat and vibration problems. An inline pump design can solve many pipe strain and thermal growth problems. and the pump size. The manufacturer sometimes has the option of installing an inducer or altering the pump design/application to lower the net positive suction head required. We all want pumps with a low net positive suction head required to prevent cavitation problems but sometimes it's not practical. • • • • • • • • There are multiple decisions to be made about the impeller selection and not all pump suppliers are qualified to make them: • The impeller material must be chosen for both chemical compatibility and wear resistance. Speed is especially critical if you're going to be specifying a slurry pump.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE • If the pump is going to be supplied with a closed impeller you should have some means of knowing when the wear rings have to be replaced. High speed pumps cost less initially. The pump supplier must ensure that the pump will not be operating at a critical speed or passing through a critical speed at start up. or vortex design is another decision to be made. Shaft speed is an important decision. along with the head. Vortex pump impellers are great for solids and "stringy" materials but they are up to 50% less efficient than conventional designs. Speed affects pump component wear and NPSH requirements.com.

The decision will be dictated by the specific gravity of the liquid you'll be pumping. along with the specific gravity of any cleaners or solvents that might be flushed through the lines. Information reproduced with permission of author.kelairpumps. a non-sparking type metal may be needed to prevent a fire or explosion. the McNally Institute Pump Clinic 20 12/12/07 Page 5 of 5 . You'll be better off choosing a closed impeller design with soft wear rings in these applications. Either you or the supplier must select the correct size electric motor. the motor will not overheat and the pump should not cavitate. Hopefully you'll be getting the supplier’s best pump technology. the pump supplier will select a pump type and size. If you're going to pump low specific gravity fluids with an open impeller. Needless to say the motor or driver will be adversely affected also. Bill McNally. After carefully considering all of the above. the pump supplier will place his pump curve on top of your system curve and the required operating window will fall within the pump's operating window on either side of the best efficiency point (BEP).au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE • Investment cast impellers are usually superior to sand cast versions because you can cast compound curves with the investment casting process. Additionally. The selection will also be influenced by how far you'll venture off the best efficiency point (BEP) on the capacity side of the pump curve. resulting in premature seal and bearing failures.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. efficiency and power requirement of the pump. If this number is under-estimated there is a danger of burning out some electric motors. producing radial impeller loading problems that will cause shaft deflection. You should know about viscosity and how the viscosity of the pumpage will affect the performance of the pump. The affinity laws will predict the affect of changing the impeller speed or diameter. If the decisions were made incorrectly. There are some viscosity corrections you can make to the pump curve when you pump viscous fluids. the pump will operate where the pump and system curves intersect and that will not be close to.au www. or maybe a petrol or diesel engine. or at the best efficiency point. capacity. The compound curve allows the impeller to pump abrasive fluids with less vane wear.com. Will the regulating valve open and close automatically like a boiler feed valve. How are you going to vary the pump's capacity? Are you going to open and close a valve or maybe you'll be using a variable speed drive. • • • • • • If all of the above decisions were made correctly. present the quote and give you a copy of the pump curve. The viscosity of the fluid is another consideration because it'll affect the head.com. or will it be operated manually? A variable speed motor or a frequency inverter might be an alternative if the major part of the system head is friction head rather than static or pressure head. or some other type of driver for the pump.

This can come about through the air valve being contaminated by a poor quality air supply or pumped product that may have migrated into the air valve through a failed diaphragm. i t can repeatedly pulse the pilot valve. The conditions that can cause both are outlined as follows: A pump can be considered Stalled when both the main air valve and the pilot valve spools are centered in their respective travel. A similar condition can also exist with low flow / low speed situations where the same events will occur.au www. Both have low speed / low flow coupled with dead head and can have air / vapour build-up on the discharge side of the pump.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 21 STALLING IN SOME AIR-POWERED DOUBLE DIAPHRAGM PUMPS One of the more serious operating issues for some air powered double diaphragm pumps is referred to in the Industry as "Stalled” or “Stalling”. Eliminating the condition of air / vapour build-up fixes the problem but this fix is not always possible. Diaphragm assemblies can float when the discharge system is compressible (air or vapor bound). both of which may exist. When the air valve is in this position it will divert or block off the supply air (power source) preventing the unit from reciprocating. The results are the same.kelairpumps. A pump can be considered to be Sticking if i t fails to restart or stops and inspection reveals that the main air valve spool is seized or stuck in the valve sleeve. The pump may fail to restart or will stop without warning. hence building up balanced air pressures causing the valve spools to centre.com. if the pump were dead headed by closing a valve in the discharge piping. As the pump continues to cycle. If either valve spool is off centre. The condition under which Stalling occurs almost always includes where the discharge side is air or vapour bound and where operation is at a low speed or dead headed. they would float back and forth in their travel as they compress and decompress the fluid mixture in their respective chambers. Two applications where both conditions can occur are Filter Press service and On-Demand Spray service. This phenomenon is regularly encountered in unbalanced or bias designed air valves and this problem presents itself as a rapid fire rattle or machine gun type noise in the pump.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. The only means to restart are to remove and reapply the air supply or with some air powered double diaphragm pumps to use hammer adjustment by hitting the main air valve housing with a hammer or similar object. In these instances. It can also be evident where critical air valve components are worn allowing internal air by-pass. New Design Enhancement Pump Clinic 21 28/02/08 Page 1 of 3 .com. This is when air pressure is equalised on each side of the air valve or pilot valve. This occurs when a pump would not restart after it was dead headed or was simply found to have stalled. the unit will again function. HAMMER ADJUSTMENT A Stalling condition should not be confused with a Sticking condition.

The concept remains the same across all Sandpiper pump sizes but the means vary according to the unit designs.au www. The not so tough applications were to prove that Sandpiper did not overcome one problem only to create another one.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE This enhancement with Sandpiper pumps shifting mechanism has made a dramatic improvement in the performance of the pumps in so called trouble applications.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. This can only be taken so far in anyone's design until the air valve assembly becomes so fouled that it must be removed to be cleaned and or serviced. the cross-drilled porting. The enhancement provides for what can be called an Air Detent that positively locks the main air valve spool on one end of its travel or the other. positive shift can the main air valve spool shift to the opposite end of its travel. Only after the pilot valve has made a complete. positive stroke.com. This has been proved in many field trials in very tough and not so tough field applications. This change has been in the main air valve sleeve and/or the pilot valve body. The improvement can be heard. In these instances. This term describes the most apparent part of the change. The components have proven themselves in this application by extending service life and reliability. Several components were also specifically developed for use in mine service where poor quality air is not uncommon because of the application environments in mines. The design has been applied across the complete range of Sandpiper pumps. There is no way for the valve spool to float allowing i t to centre. Pump Clinic 21 28/02/08 Page 2 of 3 .com. This provides for servicing of the main valve and pilot valve assemblies without needing to disconnect suction and discharge pipework.kelairpumps. The newer design compensates for these conditions and 'strokes right through them' with an audible. The enhancement has been referred to as "crossdrilled shifters" for lack of a better term. the Sandpiper ESADS Plus feature will prove its worth through its design for ease of access and serviceability. The Sandpiper air valve design has proven tolerant to poor quality air supplies through its design and selection of materials.

At the same instant.com. the opposite side of the valve has its pilot signal air pressure and the Air Detent pressure vented through the pilot valve exhaust and the main air valve exhaust.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Only after the pilot signal has been positively applied to the opposite side of the main air valve spool can it shift.au www.com. As detailed earlier. This supplemental or Air Detent holds the main air valve spool in place even if the pilot signal is lost.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE How is this Air Detent feature accomplished? Simply. This air is directed through the 'cross-drilled' porting detailed earlier. It is more than just connecting one part to another. positive shift. full length pump strokes. the air is ported from the inner chamber that is on a discharge stroke (under power) to the end of the main air valve that has the pilot air signal applied. All the air is ported to where it needs to be through a series of engineered orifices or crossdrilled ports. Pump Clinic 21 28/02/08 Page 3 of 3 . differential pressure across the main air valve spool causing a very quick. with all the modifications undergoing rigorous testing both in-house and in the field. This assures consistent. you can hear the difference.kelairpumps. This causes a very rapid and greater than standard.

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. which was used by Isaac Newton in first defining viscosity. These are known as Non-Newtonian fluids. S. 1 The velocity distribution will be linear over the distance dx. 1.com.au www. Therefore. Newtonian Liquids Isaac Newton made the assumption that all materials have. a viscosity that is independent of the rate of shear.com. it can be called the "rate of shear"." F. a force twice as large would be required to move a liquid twice as fast. of course. It can be thought of as the internal friction resulting when one layer of fluid is made to move in relation to another layer. There are. viscosity can be defined as follows'. and experiments show that the velocity gradient. Also. at a given temperature. With these simplified terms.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 22 VISCOSITY The viscosity of a fluid is that property which tends to resist a shearing force. Where n constant for a given liquid and is called its viscosity. is directly proportional to the force per unit area. in other words their viscosity is dependent on the rate of shear. A detailed discussion on viscosity is a major undertaking and this article serves to provide a basic understanding of viscosity and how it impacts on pumping. Consider the model shown in Fig. fluids which do not behave this way. The velocity gradient. In other words.kelairpumps. the force per unit area can be simplified and called the "shear force" or "shear stress. describes the shearing experienced by the intermediate layers as they move with respect to each other. It shows two parallel planes of fluid of area A separated by a distance dx and moving in the same direction at different velocities V1 and V2. Pump Clinic 22 Viscosity 27/03/08 Page 1 of 5 . Fluids which behave this way are called Newtonian fluids. Fig.

They present no serious mechanical pumping problems since they tend to thin out with the high rates of shear present in a pump. The viscosity decreases with increasing rate of shear.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Fig. Clay slurries and candy compounds are examples of dilatant liquids. Fig. They can present problems in positive displacement pump selection because slippage through clearances may increase due to the drop in viscosity and pump speeds may need to be increased to compensate. a certain force must be applied before any movement is produced.kelairpumps. 2 shows graphically the relationships between shear Stress (F. Examples of this type are grease. soap. Tomato sauce is a good example of this type of material. Group B shows a dilatant material or one in which the viscosity increases with an increasing rate of shear.) and viscosity (n) for a Newtonian liquid. 3 Non-Newtonian Liquids Pump Clinic 22 Viscosity 27/03/08 Page 2 of 5 . 3 shows graphically the three most common types of Non-Newtonian liquids. the viscosity is the inverse slope of the line in sketch 1. This force is called the yield value of the material. and in absolute units. Fig. Water and light oils are good examples of Newtonian liquids. paint.com. It behaves similar to a pseudoplastic material from a pumping standpoint. Group A shows a decreasing viscosity with an increasing rate of shear.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. However. and most emulsions. starch. This is known as a pseudo-plastic material.) rate of shear (S. Group C shows a plastic material.com.au www. 2 Newtonian Liquid Non-Newtonian Liquids Fig. molasses. The normal procedure would be to oversize the pump somewhat and open up the internal clearances in an effort to reduce the shear rate. The viscosity remains constant as shown in sketch 2. These liquids can present problems to the pump suppliers. Pumps must be selected with extreme care since these liquids can become almost solid if the shear rate is high enough.

It is important to understand the viscosity characteristics as the liquid is sheared in particular where the viscosity increases with shear and the pump manufacturer should be consulted in these instances. most of which are designed for specific liquids or viscosity ranges. Pump Clinic 22 Viscosity 27/03/08 Page 3 of 5 . The corresponding English unit is square foot per second. but they are seldom encountered in pumping applications. Most pipe friction charts and pump correction charts list kinematic viscosity. which are equal to one-hundredth of a poise. Higher viscosities affect the capacity-head performance and more significantly the pump efficiency and therefore power requirements.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. This is usually expressed in pound-seconds per square foot in the English system which is equal to slugs per foot-second. soap. Because of the significant impact of viscosity on power requirements. glues. namely 1cst. Centrifugal pumps. Dynamic viscosities are given in terms of force required to move a unit area a unit distance. The corresponding units are the SSU (Seconds Saybolt Universal). These are simply arbitrary figures. starch. The PIA Handbook defines the limits based on the dimension in millimetres of the pump discharge connections and these are < 50 mm >50mm but <150 mm >150 mm maximum 300 cst maximum 500 cst maximum 800 cst Our experience has indicated that these viscosities may be a little high and better limits are.com. Liquids whose viscosity increases with time are called rheopectic liquids.kelairpumps. Conversion charts for various units of viscosity are attached. A liquid whose viscosity decreases with time at a given shear rate is called a thixotropic liquid. The water performance of pumps may be adjusted for any viscosity and this is covered in a separate Pump Clinic titled Viscosity Impact on Centrifugal Pump Performance. paint.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE The viscosity of some Non-Newtonian liquids is dependent upon time as well as shear rate. This is numerically equal to the gram per centimetresecond. numerical values are normally expressed in centipoise. Centrifugal pump performance curves are primarily based on the viscosity of water. the viscosity at any particular time depends upon the amount of previous agitation or shearing of the liquid. The following formula is used to obtain the kinematic viscosity when the dynamic or absolute viscosity is known: There are various units used for viscosity and these are determined by the type of viscometers utilised for determining liquid viscosities. In other words. < 50 mm >50mm but <150 mm >150 mm maximum 100 cst maximum 250 cst maximum 400 cst This only shows the arbitrary nature of these limits. The basic unit of kinematic viscosity is the stoke which is equal to a square centimetre per second in the Metric system. however. and grease. The Metric system is more commonly used. Examples are asphalts.au www. Viscosity and Pumping 1. These units are found on most pipe friction and pump correction charts in addition to centistokes. The Saybolt viscometers are probably the most widely used in the United States. The centistoke which is onehundredth of a stoke is normally used in the charts. Units of Viscosity There are two basic viscosity parameters: dynamic (or absolute) viscosity and kinematic viscosity. there are general viscosity limits for centrifugal pumps. For convenience. in which the unit is the dynesecond per square centimetre called the Poise. molasses.

g.com. the impact of liquid slippage through pump clearances from pump discharge to suction may increase significantly (dependent on differential pressure across the pump) and this needs to be considered in pump size and speed selection.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. With decreasing viscosity.com. Positive Displacement Pumps.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE 2. The change in viscosity as the product is sheared is more important with PD pump selection irrespective of whether viscosity increases or decreases. Section D -. The other parameters are flow.au www. Contact the pump supplier with viscosity change information in these instances. pressure and other liquid conditions e. speed and motor selection. mechanical issues as well a speed reduction is a major consideration. With increasing viscosities. The application of positive displacement (PD) pumps is easier as the majority of PD pump selection procedures and software programs use viscosity as one of the determining parameters for pump size.Properties of Liquids Viscosity Conversion Table 1 Pump Clinic 22 Viscosity 27/03/08 Page 4 of 5 .kelairpumps. solids content.

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Viscosity Conversion Table 2 Pump Clinic 22 Viscosity 27/03/08 Page 5 of 5 .com.au www.kelairpumps.com.

Inc Pump Clinic 23 Controlling Surge and Pulsation Problems 23/04/08 Page 1 of 1 .au www.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 23 CONTROLLING SURGE AND PULSATION PROBLEMS Reprinted with kind permission of Blacoh Fluid Control.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.kelairpumps.com.

.

.

.

.

.

.

For maximum pump reliability. or through the housing of other rotating equipment such as a filter or screen. Dynamic seals are used. Fig. Gaskets and O-rings are typical static seals. 2). To best understand how such a seal functions a quick review of pump fundamentals is in order.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 24 SEALING IN PUMPS (Reprinted from ITT Goulds Pumps Website) The proper selection of a seal is critical to the success of every pump application. 1). through the casing of a pump (Fig. Static seals are employed where no movement occurs at the Juncture to be sealed. Sealing Basics There are two basic kinds of seals: static and dynamic. for example. Dynamic seals are used where surfaces move relative to one another. where a rotating shaft transmits power through the wall of a tank (Fig. 2 Typical Centrifugal Pump A common application of sealing devices is to seal the rotating shaft of a centrifugal pump. a sealless pump is an alternative. In addition. which would eliminate the need for a dynamic type seal entirely.com. choices must be made between the type of seal and the seal environment. 1 Cross Section of Tank and Mixer Fig.au www.kelairpumps.com. Pump Clinic 24 Sealing in Pumps (Reprinted from ITT Goulds Website) 29/05/08 Page 1 of 10 .Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.

au www. the liquid enters the suction of the pump at the center (eye) of the rotating impeller (Figures 3 and 4). Stuffing Box Packing A typical packed stuffing box arrangement is shown in Fig. Pump Clinic 24 Sealing in Pumps (Reprinted from ITT Goulds Website) 29/05/08 Page 2 of 10 . Such sealing devices are typically either compression packing or end-face mechanical seals. which then leaves the impeller.com.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE In a centrifugal pump. 4 Fluid Flow in Centrifugal Pump As the impeller vanes rotate. Fig. collects in the pump casing. and leaves the pump under pressure through the pump discharge. Such techniques include: 1) the addition of balance holes through the impeller to permit most of the pressure to escape into the suction side of the impeller. 5. where it attempts to escape along the rotating drive shaft. Pump manufacturers use various design techniques to reduce the pressure of the product trying to escape. Discharge pressure will force some product down behind the impeller to the drive shaft. It consists of: A) Five rings of packing. 3 Centrifugal Pump. However.com. and C) A gland to hold the packing and maintain the desired compression for a proper seal. Liguid End Fig. as there is no way to eliminate this pressure completely.kelairpumps. or 2) the addition of back pump-out vanes on the back side of the impeller. sealing devices are necessary to limit the escape of the product to the atmosphere. B) A lantern ring used for the injection of a lubricating and/or flushing liquid. they transmit motion to the incoming product.

the pumped liquid itself will lubricate the packing (Fig. A bypass line from the pump discharge to the lantern ring connection is normally used providing the pumped liquid is dean. The packing must be lubricated. 6).com.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. and a flow from 40 to 60 drops per minute out of the stuffing box must be maintained for proper lubrication. 7). Fig.com. 6 Typical Stuffing Arrangement when Stuffing Box Pressure is Above Atmospheric Pressure When the stuffing box pressure is below atmospheric pressure. The method of lubricating the packing depends on the nature of the liquid being pumped as well as on the pressure in the stuffing box. a lantern ring is employed and lubrication is injected into the stuffing box (Fig. 5 Typical Stuffing Arrangement (description of parts) The function of packing is to control leakage and not to eliminate it completely.au www.kelairpumps. Pump Clinic 24 Sealing in Pumps (Reprinted from ITT Goulds Website) 29/05/08 Page 3 of 10 .au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Fig. When the pump stuffing box pressure is above atmospheric pressure and the liquid is clean and nonabrasive.

However.au www. and anything above this will only add to packing wear.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Water.kelairpumps. This. with an external liquid simply flushing away the undesirable leakage to a sewer or waste receiver. This is called a smothering gland. Fig. Advantages of mechanical seals over conventional packing are as follows: Pump Clinic 24 Sealing in Pumps (Reprinted from ITT Goulds Website) 29/05/08 Page 4 of 10 .com. 7 Typical Stuffing Box Arrangement when Stuffing Box Pressure is Below Atmospheric Pressure When pumping slurries or abrasive liquids.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Fig. A flow of from . The same quench gland can be used to prevent the escape of a toxic or volatile liquid into the air around the pump. it is recommended that the lantern ring be located at the stuffing box throat to prevent stock from contaminating the packing. it is necessary to inject a dean lubricating liquid from an external source into the lantern ring (Fig. has increased preference for mechanical seals. 8 Typical Stuffing Box Arrangement when Pumping Slurries The gland shown in Figures 5 through 8 is a quench type gland. This permits the operating temperature of the pump to be higher than the limits of the bearing and lubricant design. The seal water pressure should be from . plus a desire to reduce maintenance costs.12 m3/hr is desirable and a valve and flowmeter should be used for accurate control. however.com. Mechanical Seals A mechanical seal is a sealing device which forms a running seal between rotating and stationary parts.7 to 1.0 bars above the stuffing box pressure. Today. thus limiting heat transfer to the bearing frame. or other fluids can be injected into the gland to remove heat from the shaft. oil. The lantern ring Is normally located In the center of the stuffing box. Leakage can be reduced to a level meeting environmental standards of government regulating agencies and maintenance costs can be lower. stringent emission standards limit use of packing to non-hazardous water based liquids.05 to . They were developed to overcome the disadvantages of compression packing. 8). for extremely thick slurries like paper stock.

a V-ring or a wedge. The softer face usually has the smaller mating surface and is commonly called the wear nose. A set of primary seal faces: one rotary and one stationary shown in Fig. collars. Pump Clinic 24 Sealing in Pumps (Reprinted from ITT Goulds Website) 29/05/08 Page 5 of 10 . pins. As in all seals. Fig.) 2. Zero or limited leakage of product (meet emission regulations. Mechanical seal hardware including gland rings. 5. Reduced friction and power loss. 9 as seal ring and insert. Leakage paths at Points C and D are blocked by gaskets or 0-rings. 10). The primary seal is at the seal face.com. The leakage path at Point B is blocked by either an 0-ring. 4.kelairpumps. The other is usually a relatively hard material like silicon-carbide. Dissimilar materials are usually used for the stationary insert and the rotating seal ring face in order to prevent adhesion of the two faces. Reduced maintenance costs. Rubbing contact between these two flat mating surfaces minimizes leakage. 6. A set of secondary seals known as shaft packings and insert mountings such as 0-rings.au www. 3. one face is held stationary in a housing and the other face is fixed to. The Basic Mechanical Seal All mechanical seals are constructed of three basic sets of parts as shown in Fig. the shaft. and rotates with. wedges and V-rings. Point A. 2. 9: 1.com. 3. 9 A Simple Mechcanical Seal How a Mechanical Seal Works The primary seal is achieved by two very flat. The wide variety of designs allows use of mechanical seals in almost all pump applications. Ability to seal higher pressures and more corrosive environments. compression rings. springs and bellows. One of the faces is usually a non-galling material such as carbon-graphite. Elimination of shaft or sleeve wear.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE 1. lapped faces which create a difficult leakage path perpendicular to the shaft. There are four main sealing points within an end face mechanical seal (Fig.

com. Its disadvantage is that ft's prone to secondary seal hang-up and fretting of the shaft or sleeve.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. and energy consumption. Complete information about the product and environment will allow selection of the best seal for the application. seal life.au www. Examples are Dura RO and Crane Type 9T. Mechanical Seal Types Mechanical seals can be classified into several tvpes and arrangements: PUSHER: Incorporate secondary seals that move axially along a shaft or sleeve to maintain contact at the seal faces. the designer must consider how the faces are to be lubricated and select from a number of modes of seal face lubrication. This feature compensates for seal face wear and wobble due to misalignment.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Fig.kelairpumps. The pusher seals' advantage is that it's inexpensive and commercially available in a wide range of sizes and configurations. Pump Clinic 24 Sealing in Pumps (Reprinted from ITT Goulds Website) 29/05/08 Page 6 of 10 . 10 Sealing Points for Mechanical Seal The faces in a typical mechanical seal are lubricated with a boundary layer of gas or liquid between the faces. In designing seals for the desired leakage. it's necessary to know as much as possible about the operating conditions and the product to be sealed. To select the best seal design.

A disadvantage of this style seal is that its thin bellows cross sections must be upgraded for use in corrosive environments Examples are Dura CBR and Crane 215. and cavitation. If the closing force exerted on the seal faces exceeds the pressure limit. leak less. Examples are the Dura RO and Crane 9T.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. tandem) on the shaft or sleeve of the pump. double.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE UNBALANCED: They are inexpensive.com. today's emphasis on reducing maintenance costs has increased preference for cartridge seals.au www. Although setting a mechanical seal is relatively simple. NON-PUSHER: The non-pusher or bellows seal does not have to move along the shaft or sleeve to maintain seal face contact. The disadvantage is their relative low pressure limit. The main advantages are its ability to handle high and low temperature applications. the lubricating film between the faces is squeezed out and the highly loaded dry running seal fails.com. CONVENTIONAL: Examples are the Dura RO and Crane Type 1 which require setting and alignment of the seal (single. misalignment. and are more stable when subjected to vibration.kelairpumps. and does not require a secondary seal (not prone to secondary seal hang-up). Pump Clinic 24 Sealing in Pumps (Reprinted from ITT Goulds Website) 29/05/08 Page 7 of 10 . and Sealol 680.

CARTRIDGE: Examples are Dura P-SO and Crane 1100 which have the mechanical seal premounted on a sleeve including the gland and fit directly over the Model 3196 shaft or shaft sleeve (available single. These seals are easily modified to accommodate seal flush plans and can be balanced to withstand high seal environment pressures. This makes them well suited to handle liquids with poor lubricity and high vapor pressures such as light hydrocarbons. which reduces the hydraulic forces acting to close the seal faces.kelairpumps. of course is no requirement for the usual seal setting measurements for their installation. Pump Clinic 24 Sealing in Pumps (Reprinted from ITT Goulds Website) 29/05/08 Page 8 of 10 . Examples are Dura RO and CBR and Crane 9T and 215. Reference Conventional Seal.au www.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. tandem). Examples are Dura CBR and PBR and Crane 98T and 215. The major benefit. and generate less heat.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE BALANCED: Balancing a mechanical seal involves a simple design change. double. lower seal face loading. SINGLE OUTSIDE: If an extremely corrosive liquid has good lubricating properties. an outside seal offers an economical alternative to the expensive metal required for an inside seal to resist corrosion.com.com. Recommended for relatively clear non-corrosive and corrosive liquids with satisfactory' lubricating properties where cost of operation does not exceed that of a double seal. Cartridge seals lower maintenance costs and reduce seal setting errors Mechanical Seal Arrangements SINGLE INSIDE: This is the most common type of mechanical seal. Balanced seals have higher-pressure limits. The disadvantage is that it is exposed outside of the pump which makes it vulnerable to damage from impact and hydraulic pressure works to open the seal faces so they have low pressure limits (balanced or unbalanced).

and environmental and user plant emission standards for leakage from seals. Also.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE DOUBLE (DUAL PRESSURIZED): This arrangement is recommended for liquids that are not compatible with a single mechanical seal (i. like nitrogen. abrasive.com. have suspended abrasives. or thermosetting liquids are easily sealed without a need for expensive metallurgy.kelairpumps. GF2OO. Examples are Dura GB2OO. a significant advantage of using a double seal over a single seal. The advantages of the double seal are that it can have five times the life of a single seal in severe environments. to act as a surface lubricant and coolant in place of a liquid barrier system or external flush required with conventional or cartridge double seals.e. sealing involves an inert gas.com. recent testing has shown that double seal life is virtually unaffected by process upset conditions during pump operation.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Examples are Dura double RO and X-200 and Crane double 811T. and Crane 2800. liquids that are toxic. The double gas barrier seal should be considered for use on toxic or hazardous liquids that are regulated or in situations where increased reliability is the required on an application. hazardous [regulated by the EPA].. Pump Clinic 24 Sealing in Pumps (Reprinted from ITT Goulds Website) 29/05/08 Page 9 of 10 . the metal inner seal parts are never exposed to the liquid product being pumped. The final decision between choosing a double or single seal comes down to the initial cost to purchase the seal. In addition.au www. cost of operation of the seal. This concept was developed because many barrier fluids commonly used with double seals can no longer be used due to new emission regulations.. The gas barrier seal uses nitrogen or air as a harmless and inexpensive barrier fluid that helps prevent product emissions to the atmosphere and fully complies with emission regulations. or corrosives which require costly materials). DOUBLE GAS BARRIER (PRESSURIZED DUAL GAS): Very similar to cartridge double seals . so viscous.

and environmental considerations.com.com. or hazardous liquids.) A tandem also increases online reliability. and a wide range of other volatile. carbon monoxide. light hydrocarbons.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE TANDEM (DUAL UNPRESSURIZED): Due to health. safety. the outboard seal can take over and function until maintenance of the equipment can be scheduled.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. carcinogenic. tandem seals have been used for products such as vinyl chloride. Examples are Dura TMB73 and tandem PTO. Pump Clinic 24 Sealing in Pumps (Reprinted from ITT Goulds Website) 29/05/08 Page 10 of 10 . and propanol. If the primary seal fails.au www. methanol.kelairpumps. toxic. {Typical buffer liquids in these applications are ethylene glycol. Tandem seals eliminate icing and freezing of light hydrocarbons and other liquids which could fall below the atmospheric freezing point of water in air (32? F or 0? C).

kelairpumps.com.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 25 PUMP RELIABILITY (Reprinted from ITT Goulds Pumps Website) Pump Clinic 25 Pump Reliability (Reprinted from ITT Goulds Website) 23/06/08 .au www.

.. definite trend lines could be and were developed.. in two process plants.. This has been achieved largely through improved installation practices..Page 11 Service Solutions: Think Big! The CPC Internalift Screw Pump Story...Page 9 Material Matters: NACE MR0175 .... Sabini.. reduced bearing life through increased cycling..Page 8 ANSI Combo Units Expand the Polyshield® Foundation Offering..Page 1 Tech Talk: Business Environment Changes Drive Product Cost Reduction Initiative to Gain Competitive Advantage. Major components of the cost of ownership are initial cost...... The duty cycles (operating times) varied between pumps... difficult to handle liquids... Also.. The field test reliability factors presented are derived from curve fits (trend lines) of Mean Time Between Repair data.... There was much scatter of the data......... Both curves show a marked increase in reliability with reduced speed..Leadership Pump Reliability Correct Hydraulic Selection Minimizes Unscheduled Maintenance Allan R. Vice President Technology ITT Industrial Pump Group Recently......Technology.Page 4 New Products: New PumpSmart® Model PS100 Offers Cost Effective Pump Protection Plus Up to 70% Energy Savings ... continued on page 2 Figure 1........ installation cost.. Director Product Development Eugene P... Despite the resulting large scatter in the data... Operating Speed also increases the energy level of the pump........ The Laboratory reliability factors presented here (1) are based on correlation of the Block and Geitner (2) reliability factors with laboratory pump bearing frame oil temperature. Barry Erickson.... as a function of the ratio of the actual to maximum rated pump speed.. Figure 1 compares the API-610 pump laboratory reliability predictor test results with the reliability trend line from actual MTBR data on 119 actual process pumps... They are Pump Speed.. and wetted component wear due to abrasives in the pumpage..... plus published mechanical seal face and abrasive wear rates.Page 12 View this issue and previous issues of PumpLines on our website at www. significant attention has been given to the life cycle cost of owning a pump.. and maintenance cost...... and vane pass vibration tests on 3 API (end suction) pumps.... The Reliability factor for the field test data was based on zero pump repairs in a 48 month period............. that literature primarily addresses mechanical means of improving reliability.. In process plants it has been found that under many circumstances the cost of unscheduled maintenance is the most significant cost of ownership. lubricant degradation and reduced viscosity due to increased temperature....gouldspumps...... The results of this attention to the mechanical issues as been a marked increase in the “Mean Time Between Repair” (MTBR) for process plants............. which was assumed to be equal to a MTBR of 72 months. Although numerous papers have been presented on the subject of pump reliability...........Correct Hydraulic Selection Minimizes Unscheduled Maintenance .. but will be limited in potential unless a holistic approach is used. There are four basic hydraulic selection factors which can have a significant affect on pump reliability. due to the fact that the records were not cleansed of failures caused by factors other than hydraulic selection... the pumps were not always operated at the conditions of service analyzed.Page 7 Goulds Model 3355 ........ Director Technology R..Page 11 New Positions Support After Sales Services... which has been shown to be reasonably effective in predicting the reliability of High Suction Energy pumps......Page 9 Personnel Moves: Manna Named Vice President Global Marketing ... which can lead to cavitation damage. or the mechanical design of the pumps..com ...... operating cost... Such an approach would give more attention to the best hydraulic fit to optimize reliability... such as human error.. on 71 ANSI and 48 split case pumps. OPERATING SPEED: Operating Speed affects reliability through rubbing contact.. such as seal faces......1 FALL 2001 Innovation. Suction Energy and NPSH Margin Ratio..... Budris....... These last two factors have further been combined into an NPSH Margin Reliability Factor (NPSH-RF)....... Percent of Best Efficiency Flow...... on the strength of the large number of pumps evaluated. IN THIS ISSUE: Feature: Pump Reliability ... system interactions.. and increased attention to operating procedures...... Efforts such as these will continue to yield improvements in MTBF. especially where pumps were on standby service...

divided by the NPSH Required by the pump. Generally speaking. SUCTION ENERGY: Suction Energy is another term for the liquid momentum in the suction eye of a pump impeller. NPSHR is by no means the point at which cavitation starts. the 1.75 x Suction Nozzle Size Budris and Mayleben (3) have also proposed distinct gating values for High and Very High Suction Energy. Start of High Suction Energy: End Suction Pumps: S.2 Pump Reliability. It should be noted that.00 Reliability Factor equates to no failures in 48 months.9 x Suction Nozzle Size Split Case/Radial Inlet Pumps: De = 0. depending on pump design and Flow Ratio (percent bep).3 (5) for more guidance on the allowable operating region for centrifugal and vertical pumps. = 160 x 106 Split Case/Radial Inlet Pumps: S.3 NPSH Margin Ratio). Figure 3 is based strictly on the field data for 77 ANSI and Split Case pumps.E. with higher suction energy pumps requiring the most frequent repairs.6. This means that a high percentage of pumps are operating with some degree of cavitation. pumps with large impeller inlet areas. the Low suction Energy failures (below 48 months) were deleted. mainly cavitation. only based on the 48 split case pumps. for End Suction and Radial Suction (also know as split case or double suction) pumps. . By Hydraulic Institute definition. or a MTBR rate of 72 months. That level is referred to as incipient cavitation. vibration or damage from cavitation. = 120 x 106 Start of Very High Suction Energy: End Suction Pumps: S.) = De x n x S x s. Equation (1) Where: De = Impeller Eye Diameter (inches) N = Pump Speed (RPM) S = Suction Specific Speed (RPM x (GPM).5 / (NPSHR). due to flow blockage from cavitation vapor in the impeller vanes. and “High” and “Very High” gating values are consistent with values presented in ANSI/HI 9. NPSH MARGIN: NPSH Margin Ratio is defined as the NPSH Available to the pump by the application. the Impeller Eye Diameter can be approximated as follows: End Suction Pump: De = 0. the last six digits are normally dropped (S.E. the severity of these unsteady loads can reduce mechanical seal life. Pumps with values of suction energy below these values are considered to have low suction energy. = 240 x 106 Split Case/Radial Inlet Pumps: S. It is the amount of Energy associated with the collapse of the cavitation bubbles that determines the degree of noise. however. The field data is. since no definitive trend line could be established from the ANSI plant data. Also.1 (4). Again. under low NPSH Margin conditions (below 1. Correlation between the field and laboratory data is good in the normal operating range. However. Refer to ANSI/HI 9. for trend purposes. The field data to laboratory reliability comparison for the Flow Ratio is presented in figure 2.E. which are transmitted to the shaft and bearings. vibration or damage from cavitation. Suction Energy. based on the 77 field pumps.E. x E6).g. The higher values are normally associated with high suction energy.E.. Here also. a 1. or reduced flow operation in the region of suction recirculation. hydraulic loads. the NPSHR of a pump is the NPSH that will cause the total head to be reduced by 3%. As a result.1 – 1. there could be detrimental effects on mechanical seals from the air or vapors which may be liberated from the liquid during the formation of the cavitation bubbles. Also. is defined as follows: Suction Energy (S.g.00 Field Reliability Factor is based on a MTBR of 52 months. = 180 x 106 The above definition of Suction Energy (Equation (1)). Figure 3. continued from page 1 PERCENT BEST EFFICIENCY FLOW RATE (Flow Ratio): The Flow Ratio affects reliability through the turbulence that is created in the casing and impeller as the pump is operated away from the best efficiency flow rate. because it is unlikely that these failures were caused by factors related to Suction Energy. Operation at reduced flow rates that put the pump into its recirculation mode can also lead to cavitation damage in High Suction Energy pumps. if any. high specific speed. if not readily available.6. Figure 4 shows the affect of the NPSH Margin Ratio on pump reliability..75 s. increase and become unsteady. The trend is unquestionable. It can take an NPSHA of from 2 to 20 times NPSHR to fully suppress cavitation within a pump. as originally approximated by Budris and Mayleben (3). = Specific Gravity of Liquid pumped Since the suction energy numbers are quite large. Low Suction Energy pumps are not prone to noise. which means that it is a function of the mass and velocity of the liquid in the inlet. because it is unlikely that these failures were caused by Figure 2. with the 42 Low suction Energy failures (below 48 months) being deleted. based on the analysis of hundreds of pumps from several manufacturers. with the maximum reliability occurring around 90 percent of the best efficiency flow rate.E.

B. NJ Figure 4. K. Bloch.5 for maximum reliability. P and Stavale.3 Pump Reliability. R. 2.. and Mayleben. October . Budris.F.” Pump Users International Forum 2000.P and Geitner. The “Mean Time Between Repair” (MTBR) and Life Cycle Cost of most centrifugal pumps can be improved if slower pump speeds are used. Sabini E. continued from page 2 factors related to Suction Energy.3 – 2000. 4. 5).1 – 2000. and pumps are selected to operate in their preferred operating range (70% . 2000. the agreement is quite good. Erickson. values were plotted against the field reliability of the 77 ANSI and Split Case pumps (without the 42 Low Suction Energy failures / below 48 months). NPSH MARGIN RELIABILITY FACTOR: The NPSH Margin Reliability Factor (Fig. Therefore. 1998.” International Pump Users Symposium proceedings.” Gulf Publishing Company. F. Germany. the Mean Time Between Repair of High and Very High Suction Energy pumps can be increased by keeping the NPSH Margin Ratio above the values recommended in figure 5. “Effects of . Based on this data. The NPSH Margin Reliability Factors are based on the fact that. due to the fact that some cavitation usually exists below a Ratio of 4. mainly cavitation. Further.” Hydraulic Institute. Although not perfect. Machinery Reliability Assessment. especially for High and Very High Suction Energy pumps. 5) was developed to quantify the relationship between NPSH Margin and Suction Energy on pump reliability. TX. P A. A. ■ REFERENCES: 1.. Houston. “Hydraulic Selection to Minimize the Unscheduled Maintenance Portion of Life Cycle Cost. Parsippany. “An Introduction to . Karlsruhe. TX. It must be remembered that the NPSH R. the NPSH Margin Ratio does have a definite influence on pump reliability. Parsippany. A.. 5). for High and Very High Suction Energy pump applications.6. to prevent damage. R. Figure 6.. 1994. the greater the suction energy the more important it is to suppress the residual cavitation that exists above the NPSHR. only applies to “High Suction Energy” and “Very High Suction Energy” pumps. . ANSI/HI 9. NPSH R. Houston. NJ...” Hydraulic Institute. Figure 5. Texas A&M University. This reliability factor is only applicable within the allowable operating flow region. NPSH Margin. “Centrifugal and Vertical Pumps for NPSH Margin. above the gating suction energy values (start of High Suction Energy).F. The diagonal lines (in figure 5) are lines of constant relative Suction Energy (x 106). 3. To validate the NPSH Margin Reliability Factors in figure 5. and Suction Piping on Cavitation in Centrifugal Pumps. Entrained Air. (for example) the line marked “180/240” (Double Suction Suction Energy level / End Suction Suction Enegy level) represents the start of Very High Suction Energy.6. The easiest way to lower the Suction Energy and increase the NPSH Margin of a pump application is by lowering the speed of the pump.0. and/or by reducing the Suction Energy Level.120% of bep flow rate – ref. ANSI/HI 9.flow ratio. H. Pumps of this suction energy level require a minimum NPSH Margin Ratio of 2. Much higher NPSH Margin values are required in the region of suction recirculation. “Centrifugal and Vertical Pumps for Allowable Operating Region. above the start of suction recirculation (see ref. CONCLUSIONS: The speed.suction energy and NPSH margin reliability propositions and methodologies were confirmed by field experience. 5. as shown in figure 6. E.

At that time. ORIGINS OF SEALLESS PUMP TECHNOLOGY 1933 (UK): First known dated patent for design of a seal less magnetically-driven pump. is a simple combination of standard components and proven concepts. and possibly the stigma of some unsuccessful or unreliable products that came on the market. In this installation.kelairpumps. Early commercial development of the magnetic drive pump was pioneered by Geoffrey Howard of HMD Pumps Limited. For the first 30 years. (AINiCo magnets used.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. their application was limited essentially to pumping life threatening or extremely hazardous fluids. (Dry stator design. UK in the late 1940's and a few years later by Franz Klaus in West Germany. Europe): First known patents for seal less motor pumps with dry motor windings.2008 . also known as "torque ring") MAGNET DRIVE PUMPS THEORY OF OPERATION The magnet drive pump.au www. seal less pumps tended to be considered categorically by many as the solution of the last resort. and all dynamic seals were prone to leakage.07. However. (Wet stator design. not commercially viable) 1939 (UK): First known patent for design of a seal less motor-driven pump (Used wet stator motor) 1941 (UK): First known production of seal less motor drive pump.com. development of mechanical seals had barely started. Imperial Chemical Industries in the UK and Bayer in West Germany. This development was in response to a need for 100 percent containment of diphyl heating fluids. USA.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 26 ORIGINS OF SEALLESS PUMP TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION The origins of seal/less magnetically driven pumps date back to 1933 when the first known patent was granted in the UK. tagged as "canned motor" commercially viable product) 1958 (UK): First known "induction" magnetically driven pump (Higher power magnets available. the base. the electric motor and the motor coupling are identical to parts used in conventional pumps The differences between magnet drive pumps and conventional pumps occur in two areas: Pump Clinic 26 Origins of Sealless Pump Technology Page 1 of 13 29. Figure 1 depicts a typical magnet drive pump with a separately mounted electric motor drive. by the 1970's enough experience had been gained in the chemical processing industries to bring some engineers to the conclusion that the magnet drive pump had been developed to the point that it had become the most economical solution in many process systems. required a soft start due to low magnetic powers) 1950-1953 (UK. Two companies pioneered the use of magnet-drive pumps. proved to be commercially viable) 1947 (UK): First commercially viable magnetically driven seal less pump. especially at elevated temperatures. Because of the higher cost of the equipment. (Only low power chrome and cobalt steel magnets were available. while unique when compared with conventionally designed centrifugal pumps. synchronous.com.

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255
PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE

1) 2)

Driving torque is transmitted magnetically rather than mechanically. The impeller shaft rides in bushings housed within the pump enclosure rather than be bearings mounted externally.

In Figure 1, the drive motor is coupled directly to the outer magnet ring (OMR) by the motor coupling. The overhung load of the OMR is carried by bearings in the bearing housing. Figure 1 also shows that the pump impeller is mounted on the same shaft as is the inner magnet ring (IMR). (NOTE: In models with a non-synchronous drive, this is called a torque ring rather than an IMR because it does not contain magnets as we shall see later in this discussion). The impeller drive shaft is carried by two bushings which are within the pumping enclosure. You will note that the pump enclosure is formed by the pump casing and the containment shell. The driving torque of the electric motor is transmitted to the pump impeller by the magnetic coupling of the OMR and the IMR (or torque ring) without breaching the pumping enclosure. It is this magnetic coupling which replaces the mechanical seals of conventional centrifugal pumps. MAGNETIC COUPLING Before the theory of magnetic couplings as applied to sealless pumps can be examined, review of the fundamentals of magnets and electromagnetism is needed. Recall these basic principles: 1. Magnets have a north pole and a south pole. When two unlike poles are near each other, they are attracted. When two like poles are near each other, they are repelled. 2. When a magnetic field is moved past an electrical conductor which is in a closed loop, an electric current will flow in that loop. 3. When an electric current flows in a closed loop, an electromagnet is created with a north pole at one end of the loop(s) and a south pole at the other end of the loop(s). 4. An electromagnet is formed even if the "core" material is air. The electromagnet can be made stronger by inserting grain-oriented silicon steel into the "core" area. 5. Electromagnets behave just like permanent magnets with respect to the laws of attraction and repulsion.

Pump Clinic 26 Origins of Sealless Pump Technology

Page 2 of 13

29.07.2008

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255
PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE

TORQUE RING DRIVE With these principles in mind, examine how the torque ring drive operates. The power supply shaft carries magnets secured to a rotating cylinder (also called OMR). The driven shaft has a steel hub or core in which a series of copper bars or rods are imbedded around its periphery, much like an induction motor rotor, except sheathed with a high alloy metal for corrosion resistance. When the power supply shaft is rotated, the magnets sweep past the copper bars and induce electrical currents in the core. Remember, however, that our electromagnetic currents are induced or generated by the magnetic field sweeping past the conducting circuit. Therefore, there must be a slightly slower speed in the driven shaft (torque ring) than in the power supply shaft (OMR). The difference in speeds is called "slip".

Figure 2 is a schematic representation of the torque ring coupling. The outer magnet assembly is driven by a separately mounted motor. The OMR consists of a number of permanent magnets securely attached to a cylindrical frame, evenly distributed to provide a uniform magnetic field. The torque ring is made of a mild steel core with an outer facing of stainless steel or other metal compatible with the pumpage. Beneath this layer, a conductive metal (copper bars) is placed to provide an electromagnetic coupling circuit. The containment shell is an extension of the pump casing (pressure casing) and therefore is a pressure containing component which completes the sealing off of the pumpage from the external environment. Thus the torque ring operates in the process pumpage while the OMR operates in the ambient atmosphere surrounding the pump. When the outer magnet ring rotates, the magnetic field passes through the containment shell, through the copper of the torque ring, through the mild steel beneath the torque ring and then returns to the OMR to complete the circle. The rotating magnetic field produces eddy currents in the copper and these eddy currents create electromagnets which tend to follow the rotating magnetic field which created them. In the torque ring shown in Figure 2 a series of parallel copper strips are laid parallel to the pump shaft. In practice, these strips are separated and tied together at the ends, much like the "squirrel cage" of an a.c. motor. This is called a rodded torque ring. In any case, the copper conducting path(s) in the torque ring are firmly connected to the mild steel cylinder which, in turn, is solidly attached to the pump shaft.

Pump Clinic 26 Origins of Sealless Pump Technology

Page 3 of 13

29.07.2008

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255
PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE

Incidentally, the greater the "slip" in torque ring speed, the greater the eddy current flowing and the greater the torque. If a pumpage has high viscosity when it is cold, the eddy-current drive will provide high starting torques and will also provide greater heating of the pumpage (copper losses are higher at higher "slip" levels). This heating of the pumpage will be an advantage in liquids with high viscosity at cooler temperatures, getting the pumping operation under way more quickly than would be the case for a synchronous drive.

SYNCHRONOUS DRIVE
Figure 3 shows a schematic representation of the synchronous drive coupling. Just as with the eddy-current coupling, the outer magnet assembly is driven by a separately mounted motor. The differences between torque ring and synchronous coupling occur within the inner ring. In the synchronous coupling, the IMR contains the same number of magnets as are mounted in the OMR. The number of magnets is determined by the torque which must be transmitted. Thus, when the outer magnet ring rotates, the inner magnet ring rotates in synchronism with the outer magnet ring. The absence of "slip" means that the magnet to magnet coupling drive has a higher speed than the torque ring coupling drive.

The inner magnet ring is mounted on the same shaft as the pump's impeller. The containment shell is an extension of the pump casing and thus the IMR operated in the process pumpage while the OMR operates in the ambient atmosphere surrounding the pump. The OMR is enclosed by a coupling housing to protect it from dirt and to shield operating personnel from the high speed OMR.

Pump Clinic 26 Origins of Sealless Pump Technology

Page 4 of 13

29.07.2008

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255
PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE

MAGNETIC COUPLING DESIGN
Internal Composition Principal of Operation Limitation TORQUE RING Steel / Copper Rods Slip Power SYNCHRONOUS Magnets Synchronous Torque

ADVANTAGES OF TORQUE RING DRIVE
• • • • • •

Temperature capabilities to 450°C Excellent abuse factor ("slip" provides high resistance to decoupling) High starting torque characteristics Ferrite particles in pumpage do not build up Well suited to cold (viscous) start Inherently provides a "soft start"

ADVANTAGES OF SYNCHRONOUS COUPLING
• • • •

Output speed = Input speed (no slip) Compact design: Greater power capability in smaller envelope than torque ring drive Maximum efficiency at design flow (no slip) Allows compliance with dimensional/performance standards (due to no slip)

MAGNETIC PERMANENCE
There are three conditions which can alter the magnetic strength of permanent magnets. They are undue physical abuse, excessive temperatures and powerful extraneous magnetic fields.

PHYSICAL ABUSE
Mechanical stress or shock has long been known to demagnetise steel bars. Modern high coercive force permanent magnets such as is used in magnet drive pumps, however, are generally insensitive to these mechanical degradations. Generally, a mechanical stress large enough to demagnetise modern permanent magnets would have to be so great that it would physically damage the magnet. For practically all applications, mechanical stresses can be ignored as contributing to instability.

HIGH TEMPERATURES
In early magnetic materials, changes in magnetic structure could occur at room temperatures. Today's magnetic materials vary in sensitivity to very high temperatures. AINiCo magnets such as used in torque ring drives have Curie Temperatures (level above which they are useless as magnets) from 800°C to 900°C. Samarium Cobalt magnets begin permanently losing strength at around 350°C (depending on grade). Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnets begin permanently losing strength at around 120°C (again, depending on grade). In general, sintered "rare earth" magnetic materials' flux density is inversely related to their ability to withstand temperature.

HIGH MAGNETIC FIELDS
To effect a magnet, a magnetic field must be stronger than the field used in the initial formation of the magnet. Since the fields used to create the magnet drive pump magnets are stronger than any fields found in plant environments, this mode of demagnetisation is all but eliminated. In other words, the magnets used today in magnet drive pumps are PERMANENT magnets.

CONTAINMENT SHELL DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS IN MAGNET DRIVE PUMPS DESIGN CRITERIA
• • • •

Containment shell design is influenced by: Pump working pressure/temperature Internal bearing support system Minimising magnetic coupling losses

Pump Clinic 26 Origins of Sealless Pump Technology

Page 5 of 13

29/07/08

Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com.au www.kelairpumps.com.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255
PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE

Engineers responsible for preparing specifications for sealless pumps sometimes critically review the design and manufacture of the containment shell to ensure a level of integrity in the pressure vessel boundary. Specifications generally dictate;
• • • • •

Conformance to relevant pressure vessel codes (eg. ASME VIII, AS) Minimum containment shell tube thickness Corrosion allowance Number of welds Avoidance of externally applied loads that would cause undue stress on the containment shell

EDDY CURRENTS
As the inner and outer components rotate, eddy currents are created by the rotating magnetic field cutting through the stationary containment shell, resulting in losses and reducing the overall drive efficiency. These eddy currents are a function of;
• • • • • • •

Speed² Length of magnets in rotor Diameter² of containment shell Thickness of containment shell Field strength² Resistivity of shell material Number of magnets

The resistivity of containment shell materials commonly used is 80 x 10-3 ohm cm for 316 Stainless Steel and 130-3 ohm cm for Hastelloy C. This variation in resistivity between materials will result in a 62.5% increase in losses for the stainless steel assembly over the Hastelloy C design. Temperature losses similarly increase.

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
Several materials in addition to stainless steel and Hastelloy C are readily available for containment shell design to match the pump application. They include: Hastelloy B, Alloy 20, Inconel 718 and various space age alloys such as Nimonic 75 and Nimonic 90 for extraordinarily severe pressures. Recent advances in the manufacture of ceramic and plastic materials for pressure vessel containment have introduced these materials into magnetic drive pump design. Use of these materials effectively eliminates eddy current loss. However, the thickness required for the containment shell to contain design pressure, along with manufacturing tolerances, can result in drive size increases up to 50%. Corresponding increases in viscous frictional losses and material performance limitations have limited their application in magnet drive pumps.

WELDED CONTAINMENT SHELL DESIGN
Historically, manufacturers of magnet drive pumps have manufactured containment shells using plate for the containment shell flange/shells and rolled tube for the shell tube. Three welds are required to manufacture the containment shell. All welds are performed by qualified welders and thoroughly inspected with qualified procedures from an independent body. Extensive fixturing and further non destructive testing (NDT) procedures are carried out to ensure the integrity of the containment shell. However, one disadvantage of using welds in the manufacturing process is that it may be considered a weak point in the component and a source for corrosion susceptibility.

HYDROFORMED (STAMPED) CONTAINMENT SHELL DESIGN
An alternative is the hydroformed containment shell. During the forming process, a plate of the material specified is shaped by an external load, and several forms are required to achieve the final design. Also,

Pump Clinic 26 Origins of Sealless Pump Technology

Page 6 of 13

29/07/08

ETFE.com. The final fabrication is completed using only one weld. Polypropylene.com. Potential problem areas in this design include uniformity of thickness and accommodation of the increased length due to rounded end shape.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE because the material work hardens during the process. PTFE No High High High OUTER MAGNET RING CONSTRUCTION CHALLENGES OF OMR CONSTRUCTION Outer magnet rings are subject to a variety of stresses including rapid rotation. The two primary challenges in OMR construction involve (1) retention of the magnet in the outer assembly and (2) fragility of the magnet material .au www. and attraction to the inner magnet ring. Metallic Typical Materials of Construction Eddy Current Losses Temperature Sensitivity Pressure Sensitivity Abrasive Sensitivity Hast-C / 316SS Yes Low Low Low Non-Metallic Ceramic. torque loading.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. it is necessary to heat treat the component prior to final sizing.rare earth magnetic materials widely used today are sintered powders with little inherent strength. Pump Clinic 26 Origins of Sealless Pump Technology Page 7 of 13 29/07/08 .kelairpumps.

magnets can drop from the assembly and act as a cutting tool. it may be reasonable to make comparisons between "bushing and shaft life" in a magnet drive pump and "shaft. Ten years operation with original bushings has been achieved in a number of instances. but two to three years of life would generally be considered excellent. Feedback from many maintenance engineers has painted a picture of the combination of bearings and seals seldom approaching two to three years of life in the real world. Mechancial seal life varies widely. the easiest and cheapest way to secure magnets is with an adhesive.strength rare earth magnet material. By far the most common bushing material in use in magnet drive pumps today is special plain carbon. trepanning and ultimate breaching of the containment shell. attacking the containment shell. BUSHINGS AND BEARINGS Possibly one of the reasons that magnet drive pumps have not been more fully utilised is the concern of some engineers over having bearings (bushings) in the process fluid. A potential issue with this process is that epoxy degradation and loss of strength may cause magnets to dislodge form the OMR. MAGNET MATERIAL BRITTLENESS CAUSES FAILURE Another potential source of trouble is the inherent brittleness of the sintered.1 pump bearings is 17. severe problems can result if repeated temperature cycling occurs or if the adhesive is contaminated by exposure to certain process liquids or solvents. Compare this experience with the operating experience of magnet drive pumps. An undetected chip could become dislodged during use and cut the containment shell. carbon is suitable for all but a few services throughout the range of magnet drive pumps.au www. Spare parts order records of one manufacturer and field reports support the conclusion that average bushing life is three to five years in typical magnet drive pump service. The minimum rated life of ANSI B73. This would seem to be functionally correct way to make one comparison between sealed and sealless pumps. If roughly handled during pump or OMR assembly. pinned for the highest temperature services. They are combined with hardened shaft journals. Recognising that the application of these pumps is presently on relatively clean liquids of low viscosity. a category into which the majority of pumping applications fall. Carbon is consistent in performance with a fluid and has good lubricating qualities that will normally enable a pump to survive a period of dry running. Pump Clinic 26 Origins of Sealless Pump Technology Page 8 of 13 29/07/08 . failure cannot be predicted.kelairpumps. (Dry running is a fact of life with most pumps at one time or another). mechanical seal and antifriction bearing life" in conventional sealed pumps in order to quantify this concern. this material easily chips and flakes. The result will be dramatic: vibration from loss of balance. Bushings are sometimes pressed but most often are an interference fit to handle higher temperatures. heat rise from mechanical friction.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE DISADVANTAGE OF ADHESIVE BONDING For rare earth assemblies. Perhaps some of the concern over internal bushing life comes from over 25 years of experience with canned motor pumps where inherent close clearances cannot provide the longer term wearing capability which is common in magnet drive pumps. all flakes and chips will be fully enclosed.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. costly shutdown and repairs.500 hours at maximum load. and any mechanical damage to the assembly can easily be seen by the assembler. With essentially no binder to be attacked. Should the magnet become damaged while the OMR is being assembled. This will almost certainly happen if OMR removal occurs prior to the removal of the inner magnet ring. provided it is short enough so that the pump itself is not damaged. There are no components that can degrade.com. Other manufacturers use epoxy or other compounds as means of retention. While acceptable for many applications. The magnets cannot be seen.com. If the adhesive bond fails. MAGNET RETENTION Some manufacturers with rare earth OMR assemblies have the magnets mechanically retained in the body and totally enclosed. with similar results to those described for adhesive bonding failure. except where bushings are lightly loaded and the hardening is not required to obtain satisfactory shaft life. Since there is no method for monitoring the integrity of an adhesive bond. and it is not possible to damage them. low. Bushings are provided with spiral grooves of about 1/8 in diameter on the ID to permit solids to pass through the bushings.

has good lubricating properties and will survive short duration dry running. the recirculated pumpage must remain in the liquid phase at all points within the magnetic coupling area.com.au www. 3. Fragments of a failed silicon carbide bushing can cause extensive damage in a pump. each having different chemical compatibility.com. Higher cost 2. To successfully meet these requirements. However.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Lubrication of the internal radial and thrust bearings 3. They have the advantages of extremely high load capacity compared with carbon or PTFE. but electrolytic damage makes many carbons unsuitable. glass filled or mica filled.kelairpumps. Shorter maintenance intervals must be planned when this material is initiated because of the inconsistency cited. and corrosive services where PTFE is inadequate. heat capacity. The type of recirculation flow design will have impact on the variables of mass flow rate and localised pressure. Removal of the heat generated from magnetic losses 2. Filled PTFE versus 316 SS has proven to be satisfactory in these services (although not as consistent as carbon). Thrust balancing of the free floating rotating assembly If the liquid being pumped is "dirty". These are: 1. and they are more tolerant of solids and abrasive materials. -40 to +450°C. Removal or flushing of solids through magnetic coupling and internal bearings. The determining factors for preventing phase change are the mass flow rate. PTFE bushings may be carbon filled. and localised pressure at any point within the coupling. Pump Clinic 26 Origins of Sealless Pump Technology Page 9 of 13 29/07/08 . recirculation flow must perform a fourth function. it has generally been accepted that silicon carbide offers the best long term bearing material for applications other than high temperature and has become the most widely used bearing material in HMD pumps. unusually high bearing loads. 4. which makes it much less abuse resistant than other materials described. The temperature range of PTFE as bushing bearing is limited to 120°C whereas carbon is suitable for the full range of magnet drive service.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Acids such as sulphuric acid and nitric acid do not attack plain carbon. silicon carbide bushings and journals are recommended. The negative aspects of their use are: 1. For abrasive service. INTERNAL BEARING MATERIAL Carbon Graphite Dry running capability Solids handling capability Thrust handling capability Complexity of design Cost Good Fair Fair Low Low Teflon Good Poor Poor Low Low SIC Poor Excellent Excellent High High COUPLING RECIRCULATION SYSTEM INTRODUCTION The recirculation flow for any magnet drive pump has three basic functions. The inability to tolerate even a short period of dry running. Complexity of detail design. because of the need to provide for different coefficients of thermal expansion with this very brittle material and most significantly.

Additional pumping action is provided by the rotation of the internal magnetic coupling components.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Each design has its advantages and must be considered on an individual basis.com.kelairpumps. The observed internal pumping effects are primarily caused by the action of the inner magnet ring and thrust washers. This occurs when the friction losses begin to become the dominant factor effecting flow. Pump Clinic 26 Origins of Sealless Pump Technology Page 10 of 13 29/07/08 .com. through a hole gun drilled along the axis of the pump shaft. These components operate at high speeds within tight clearances and behave as rudimentary impellers. As the differential pressure increases. a) Discharge-to-suction Fluid flow enters the magnetic coupling area at a high pressure discharge point and returns to the bulk flow at the suction eye of the impeller. internal flow rate increases but at a decreasing rate. The flow is routed to the suction through either the thrust balance holes in the impeller or.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE AVAILABLE DESIGNS There are two standard recirculation flow designs commercially available in magnet drive pumps (more specialised recirculation flow paths are available as an option). b) Discharge-to-discharge Fluid flow enters the magnetic coupling area at a high pressure discharge point and returns to the bulk flow at a point behind the rear shroud of the impeller. 5) involves pulling a slip stream from the high pressure point of the casing and returning it to the bulk flow at the suction eye of the impeller. The recirculated fluid is driven by the differential pressure between the recirculation inlet and return locations. Discharge-to-suction recirculation yields a flow pattern that is characterised by high fluid velocities. in certain designs. The total dynamic head (TDH) generated by the pump provides the differential pressure that drives the recirculation flow. The internal flow will reach a maximum beyond which any additional increase in differential pressure will have negligible impact.au www. DISCHARGE-TO-SUCTION RECIRCULATION The discharge-to-suction design (Fig. This high velocity profile provides advantages that will be discussed later in this analysis.

com. however. and with the growing use of silicon carbide thrust bearings it is not a significant issue. its mass flow is comparable to that of discharge-to-discharge recirculation due to the latter's large flow path. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS In comparing the benefits of discharge-to-suction and discharge-to-discharge recirculation. Routing the recirculation return flow which has been heated by magnetic coupling losses and internal bearing friction to the low pressure. Discharge-to-suction recirculation also tends to flush solids better due to its higher velocities. The rotation of the internal magnetic coupling components also provides additional pumping action. larger flow passages are provided. Discharge-to-discharge recirculation also eliminates the chance of "flashing" at the impeller eye. Internal pressures in both systems are such that "flashing" at the magnetic coupling interface or internal bearings are avoided with most liquids. the potential for flashing is eliminated. To insure proper cooling of the magnetic coupling. By routing return flow to the higher pressure. A pump equipped with discharge-to-discharge recirculation typically requires less NPSH.com. Discharge-to-discharge recirculation yields a flow pattern that is characterised by high localised pressure and little interference with suction flow. this pressure differential is not as great as that in the discharge-to-suction system. behind the impeller. FUNCTIONS OF RECIRCULATION • • • • Removes heat from magnetic coupling Lubricates internal bearings Assists in balancing thrust loads ALSO Must pass solids contained within liquid COMPARISON OF RECIRCULATION DESIGN NPSHR Internal flow rate Potential for flashing Discharge to Discharge Low Medium Low Discharge to Suction High High Medium Pump Clinic 26 Origins of Sealless Pump Technology Page 11 of 13 29/07/08 .au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE DISCHARGE-TO-DISCHARGE RECIRCULATION The discharge-to-discharge design (Fig. This advantage is. 6) involves pulling a slip stream from the high pressure point of the casing (discharge pressure) and returning this recirculation flow to the bulk flow at a point behind the rear impeller shroud adjacent to the impeller boss.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. In general. the handling of solids can be increased through the use of silicon carbide bearings. however. The recirculated fluid is driven by the differential pressure between the recirculation inlet and return locations. minimal. suction eye of the pump may cause flashing with certain fluids.kelairpumps. While discharge-to-suction recirculation creates a higher recirculation velocity due to its high "driving" differential pressure. Lower NPSH characteristics are achieved by routing the recirculation return flow to the rear of the impeller so that fluid flow through the suction eye is not interfered with.au www. however. Discharge-to-suction recirculation tends to have better impeller thrust balancing characteristics than the discharge-to-discharge system due to its routing of the flow through the impeller eye balance holes. These characteristics also provide advantages that will be discussed in the following section. since these bearings are less affected by the abrasive nature of most commonly encountered solids. both systems remove the heat generated from the magnetic coupling and lubricate the internal radial and thrust bearings equally well.

indicate that wear to carbon bearings increases rapidly above 2 percent of solids. The limit on particle size is dictated by bearing clearances. and at higher flow rates solids will increase wear because of velocity and incorrect incidence angles to impeller blades. For a clean flush. Up to 30% solids Up to 30 percent solids may be pumped up to 750 microns (wear ring clearances) if a clean flush is provided to the magnetic drive or if a closed-loop system is fitted (available only from a small number of manufacturers) to separate the magnetic drive from the pump head. The result of some lab testing and tests carried out by customers on various pumps. However. PAST CONVENTIONS BEING RE-EVALUATED Because of increased competitive pressure and a greater understanding of internal flow in the magnetic drive. The 1. At low flows recirculation will accelerate wear.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. there is always some solids in the pumpage. that wear-resistant materials may require selection to give maximum pump life. and that wear in the impeller will be at a minimum when the pump operates near to its best efficiency (design) point.com. Pumping solids of 30 percent concentration would dictate the use of hardened steel or iron if useful pump life is to be obtained. Comprehensive test programs to establish definitive numbers for allowable percentage and size of solids have been carried out by various manufacturers.5 percent up to 150 microns. 2. In instances where solids larger than 150 microns were present in small quantities. 10 to 25 l/m may be required for cooling.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE SOLIDS HANDLING CAPABILITY The advent of silicon carbide bearings which will grind up particles of a lesser hardness has resulted in wild claims for the solids handling capabilities of sealless pumps. re-evaluations of past conventions have been undertaken. GENERAL GUIDELINES The following guidelines are generally recognized but specific pump limits must always be confirmed with the manufacturer: 1. SOLIDS HANDLING Many years ago. 2.com. solids limit for the magnet drive pumps was uncertain and generally set at 1. As much information as possible on the type of solids should be obtained from the customers before pump selection is made. a rough in line filter would be fitted on the feed (from pump discharge) to the magnetic drive. Other considerations are that very abrasive solids will eventually wear metallic parts. based on two important considerations: 1. With a closed-loop system.kelairpumps. Higher particle size may be screened out with a filter between the pump discharge and the magnetic drive.5 percent figure was felt to be low enough to suggest caution but high enough to allow the presence of pipe scale and occasional pull over of filtrate or crystallate. Pump Clinic 26 Origins of Sealless Pump Technology Page 12 of 13 29/07/08 . It is true that the presence of solids can be less problematic with silicon carbide bearings than with other bearing options such as carbon and PTFE. (ie: sticky or fibrous solids may block flow channels). 7 to 15 1/hr is required from a pressurised supply.au www. Between 3-5% solids A standard pump fitted with silicon carbide bearings will handle between 3 and 5 percent solids to 150 microns. The appreciation that although solids and seal less do not mix. the upper percentage and size limits have changed little since these limits are dictated by non bearing-related parameters. These programs take into account the nature of solids.

If the torque ring drive is not available for the particular model selected.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE 3.au www. 4. Magnetic solids For highly magnetic solids. However. chemistry.com. Pump Clinic 26 Origins of Sealless Pump Technology Page 13 of 13 29/07/08 .Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com. the torque ring drive which does not have magnets immersed in the liquid is recommended. Conventional pumps have generally been developed for specific applications on the basis of experience (ie: coal slurry pumps.kelairpumps. there is considerable variety in size. hardness. Each solids handling application requires evaluation based in testing on experience. Modern magnets are extremely powerful and will attract ferrite particles which will build up between the inner magnet and containment shell. The same is true for the sealless market with customer/supplier cooperation to mutually resolve pumping problems in this difficult area. Definitive data not yet available All pump manufacturers would like to publish definitive data on the solids handling capabilities of their products. paper stock etc). solubility. then a magnetic filter may be fitted between the pump discharge and magnetic coupling. abrasiveness and flocculation of solid particles.

rotary pistons. rotors. The rotation of the pumping elements then Pump Clinic 27 Positive Displacement Pumps Page 1 of 15 24/09/08 . marine.kelairpumps.chemical-processing. industry trade organisations. By definition.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 27 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS This article has been developed from a variety of sources including manufacturers. internet articles and common PD industry knowledge.. liquid delivery. screws. PD pumps displace liquid by creating a space between the pumping elements and trapping liquid in the space.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. lobes. continuous flow regardless of differential pressure. This is done by trapping liquid between the pumping elements and a stationary casing.e. PD pumps displace a known quantity of liquid with each revolution of the pumping elements (i. pharmaceutical. and beverage processing.com. vanes.au www. Figure 1 By definition. dairy.com. gears. Positive displacement (PD) pumps are divided into two broad classifications. Pumping element designs include gears. biotechnology. PD pumps are found in a wide range of applications -. and ability to handle high differential pressure. high-viscosity performance. positive-displacement (PD) pumps displace a known quantity of liquid with each revolution of the pumping elements. Their versatility and popularity is due in part to their relatively compact design. vanes). as well as food. screws and hoses. This article covers rotary pumping principles. reciprocating and rotary (Figure 1).

meaning that the same pump can be used to load and unload vessels. and it is often assumed that suction conditions are not important. maximize efficiency for handling high viscosity liquids. A pump needs proper suction conditions to work well. Each PD pump has a minimum inlet pressure requirement to fill individual pump cavities. just prior to forcing the liquid out of the discharge port. Because internal gear pumps have only two moving parts. If high lift or high vacuum inlet conditions exist. This clearance is adjustable to accommodate high temperature.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE reduces the size of the space and moves the liquid out of the pump. In addition to their wide viscosity range. In this article. or other factors. and corrosiveness of the liquid must be determined before a pump selection is made. 3. They're also usually bi-rotational. The pump head is now nearly flooded. and easy to maintain. screw and peristaltic.kelairpumps.000 cSt / 6. particle size in the liquid. This is due to the single point of end clearance (the distance between the ends of the rotor gear teeth and the head of the pump). 2. How Internal Gear Pumps Work 1. temperature. and can run dry for short periods. The arrows indicate the direction of the pump and liquid.000. such as a requirement for a given amount of flow regardless of differential pressure. required flow rate.150 M3/Hr (delete) and pressures up to 700 BAR (delete).320. total pump flow is diminished. internal gear pumps have a wide temperature range as well.000. Most PD pumps can be adapted to handle a wide range of applications. If these cavities are not completely filled. The broad category of PD pumps is able to handle fluids of all viscosities up to 1. has some self-priming capability. Intermeshing gears of the idler and rotor form locked pockets for the liquid which assures volume control. regardless of pressure variations.000 SSU. INTERNAL GEAR PUMP OVERVIEW Internal gear pumps are exceptionally versatile.au www. we cover the more common ones: internal gear. timed lobe. The useful viscosity range of an internal gear pump is from 1cPs to over 1. (delete) flowrate.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Liquid travels through the pump between the teeth of the "gear-within-a-gear" principle. While they are often used on thin liquids such as solvents and fuel oil. they are reliable. But they are.com. and adhesives. and to accommodate for wear. Usually the need for a PD pump is already determined. handling liquids up to (delete) 400°C. special attention must be paid to the suction side of the pump. Inlet conditions. they excel at efficiently pumping highly viscous liquids such as asphalt. simple to operate. need for high differential pressure. The crescent shape divides the liquid and acts as a seal between the suction and discharge ports. viscosity too high for a centrifugal pump. but some types are better suited than others for a given set of circumstances. Rotary pumps are self-priming and deliver a constant. Liquid enters the suction port between the rotor (large exterior gear) and idler (small interior gear) teeth. chocolate. external gear. The first consideration in any application is pumping conditions. Pump manufacturers supply information on minimum inlet conditions required. capacities up to 1. There are many types of PD pumps available. The internal gear pump is non-pulsing.com. Pump Clinic 27 Positive Displacement Pumps Page 2 of 15 24/09/08 . vane. PD pumps are often self-priming. differential pressure. Selection of a positive displacement (PD) rotary pump is not always an easy choice.000cP. abrasive characteristics.

These pumps can handle small suspended particulate in abrasive applications. alongside the teeth. Some performance loss is restored by adjusting the pump end clearance.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE 4.000 cSt / 6. The speed of internal gear pumps is considered relatively slow compared to centrifugal types. when pumping large solids. The idler gear.450 rpm. the gears have a fairly long time to come out of mesh allowing the spaces between gear teeth to completely fill and not cavitate. volumes are reduced and liquid is forced out the discharge port.com. but gradually wear and lose performance. Depending on shaft sealing arrangements.000. For each revolution of an internal gear pump. which is smaller than the rotor gear. internal gear pumps are well suited for high-viscosity applications and where suction conditions call for a pump with minimal inlet pressure requirements. Internal gear pumps are made to close tolerances and are damaged when pumping large solids. Liquid can enter the expanding cavities through the rotor teeth or recessed areas on the head. The idler gear contains a journal high-viscosity liquids. Internal gear pumps have successfully pumped liquids with viscosities above 1. This seal forces the liquid out of the discharge port.320. Because of their ability to operate at low speeds. Internal gear pumps are ideal for antifriction bearings. The crescent internal gear pump has an outer or rotor gear that is generally used to drive the inner or idler gear (Figure 1). although some small designs operate up to 3. End clearance is the closeness of the rotor gear to the head of the pump • • • • • • • • • • • Advantages Only two moving parts Only one stuffing box Non-pulsating discharge Excellent for high-viscosity liquids Constant and even discharge regardless of pressure conditions Operates well in either direction Can be made to operate with one direction of flow with either rotation Low NPSH required Single adjustable end clearance Easy to maintain Flexible design offers application customization • • • • Disadvantages Usually requires moderate speeds Medium pressure limitations One bearing runs in the product pumped Overhung load on shaft bearing Applications Pump Clinic 27 Positive Displacement Pumps Page 3 of 15 24/09/08 . Speeds up to 1450 rpm are considered common. Rotor and idler teeth mesh completely to form a seal equidistant from the discharge and suction ports.com.000 SSU and very low viscosity liquids. This is an important consideration when handling an abrasive liquid as it can wear out a support bearing.au www. but they are damaged bearing rotating on a stationary pin in the pumped liquid. such as liquid propane and ammonia. The gears create voids as they come out of mesh and liquid flows into the pump. the rotor shaft support bearings may run in pumped liquid. The crescent is integral with the pump head and prevents liquids from flowing to the suction port from the discharge port.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.kelairpumps. rotates on a stationary pin and operates inside the rotor gear. The rotor gear is driven by a shaft supported by journal or Figure 1. As the gears come back into mesh.

helical. Tighter internal clearances provide for a more reliable measure of liquid passing through a pump and for greater flow control.Carbon graphite. fuels. Helical and herringbone gears typically offer a smoother flow than spur gears. industry-standard cartridge mechanical seals.Cast iron. in fluid power transfer units. Shaft Seal . Small external gear pumps usually operate at speeds up to 3000 rpm and larger models operate at speeds up to 640 rpm. Bushing .Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. component mechanical seals. Pump Clinic 27 Positive Displacement Pumps Page 4 of 15 24/09/08 . External gear pumps can come in single or double (two sets of gears) pump configurations with spur (shown). if seal not required. bracket) . Internals (rotor. Packing . silicon carbide. and higher alloys. making them well suited for use in hydraulics. stainless steel.Impregnated packing. ceramic. idler) . and Tar Polyurethane foam (Isocyanate and polyol) Food products such as corn syrup. but are not limited to: • • • • • • • • • All varieties of fuel oil and lube oil Resins and Polymers Alcohols and solvents Asphalt. they are not well suited to handling abrasive or extreme high temperature applications. Alloy 20. and higher alloys. bronze. and as oil pumps in engines.Cast iron. external gear pumps are popular for precise transfer and metering applications involving polymers. With four bearings in the liquid and tight tolerances. gas barrier seals.Lip seals. tungsten carbide. chocolate. Alloy 20. although all gear types are relatively smooth. magnetically-driven pumps. stainless steel. casing. colmonoy. External gear pumps have close tolerances and shaft support on both sides of the gears. ductile iron. Large-capacity external gear pumps typically use helical or herringbone gears. steel.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Common internal gear pump applications include.com. inks.au www. and other specials materials as needed. Bitumen. EXTERNAL GEAR PUMP OVERVIEW External gear pumps are a popular style of pump and are often used as lubrication pumps in machine tools.com. and chemical additives.kelairpumps. Because of this. ductile iron. and peanut butter Paint. and pigments Soaps and surfactants Glycol Materials Of Construction / Configuration Options • • • • • Externals (head. This allows them to run to pressures beyond (delete) 200 BAR. and herringbone gears. steel.

Volatile liquids tend to vaporize locally as gear teeth spaces expand rapidly. Each gear is supported by a shaft with bearings on both sides of the gear.one gear is driven by a motor and it in turn drives the other gear. but speed must be properly set for thick liquids. Applications Common external gear pump applications include. small external gear pumps operate at speeds up to 3000 rpm and larger versions operate at speeds up to 640 rpm. The design of external gear pumps allows them to be made to closer tolerances than internal gear pumps.com. they create expanding volume on the inlet side of the pump. Liquid travels around the interior of the casing in the pockets between the teeth and the casing -. external gear pumps are quiet-running and are routinely used for high-pressure duties such as hydraulic applications. Liquid flows into the cavity and is trapped by the gear teeth as they rotate. Because the gears are supported on both sides. 3. and pump shaft strength may not be adequate. The pump is not very forgiving of particulate in the pumped liquid. torque requirements also rise.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE How External Gear Pumps Work External gear pumps are similar in pumping action to internal gear pumps in that two gears come into and out of mesh to produce flow.kelairpumps. Since there are clearances at both ends of the gears. 1.com. External gear pumps (shown is a double pump) are typically used for high-pressure applications such as hydraulics. As the gears come out of mesh. The pump does not perform well under critical suction conditions. the meshing of the gears forces liquid through the outlet port under pressure. the rotor shaft can not deflect and cause premature wear. Finally. Gear teeth come out of mesh a short time. With no overhung bearing loads. but are not limited to: • Various fuel oils and lube oils Page 5 of 15 24/09/08 Pump Clinic 27 Positive Displacement Pumps . pump speed must be slowed down considerably when pumping viscous liquids. it must be rebuilt or replaced. Pump manufacturers supply torque limit information when it is a factor. • • • • • Advantages High speed High pressure No overhung bearing loads Relatively quiet operation Design accommodates wide variety of materials • • • Disadvantages Four bushings in liquid area No solids allowed Fixed End Clearances Figure 2.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. there is no end clearance adjustment for wear. 2. When an external gear pump wears.it does not pass between the gears. As a result. External gear pumps handle viscous and watery-type liquids.au www. the external gear pump uses two identical gears rotating against each other -. When the viscosity of pumped liquids rises. and viscous liquids need time to fill the spaces between gear teeth. Usually. However.

pharmaceutical.it does not pass between the lobes. These pumps offer a variety of lobe options including single. 1. 2. allowing them to handle solids such as cherries or olives without damage. and good clean-in-place and sterilize-in-place (CIP/SIP) characteristics. food. Rotary lobe pumps are noncontacting and have large pumping chambers. and USDA. they create expanding volume on the inlet side of the pump. They are also used to handle slurries. chemical. biwing. the meshing of the lobes forces liquid through the outlet port under pressure. Liquid travels around the interior of the casing in the pockets between the lobes and the casing -. pressure is limited by bearing location and shaft deflection. corrosion resistance. Pump Clinic 27 Positive Displacement Pumps Page 6 of 15 24/09/08 . They also offer reversible flows and can operate dry for long periods of time. lifts. beverage. reliability.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. and biotechnology.com. Finally. and multi-lobe. As the lobes come out of mesh. they offer self-priming performance.) Acids and caustic (stainless steel or composite construction) Low volume transfer or application LOBE PUMP OVERVIEW Lobe pumps are used in a variety of industries including. however. etc.au www. Unlike external gear pumps. Pump shaft support bearings are located in the gearbox. and a wide variety of other liquids. tri-lobe (shown). A gentle pumping action minimizes product degradation. These requirements include 3-A. pulp and paper.kelairpumps. high efficiency. pastes. How Lobe Pumps Work Lobe pumps are similar to external gear pumps in operation in that fluid flows around the interior of the casing. Rotary lobe pumps range from industrial designs to sanitary designs.com. The manufacturer can tell you which certifications. the lobes do not make contact. 3. their rotary lobe pump meets. EHEDG. Flow is relatively independent of changes in process pressure. The sanitary designs break down further depending on the service and specific sanitary requirements. They are popular in these diverse industries because they offer superb sanitary qualities. so output is constant and continuous. Lobe contact is prevented by external timing gears located in the gearbox. and since the bearings are out of the pumped liquid. if any.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE • • • • • Chemical additive and polymer metering Chemical mixing and blending (double pump) Industrial and mobile hydraulic applications (log splitters. If wetted. Liquid flows into the cavity and is trapped by the lobes as they rotate.

because they handle solids without damaging the pump. except the pumping elements or lobes do not make contact. Lobe pumps may also be used in other industrial applications as detailed below however specific care needs to be taken in these applications and manufacturers recommendations should be sought.Typically 316 or 316L stainless steel head and casing Pump Clinic 27 Positive Displacement Pumps Page 7 of 15 24/09/08 .e in industries deemed to be ‘clean” industries. pharmaceutical and personal care products i. casing) . Reductions of 25% of rated speed and lower are common with high-viscosity liquids. Lobe pumps are cleaned by circulating a fluid through them. Since the bearings are out of the pumped liquid. this design handles low viscosity liquids with diminished performance.au www. Pump shaft support bearings are located in the timing gear case.com. This design handles low-viscosity liquids. and suction ability is low. There is not metalto-metal contact and wear in abrasive applications is minimal.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Lobe pumps (Figure 3) are similar to external gear pumps in operation. because they are driven by external timing gears. Loading characteristics are not as good as other designs. Particle size pumped can be much larger in lobe pumps than in other PD types. • • • • • • • Polymers Paper coatings Soaps and surfactants Paints and dyes Rubber and adhesives Pharmaceuticals Food applications (a sample of these is referenced below) Materials Of Construction / Configuration Options • Externals (head.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Highviscosity liquids require considerably reduced speeds to achieve satisfactory performance. pressure is limited by bearing location and shaft deflection. and clearances are not as close as in other PD pumps. Lobe pumps are frequently used in food applications.com. Use of multiple mechanical seals makes seal construction important. Cleaning is important when the product cannot remain in the pumps for sanitary reasons or when products of different colors or properties are batched.kelairpumps. Figure 3. Lobes in lobe pumps do not make contact. beverage. Since the lobes do not make contact. • • • • • Advantages Pass medium solids No metal-to-metal contact Superior CIP/SIP capabilities Long term dry run (with lubrication to seals) Non-pulsating discharge • • • Disadvantages Requires timing gears Requires two seals Reduced lift with thin liquids Applications Primary applications for rotary lobe pump applications are with food.

swinging vane. the vanes sweep the fluid to the opposite side of the crescent where it is squeezed through discharge holes of the cam as the vane approaches the point of the crescent (small red arrow on the side of the pump). Though efficiency drops quickly. solvents. Vane pumps are noted for their dry priming. Flexible vane pumps. 3.Cast iron. Pump Clinic 27 Positive Displacement Pumps Page 8 of 15 24/09/08 . and/or pushrods push the vanes to the walls of the housing. and external vane.kelairpumps. hydraulic pressure. 2. 1. centrifugal force. A slotted rotor is eccentrically supported in a cycloidal cam.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. enabling them to maintain peak performance on these non-lubricating liquids. Each type of vane pump offers unique advantages. can only handle small solids but create good vacuum.com. and sideplate is the key to the good suction characteristics common to the vane pumping principle.com. Vane pumps (Figure 4) operate quite differently from gear and lobe types. vanes can usually handle fluid temperatures from -32°C (delete) to 260°C (delete) and differential pressures to 15 BAR (delete) (higher for hydraulic vane pumps).au www. Vane pumps have no internal metal-to-metal contact and self-compensate for wear.300 SSU. stainless steel Internals (rotors. As the rotor rotates (yellow arrow) and fluid enters the pump.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE • • • Externals (gearbox) . As the rotor continues around. Fluid then exits the discharge port. For example. ammonia. rotor. rolling vane. they can be used up to 500 cPs / 2.O-rings. shaft) . external vane pumps can handle large solids. non-galling stainless steel Shaft Seal . flexible vane. gasoline. most vane pumps operate under the same general principle described below. Vanes or blades fit within the slots of the impeller. Sliding vane pumps can run dry for short periods of time and handle small amounts of vapor. industry-standard cartridge mechanical seals VANE PUMP OVERVIEW While vane pumps can handle moderate viscosity liquids. cam. Vane pumps are available in a number of vane configurations including sliding vane (left). How Vane Pumps Work Despite the different configurations. Fluid enters the pockets created by the vanes. The rotor is sealed into the cam by two sideplates. alcohol. they excel at handling low viscosity liquids such as LP gas (propane). rotor. component single or double mechanical seals. and sideplate. on the other hand. cam. fuel oils. ease of maintenance. The rotor is located close to the wall of the cam so a crescent-shaped cavity is formed. and good suction characteristics over the life of the pump. Moreover.Typically 316 or 316L stainless steel. and refrigerants. The housing and cam force fluid into the pumping chamber through holes in the cam (small red arrow on the bottom of the pump). The tight seal among the vanes.

steel. and stainless steel. casing) . PEEK®.Component mechanical seals. Vane pumps usually operate at 1. Rotor bushings run in the pumped liquid or are isolated by seals.450 rpm. Speeds must be reduced dramatically for high-viscosity applications to load the area underneath the vanes. or pushrods. Vane pumps can run dry.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE A rotor with radial slots. is positioned off-center in a housing bore.com. Figure 4.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Vanes are the main sealing element between the suction and discharge ports and are usually made of a nonmetallic composite material. Vane. Once wear occurs. Because there is no metal-to-metal contact. Vane pumps have better dry priming capability than other positive displacement pumps.Cast iron.au www. End Plates . but are subject to vane wear. hydraulic pressure. Packing . but not usually recommended for thin liquid service SCREW PUMP OVERVIEW Pump Clinic 27 Positive Displacement Pumps Page 9 of 15 24/09/08 . Vane pumps are not well suited to handling abrasive applications. but some manufacturers supply replaceable or reversible end plates. • • • • • • Advantages Handles thin liquids at relatively higher pressures Compensates for wear through vane extension Sometimes preferred for solvents.kelairpumps. The pumps work well with low-viscosity liquids that easily fill the cavities and provide good suction characteristics. Pumping action is caused by the expanding and contracting volumes contained by the rotor. LPG Can run dry for short periods Can have one seal or stuffing box Develops good vacuum • • • • • Disadvantages Can have two stuffing boxes Complex housing and many parts Not suitable for high pressures Not suitable for high viscosity Not good with abrasives Materials Of Construction / Configuration Options • • • • • Externals (head. vanes.Available from some vendors. ductile iron. These applications require stronger-than-normal vane material.com. industry-standard cartridge mechanical seals. Vane pumps have fixed end clearances on both sides of the rotor and vanes similar to external gear pumps.Carbon graphite. these pumps are frequently used with low-viscosity nonlubricating liquids such as propane or solvent.000 rpm. This type of pump has better dry priming capability than other PD pumps. but also run at 1. and housing. Pushrods .Carbon graphite Shaft Seal . this clearance cannot be adjusted. Vane action is aided by centrifugal force. and magnetically-driven pumps. Vanes that fit closely in rotor slots slide in and out as the rotor turns.

When equipped with augers. packings are still more accepted for sealing fluids in typical PC applications (as they rarely pump tough enough chemicals to require mechanical seals). as compared to more conventional threaded stator designs. Tie rod construction makes the entire assembly much easier to service. results in a smaller pump package. Oversized open hopper inlets handle thicker liquids and eliminate bridging (for example. or so-called "block" design. less upfront cost and no drive alignment issues. speed and power combined. The rotor is manufactured slightly larger than the stator so an interference fit exists when the rotor is inserted into the stator. Equal wall stator doubles pressure capability per stage as compared to standard designs with constant stator outside wall thickness. Single-screw pumps are also known as progressive cavity or helical rotor pumps have some limitations and require some care in application. twin and three screw pumps have earned reputations for some specific and significant applications. temperature. While other pump types can handle these variables well individually. Multiple screw pumps can handle high pressure. Coated chromed rotors resist wear and last longer.. Normally. PC pumps produce better NPSHR values with higher volumetric efficiencies and higher percent solids capabilities.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE Within the rotary pumps family. Easy access to the mechanical seal is important to simplify seal service and reduce downtime with quick changeover.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. single. Some design enhancements could include features to make maintenance simpler and reliability better. their combined force is a challenge. filter cake up to 55 percent solids can be handled by the augeraugmented PC pumps).au www. A multi-lobe design can increase flow per revolution and reduce initial pump cost. The stator is normally made from an elastomer and has the shape of a double helix (internal shape). Sealed pivot style universal joints (as in the above illustration) keep the joints lubricated. A close-coupled.com. Progressive Cavity (PC) Pumps The PC pump is made of three major sections: A) The pumping element B) The suction housing C) The drive train The pumping element is made from the rotor and stator elements.com. Improvements in the pumping element go beyond more traditional 1:2 geometry (single rotor lobe) to multi-lobe configurations. However.kelairpumps. such as 2:3 (rotor/stator lobes) geometry. Pump Clinic 27 Positive Displacement Pumps Page 10 of 15 24/09/08 . the rotor is made of steel or other metal and has the shape of a single helix (external shape). Hollow cast rotors reduce inertia and result in lower vibrations.

industry-standard cartridge mechanical seals. In practice. they are not useable in high temperature applications because of the limitations of elastomeric stators.au www." Progressive cavity pumps have smooth output flow and good self-priming ability. As the rotor turns inside the stator. they are successful pumping liquids with high solids and abrasives content. it is limited to low differential pressures and relatively thick (viscous) product-otherwise the "slip" (loss of flow) would be substantial.to 400-rpm due to the unbalanced nature of the rotating element. when used correctly. electronic monitoring and materials of construction have improved PC pump energy efficiency. like other pump types. steel. natural rubber. such as sauces. Hypalon and many others • Shaft Seal . These capabilities have made progressive cavity pumps a choice for many tough applications. When designed with a clearance. 316 stainless steel Alloy C. 316 stainless steel Alloy C. • Rotor – Steel. but they perform equally well at the "opposite end of the spectrum" (the food industry) due to their minimal impact on shear sensitive fluids. some designs actually have a clearance between these. advances in pump design.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. have limitations. decreased maintenance requirements and allowed them to handle more severe application conditions. However. Hard chrome coatings available • Stators – Neoprene. Perbunan.com. They work well in the wastewater treatment industry. a cavity is formed between the two shapes and "progresses" (hence the name) axially from one end of the element to the other. since many maintenance departments tend to prefer simpler designs with fewer "gadgets.Cast iron. Typically. few installations take advantage of this feature. Multiple Screw Pumps Pump Clinic 27 Positive Displacement Pumps Page 11 of 15 24/09/08 .kelairpumps.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE A temperature probe. They require significant floor space and should not be run at speeds much higher than 300. PTFE. root cause analysis and similar equipment-caring techniques." The designs with clearance between the rotating elements are rare (interference fits are probably common in 99 percent of applications). the PC pump's benefits can be substantial. can prevent rapid temperature rise and failure during dry running. However. referred to as a "single undersize rotor.packed glands and component mechanical seals. Through the years. cream products and similar fluids. Capable of pumping both thick and thin fluids. A PC pump will provide long-lasting service to any plant with proactive maintenance practices including vibration trending programs. • • • • • • Advantages Handles thin and highly viscous liquids Low shear pumping action Self priming capability (must have Liquid in the pump chamber) Can handle abrasive liquids Have one seal or stuffing box Non pulsing flow Disadvantages • Serious damage if run dry • Temperature limitations due to elastomeric stator • Long floor space requirement Materials Of Construction / Configuration Options • Casings . installed at the stator wall. PC pumps. Viton." "double-undersized" and even "triple-undersized.com.

There is contact between the driven and idler screws. while high pressure pumps may have 12 or more wraps. acts as a pressure stage. The double suction designs. The wrap. Unlike gear and lobe pumps.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.kelairpumps. or cavity.com.com. Low pressure pumps have only one or two wraps (stages). external timing gears and bearings keep the screws from contacting each other or their casing bores and do not rely on pumped fluid characteristics. The majority of twin screw pumps are double suction designs. Pump Clinic 27 Positive Displacement Pumps Page 12 of 15 24/09/08 . The staging effect allows each stage to handle a moderate pressure rise.au www. are inherently in hydraulic balance in the axial direction due to their symmetry. screw pumps are axial flow rather than radial flow machines. flow moves along the axis of rotation rather than perpendicular to it. which effectively puts two single suction pumps in parallel in one casing. In twin screw pumps. Triple screw pumps have one driven screw and two idler screws. resulting in low stress levels within the pump even at high pressure operation. This axial flow allows multiple screw pumps to operate at relatively high direct drive speeds while still maintaining low fluid inlet velocities and low NPSH requirements.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE This section compares the twin and triple screw pumps. both three-screw and two-screw. Each wrap of screw thread forms a cavity that moves axially from suction to discharge. Figure 1 illustrates the flow path within these pumps.

tungsten carbide. machinery lubrication. which is also the only part in contact with the pumped medium. one ate ach end of the two shafts. industry-standard cartridge mechanical seals Peristaltic Pump Overview Peristaltic pumps (also known as hose pumps) have been around for many years. Triple screw pumps are fitted with one seal whereas twin screw pumps require four seals. bitumen) and chemical processing (synthetic fibers. asphalt. The pumping action is provided by rotating shoes squeezing a hose and hence enclosing a volume of liquid which is progressed to discharge by the rotating shoes. Bushing .Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. Internals (rotor. polyol. Pump Clinic 27 Positive Displacement Pumps Page 13 of 15 24/09/08 . vacuum tower bottoms. steel. due to their ability to handle very abrasive slurries. Shaft Seal . The shoe design hose pump uses two or more fixed shoes to compress the hose twice per revolution by grinding against the hose. idler) ..Carbon graphite. Hose pumps can run dry for long periods of time without damage to the pump. Examples of critical applications include modified twin screw pumps used to handle multiphase flow.com. bracket) .com. explosives. Typically the only wearing part is the rubber hose. They are excellent devices for pumping slurries. silicon carbide. and other specials materials as needed.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE In a radial direction. compressor and expander gas sealing and some refinery (heavy fuel. i. bronze. ceramic. twin screw pumps are not hydraulically balanced and require radial bearings at each end of each shaft.Primarily component mechanical seals.au www.kelairpumps. Three screw pumps find use aboard combat ships for hydraulic services where extremely quiet operation is necessary to avoid acoustic detection. stainless steel. colmonoy. Materials Of Construction / Configuration Options • • • • Externals (head.e. stainless steel. casing. isocyanate) applications. Both twin screw and three screw pumps share many applications including hydraulic services.steel.Cast iron. since they are a positive placement device that can very accurately control the flow rate desired. oil well head flows ranging from nearly 100 percent gas to 100 percent liquid including liquid slugs. with some designs dating back more than 75 years. Hose pumps are also very good at dosing chemicals. Both twin and three screw pumps are used in medium and heavy crude oil pipelines operating at efficiencies far above centrifugal pumps. ductile iron.

which. One school of thought suggests that the abrasiveness of the slurry is what destroys the hose in a hose pump. Manufacturers of this type of pump tend to push the user to the next larger size pump so the rpm is kept lower. the pump heats up significantly. which is the main element and only repair part. There are many designs of hose pumps. This type of design damages the hose the most because it generates a lot of heat and creates a lot of stress/damage to the hose on each revolution.com. but there is a clear distinction between hose pumps and tube pumps. Because of the high drag/friction across the rubber hose. The biggest challenge is manufacturing the hose itself. (delete) Shoe designed pumps have a significant limitation regarding the speed at which the pump can be operated. The first is the shoe design. pump at very low pressures and also are very small and low flow rate devices. The slower a hose pump is run. In other words. the better. in turn. The difference between these two types of pumps are that tube pumps typically do not have a glycerin bath.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE NPSHA is not a concern for hose pumps because they create their own suction on the inlet side. Pump Clinic 27 Positive Displacement Pumps Page 14 of 15 24/09/08 . but there are essentially only three means employed by all of these designs to compress the hose. the user of a rolling design peristaltic pump can typically work with a unit that is one size smaller. depending on manufacturer. a limiting factor on the shoe type of pump involves running a very low rpm. because the number one factor in determining hose life in a hose pump is how many compressions are placed on the rubber hose.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps. This discussion is focused on industrial hose pumps. This is not the reality. Due to this heat and friction. these types of pumps cannot run at very high speeds. where two or more fixed shoes compress the hose twice per revolution by grinding against the hose. Though this strategy is correct. As such. limits the amount of flow that can be produced continuously.au www. Also. a 80 mm pump may be capable of running at only 40-rpm continuously. hose pumps will never cavitate. because it places fewer revolutions on the hose. The high drag created from a very low rpm may frequently trip the variable frequency drive (VFD). the hose is the source of the greatest MTBF. The number two factor that contributes to hose wear is the amount of stress being placed on the hose during a compression and how much heat is generated from that compression force. rather than tube pumps. Finally.com. A hose pump is more of an industrial piece of equipment than a piece of lab equipment. the best way to maximize hose life and eliminate pump downtime is to reduce the number of compressions on the hose and compress the hose in the less damaging manor. There are basically two types of pumps that can be considered a hose pump. For example. Hose pumps typically range is size from 12 mm to 150 mm and typically have a maximum pressure capability of ~15 bars.kelairpumps.

the limitation is the hose material. stainless steel and higher alloys. Many hose materials are available from various manufacturers. Connections are available in steel.au www.au QLD Fax: 07 3805 7309 VIC Fax: 03 9569 7866 TAS Fax: 03 6331 9102 WA Fax: 08 9248 2255 PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE • • • • • • • • Advantages No pumping moving parts Seal/less configuration Non-pulsating discharge Good for high-viscosity liquids Can handle abrasive Self priming capability Low shear pumping action Easy to maintain • • • • • Disadvantages Requires moderate speeds Pulsing flow Low hose life Large space requirements Application may be limited by hose material availability Materials Of Construction / Configuration Options As the liquid contacts only the hose and the connections.kelairpumps.Kelair Pumps Australia Pty Ltd ABN 28 001 308 381 215 Walters Road Arndell Park NSW 2148 Ph: 1300 789 466 Fax: 02 9678 9455 Email: kelair@kelairpumps.com. Pump Clinic 27 Positive Displacement Pumps Page 15 of 15 24/09/08 .com.

PumpClinic……… Issue 28 CORROSION SOLUTIONS (Reprinted with the kind permission of Sterling Fluid Systems Group) Pump Clinic 28 Page 1 of 1 29/10/08 .

CORROSION SOLUTIONS WORLDWIDE STERLING FLUID SYSTEMS GROUP .

and each is dealt with in detail when considering a pump’s hydraulics. etc. the following schematic diagrams have been used (Page 2). Strength e. Corrosion resistance c. Type of seal e. Appearance 1 . in series. a. The world’s economy would be entirely different if it were not for corrosion.INTRODUCTION The annual cost of corrosion and of protection against corrosion in the world is staggering. The seals. bearing brackets. To view corrosion engineering in its proper perspective. any changes subsequently made in operation or processing are critical and may make re-evaluation of the sizing and choice of material necessary. it is necessary to remember that the choice of material depends on several factors: In dealing with pump systems. Temperature change The above factors influence the corrosion rates of any given material. Continuous/intermittent service c. Cost b. Suction and operation conditions b. These indicate the different forms of corrosion that may take place in a pump. Additionally. Even though corrosion is here to stay. its cost can be considerably reduced in industry through proper selection of materials. exhaust systems and water heaters. Flushing fluid f. increases this cost further. Corrosion contributes to the depletion of our natural resources and the recent concern over this is becoming increasingly influential in inducing people to be ”corrosion-cost“ conscious. The diagrams depict an impeller in a casing. Availability d. Are there several pumps involved. and preventative maintenance. Fabrication f. Corrosion in radiators. In an effort to apply corrosion principles (from fluid flow to underground soil and atmospheric) to contained chemical systems. some other factors need to be considered: a. and in particular to centrifugal pumps. correct design of products. are to be imagined. or parallel? d. A plant may spend considerable amounts of money each year in painting steel to prevent rusting. but the choice of a proper material depends on how accurately these factors have been calculated.

. 1A MECHANICS OF CORROSION . General Corrosion Erosion FLOW BUBBLE Localised Corrosion Cavitation Pitting Crevice/Deposit Corrosion HEAT AFFECTED ZONE WELD ALUMINIUM BASE ALLOY R53 NOBLE WELD HEAT AFFECTED ZONE Galvanic Intergranular (Corrosion) Fig...... . 1B CRACKING PHENOMENA CRACK STATIC STRESS DYNAMIC STRESS Stress Corrosion Cracking Corrosion Fatigue 2 .. .EIGHT FORMS OF CORROSION AND TWO FORMS OF CRACKING PHENOMENA FIG.

such as zirconium. This type of protection is very sensitive to solids in the pumped fluids. close examination will always reveal the fact that corrosion has left an etched appearance on the surface. but continues to corrode at a low rate. This is illustrated very well when steel is used in oxygenated water. the material is not inert. C. the use of inhibitors. These variations may appear to be caused by solids or erosive products in the fluid. show this type of passivating behaviour with the help of a surface film of oxides. Most corrosion-resistant austenitic materials. thus leading to erosion corrosion. Temperature 66 o C. This pump was in service for two years.S. B. The surface casing may show whorls and pockets where velocity variations have influenced the rate of corrosion. Description: Notice the attack is all over the surface without an exaggerated effect on the outer periphery. corrosion proceeds radially inward at an essentially uniform rate around the entire circumference. it may form a passivating barrier that stifles further corrosion. However.S. General corrosion leads to relatively uniform thinning. General corrosion proceeds by many different means: A. CASE HISTORY ILLUSTRATING SEVERE GENERAL ATTACK Alloy: 316 S. Methods of reducing or eliminating general corrosion are the use of coatings. Castings suffer corrosion starting at the wall exposed to the fluid (for example. Remedy: Do not interchange castings without checking suitability of application. 3 . A special case of an artificially controlled uniform dissolution process may be attempted by controlling the pH or current density of a given solution. the impeller face of the casting) and proceeding gradually and uniformly to the outer wall. These solids may continually scour away the protective film which would otherwise form. This principle is utilised in chemical machining and electropolishing of stainless steels to improve either the corrosion resistance or frictional characteristics. The corrosion reaction product may be protective. impeller was substituted for an R-55 impeller. which is resistant up to 37% HCI to 70 ºC. For round bars and wires. such as stainless steels.GENERAL CORROSION CASE HISTORY ILLUSTRATING GENERAL ATTACK Alloy: Sterling R52 Environment: 30% Hydrochloric Acid with minor impurities. In this case. The corrosion product may be soluble in the pumped fluid at a rate determined by the electrode potential of the metal. and to continually repair the passive film. the selection of a more corrosion-resistant material (a general rule is to select an alloy with a higher chrome and/or nickel content). Temperature 60 oC. In pumps. the recognition of general corrosion is compounded by velocity and pressure variations. Remedy: Review cost and evaluate possibility of using higher grade alloy. Environment: 70% Sulphuric Acid. Description: A 316 S. or cathodic protection.

such as a scratch or a small pit. CASE HISTORY ILLUSTRATING EROSION FOR (A) AND (B) Alloy: 316 S. The surface discontinuity may be a weld bead. the velocity of the liquid may cause flow aberrations and turbulence due to surface discontinuities. then reducing the flow rate will help reduce the erosion-corrosion. the removal of the discontinuity may produce the same result. It is the angle of incidence of the abrasive particle that is of prime importance. In this case. A number of closely knit channels causes the material to “wire-draw”. reducing the flow rate will not help. It is extremely sensitive to the flow paths and thus may appear to be localised. hardness and angularity of the particles that affect this type of erosion. . This usually reveals itself in a characteristic ripple pattern. causing damage is often seen in mechanical seals.EROSION . This will often correct the situation. Mechanical-chemical or erosion-corrosion In the erosion-corrosion mode. A good example of discontinuity. Here the surface undergoes deformation and eventually extrusion. The impingement of hard particles causes multiple cratering. velocity. This loosely adhered particle is removed by the liquid velocity. or flashing in the volute of a casing. the flowing liquid may be free of abrasive particles. thereby increasing the rate of damage. The particles are now capable of destroying the protective oxide film continually by fluid shear. It is the angle of impingement. Outer periphery shows damage increasing due to velocity and pressure. In this case. impeller. making the damage look erosive. By-pass throat area shows severe damage. In contrast. There is a defined ”breakaway velocity“ at which erosioncorrosion begins and is characteristic of a given alloy/pumped-fluid system. 1. However. Erosion marks indicate direction of liquid flow. high pressure fluid in the constricted scratch zone causes the development of a channel. If this mode is identified and there is no particle impingement.24. etc. Remedy: a) Check rotation on impeller and b) Substitute with Sterling R48 or other more abrasionresistant material.S. Impingement of abrasive particles carried by a fluid can affect the surface of the casing. Description: Very little damage around shaft opening. by causing mechanical damage. Environment: Sodium Nitrate with other solids SP GR. Filtration of these particles wherever possible may be the best solution. 4 .CORROSION FLOW (A) Erosion consists of two types of damage modes: A.

as well. Improve design of system to reduce turbulence. such as hard facing. (B) CAVITATION This form of erosion is attributed to the following: A . if the coating has the required corrosion resistance. Repetition of this process at high speed causes the bubbles to form and collapse rapidly. It is here that the velocity and pressure of the liquid are the greatest. Use materials with improved corrosion resistance to provide a stronger protective oxide film. causing the bubble to implode. Use coatings. The central portion around the shaft opening is generally untouched. the pressure is increased. alteration of the environment such as filtering to remove solids or reducing the temperature. the action is limited to the outer periphery of the casing. Formation of bubbles: At the eye of the impeller the pressure on the liquid is sufficiently reduced to cause the liquid to vapourise or form bubbles. Collapse of bubbles: As the liquid is now pumped to the outer periphery of the impeller. as hardness. Methods of preventing or reducing Erosion-Corrosion can be accomplished by use of one or more of the following methods. Purely mechanical or particle erosion In the case of mechanical erosion.B. Cathodic Protection has been found to reduce Erosion-Corrosion in some applications. 5 . B.

CASE HISTORY ILLUSTRATING CAVITATION TYPE DAMAGE Alloy: Sterling R55. This caused a vacuum on the low velocity side as shown. Some measures which can be taken to alleviate this problem are: A. b) Use a more cavitationresistant material. which is indicated by the presence of slip lines on the impeller and casing. 6 . Such forces cause plastic deformation in metals.CASE HISTORY ILLUSTRATING CAVITATION TYPE DAMAGE Alloy: Sterling R55. damage is noticed on the leading side of the blades. The closely spaced pits are usually seen on the lagging side of the blades. Environment: Water with 50 ppm chloride at 44 o C. In certain violent instances. This roughened area in turn acts as a nucleating site for a new bubble to form. The extent and location of the damage is dependent on the fluid being handled. Description: A restricted suction condition caused an insufficient amount of liquid to fill the discharge throat. Environment: Unknown. b) Determine if gas in liquid can be reduced.S. Description: The imploding of bubbles during re-absorption on the pressure side of the blade causes damage in the form of closely spaced pits. thereby cushioning the shock waves produced by the collapsing bubbles and thus preventing damage to the metal surface. partial pressures and the degree of recirculation flow inherent in the design. B. An imploding bubble causes the metal to be roughened. Description: The imploding of bubbles during re-absorption on the pressure side of the blade causes damage in the form of closely spaced pits. Use of a more corrosion-resistant material. Change of the design to minimise the hydrodynamic pressure differences in the process fluid. b) Use a more cavitationresistant material. Remedy: a) Check the conditions under which the pump is operating. C. D. These rapidly imploding bubbles may produce shock waves with pressure as high as 4400 bar. Smoothing of the finish on the impeller to reduce nucleating sites for the bubbles. Use of a rubber or plastic coating that inherently possesses a strong metal-coating interface. Environment: Water with 50 ppm chloride at 44 o C. Remedy: a) Check the conditions under which the pump is operating. The collapsing bubbles appear to cause closely-spaced pitted areas and considerable roughening of the surface. This is well beyond the yield strength of a number of materials. CASE HISTORY ILLUSTRATING CAVITATION TYPE GAS CONCENTRATION CORROSION Alloy: 316 S. Cathodic protection can reduce cavitation by forming bubbles on the metal surface. E. yet a large amount of gas was present. Remedy: a) Review design of suction. the temperature. Cavitation damage is located anywhere between the inlet eye of the impeller and the tip of the blades.

Environment: Hydrochloric and nitric acid mixtures. Oxidizing metal ions. and hypochlorites.PITTING CASE HISTORY ILLUSTRATING PITTING CORROSION Alloy: 304L S. and mercuric in combination with chlorides are considered to be the most aggressive. a type 304 stainless steel pump would give good service handling sea water if the pump ran continuously. Non-oxidizing metal ions such as sodium chlorides and calcium chlorides are much less aggressive. D. F. Pitting usually requires an extended initiation period before visible pits appear. Pits have the following characteristics: A. It usually results in a cavity that has approximately the same dimensions in breadth and in depth. Remedy: Use alloy with molybdenum such as CF3M. whereas the reverse may be considered to be true. such as chlorides. For example. Pitting is usually associated with stagnant conditions. ferric. Fluorides and iodides have comparatively lesser pitting tendencies. They are difficult to detect because they are often covered with corrosion products. The addition of Molybdenum of 2% or greater in stainless steels contribute greatly in increasing resistance to pitting. Most pitting is associated with halide ions. Materials that are susceptible to crevice corrosion do not necessarily become susceptible to pitting corrosion. such as cupric. Description: Several damage marks (caused during material handling) served as nucleating sites for an autocatalytic reaction to occur. This form of attack is extremely localised. Methods for combating Crevice Corrosion generally apply for pitting. 7 . bromides. the corrosion processes within a pit produce conditions which are both stimulating and necessary for the continuing activity of the pit. E. Pitting is autocatalytic. Pits usually grow in the direction of gravity. As the breadth increases. causing a hole through the wall of the casing. This type of corrosion differs from crevice corrosion in that it creates its own crevice. This resulted in the pits shown. This period ranges from months to years. That is. but would pit if shut down for extended periods of time.S. This is substantiated by the fact that they require a dense concentrated solution for continuing activity. C. Temperature and concentration unknown. the depth increases. B. depending on both the specific metal and the corrosive liquid.

thus creating an imbalance and the initiation of corrosion. Use of gaskets that are non-absorbent. Use of flushing in seal areas to avoid stagnant conditions in the bore of the stuffing box cover. dirt. or metal to non-metal. E. thus avoiding penetration from either side. Ensuring that the pump is completely drained. CASE HISTORY ILLUSTRATING CREVICE CORROSION Alloy: Sterling R55. wherever possible. Temperature and concentration unknown. where free access to the pumped fluid is restricted. but grows at an ever-increasing rate. the initial driving force is often an oxygen or metal ion concentration cell. Environment: Dilute sulphuric acid with small amounts of hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride. (threaded drain plug). either metal to metal. (gasketed joints). it is very common in chloride-containing environments. As with pitting corrosion. Note the pitting that is usually associated with this type of corrosion. Remedy: a) Review gasket material. The external surfaces are protected cathodically. however. This kind of attack occurs in many media. but continued growth by accumulation of acidic hydrolyzed salts within the crevice. B. C. Weld on both sides of a flange to pipe joint. and carbonaceous material that shield and create a stagnant condition. In certain cases corrosion products will deposit and form a crevice. b) Consider welding the joint between impeller and shaft 8 . It is aided by the presence of deposits such as sand.There are a number of actions that can be taken to prevent crevice corrosion: A. It is slow to start. D. an autocatalytic reaction fosters the growth of crevice corrosion. Description: The gasketed shielded area has limited diffusion of oxidizing ions. Thus.CREVICE/DEPOSIT CORROSION This type of corrosion occurs in restricted areas. such as teflon. Use of welded joints instead of threaded joints.

avoiding dissimilar metal crevices. Thus the series should be used only for predicting galvanic relationships. while the other metal is cathodic. distance and geometry play a definite role in galvanic corrosion. (See Table 1). M-Bronze ↓ Nickel 200 (passive) INCONEL alloy 600 (passive) ↓ MONEL alloy 400 ↓ Type 304. based on electrical potential measurements and galvanic corrosion tests in unpolluted sea water is shown alongside. 3003. Stainless Steel (passive) INCOLOY alloy 825 ↓ INCONEL alloy 625 HASTELLOY alloy C Titanium Protected End (cathodic. area. The separation between the two metals or alloys in the series is an indication of the probable magnitude of corrosive effects. 1100. G-Bronze Comp. or least noble) Magnesium Magnesium Alloys ↓ Galvanised Steel or Galvanised Wrought Iron ↓ Aluminium (5052. 9 . E. an electron flow is produced. A similar series is needed for all of the various situations. If these metals are now connected electrically conductively on the outside. The number of tests required would be almost infinite. The metal which is corroding at a faster rate becomes anodic. B. Effects such as polarisation (potential shifts as the alloys tend to approach each other).GALVANIC SERIES IN PURE SEA WATER Corroded End (anodic. or most noble) A potential difference exists between two dissimilar metals when they are immersed in a corrosive and conductive solution. 6053 in this order) ↓ Cadmium ↓ Aluminium (2117. Stainless Steel (passive) Type 316. and using replaceable sections with large corrosion allowances of the more active member. Cathodic protection by way of using sacrificial metals may be introduced. 2017. One of the two metals will corrode faster than the other.GALVANIC ALUMINIUM BASE STERLING R53 NOBLE TABLE 1 . Stainless Steel (active) ↓ Lead Tin ↓ Muntz Metal Manganese Bronze Naval Brass ↓ Nickel 200 (active) INCONEL alloy 600 (active) ↓ Yellow Brass Admiralty Brass Aluminium Bronze Red Brass Copper Silicon Bronze 70-30 Copper Nickel Comp. Care should be taken to avoid wide separation in the relevant galvanic series. There are several ways in which to combat galvanic corrosion: A. Substitution of impellers of different alloys in an existing system must be done carefully. The pumped fluid may be controlled by the use of a corrosion inhibitor. (as at threaded connections). C. D. Stainless Steel (active) Type 316. Barrier coatings and electrical isolation by means of insulators to break the electrical continuity are sometimes employed. Design changes involving the avoidance of the unfavourable area ratios. Material selection is extremely important. The most commonly used series. using bolts and other fasteners of a more noble metal than the material to be fastened. 3004. Stainless Steel (active) ↓ 50-50 Lead Tin Solder ↓ Type 304. 2024 in this order) ↓ Mild Steel Wrought Iron Cast Iron ↓ NI-RESIST ↓ Type 410.

Figure 2 shows the variation in carbon content in passing from one grain. Since the grains (high energy level). and of metallic and non-metallic impurities. cubic. This is below the 12% chromium minimum required for corrosion-resistance.precipitates. it was shown that sensitisation and resulting intergranular corrosion were the cause of over half of the reported incidents of unsatisfactory performance.EFFECT OF SENSITISATION ON CARBON AND CHROMIUM CONCENTRATIONS 10 . These boundaries have a much greater degree of structural imperfection than within the grains. but if they are heated to around 800oC for any appreciable length of time. The sensitisation of an austenitic alloy permits corrosive attack to start at the grain boundary. their facets form a boundary that takes the form of a lattice. The effect of sensitisation on the chromium and carbon concentration is shown in Figure 3. Rapid cooling of these steels will ensure the retention of austenite (a high temperature phase). Sensitisation may be referred to as carbide precipitation in the grain boundaries. the development of facets indicative of their crystal structure is prevented when the growing crystals impinge on each other.g. The resulting energy states at the boundaries can promote the concentration of alloying elements. the carbide will precipitate in the grain boundaries. this condition would not be possible. There is a narrow region at the grain boundary which contains less than 12% chromium. through the grain boundary. to another grain. however. These crystals develop into specific atomic arrangements known as crystal structures (e. The figure depicts a transient state only. Two important arrangements in stainless steels are called Ferrite and Austenite. Metals and alloys consist of individually oriented crystals which form from the molten state (castings or weld metal).LATTICE MISMATCH EFFECT OF SENSITISATION ON THE CARBON & CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION CARBIDE PARTICLE % CARBON AVERAGE CONTENT 0. and is mainly due to stress corrosion. and of greatest importance . As the attack progresses. hexagonal etc. corrosion follows the boundaries.02% CARBIDE PARTICLE % CHROMIUM 18% LEVEL FOR RESISTANCE12% GRAIN BOUNDARY Fig 3 . on the surface of the casting.).HEAT AFFECTED ZONE WELD INTERGRANULAR CORROSION WELD HEAT AFFECTED ZONE In a survey conducted by the Material Technology Institute of the Chemical Process Industries. The structure of low carbon austenitic stainless steels consists of three crystallographic phases: Ferrite. If there was no carbon present in the alloy. the attack is first recognised as ditching along the grain boundaries.08% SATURATION VALUE 0. Each type of atomic arrangement has specific physical and mechanical properties of its own. In translating this phenomenon to the macro-scale. It should be noted that cracking. are more resistant than the boundaries (low energy level). does occur in austenitic alloys. which is typical of intergranular corrosion. During the solidification process. Where the crystals come in contact with each other. These crystal structures can be manipulated by varying chemistry and heat treatment. (lowest energy level). where there is a deficiency of free chromium. austenite and carbide under equilibrium condition. GRAIN BOUNDARY GROWING CRYSTAL FACETS FORMING A GRAIN BOUNDARY Fig 2 . The chromium content varies in the manner shown in the lower portion of Figure 3. it permeates the complete casting wall and results in leakage and possible grain dropping.

Temperature: Ambient. In practice at the foundry level. This impeller has undergone severe corrosion with grain dropping occurring at the tip of the blades. Environment: 25% Hydrochloric acid with 100 ppm Chlorine. the hostility of this production step has limited its applicability.CASE HISTORY ILLUSTRATING INTERGRANULAR CORROSION (a) Alloy: Sterling R53. Immediate cooling of castings from the mould has been tried. However. Environment: 25% Hydrochloric acid with 100 ppm Chlorine. 11 . b) The impeller on the right is in the sensitised condition. Sensitisation is prevented by providing a solution anneal above the sensitising range temperature. CASE HISTORY ILLUSTRATING INTERGRANULAR CORROSION (b) Alloy: Sterling R53. Quench cracks have been noted in stress concentration areas also. Temperature: Ambient. Close-up of the impeller on the right in (a) above. it must be mentioned that sensitisation will occur during slow cooling in the mould. a) The impeller on the left was solution annealed and then put in service.

caustics being handled by a carbon steel.STRESS CORROSION CRACKING STATIC STRESS CASE HISTORY ILLUSTRATING STRESS CORROSION CRACKING Alloy: 304L S. 12 . The surface net stress in contact with the pumped fluid will be the controlling parameter. Lowering the residual and thermal stresses by heattreatment and shot-peening is carried out to decrease the stress levels below the threshold. cracks produced by this method are unexpected and sometimes are dangerous. Remedy: Use another alloy type. Welding sometimes produces hot-short cracks which may be identified as stress corrosion cracking. They are often wrongly interpreted. however. Temperature 66OC. cracking is immediately evident. In such instances.S. There are several forms of environmental cracking such as stress corrosion cracking. liquid metal cracking. They may be intergranular or transgranular. Several of the parameters and the controlling methods used are discussed below: A. the morphology of the cracks may be very similar to stress corrosion cracking. hydrogen induced cracking. Metallurgical: The list of specific environments that aid in stress corrosion cracking is different for each major alloy classification. These cracks may be single (as in corrosion fatigue) or multiple (as in stress corrosion cracking). The stresses that exist in a given situation are usually very complex. but as the stress is increased above the threshold. Generally. The cracks produced are perpendicular to the stress vector. a threshold stress for cracking exists. Two characteristics are necessary for environment cracking to occur: a tensile stress and a corrosion reaction. The most common method is to utilise another alloy that is not susceptible to this attack. For a given alloy/fluid system. Environment: 50% Caustic (Sodium Hydroxide) with trace amounts of Sodium Chlorides. For example. The latter generates compressive stresses in the material which often offset the tensile stress necessary for cracking to occur. For example. and copper alloys in an ammonia environment. Stress. Description: A drastic brittle fracture in a ductile material in a period of four months. intergranular corrosion does not require a tensile stress. stresses below the threshold will not cause cracking. chlorides pumped by stainless steel pumps. and corrosion fatigue. Compatibility of various materials in contact with respect to polarisation of potentials along with geometrics that increase salt ion concentrations (like crevices) should be considered in detail. B.

A review of the entire system is usually necessary if this attack has been identified.The importance of microstructure may be illustrated by placing: 1. 2. An increase in temperature generally has a detrimental effect. Stress corrosion cracking is noticed. D. Elimination of the critical chemicals from the liquid is probably the most desirable. If. The coatings normally act as a barrier between the metal and pumped fluid. Description: A crack propagated at an inclusion present in the material after several months of operation. a sensitised 316 material in a nitric acid solution. that is. however. then the tendency reduces. On the other hand. 13 . This will not induce cracks. Pump shafts have often failed due to mechanical fatigue with no contribution by the corrosive. CASE HISTORY ILLUSTRATING FATIGUE CORROSION Alloy: 316 S. it tends to induce stress corrosion cracking. The corrosive liquid in certain cases can be made less effective in causing stress corrosion cracking by the use of an inhibitor such as chromates in a caustic solution. the temperature is high enough to remove the critical chemicals. Coatings and electro-chemical techniques are also used. C.S. There is some mystery in this type of attack due to the fact that failure in this mode may occur in the absence of corrosive action. Most of the discussion in stress corrosion cracking is applicable to corrosion fatigue. The phenomenon then covers a broad spectrum and is difficult to define clearly. stress corrosion cracking under static tensile stress has also been known to occur. Electro-chemical techniques are generally used to polarise an alloy to an oxidizing potential out of the range that will cause stress corrosion cracking. E. a solution-annealed 316 material in the same solution. CORROSION FATIGUE DYNAMIC STRESS This attack results from the cyclic tensile and corrosive fluid in contact.

The isocorrosion chart reveals the dip in the curve 14 . and these cause some of the most severe corrosion problems. in others it decreases. and a little corrosion in these confined areas builds up enough pressure to split the iron.CORROSION BY ACIDS The acids most generally used by industry are sulphuric. nitric. In higher concentrations. Types 304 and 316 Stainless Steels: These stainless alloys are occasionally utilised for cold. The widespread use of these acids places them in an important position with regard to costs and destruction by corrosion. which may be satisfactory for oleum service. very dilute sulphuric acid and under conditions that are not strongly reducing in nature. Velocity and aeration are factors that must be taken into consideration. In a number of instances. In some cases. impurities in the system can cause severe problems. Finally. In oleum. SULPHURIC ACID Selection of a metal for this service depends primarily on the reducing or oxidizing nature of the solutions. phosphoric and hydrochloric acids. the acid is oxidizing and materials resistant to oxidizing media are essential. The resistance in these alloys is attributed to the graphite network interfering with the reaction between the acid and the metallic matrix. Sterling Alloy K26: This is a very widely used alloy for applications involving sulphuric acids. It provides resistance over the entire range of concentration. the acid is known to penetrate the metal along the graphite flakes. including oleum. it is more economical to use cast irons. corrosion increases with the concentration of the acid. the acid is reducing and is better handled by materials resistant to reducing conditions. Below 85% at room temperature and about 65% up to 66oC. although the corrosion rates are higher. however. Cast Iron: Cast irons show good resistance in very strong sulphuric acids. Oxidizing and reducing mixtures of acids and salts also causes different reactions to different materials. This wedging action is confined to cast irons and is not apparent in ductile iron.

The corrosion resistance decreases as the concentration and temperature are increased beyond 50% and 30oC. It is useful over the entire concentration range and oxidizing conditions. Because of the susceptibility of sensitised Type 304 (when exposed in the 430oC to 870oC range) to intergranular attack in nitric acid. The R55 alloy has numerous advantages over K26 and is the most widely used Sterling alloy for sulphuric acid and most sulphur compounds. does not improve corrosion resistance to nitric acid. as opposed to 304. The minimum amount of chromium generally accepted is 18%. and even aeration. It will withstand the corrosion of both oxidizing and reducing agents to moderately high temperatures. As the chromium content increases. It is not recommended for halogen acids or halogen salt solutions in contact with the material. but provides resistance over a wide range of oxidizing and reducing conditions.at around 60-80% concentration range at approximately 66oC. Sterling Alloys R52 and R53: Alloy R53 is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy that shows a great deal of thermal stability at high temperatures. show excellent resistance to red and white fuming nitric acids at room temperature. The 4% copper in the alloy is kept in solid solution which is essential for sulphuric acid service. The copper in these alloys does not discolour the product. Ferric sulphate and copper sulphate in the acid act as inhibitors and decrease attack. NITRIC ACID Sterling Alloy R55: R55 is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum-copper alloy that shows outstanding resistance to sulphuric acid and many other media. This will maintain the corrosion rate within 20 mm per year. This is only an indicative test and is not a prediction of definite behaviour. for example. 15 . Types 304 and 316 Stainless Steels: Type 304 stainless steel exhibits excellent resistance to nitric acid at room temperatures up to 30oC. is a nickelmolybdenum alloy. Ferric chloride and cupric chloride in appreciable concentrations are known to cause pitting. boiling 65% nitric acid (Huey test) is often used to detect the existence of this condition prior to fabrication. Alloy R52 on the other hand. ferric sulphates. The addition of molybdenum to stainless steels. at a maximum temperature of 70 C and over the entire concentration range. is to be used intermittently. This alloy is also known to possess good corrosion resistance in the intermediate and strong concentration range of sulphuric acid. such as sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide gases. the corrosion rate decreases. This alloy is very suitable for chlorides. as in type 316. (80 C). o o One of the most important ingredients for resistance to nitric acid is chromium. This makes the austenitic stainless steels very well suited for practically all concentrations and temperatures. cupric and ferric chlorides. then the temperature limitations may be increased to 82oC. It is better suited to reducing conditions. however. chlorine. Type 304 does. If the pump. up to 220 ppm. and is particularly susceptible to oxidizing contaminants such as nitric acid. The chromium content in the alloy provides excellent resistance to oxidizing conditions. and also to boiling acids up to 50% strength.

maybe its only drawback. Titanium: This alloy has outstanding resistance at all concentrations and at temperatures well above the atmospheric boiling points. even in the hardened condition. mixtures of nitric acid with hydrochloric or hydrofluoric acid are corrosive to stainless steels and their rates depend on concentration and temperatures. The acid obtained by the electric furnace process is purer in form and is used in the manufacture of soap. but does not increase resistance sufficiently to justify the additional cost. Until there is more evidence.corroding intergranularly. It shows less than 5 mpy in 65% nitric acid at 180oC. etc. Because of the impurities. On the other hand. present in acid made by the wet process.Continued Nitric acid. increases the corrosion rates by breaking down the passive film. Great care is taken to make sure that the castings are properly solution-annealed. plasticisers and insecticides. Sterling Alloy R55: This alloy shows good resistance. Other variables include the concentration. Sterling Alloy R48: This shows excellent resistance and is probably the only age-hardenable stainlesstype alloy that shows good resistance. phosphoric. such as sulphates. the corrosion behaviour and alloy selection are based on the manufacturing process. but in some cases is the only material that will do the job. when mixed with sulphuric. On the other hand. Sterling Alloys R52 and R53: These alloys are not suited for nitric acid services as they are readily corroded. and the nearly pure acid from the electric furnace process. temperature. aeration. it has been found that the cupric and ferric ions in solution inhibit the corrosion of stainless steels in phosphoric acid. it would be prudent to use extra low carbon or stabilised alloys for severe services. and fluosilicates. PHOSPHORIC ACID Phosphoric acid obtained by the wet process. detergent. The presence of oxidizing ions in nitric acid tends to decrease the corrosion resistance of titanium . food. or acetic acids. the addition of chloride or fluoride ions to the phosphoric and hydrochloric or hydrofluoric acid. It is an expensive material. shows reduced corrosivity to stainless steels and K26 alloys. The cupric ion may be provided by the initial corrosion of an alloy such as R48 or K26. There is some debate about stainless steels that have been affected by sensitising processes:. fluorides.CORROSION BY ACIDS :. is used in the production of fertilisers. In a number of studies. Sterling Alloy K26: K26 is widely used in phosphoric acid service. 16 .

Great care and good judgement is required to obtain a balance between service life and cost of the equipment. Sterling Alloy R52: R52 is widely used to handle hydrochloric acid at all concentrations and temperatures up to the boiling point. Sterling Alloy R48: This alloy works very well at the same temperatures and concentrations as K26. its resistance to aeration and oxidizing impurities such as nitric acid or ferric chloride (when present even in small quantities) is often destructive. If this alloy must be used. The presence of ferric and cupric chlorides actually decreases the corrosion rate of titanium. Due to the absence of chromium in this alloy. It must be kept in mind. However. Oxidizing agents and minor impurities such as ferric chloride (or cupric chloride) and nitric acid present a very rugged corrosive condition. Due to its high chromium content. such as shafts and piping. Sterling Alloy R52: This is excellent in hot concentrated pure phosphoric acid. the copper content must be controlled to extremely low values. it provides better resistance to oxidizing environments. Wrought materials used in conjunction with R48 castings. that dissolved oxygen is not strong enough to passivate the material. or below. however. They are generally not considered to be suitable for hydrochloric acid service because they are susceptible to influences other than the acid itself and must be used with caution. Increasing the temperature decreases the critical concentrations at which the stainless steels start to corrode. HYDROCHLORIC ACID This is the most difficult of acids to handle from a standpoint of corrosion. o up to 50oC. including K26 are to be used only at very low concentrations at room temperature. Types 316SS and Sterling Alloy K26: The austenitic stainless steels. copper ions (an impurity) behave somewhat differently in solution. Sterling Alloy R53: This alloy shows good resistance to all concentrations of hydrochloric acid at room temperature and has been used successfully Titanium: This alloy is good up to 10% at room temperature. Nickel and Nickel Irons: Aeration affects these alloys to a great extent. Rapid corrosion occurs at pH 4 or 5. Pickling solutions which are sometimes handled by these materials require inhibitors if the pump is to be handling the liquid on a continuous basis. 17 . are now available. Copper ions at first decrease the corrosion rate.Sterling Alloy R55: This is usefully resistant to all concentrations of phosphoric at temperatures up to 90 C. they tend to increase the corrosion rate. but beyond about 10 ppm. Hydrochloric is corrosive to most common metals and alloys. only when specific conditions are definitely known. is less expensive and has the added advantage of handling abrasives better than K26.

Acetaldehyde Process: The most widely used process.CORROSION BY ACIDS :. formic acid and other solvents which are typical of this process. it has specific problems with regard to material selection due to catalyst carry-overs. Ferroxyl testing of pumps servicing a meticulous grade of acetic acid is often done before shipment. Chlorides in the stream have been known to cause stress corrosion cracking of the austenitic stainless steels: R53 is usually recommended if this is the case. the low carbon grades such as 316L and 304L should be evaluated to prevent excessive corrosion and contamination of the acid. formation of peroxides and acetic anhydride. B. ketones and esters in the process stream have been known to greatly reduce the corrosion rate. K26 is well-utilised. These alloys are more expensive than type 316 stainless steel and K26. Various processes are used to produce the acids. especially when the acetic acid is at 100% concentration. R52 and R53 both provide excellent resistance to acetic acid at all concentrations and temperatures. If there is a possibility of temperature increase. Butane Oxidation: In selection of materials of construction you must consider formation of peroxides. Formic acid also increases the corrosion rate. 2. is often recommended as a qualification test to determine the sensitivity of the alloy to attack by an acetic acid environment. Contaminants such as sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide increase the corrosion rate. Acetic anhydride usually will increase the corrosive attack. The iron contamination is greatly increased as the temperature and time of exposure is increased. 18 . especially in the case of 304. The effect of contaminants is twofold: 1. Practice “A” of ASTM A262 (Oxalic Acid Etch).Continued ACETIC ACID Acetic acid is an intermediate chemical used in the production of cellulose acetate for paints and acetic anhydride for artificial fibres. The presence of aldehydes. In this instance. which include: A. thus a service life-cost justification should be done before Sterling types R52 and R53 are utilised. This increased corrosivity can normally be tolerated by type 316 stainless steel.

whereas nickel and nickel alloys are used at higher temperatures. Sterling Alloy K26: Pumps made of this material have been used for handling caustic soda up to 70% and 120oC. caustic soda produced by other methods should be utilised. o Types 304 and 316 Stainless Steels: The cast versions of austenitic stainless steels such as types 304 and 316 are used up to 10% concentration and up to the boiling point of caustic soda. In such instances. whereas the diaphragm cells produce 9% to 15% grade caustic. The type of electrolytic cell used for production determines the purity that is obtainable. 19 . The major users of caustic soda are the chemical. Velocity and aeration have little effect.CORROSION BY ALKALIS Of all the available alkaline materials. the cast nickel pump castings should be solution-annealed to minimise the possibility of graphite precipitation at grain boundaries and a resultant loss in ductility. When temperatures above 320 C are to be considered. at concentrations above 10% the critical temperature decreases. and aluminium industries. Mercuric cells produce 50% grade caustic. pulp and paper. Chlorides in the process stream have been known to contribute to stress corrosion cracking of these alloys and consideration must be given to the stress and temperature limitations of these alloys. These alloys may be used up to 70% caustic soda concentrations. Stress relief of these alloys may help minimise stress corrosion cracking of these alloys. or reducing agents such as sucrose or dextrim may be added to minimise corrosion and product contamination. caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) is the most widely used. except at high temperatures such as above 540oC. However. It is produced along with chlorine by the electrolysis of sodium chloride. The thermal decomposition at 260oC of impurities such as chlorates (present in caustic soda produced by the diaphragm cell method) increases the corrosion rate of cast nickel. Ni-Resist Type 2 Cast Iron: Ni-Resist Type 2 cast iron and spheroidal nickel iron are both used where minimum contamination of the product by copper is desired. They have been used up to 50% at the boiling point. and including molten caustic soda. Sterling Alloy R55: This alloy is used in similar situations to K26. It provides better stress corrosion cracking resistance than K26. Galvanic effects must be considered if this alloy is to be used with nickel and nickelbased alloys. Oxidizable sulphur compounds also tend to increase the corrosion rate of cast nickel at elevated temperatures. Sterling Alloy R52 and R53: The data available for these alloys is not sufficient to make any indicative statements. which is further purified before sale. In concentrations above 75%. cast nickel does an excellent job. Iron and steel are widely used at low temperatures (if iron contamination is not detrimental).

Liquid metals cause different types of corrosive attack. Contact of dissimilar metals with the same liquid metal can cause transfer of one solid metal through the liquid metal to the other solid metal. The most salient feature is the lack of electrochemical reactions. resulting in uniform thinning or preferential leaching of a selective constituent from the solid metal. Grey cast iron: is also good for some of these liquid metals. tin. In the simplest type of attack. mercury. mercury requires very high pumping power. leading to destruction.CORROSION BY LIQUID METALS Heat-transfer characteristics of low boiling point metals make them particularly attractive for use in the power plant industries. bismuth and bismuth-lead alloys up to various temperatures. Water and steam require high pressure equipment which. In addition. This is because the greater the liquid volume. This causes rapid dissolution without saturation. If used intermittently. besides being hazardous. whereas sodium requires low pumping power. such as cadmium and Bi-Pb-Sn alloys. the lower is the corrosion rate. This kind of uniform thinning also occurs when solid metal may dissolve at a hot zone of a pump and precipitate on the walls of a cool zone. They have a temperature limitation of 540oC. where its solubility is less. Cast nickel: possesses the greatest resistance to stress cracking in lead. Finally. the greater is the amount of solid metal that can be held in solution. bismuth. and their alloys. and the activity of the solid metal ions. Both of these alloys can handle lithium. For example. Due to their low melting points. the solid metal dissolves in the liquid metal. Types 304 and 316 Stainless Steels: These alloys may be used to pump sodium and sodium-potassium mixtures. The greater the ratio. impurities such as dissolved gases can change the solubility limits. This dissolution may result in the formation of brittle alloy phases. They do not undergo as many rupture failures as do the nickel chromium steels. the wetting tendencies. they require lower pumping power due to their lower density. The efficiency of a power plant is increased by operating at higher temperatures. The surface area to volume ratio is of utmost importance. care should be taken to prevent carburisation by carbonaceous material. The liquid metals and fused salts employed are usually high thermal conductors. is also expensive. thallium. they save a great deal in initial heat-up during the start-up of a power plant. 20 .

4401 1. Cr 17%. Mo 3%. Mo 4%.4404 1. directors or employees accept any responsibility for the use of the methods and materials discussed herein.4306 1. Si 4%. Ni 8% C .08% max.0446 1. Nb 8xC C . Cr 23%.4819 X 2 CrNi 19 11 G-X6CrNi 18 91 G-X 5 CrNiNb 18 9 G-X 2 CrNiMo 18 10 X 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2 G-X5 CrNiMoNb 18 10 G-X 2 NiCrMoCu 25 20 G-X 3 CrNiMoCuN 26 6 3 GERMANY:DIN MATERIAL STERLING TYPE Standard Material GRAY IRON BS1452 Gr 250 SG IRON (DUCTILE) BS2789 Gr420/12 NI-RESIST BS3468 L-Ni Cr 20 2 CARBON STEEL BS1504 Gr161-430 AUSTENITIC (304L) BS1504 Gr304c12 AUSTENITIC (304) BS1504 Gr304c15 AUSTENITIC (304 + Nb) BS1504 Gr347c17 AUSTENITIC (316L) BS1504 Gr316C12 AUSTENITIC (316) BS1504 Gr316C16 AUSTENITIC (316 + Nb) BS1504 Gr318C17 into electronic or photographic storage without permission of copyright owner is expressly forbidden. Ni 8% C .6660 1.08% max.12% min.4552 1.4515 2. Ni 10% Mo 2% C . Mo 28%.08% max.7040 0.7055 A494 CW-12MV A494 N-12MV A351/A743/A744 CD4-MCU A351/A743/A744 CN-7M Type 904 A351/A743/A744 CF-8M Type 316 Z4 CNDNb 18-12M A351/A743/A744 CF-8M Type 316 Z7 CND 17-12-02 A351/A743/A744 CF-3M Type 316L Z3 CND 18-12-02 A351/A743/A744 CF-8 Type 347 Z6 CNNb 18-10M A351/A743/A744 CF-8 Type 304 Z6 CN 18-10M X5 CrNi 18 10 X6 CrNi N6 18 11 GX2 CrNiMo 19 11 X5 CrNi Mo17 12 GX6 CrNiMoNb 20 11 A351/A743/A744 CF-3 Type 304L Z2 CN 18-10M GX2 CrNi 19 10 A216 WCA/B/C Carbon Steel A420 ARM FEG42 SCS 19 / SUS 304L SCS 13 / SUS 304 SCS 21 / SUS 347 SCS 16 / SUS 316L SCS 14 / SUS 316 SCS 22 A436 Type 2 FGS 400-15 GS400-12 USA:ASTM USA:AISI FRANCE:AFNOR ITALY:UNI JAPAN:JIS COMPARABLE MATERIAL DESIGNATIONS GERMANY:W-Nr 0. Cr 18%.4% Ni 54%. Sn 7%. Nb 12xC Cr 26%. V . Ni 10% Mo 2% C .4810 2.STERLING FLUID SYSTEMS PUMP MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION SHORT FORM COMPOSITION A278 Class 35/40 A395 Ni 20%. Ni 8%. Cu 3%.4308 1. Cu2%.08% max. Cu 4%. Hf 4.4536 1.4% Ni 58%. Ni 5%. W 1% Cu bal. The information is advisory only and the use of the materials and methods is solely at the risk of the user. Ni 10% Mo 2% Nb 8xC Ni 26%. W 4%. Mo17%. V 0. Cr 18%. Zn 3% Commercially pure Pd 0. Mo 2% Ni 62%. Reproduction of the contents in whole or part or transfer 21 AUSTENITIC (ALLOY 20 TYPE) STERLING ALLOY K26 DUPLEX STAINLESS STERLING ALLOY R48 Ni-Mo (Hastelloy B type) STERLING ALLOY R52 Ni-Cr-Mo (Hastelloy C type) STERLING ALLOY R53 Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu-Si ALLOY STERLING ALLOY R55 LEADED GUNMETAL BS1400 LG4 TITANIUM Titanium TITANIUM ALLOY Titanium Alloy ZIRCONIUM Zirconium RUBBER LINED N270 Rubber Lined RUBBER LINED RT6 Rubber lined . Cr 18%. Z6 NCDU 25-20-04M GX5 NiCrCuMo 29 21 Z3 CNDU 26-05-M Neither Sterling Fluid Systems.5% Ebonite (flexible) Ebonite (rigid) B367 (Ti-Pd 8A) B752 702C/704C/705C B367 (C-3) NONE 2. Cr 18%. Cr 22%. Cr 18%. nor any of its officers. Pb 4%.03% max.03% max.6026 0.1090 3. Cr 18%.4581 1. Cr 2% C 0.25% max C .

C SG= specific gravity of the liquid This calculation disregards any allowance for heat dissipated by radiation from pump casings. impeller rubbing and shaft breakage. In the majority of cases. This has been covered in Pump Clinic 12.This is most serious with single volute pumps and. seal failures.e. Flow re-circulation in the pump impeller -.This includes suction and discharge recirculation when operating at flows other than the best efficiency point.g. or close to. excessive shaft deflection. boiler feed pumps. Operation in such regions should be avoided. even at flow rates as high as 50% of BEP could cause reduced bearing life. in degrees Centigrade P = power at shut off in kilowatts Q = volume of liquid in the pump in litres SH= specific heat of the liquid in calories/gm. the temperature rise at shut off (i. fully closed discharge) and the minimum flow required for thermal protection should be calculated and the required flow be bypassed to dissipate heat generated due to pump inefficiency. Total head characteristic curve -. To avoid thermal problems during low flow operation and to prevent a potential hazardous or mechanically damaging temperature rise within the pump. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE TEMPERATURE RISE The maximum allowable temperature rise can be determined by T2 – T1 where: T2 = saturation temperature corresponding to the absolute pressure of the pumped liquid at the pump suction flange T1 = temperature of the liquid at the pump suction flange Pump Clinic 29 Minimum Flow Due To Thermal Considerations Page 1 of 3 25/11/08 . Thermal considerations are important where liquids are at. considerations other than thermal issues will dictate minimum allowable flow. and some curves show a dip in the curve.PumpClinic …Issue 29 MINIMUM FLOW DUE TO THERMAL CONSIDERATIONS The factors which determine minimum allowable rate of flow include the following: • • Temperature rise of the liquid as it passes through the pump Radial hydraulic thrust on impellers -. This has been covered in Pump Clinic 3. the boiling point e. TEMPERATURE RISE AT SHUT OFF The rate of temperature rise in the pump at shut off can be calculated by: TR = P x 14. • • This article considers minimum allowable flows based on temperature rise considerations only.4 Q x SH x SG where: TR= temperature rise per minute.Some pump curves droop toward shut off.

PumpClinic TEMPERATURE RISE AT VARIOUS FLOWRATES …Issue 29 The temperature at the discharge will exceed the suction temperature and this can be calculated for any given flow. in degrees Centigrade H = total head in metres SH= specific heat in calories/gm. C E = pump efficiency in % at the flow involved. This rise is determined by the following formula: TR = where: TR = temperature rise. Pump Clinic 29 Minimum Flow Due To Thermal Considerations Page 2 of 3 25/11/08 .4 x SH Values of total head at various flows can be read from the pump performance curve and the temperature rise at the various flows can be calculated. H 432. the temperature rise increases very rapidly with a reduction in flow. As shown. This is caused by the fact that the losses at low deliveries are greater when the flow of liquid that must absorb the heat developed in the pump is low. The figure below gives a graphical representation of this formula and allows determination of the minimum allowable operating flow once the maximum allowable temperature rise has been selected.

a certain portion of the suction capacity known as leakoff is returned either to the pump suction or to the suction supply vessel. the discharge capacity does not represent the true flow through the pump. Qd = flow through pump discharge in litres/sec Qb = leak off from balance device in litres/sec Pump Clinic 29 Minimum Flow Due To Thermal Considerations Page 3 of 3 25/11/08 . C E = pump efficiency in % at the flow involved.4 x SH X Qd Q d + Qb where: TR = temperature rise. Balance device leak off information is provided by pump manufacturers. balance drum or balance disc. The formula for the temperature rise can still be used.PumpClinic …Issue 29 If the pump is fitted with a balancing device for axial thrust e. provided a correction is made to take care of the increase in pump flow representing the balancing device leakoff.g. In this case. The formula is modified to: TR = H 432. in degrees Centigrade H = total head in metres SH= specific heat in calories/gm.

PumpClinic …Issue 30 DESIGNING A TROUBLE-FREE INSTALLATION DIAPHRAGM METERING PUMPS Pump Clinic 30 Designing a Trouble-free Installation .Diaphragm Metering Pumps Page 1 of 5 28/01/09 .

.

.

.

.

trying to accelerate it within the impeller passage. This localized low pressure area is where cavitation develops.PumpClinic …Issue 31 INDUCERS FOR CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS (Reprinted with kind permission of Lawrence Pumps Inc USA) Providing sufficient net positive suction head (NPSH) to a centrifugal pump may be costly if it involves increasing the height of a vessel or maintaining higher than normal inventory levels. although there may be more. reduced pump service life due to resultant mechanical problems. An Inducer serves as a small booster pump for the main impeller. as the front side of the blade experiences a localized reduction in pressure. Meanwhile. cavitate during normal operation. The key is that there is so little horsepower involved with an inducer that there is virtually no noise. Usually inducers have between 2 and 4 vanes. but their application is not without peril. Inducers are a low cost alternative that reduce the NPSH required by pumps. vibration. Vapor bubbles form in a pump inlet whenever the local absolute pressure of the liquid falls below its vapor pressure. erosion of material from the impeller surface. This rapid formation and collapse of vapor bubbles is cavitation. An Inducer is an axial flow impeller with blades that wrap in a helix around a central hub. If you rapidly sweep your open palm through the air you'll notice a higher pressure on the side of your hand that is pushing against the air than you do on your hand's trailing side. The severity of the effects of cavitation varies as a function of a machine's horsepower. resulting in noise. the higher horsepower main impeller sees sufficient head to operate without cavitation. or resulting mechanical problems. A spinning impeller blade undergoes the same effect as it sweeps through liquid. The inducer imparts sufficient head to the liquid so that the NPSH requirement of the adjacent main impeller is satisfied. Although the inducer usually has a lower NPSH requirement than the main impeller. PC31 Inducers for Centrifugal Pumps (Reprinted with kind permission of Lawrence Pumps Inc USA) Page 1 of 3 04/02/09 . The bubbles collapse rapidly and violently. it can. and most importantly. and often does. The back side of the blade (the part that you can't see when looking into an impeller eye) pushes against the liquid. vibration. In this issue we'll discuss inducers as well as the advantages and disadvantages of using them.

PumpClinic …Issue 31 An inducer invariably has a higher suction specific speed (S) than the adjacent impeller. For a constant RPM and flow. S. Under these conditions. Often the NPSHR will exceed that of a non-inducer pump when operating off design. an 800 hp pump can use 800 hp. High suction Specific speed (S) limits the allowable operating range of the pump. 3. But it's good to remember that while a 10 hp pump can use up to 10 hp to create damage. Specific pump geometry will also affect the operating range. higher power pumps have a narrower operating range. So what's the downside? There are a few that the user should be aware of. The pump should be mechanically compatible with the addition of an inducer Inducers add mass. a lower NPSH requirement means a higher suction specific speed. This will increase shaft deflection and reduce the 1st critical speed of the unit. cantilevered away from the bearings. but it may be a problem otherwise. it is possible to make problems worse by applying an inducer. S is a dimensionless term that describes the inlet characteristics of a pump. PC31 Inducers for Centrifugal Pumps (Reprinted with kind permission of Lawrence Pumps Inc USA) Page 2 of 3 04/02/09 . Lower power pumps generally have a broader operating range. 2. The width of the operating range also varies with the horsepower. 1. Inducers commonly have suction specific speeds of between 15. Below is a general chart showing operating range vs. High suction specific speed pumps become unstable when operated off design. This is not a problem if the pump is designed for the added mass. The NPSH requirements of the inducer need to be compatible with the entire operating range of the pump Many inducers have a steeply rising NPSHR characteristic on either side of the design flow rate. A pump equipped with an inducer may operate at 1/2 to 1/3 the NPSHR levels of a non-inducer version of the same pump. It's unreasonable to treat them the same.000 and 25.000.

PumpClinic …Issue 31 With a compatible pump design and operating conditions. PC31 Inducers for Centrifugal Pumps (Reprinted with kind permission of Lawrence Pumps Inc USA) Page 3 of 3 04/02/09 . an inducer can effectively reduce the initial capital cost related to system construction and can increase equipment reliability through improved inlet conditions.

Cavitation is the formation and subsequent collapse of vapour bubbles that are formed when pressure within the pump drops below the vapour pressure of the pumped product. specifically modified impellers can be used effectively. side channel pumps and regenerative turbine pumps. The presence of entrained gases will reduce hydraulic performance of centrifugal pumps and can potentially cause loss of prime. Centrifugal action tends to cause a separation between the liquid and gas due to differences in density. Excess agitation in suction vessels or vortex formation due to inadequate submergence or incorrect sump designs may result in introduction of undesirable gas entrainment. This restricts the flow area for the liquid causing significant pressure drop and hence cavitation even though NPSH calculations will indicate that cavitation should not occur. PC32 Pumping Liquids with Entrained Gas Page 1 of 2 March 25. As pressure increases within the pump.g. For gas entrainment values above 4%. This centrifugal action moves the liquid to the outside and concentrates the gas in the eye of the impeller. Most centrifugal pump can handle low concentrations of entrained gas. the process of is a little different. Impact on performance is still reasonably acceptable up to 4%. Standard centrifugal pumps’ pump designs can be used for entrained gases up to 4% by volume. As detailed earlier. Fig. The proper selection of a centrifugal pump for liquid and gas (two-phase) mixtures is highly dependent on the amount of gas and the characteristics of the liquid. Gas concentrations above 10% can be handled. Although symptoms may be similar to cavitation. Some processes also involve pumping a two-phase flow. the vapour bubbles re-condense (implode) resulting in shock waves that cause damage to pump components. 2009 . Pump performance corrections are required in all cases with gas content from around 2%. An example is the Pulp and Paper industry where air in the range of 4-10% is introduced into pulp slurry as part of the ink removal process in paper recycling plants. the impact is relatively insignificant. Continued gas accumulation may cause the pump to vapour lock and lose prime. 1 below shows performance variation as gas concentrations vary form 0% to 10%. vortex impeller pumps. the gas will accumulate in the eye of the impeller restricting flow and head generation. Some industries introduce air into products as part of the process. however pumps designed with specific gas handling characteristics are required e. At concentrations up to 2%. The pumping of entrained gas is different in that the gas is non condensable.PumpClinic …Issue 32 Pumping Liquids with Entrained Gas Pump applications may involve handling liquid and gas mixtures either as part of the process or as a result of unwanted application conditions or upsets.

Much testing has been done by various manufacturers. Manufacturers should be contacted for detailed selections on applications where gas entrainment is an issue.004 to . PC32 Pumping Liquids with Entrained Gas Page 2 of 2 March 25.008 mm) allows for additional leakage and this may assist in preventing loss of prime at the higher gas concentrations.PumpClinic …Issue 32 As the percentage of gas increases further. the performance begins to quickly deteriorate (Fig. 2009 . however the many variables impacting on the effect of gas entrainment does not allow for presenting specific selection information. 1) until the pump becomes unstable and loses prime. Increasing the running clearances between the impeller and pump casing (.

it should be a long radius elbow and there should be a minimum of five diameters of straight pipe between the elbow and the pump as shown in Fig 2. Many centrifugal pump troubles are caused by poor suction conditions. possible cavitation and excessive shaft deflection. This upsets hydraulic balance leading to vibration. Ideally. 2009 . suction piping design. it should be in a vertical position if at all possible. with the flat side located on top. automatic vent valves should be installed at the high points on the piping. Fig 3 shows the effect of an elbow directly on the suction. The suction pipe should never be smaller than the suction connection of the pump and in most cases should be at least one size larger. Higher velocities will increase the friction loss and can result in troublesome air or vapour separation.5 metres per second range unless suction conditions are unusually good. a straight length of pipe of an equivalent length of five times the pump inlet size (5D) should be installed before any fitting or valve. Noise and excessive axial thrust will result. If an elbow is required at the suction of a double suction pump. On pump installations involving suction lift. The information detailed below is to be taken as guidelines only and all readers should have specific designs undertaken for individual applications. PC33 Suction System Design Page 1 of 8 April 21. Please refer to individual pump instruction books for individual manufacturer’s recommendations. or with a uniform slope upward from the sump to the pump as shown in Fig.PumpClinic Suction System Design …Issue 33 The design of a piping system can have an important effect on the successful operation of a centrifugal pump.5 to 2. Suction pipe velocities should be in 1. on horizontal installations. and pipe supports must all be carefully considered. Such items as sump design. with sufficient pressure to the pump to avoid excessive turbulence in the pump impeller. The suction system design is far more important. Shaft breakage or premature bearing failure may result. If high spots are unavoidable. The cost of the various pipe sizes must be compared to the pump size and power cost required to overcome the resulting friction head. air pockets in the suction line can be a source of trouble. Eccentric rather than concentric reducers should always be used. Suction Piping Design The function of suction piping is to supply an evenly distributed flow of liquid to the pump suction. in that uneven flow patterns or vapour separation keeps the liquid from evenly filling the impeller. 1. Where it is necessary for some reason to use a horizontal elbow. The liquid will flow toward the outside of the elbow and result in an uneven flow distribution into the two inlets of the double suction impeller. Selection of the discharge pipe size is primarily a matter of economics. There should be no high spots where air can collect and cause the pump to lose its prime. especially on high and very high suction energy pumps. Suction pipes should be as short and as straight as possible. The suction pipe should be exactly horizontal. This is further complicated when elbows or tees are located adjacent to the pump suction nozzle. suction and discharge pipe size.

2009 .PumpClinic …Issue 33 Fig 1 Air pockets in suction piping PC33 Suction System Design Page 2 of 8 April 21.

PumpClinic

…Issue 33

Fig. 2 Elbows at pump suction

Fig. 3 Effect of elbow directly on suction

Supply Tank and Sump Design There are several important considerations in the design of a suction supply tank or sump. These are: Turbulence It is imperative that the amount of turbulence and entrained air be kept to a minimum. Entrained air will cause reduced capacity and efficiency as well as vibration, noise, shaft breakage, loss of prime, and/or accelerated corrosion. The free discharge of liquid above the surface of the supply tank at or near the pump suction can cause entrained air to enter the pump. All lines should be submerged in the tank, and baffles should be used in extreme cases as shown in Fig. 4.

PC33 Suction System Design

Page 3 of 8

April 21, 2009

PumpClinic

…Issue 33

Fig. 4 Keeping Air out of pump

Submergence Improper submergence of the pump suction line can cause a vortex, which is a swirling funnel of air from the surface directly into the pump suction pipe. In addition to submergence, the location of the pipe in the sump and the actual dimensions of the sump are also important in preventing vortexing and/or excess turbulence. The amount of submergence required depends upon the size and capacity of the individual pumps as well as on the sump design. Past experience is the best guide for determining the submergence. The pump manufacturer should be consulted for recommendations in the absence of other reliable data. 1. Pump Flowrates below 315 lites/sec For horizontal pumps, Fig. 5 can be used as a guide for minimum submergence and sump dimensions for flows up to approximately 5000 US gallons/min (315 litres/sec). For larger flowrates , refer to item 2 below.

PC33 Suction System Design

Page 4 of 8

April 21, 2009

PumpClinic

…Issue 33

Fig. 5 Minimum suction pipe submergence and sump dimensions

PC33 Suction System Design

Page 5 of 8

April 21, 2009

PumpClinic

…Issue 33

Baffles can be used to help prevent vortexing in cases where it is impractical or impossible to maintain the required submergence. Fig. 6 below shows three such baffling arrangements.

Fig. 6 Baffle arrangements for vortex prevention On horizontal pumps, a bell should be used on the end of the suction pipe to limit the entrance velocity to 1 - 2.5 metres per second. Also, a reducer at the pump suction flange to smoothly accelerate and stabilize the flow into the pump is desirable.

2. Pump Flowrates above 315 litres/sec For larger units (over 315 litres/sec) taking their suction supply for an intake sump (especially vertically submerged pumps), requires special attention. The function of the intake structure, whether it is an open channel, a fully wetted tunnel, a sump or a tank, is to supply an evenly distributed flow to the pump suction. An uneven distribution of flow, characterised by strong local currents, can result in formation of surface or submerged vortices and with certain low values of submergence, may introduce air into the pump causing a reduction of capacity, an increase in vibration and additional noise. Uneven flow distribution can also increase or decrease the power consumption with a change in total developed head. The ideal approach is a straight channel coming directly to the pump or suction pipe. Turns and obstructions are detrimental, since they may cause eddy currents and tend to initiate deep-cored vortices. The amount of submergence available is only one factor affecting vortex-free operation. It is possible to have adequate submergence and still have submerged vortices that may have an adverse effect on

PC33 Suction System Design

Page 6 of 8

April 21, 2009

PumpClinic

…Issue 33

pump operation. Successful, vortex-free operation will depend greatly on the approach upstream of the sump. Complete analysis of intake structures can only be accurately accomplished by scale model tests. Model testing is especially recommended for larger pumping units. Subject to the qualifications of the foregoing statements, Figures 7 through 10 have been constructed for single and multiple intake arrangements to provide guidelines for basic sump dimensions.

D = (760 x Q)0.5 W = 2D Y > 4D A > 5D C = .3D to .5D

S = D + (29560 x Q)/ D1.5 Where S – in mm D – in mm Q – flow in litres/sec Fig. 7 Sump dimensions calculations

Fig. 8 Sump dimensions, Plain view, wet pit type pumps

Fig. 9 Sump dimensions, elevation view, wet pit type pumps

PC33 Suction System Design

Page 7 of 8

April 21, 2009

Pumps start most frequently when the flowrate into the sump is exactly half the pumping rate (Q litres/sec) and the cycle time (t secs) is determined by the following formula: t = 240 x V /Q where V= volume in litres Therefore for a maximum allowable start frequency of 10 starts/hour (i. These effects put a constraint on the maximum number of starts in a given time and hence there is an optimum sump volume to minimise the possibility exceeding the maximum allowable starts for motors. motors encounter high starting currents. 2009 .PumpClinic Optimum Sump Volume …Issue 33 During start-up of an electric motor.e.5 x the pumping rate (Q litres/sec) or 6 minutes PC33 Suction System Design Page 8 of 8 April 21. t =360 secs). V =1.

2009 . Technical Customer Service and CH Tan.PumpClinic …Issue 34 10 Misconceptions on Rotary PD Pumps Reprinted with kind permission of Viking Pump Inc. Regional Director for Asia Pacific Region) PC34 10 Misconceptions on Rotary PD Pumps May 27. a unit of IDEX Corporation (Authors John Petersen.

but sometimes not. • Suction lift or self priming ability is needed. on the other hand. 1. This article explores the areas of commonality between centrifugal and PD pumps and ten common PD pump misconceptions and the reality behind each. Centrifugal. As a result. Rotary positive displacement (PD) pumps are not well understood by many specifying engineers and users and are sometimes misapplied. Though a number of geometries are involved. how can a gear pump be used on a thin non-lubricating NOVEMBER 2007 PUMPS & SYSTEMS www. or there may be rationale to use a PD pump when none of these conditions exist. Rotary PD pumps account for 15 percent of all installations. Because of this. a PD pump generates just enough pressure to overcome system resistance created by the flow of liquid through it. rotary positive displacement (PD) pumps are not well understood by many specifying engineers and users. For example. rotor/vanes. At this juncture. with sales divided into many different pumping technologies.pump-zone. Tan. • All have a small amount of liquid that goes from discharge back to suction. and their resulting performance differs as well. • Most have one pumping element driving another (gears. • All can pull liquid from below the pump or self prime. All of the many different types of PD pumps use geometry of the parts to expand and contract volumes of liquid. This is often the right answer.H. Centrifugal pumps move liquid in a much different fashion than do PD pumps. Let’s explore ten of them. Conventional wisdom says that a PD pump must be used over a centrifugal pump when one or more of the following application conditions exist: • Liquid viscosity is too high (generally anything over 150-cps requires a PD pump). • All require some form of overpressure protection. and it varies with liquid viscosity and differential pressure. Volume expansion draws liquid into the pump and volume contraction moves liquid out of the pump. flow output from a centrifugal pump varies with differential pressure. • Flow is directly proportional to speed. etc. incorrectly specified or simply not used where they could or should be. • Most have close fitting internal parts. while PD pumps generate flow and pressure results. Inc. PD pumps. or kinetic. Some believe that PD pumps cannot be used on thin liquids at all due to their design characteristics.). incorrectly specified or simply not used where they could or should be. T here is considerable resident knowledge about centrifugal pumps. Although these criteria are all sound. The key here is that centrifugal pumps generate pressure and flow results. PD pumps may still not be used. many of the common misconceptions on PD pumps come into play. most rotary PD pumps share common design and operating characteristics: • All try to displace the same amount of liquid with each rotation of the shaft. move liquids by transferring confined amounts of liquid (defined by pumping element geometry) from the inlet to the outlet of the pump. whereas flow from a PD pump is essentially constant with varying differential pressure.com 75 . • Constant flow is needed over varying differential pressure. PD pumps are sometimes misapplied. PD Pumps Are Not Well Suited for Thin Liquids Ask almost any pump user what type of pumps to use for a thin liquid application and the response is generally a centrifugal pump. In other words. This is called slip. Though PD pumps move liquids through many different approaches. Viking Pump. which comprise the majority of all pump installations.Practice + Operations Ten Misconceptions on Rotary PD Pumps John Petersen and C. much commonality is shared in design and operation. However. pumps impart rotational energy to the liquid and convert it to potential energy (pressure) through the design of the volute.

but most can handle some form of abrasives. number 6 fuel oil (sometimes used for heating or diesel fuel) can be as thick as 15. can develop a predictable maximum shut off pressure. Many installations of gear pumps at wastewater treatment facilities operate without affecting liquid properties. Many thin liquids have poor lubricating properties. solvents. Pressure is a function of the system. PD pump manufacturers have a wide array of journal bearing and shaft materials to handle low lubrication situations. With close fitting internal parts. The critical area in PD pumps is pumping element support. Doing this minimizes pumping element wear on most non-lubricating liquid applications. Most notable is wastewater polymers. so minimizing them can extend pump life. Liquefied petroleum gas. PD Pumps Damage Shear Sensitive Liquids This may well be the most common misconception on PD pumps. Water is the most common thin liquid. Field testing of other sensitive liquids proves these pumps 76 NOVEMBER 2007 www. plugged filters or other system upsets may cause enough blockage to significantly increase pressure. To prevent this. Overpressure protection is a must with all PD pumps – and this is often overlooked. having some form of overpressure protection either on the pump or in the system is important. Most manufacturers recommend this in varying degrees. but so do some thick liquids. gasoline and even liquid carbon dioxide are some of the other thin liquids handled very successfully with PD pumps. can be used very successfully. The key is choosing the right materials for the particular liquid characteristics to get the best pump life. 5. PD pump manufacturers typically reduce speed and slightly increase internal clearances to minimize the effects of shear. The vast majority of liquid going through the pump comes through in “chunks” and is not sheared at all. Manufacturers tend to limit the load from pumping element contact in PD pumps by limiting maximum pressure with non-lubricating liquids. only a small amount of liquid is actually being sheared within the pump. Reducing pump speed is the logical way to do this. External antifriction bearing support takes away the material problem. Most important. While it is true that some of the liquid is sheared within the close internal running clearances. but they will not tolerate solids. but generally not much more. Pressure and speed of the pump create these forces. but in most designs this moves the support farther away from internal pump loads. A PD pump that is dead headed tries to displace the same amount of liquid for each revolution of the shaft. inadvertent valve closing. Abrasive wear is caused by forces acting on the relative motion surfaces within the pump in the presence of an abrasive media. It will be above the normal operating pressure. A large majority of shingle manufacturing relies on gear pumps to handle a mixture of asphalt and up to 60 percent to 70 percent finely ground stone. System relief valves. torque limiting couplings and motor power load monitors can all be used to limit maximum attainable pressure in the pump or system. Gear pumps are frequently used to transfer these polymers at actual manufacturing facilities and do no damage to the liquid. pressure continues to increase until something breaks in the system.Practice + Operations liquid when one gear drives the other? The fact is most PD pumps – including gear pumps – can be used on thin liquids. PD Pumps Are Not Suitable for Abrasives or Solids True. Though a system is designed to be continually open. Numerous applications and actual testing have busted this myth. One particular customer would not allow use of gear type PD pumps because of perceived liquid damage. which can be either a journal bearing operating in the liquid pumped or an external antifriction bearing. but other ways can accomplish the same purpose. 4.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS . rupture disks.000-cps. resulting in higher bearing loads that may also limit maximum pressure on a particular design. Lobe pumps and progressing cavity pumps do a good job on solids and can handle abrasives too. 2. some PD pump principles do not handle solids. Gear pumps handle abrasives quite well. Selecting proper pump materials is important when moving a thin liquid. depending upon the abrasive nature of the product being pumped. Actual testing showed this perception to be wrong. This mixture is quite abrasive. For example. either accidentally or on purpose. refrigerants. the liquid is often thought to be simply sheared or damaged by close running components. with a few material changes to retard wear. where excessive shearing changes the viscosity. Many manufacturers offer pump mounted relief valves.pump-zone. but it is not very lubricating. fuel oils. the pump is damaged or the driver runs out of power. PD Pumps Do Not Need Overpressure Protection A centrifugal pump that is dead headed. PD Pumps Cannot Handle NonLubricating Liquids Non-lubricating liquids range from thin to thick viscosity. 3. None of these are safe or desirable conditions. Because of this. but reasonable life can be attained by reducing pump speed and using hard parts in key wear areas. and most manufacturers offer many choices to handle the low lubricity and viscosity typically associated with thin liquids. particularly with gear type pumps. and the internal gear pump was actually invented to handle it. so proper design helps extend pump life by reducing the load the pump is required to handle. The takeaway is PD pumps can handle shear sensitive liquids without damage if properly applied.

liquid inside the pump. gear. abrasiveness and shear sensitivity are not a problem. Recognizing these common misconceptions opens up a whole new application area for these pumps to improve performance. Summary Rotary PD pumps are (for the most part) simple devices. Many smaller displacement pumps run at direct motor speeds of 1800-rpm. flow pulsations. In any case. extend service life or operate more efficiently. a couple of repairs during its life span and rather modest pressure requirement energy to operate the pump equals one half of the total cost of ownership. This means the pump must run without liquid for the time it takes to get liquid up the elevation. Traditional lobe pumps with three lobed rotors do have theoretical flow pulsation. depending on rotational position of the pumping elements that result in minimal pressure pulsa- PUMPS & SYSTEMS www. Granted. some lobe pumps and all types of screw pumps deliver a continuum of liquid resulting in very little.6. a unit of IDEX Corporation. Cedar Falls. technical customer service and CH Tan is regional director for the Asia Pacific Region of Viking Pump. 319266-1741. with some even going to 3600-rpm. PD pumps are usually easy to work on too.O. extended periods of run dry are not recommended and some designs are more tolerant than others. but more complex in application. PD Pump Repairs Are Expensive Repair parts costs vary between manufacturers.pump-zone. Cost for the parts required for a major overhaul is only two-thirds the price of a new pump. PD Pumps Cannot Run Dry PD pumps self prime. which keeps the parts wetted to the point damage does not occur.com NOVEMBER 2007 . but one must consider the total cost of ownership. understanding them before the pump purchase is always a good idea. but direct motor speed operation is not uncommon. P&S John Petersen is vice president. Fax: 319-273-8157. meaning they are capable of pulling a liquid from a level below the pump into the pump port. First cost is the lowest. A small increase here can save considerable money over the life of the pump. PD Pumps Do Not Run Fast Browsing product information for a number of different pump designs and manufacturers reveals this is not true.vikingpump. This may seem counterintuitive since these pumps move liquid by delivering confined volumes of liquid from the suction to the discharge port. 77 9. if any. 8. PD Pumps Have Pulsing Flow This is true for reciprocating PD pumps. There may be slight differences in slip within the pump. Most PD pumps can run dry for short periods of time without damage. 406 State Street. if any. tions.com. Inc. IA 50613-0008. PUMP LIFE CYCLE COST Cast Iron Pump: 140 gpm. PD pumps can be quite efficient. run dry situations are more common than anyone likes to admit and PD pumps can usually handle them. so labor costs are not high. 10. but theoretical output remains constant. PD pumps must run more slowly as viscosity increases and also when flow is above 200-gpm. PD Pumps Are Expensive to Own The initial cost of most PD pumps is more than centrifugal pumps. In theory. Understanding the basic operating characteristics of PD pumps and system requirements is a great place to start in correctly applying a pump. Assuming an average pump life of seven years. Consider all the alternatives to a pumping problem before making a decision – you’ll be surprised by how many choices you have. which many times results in periods of running with little. Obviously. Box 8. but not for most rotary PD pumps. In many cases there is a small amount of liquid in the pump. 100 psi ENERGY COSTS 57% TOTAL REPAIR 24% FIRST COST 19% Figure 1 7. Since these costs differ. the main contributors are first cost. but again this is minimal. they actually don’t. Misconception 7 above assumed an average pump life of seven years with two lower level repairs and a major overhaul (replacing all critical wear parts) during the life of the pump. In other situations. Motor speed PD pumps provide an economical solution to liquid transfer for any number of applications where liquid properties like viscosity. Figure 1 shows the detail.. P. PD pumps are asked to empty tanks. www. Using a simplistic approach to cost of ownership. repair costs and energy to operate. vane. Although it would seem that confined volumes or buckets of liquid would result in flow pulsations. with repair parts coming in second. 7500 ssu.

parallel operation. Figure 2 illustrates the characteristic of single vs. the flow increase may not be that significant. the actual flow rate realised in the system is dictated by the intersection of the system curve with the pump curve. 2009 Page 1 of 4 . The flow will increase only to where the system curve intersects the two-pump curve. as shown in figure 3. and varies only as a result of flow change. such as flood control. where the system resistance is purely frictional. assume that there is a set of fixed spray nozzles. When a second pump is introduced. Pumps with flat curves will have less TDH separation than pumps with steep curves and therefore will have less flow rate change. PC35 Single vs Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pu8mps June 29.PumpClinic …Issue 35 Single Versus Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pumps Parallel operation may be required to meet variable demands. but also by the steepness of the pump curves. For example. Two identical pumps operating in parallel are capable of producing twice the flow of a single pump at any given Total Dynamic Head (TDH). The amount of flow increase is dictated not only by the system curve. Unless the system curve is variable. However. or to satisfy a temporary condition that occurs such as when changing over pumps in an uninterruptible process. resistance in the system increases as the flow increases.

This causes the system curve to move to a higher flow on the pump curve. Each time an additional fire nozzle is activated. Figure 4 illustrates this. 2009 Page 2 of 4 . In figure 5.PumpClinic …Issue 35 A fire pump installation would be an example of a system that has a variable system curve. increasing the kW load on the pump and decreasing the amount of TDH available. This characteristic is quite prevalent in pumps with specific speeds under 30 (Ns~1550 US units). Eventually. It is a characteristic of certain pumps to have a head curve that droops as the flow approaches shut-off. the system and TDH curves intersect at a TDH that is greater than the shut-off TDH value and at a lower TDH than the max TDH of the curve. Because the first pump’s PC35 Single vs Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pu8mps June 29. CONTINUOUSLY RISING TDH CURVES Pump specifications often dictate that pumps have a continuously rising head curve to shut-off. another fire pump may need to be activated to maintain the system pressure as more nozzles come on line. When the second pump starts. the flowrate will increase only to the first point where the TDH matches the pressure in the system. the system resistance is decreased. Curves with a drooping shut-off characteristic may experience load sharing problems when operating in parallel with other pumps.

As a pump wears. In the absence of any flow measurement capability. 6. is easier to avoid than to detect. If the new pump’s intersection with the system curve is above the shut-off TDH of the worn pump. the system curve does not change. A similar condition may exist when one pump is worn. may increase wear. between pumps operating in parallel. Parallel Operation of Unmatched Pumps When pumps operate in parallel. the pumps will share the load unevenly. the flow rate at any given TDH point is additive. common to both pumps. the flow would double. is determined by the characteristic curve intersection with the system curve. This is shown graphically in Fig. in parallel. between pumps operating in parallel. If one pump exhibits a lower shut-off TDH characteristic.PumpClinic …Issue 35 operating TDH point is mirrored by another at a lower flow. Again. 2009 Page 3 of 4 . When a pump is operated in parallel with another pump that has a different operating characteristic. PC35 Single vs Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pu8mps June 29. an uneven performance distribution. so the actual change in flow that occurs with bringing a second pump on line. a zero-flow condition for the weak pump will exist when the system curve intersection is to the left of the vertical dashed line. the same rule applies as for identical pumps: for any TDH. the second pump might operate at less than its minimum allowable design flow. For example. 3. resulting in damage to the equipment and possible injury to personnel. with the second pump operating at a lower efficiency. At best. In Fig. two pumps that each had a capacity of 100 M3/hr at 50 M TDH would have a combined capacity of 200 M3/hr at 50 M TDH. reduce seal and bearing life. In the case of pumps that have identical operating characteristics. The danger here is in the system-pump interaction. the flow characteristic will be additive. the weak pump will be forced to run at shut-off and a serious failure could occur. the amount of TDH produced at any given flow rate diminishes. lower operating efficiencies and limit process operations. Load sharing problems. the second pump’s flowrate will not increase beyond the low flow point. Proper pump selection for parallel operation and pump performance monitoring are the best tools in avoiding load sharing problems and maintaining a well operating parallel pump installation. Worse. it will operate at shut-off until the dominant pump moves far enough out on its curve so that its TDH falls below the shut-off TDH of the pump with lower head (Fig 6). If the system curve intersection with the characteristic curve is at a higher TDH than the shut-off flow of the weak pump. it will force the worn pump into a shut-off condition.

This is due to a decrease in pump efficiency which is not visible to the pump operator.PumpClinic …Issue 35 As a general rule it is a good idea to have flow measurement installed for any pumps designed to operate in parallel. it is very difficult to determine what the load sharing is between two pumps. PC35 Single vs Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pu8mps June 29. when wear does occur. Motor power is often a questionable indicator of flow. the power draw may remain relatively constant even though performance is falling off. Also. 2009 Page 4 of 4 . Without flow measurement. as many power curves are quite flat and show small changes in load over relatively large changes in flow.

Metering pumps are generally used in applications where one or more of the following conditions exist: • • • • • • Low flow rates are required High system pressure exists High accuracy feed rate is demanded Dosing is controlled by computer. microprocessor. or is shielded from the fluid by a diaphragm. The pumping action is developed by the reciprocating action. Diaphragms may be activated by direct mechanical link or by hydraulic fluid. PLC. This reciprocating motion develops a flow sine wave. or flow proportioning Corrosive. DCS. plunger or diaphragm which is either in direct contact with the process fluid. bases. The pumping action is developed by a reciprocating piston. Actual flow rate is determined by the following formula: Figure 1 PC36 Metering Pumps Page 1 of 14 12-Aug-09 . It features a high level of repetitive accuracy and is capable of pumping a wide range of chemicals including acids. hazardous. corrosive or viscous liquids and slurries.PumpClinic METERING PUMPS …Issue 36 The metering pump is a positive displacement chemical dosing device with the ability to vary capacity manually or automatically as process conditions require. or high temperature fluids are handled Viscous fluids or slurries need to be pumped METERING PUMP CHARACTERISTICS 1.

Although a metering pump can generally be adjusted to pump at any flow rate between 0 and its maximum capacity. stroke characteristic curve is linear. plotting both points and drawing a straight line through them. its accuracy is measured over a range determined by the pump's turndown ratio.0% or better. Therefore. By measuring flow at 2 stroke settings. It is not however.PumpClinic …Issue 36 2. The steady state accuracy of a correctly installed industrial grade metering pump is generally +/.1. The metering pump flow vs. this design will accurately dose anywhere between 1% and 100% of capacity. Some newer designs of metering pumps feature higher accuracy. stroke can be accurately predicted. This is due to the fact that the calibration line may not pass through 0 on both axes simultaneously. Figure 2 3. Unlike centrifugal pumps. other flow rates vs. flow rate is not greatly affected by changes in discharge pressure. Figure 3 PC36 Metering Pumps Page 2 of 14 12-Aug-09 . and a greater turndown ratio of 100:1. necessarily proportional in that 50% stroke setting may not equal 50% flow. Most metering pumps have a turndown ratio of 10:1 which simply means that the pump is within its accuracy rating anywhere between 10% and 100% of capacity.

Electromagnetic drive is available in small flow pumps. reciprocating motion using electromagnets. Temperature. can provide power in only one direction. flow rate. and the nature of the fluid to be handled. Another advantage is that it has in built overload protection as the pump simply stops at excessive load. FLOW ADJUSTMENT Pump flow rate is adjustable by varying stroke length. The solenoid type could be considered the ideal power end as it does not require any type of transmission to convert motion from rotary to linear.PumpClinic METERING PUMP DESIGN …Issue 36 LIQUID END The liquid end design and materials of construction are determined by the service conditions. the power can be utilised on both the forward thrust of the crank and the back thrust of the crank. the almost universal driver is an electric motor. Metering pumps with solenoid power ends (Figure 8) are another type of drive and create linear. The motor speed is normally reduced to pump design speed by the use of gearing built into the pump power end. Figure 4 DRIVE MECHANISMS Metering pumps can be powered by a variety of drivers however. fluid viscosity. PC36 Metering Pumps Page 3 of 14 12-Aug-09 . however. effective stroke length or stroking speed. corrosiveness and other factors are considered. DRIVE MECHANISM The drive mechanism translates the rotary motion of the driver into reciprocating movement. This rotary power is converted to a linear motion through one of three methods: a crank mechanism with either fixed (Figure 5) or variable (Figure 6) stroke length an eccentric or cam arrangement (Figure 7) Depending on the type of adjustable output flow mechanism used. Most metering pumps are supplied with a micrometer screw adjustment similar to the one shown here. The micrometer can also be replaced by an electronic or pneumatic actuator to adjust pump flow rate in response to a process signal DRIVERS The pump is usually driven by an AC constant speed motor. The eccentric or cam arrangement. A disadvantage is that availability is limited to very small powers.

PumpClinic …Issue 36 Figure 5 Figure 6 PC36 Metering Pumps Page 4 of 14 12-Aug-09 .

PumpClinic …Issue 36 Figure 7 ADJUSTMENT SCREW Figure 8 PC36 Metering Pumps Page 5 of 14 12-Aug-09 .

a connecting rod. Diaphragm and tube pumps are seal/less and therefore overcome this potential problem. Packing on the connecting rod provides at static seal so that it becomes double acting and displacement may occur on both directions. This provides double the flow of single acting pumps. The main purposes of multiplexing are: provide greater flow or pressure without significantly increasing the driver size provide exact proportioning or synchronization between heads provide greater turndown ratio i. In some cases this is not an objectionable shortcoming. The piston provides the liquid flow and is designed to displace a measured volume of liquid with a high degree of accuracy as it reciprocates within the pump (Figure 9). or a crosshead driven by the crank. costly as well. Piston packed pump The forward travel of the piston reduces the internal volume of the liquid chamber. forcing it into a closed position.e. in other cases. displacing the metered liquid out the discharge check valve. Figure 9. coupling or ganging of two or more liquid ends and use only one driver. flow control range reduce pulsations - PISTON WITH GLAND PACKED SEAL This type of pump is rarely used these days. ensuring correct flow direction PC36 Metering Pumps Page 6 of 14 12-Aug-09 .e. The pressure required to move the liquid through the discharge check valve is also applied to the suction check valve. in most instances. It is often possible to multiplex pumps i.PumpClinic LIQUID END Metering pumps generally fall into five basic types: Piston with packed seal Plunger with gland packed seal Mechanically actuated diaphragm Hydraulically actuated diaphragm Hydraulically actuated tube …Issue 36 Both the piston packed pump and the plunger packed pump allow some degree of leakage past their dynamic seals. it can be very objectionable and. Rings or packing located on the piston move back and forth with the piston to effect a dynamic seal with the inside diameter of the cylinder and a static seal with the outside diameter of the piston. The piston is driven by either a crank.

in place of a piston rod or plunger. This change of pressure results in a rapid closing of the discharge check valve caused by the external pressure acting on the valve and allows the suction check valve to open because of an external pressure under the check valve that can be either above or below atmospheric pressure. The main reasons are that plunger pumps are cheaper. can develop higher discharge pressures and are more suitable for extreme temperature conditions. on the other hand. There is a strong trend to leak free (diaphragm and tube) metering pumps. However. PLUNGER WITH GLAND PACKED SEAL The plunger packed pump is very similar to the piston packed pump except for the packing design and location. has the packing installed in a stationary gland in the inside diameter of the cylinder. the control of the strokes per minute. the mechanical diaphragm pump uses a connecting rod fastened to the centre of a diaphragm. The mechanical diaphragm pump's principle of positive displacement output is similar to that of the piston plunger pump except that the diaphragm becomes the displacement measuring element. however.PumpClinic …Issue 36 The reverse travel of the piston decreases the pressure within the liquid chamber by enlarging the internal volume of the chamber. The inaccuracy. As the plunger reciprocates within the pump. The power side of the pump and the capacity control are the same as was previously described for other types of reciprocating pumps. and a static seal is made between the outside diameter of the packing and the inside diameter of the stuffing box (Figure 10). Like the other pumps. as it moves back and forth in the fluid chamber (Figure 8). a dynamic seal is made between the outside diameter of the plunger and the inside diameter of the packing. This. is caused by leakage past the piston packing and the check valves. is where the similarity ends. since the piston or plunger does not come into contact with the PC36 Metering Pumps Page 7 of 14 12-Aug-09 . HYDRAULIC DIAPHRAGM PUMP The hydraulically balanced diaphragm pump is a hybrid design that provides the principal advantages of the other three pump types. its power end and capacity control are common. Figure 10 Plunger with packed gland MECHANICAL ACTUATED DIAPHRAGM To overcome the leakage problem. and the precise opening and closing of the check valves. There is no moving or dynamic seal located on the plunger. unlike the packed piston. however plunger pumps continue to be used. The accuracy of the reciprocating metering pump is achieved by the previously described predetermined controlled piston travel of the pump. The packed plunger. a diaphragm pump can be used.

It is simply a moving partition with pressure hydraulically balanced on both its sides. Figure 11 Function of oil make-up valve Any excess pressure within the hydraulic system or the liquid product chamber is relieved through the automatic action of a pressure relief valve. rather it serves as a moving barrier between liquids during periods of pressure imbalance. PC36 Metering Pumps Page 8 of 14 12-Aug-09 . These are the only parts that must be made of chemically compatible material. back into the oil reservoir (Figure 12). the piston or plunger handles only hydraulic oil. displacing a volume of hydraulic liquid. Contoured support plates are provided on either side of the diaphragm to ensure that stresses are kept within limits. which draws in replacement oil from the oil reservoir (Figure 11).PumpClinic …Issue 36 pumped fluid. It normally does no work. When properly installed and working within the recommended temperature range and not affected by corrosion or abrasion. The diaphragm's only job is to separate two liquids. This valve blows off oil. Conventional seals are used on the piston or plunger. under excess pressure ahead of the piston. As previously stated. on one side is the liquid product and on the other side is the hydraulic oil. carries no load. and the actuation of the diaphragm is by hydraulic power instead of mechanical power (Figure6). The hydraulic liquid is stable and has excellent lubricating qualities. takes in an equal amount through the suction check valve. not the product liquid. under excess pressure ahead of the piston. and pumps no liquid. the diaphragm undergoes total combined stresses well within the endurance limit of the diaphragm material. The diaphragm isolates the liquid product being contained within the liquid chamber and check valves. At full deflection. This valve blows off oil. back into the oil reservoir. The measuring piston or plunger reciprocates within a precisely sized cylinder at an established stroke length. The piston uses the hydraulic oil to move the diaphragm forward and backward. Even the slightest leakage past the piston is replaced on the suction stroke through the automatic functioning of a compensation system. on the suction stroke. the diaphragm has an unlimited life. causing a displacement that expels the product liquid through the discharge check valve and. which does not require power flushing and complicated drain systems as are found on conventional piston or plunger pumps handling corrosive or hazardous liquids.

In doing so. bursting pipes. because of its design. PC36 Metering Pumps Page 9 of 14 12-Aug-09 . As the piston starts forward on its discharge stroke. thus avoiding the dangerous build up of pressure. they serve to protect the process system from an over-pressure condition produced by the pump. At the moment of diaphragm contact with its support plate. For instance.PumpClinic …Issue 36 Figure 12 Function of pressure relief valve The vacuum and pressure compensator systems actually perform three important functions that the other described types of metering pumps cannot do unless auxiliary equipment is added to their piping systems. preventing a dangerous build up of pressure. however. however. a surplus of hydraulic oil enters into the system between the diaphragm and piston. relieve any pump-produced pressure beyond the set pressure of the pressure relief valve. The compensation system also serves to protect the pump from a closed suction line or a partially clogged strainer in the suction line. In addition. or damaging other downstream equipment should an operator mistakenly close a shut-off valve downstream from the pump. they compensate for any leakage occurring within the hydraulic system of the pump. because of the surplus oil drawn into the hydraulic chamber. the positive displacement pump. The hydraulic diaphragm pump will. The pressure relief valve now opens to relieve the surplus oil back into the hydraulic reservoir. the diaphragm is displaced forward and will come into contact with the contoured dish support plate in the process liquid chamber. Should this occur. the backward movement of the diaphragm is prevented and the vacuum relief system would automatically open to relieve the starved suction condition within the pump. As described previously. ensuring a balanced diaphragm movement. The interaction of the two compensation systems continue stroke after stroke to activate a fluid-clutch-type action to prevent overloading of the pump's power end until the condition plugging the suction or discharge lines is found and corrected. an over-pressure condition starts to develop within the hydraulic system. must over pressure the system to the point of damaging the pump.

rotates the eccentric gear within the pump gearbox. LOST MOTION (Figures 13. in turn.PumpClinic …Issue 36 FLOW ADJUSTMENT Flow control can be achieved in a number of ways. Details are given below. 4. Changing the stroke rate by changing the driver speed. When the driver is an electric motor. Each of these designs changes the way in which the internal piston travels within the piston cylinder. The pump motor turns the worm shaft which. A 4-20 mA electric or 3-15 psig pneumatic process signal would be required for the actuators. As a result there is no contact with the cam for a portion of the cam rotation and the piston stops moving until the cam rotates to a position in which contact is re-established with the cam follower. STROKE LENGTH ADJUSTMENT There are two main categories of stroke length adjustment mechanisms . 2. this can be done by setting the switching on the solenoid. Adjustments can be made manually as shown in all the diagrams below or adjustments can be automatic with the use of electric or pneumatic actuators. On each discharge stroke of the pump the cam follower pushes the piston towards the pump reagent head displacing the pump diaphragm. Adjustable cranks and hydraulic bypass have also been used in the past but are rarely seen these days. When a stroke length of less than 100% is desired the internal adjustment screw is rotated and the rearward piston travel is limited based on the stroke length setting. Figure 13 PC36 Metering Pumps Page 10 of 14 12-Aug-09 . 3. After the piston reaches its full forward position the piston is retracted via spring force. Changing the stroke length. 1.lost motion and full motion. 14 and 15) Smaller pumps (low flow) are typically of the lost motion stroke length mechanism design. Changing the stroke rate within the pump by changing internal gearing in the drive mechanism. The cam rotates with the eccentric gear and actuates the piston via the cam follower. Displacement per stroke is controlled through limiting the rearward travel of the piston. With solenoid operated pumps. however the most common are as follows. Adjusting the stroke length mechanism extends and / or retracts the internal adjustment screw. This is done at time of pump manufacture and further changes cannot be made after pump installation. This can be achieved in a number of ways and is dependent on the pump construction. using a frequency inverter will achieve this result.

PumpClinic …Issue 36 Figure 14 Figure 15 The flow characteristics produced from a lost motion style of pump are shown below. When the stroke length is decreased the maximum amplitude of each stroke is maintained while the full potential volume per stroke is decreased. PC36 Metering Pumps Page 11 of 14 12-Aug-09 . As indicated. the flow at 100% stroke length can be represented as a sine wave.

PC36 Metering Pumps Page 12 of 14 12-Aug-09 . as a result. It can be seen from Figure 16 that when the housing block is at its full bottom position (100% stroke length) the piston will maximize its horizontal movement. Adjustment of stroke length is actually an adjustment of the housing block position within the oscillating housing — this adjustment will determine how far back and forth the piston can travel and. the volume per stroke that the pump can produce.. rotates the eccentric gear within the pump gearbox. The connecting rod is attached to the piston. the pump will produce no flow. Within the oscillating housing exists a housing block which is.( 360 270 SUCTION FULL MOTION (Figures 16.17 and 18) Pumps with larger flow requirements are typically handled by full motion pumps. in turn. in turn. The pump motor turns the worm shaft which. as a result. Full motion pumps rely on internal linkages for the adjustment of stroke length. The oscillating housing is stationary at its top — the resulting motion is similar to that of a pendulum. The eccentric gear transmits motion to a connecting rod which is attached to an oscillating housing. As a result the pump will produce its greatest potential displacement per stroke. When the housing block is adjusted to its full top position (0% stroke length) the piston will be stationary and. connected to a connecting rod.PumpClinic LOST MOTION FLOW CURVE …Issue 36 DISCHARGE — — 100% STROKE LENGTH 60% STROKE LENGTH .

PumpClinic …Issue 36 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PC36 Metering Pumps August 12. 2009 Page 13 of 14 .

Adjustment of stroke length decreases the sine wave amplitude (displacement per stroke).miltonroy. As with lost motion pumps the flow characteristic at 100% stroke length can be characterized as a sine wave. The discharge pulsation dampener transforms a diaphragm metering pump's reciprocating flow to laminar flow.PumpClinic …Issue 36 FULL MOTION FLOW CURVE Full motion flow characteristics are detailed below. a discharge pulsation dampener is a typical recommendation for all styles of metering pumps.pulsa. will be identical when a discharge pulsation dampener is installed. 2009 Page 14 of 14 . the flow characteristics downstream of a metering pump. Finally. The flow characteristics of full motion and lost motion pumps are identical if stroke length is maintained at 100% and motor speed is used to adjust flow. Instead of changing volume (amplitude) per stroke the adjustable motor speed will modify strokes per minute (frequency). As a result. Acknowledgements: Metering Pump Handbook (Pulsafeeder Inc) www.com www.com PC36 Metering Pumps August 12. regardless if it is lost motion or full motion. The resulting output will be identical regardless of stroke length type. − − 100% STROKE LENGTH 60% STROKE LENGTH With the use of variable speed motors and drives many metering pumps are controlled through variable speed in lieu of stroke length.

Wear rings. Therefore an enclosed impeller pump can tolerate moderate wear with little adverse effect on overall performance and efficiency. and are used in conjunction with impeller balance holes to control axial thrust. 2009 Page 1 of 5 . Pump-out vanes control both leakage and axial thrust through a pumping action. An enclosed impeller typically has wear rings or radial pump-out vanes to control this leakage. because they are subject to a very high flow velocity. Wear rings provide an adequate solution for applications that occasionally handle light solids and for the practical design and manufacture of multistage pumps where liberal axial clearance precludes tolerance stack-up problems during assembly. Wear rings control recirculation through flow restriction. A centrifugal pump with an enclosed impeller is usually not dependent on tight axial clearances to manage leakage. Enclosed Impeller A portion of the fluid exiting an enclosed impeller leaks back to the pump suction by traveling through the gap between the front impeller shroud and the casing. The information detailed is for general guidance only and every application should be checked with pump manufacturers or suppliers. This results in less wear than other impeller styles. Fluid flows through the internal impeller passages without hydraulic interaction with the stationary casing walls. will have an unacceptably short life span in an abrasive environment. The flow restriction created by the tight clearances between the stationary and rotating wear ring faces causes very high local velocities hence a high wear rate. In a well designed enclosed impeller. The lower local velocity results in a much lower wear rate. Enclosed impellers An enclosed impeller incorporates a full front and back shroud. wear rings Pump-out vanes offer a better alternative for handling abrasive solids. the relative velocity between the impeller and the fluid at any given radius is quite small.PumpClinic …Issue 37 SOLIDS-HANDLING WITH CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS The following paper considers only the types of impellers available for solids handling and not at the metallurgy or abrasion considerations associated with pumping solids. All impellers can handle solids with different limitations on size and type. It is not uncommon for pump-out vane life to equal or exceed the life of the main impeller blades. PC37 Solids Handling with Centrifugal Pumps October 21. even when hard materials or treated surfaces are used. Local flow velocities with pump-out vanes are much lower and spread over a greater area.

This may create a mechanical or hydraulic imbalance that has the potential to damage the pump. The largest contributor to efficiency loss in an enclosed radial impeller is disc friction caused by the front and back impeller shrouds turning in close proximity to the stationary casing walls. A disadvantage of enclosed impellers is that the front and back shrouds. or at the least causes a premature outage to remove the blockage. Open Impeller An open impeller typically operates at a higher efficiency than a shrouded impeller of the same specific speed.PumpClinic …Issue 37 The disadvantage of pump-out vanes is that they consume power while controlling leakage and thrust. However. It is not uncommon to have several outages to replace wear rings over the life of a single impeller when wear rings are used in an aggressive solids application. than an equivalent shrouded impeller. Open Impellers An open impeller is characterized by impeller blades that are supported almost entirely by the impeller hub. High velocity fluid on the impeller blades in close proximity to the casing walls establishes rotating vortices that accelerate wear when abrasives are present. When new. If ring wear is severe. Another disadvantage is that the enclosed impeller is more easily plugged. Less impeller weight reduces shaft deflection and enables the use of a smaller diameter shaft. the high velocity zone can shift from the wear rings to the impeller thrust balance holes resulting in an expensive and premature repair or replacement of the impeller. low horsepower applications. An open impeller is lighter in weight than its shrouded counterpart. Impeller w/pump-out vanes An impeller with wear rings loses efficiency rapidly as the rings wear. Removing the shrouds eliminates the disc friction. at a lower cost. Large solids that might otherwise be broken up by the grinding action generated by a rotating open impeller and the stationary casing wall can easily become lodged in the eye of an enclosed impeller. One drawback of the open impeller is that it is more susceptible to abrasive wear than a shrouded impeller. generate disc friction that lowers the efficiency of the pump relative to that found in open impeller designs. 2009 Page 2 of 5 . This is the simplest impeller style and it is primarily applied to clean. rotating in close proximity to the casing walls. it will come close to maintaining its "as installed" efficiency throughout its operational life. non-abrasive. a pump impeller equipped with pump-out vanes will likely have a lower efficiency than its wear ring counterpart. A tight clearance between the impeller and the front and back casing walls is necessary to maximise PC37 Solids Handling with Centrifugal Pumps October 21.

A semi-open impeller has a solids passing capability similar to that found in an open impeller. with low thrust imbalance. This can be managed somewhat through the use of pump-out vanes on the back side of the shroud. An obvious question is why use a semi-open impeller in a solids application if an open impeller with an adjustable wear plate could be used instead? It might seem logical that an open impeller of hard metal construction. Elimination of the shroud in this area reduces the axial thrust in a semi-open impeller without compromise to the structure support provided by the full back shroud. Axial thrust balance is manageable through design for both open and enclosed impellers. With only a single shroud a semi-open impeller is easy to manufacture and completely accessible for applying surface hardening treatments. semi-open impeller with a partial shroud PC37 Solids Handling with Centrifugal Pumps October 21. A semi-open impeller is well suited for handling solids in applications where the blades might encounter high impact loads from rocks and the like. Combined with hard materials or surface hardening treatments. Most of the pressure developed by the impeller. would combine good solids handling characteristics. this option provides a good design in lightly to moderately abrasive applications. true open impellers lack the structural support to prevent blade collapse or deformation under the demands of most industrial applications. Unfortunately. especially if plugging is a concern. In both situations the shroud provides additional structural support and reinforcement to protect against blade collapse or deformation. It has an advantage over an open impeller in that it can be adjusted axially to compensate for casing wear. and most of the shroud surface area. used in conjunction with an adjustable wear liner. usually located on the back of the impeller. a semi-open impeller is a good choice. or in higher power applications. Some manufacturers have integrated an adjustable wear-plate into the casing design so that clearance adjustments can be made. High axial thrust is the primary drawback of a semi-open impeller design. 2009 Page 3 of 5 . It incorporates a single shroud. On a semi-open impeller. One improvement that has been made to the semi-open impeller is the use of a partial shroud. is in the outer diameter region of the impeller. but the vanes will start to lose effectiveness if the impeller is moved forward in the casing to compensate for wear. Semi-Open Impellers A semi-open impeller is a compromise between an open and an enclosed impeller. As the impeller wears. the entire backside surface of the shroud is subject to the full impeller discharge pressure. semi-open impeller A semi-open impeller operates more efficiently than an enclosed impeller because of lower disc friction and tighter axial clearances. The differential between the pressure profiles along the two sides of the shroud creates the axial thrust imbalance.PumpClinic …Issue 37 efficiency. and adjustability for wear. For moderately abrasive slurries. light weight. The tight operating clearances required on both sides of an open impeller for efficient operation precludes adjustment of the impeller axial position to compensate for wear. these clearances open and efficiency drops rapidly. The front side of the shroud is at suction pressure at the eye of the impeller and increases along the impeller radius due to centrifugal action.

PumpClinic
Recessed Impellers

…Issue 37

Recessed impeller pumps are characterized by impeller vanes that either do not extend into the pump casing or extend only partially into the casing, essentially leaving the casing as an open flow passage. Recessed impeller pumps are well suited for handling large or stringy solids. The maximum solid size is usually limited by the pump suction opening such that any solid that enters the pump will pass through. In operation, some of the fluid is drawn into the rotating impeller and discharged back into the casing through centrifugal action. Through fluid dynamics, the partial flow through the impeller imparts a centrifugal rotating motion to the entire fluid body within the casing. Large solids entering the casing are transported by the rotating fluid body from inlet to outlet without necessarily making contact with the impeller. In addition to handling large solids, a recessed impeller pump will handle a higher concentration of entrained gas than a traditional pump with the impeller centered in the casing. In a traditional centrifugal pump, gas accumulating at the impeller eye prevents fluid from reaching any down stream part of the impeller. This results in a breakdown of the pumping action. In a recessed impeller pump, gas entering the pump does not have to pass through the impeller to exit the pump. Additionally, gas present in one area of the impeller does not prevent other parts of the impeller from pumping. Gas handling capabilities in excess of 30% by volume have been reported with this style of impeller. However, the actual concentration of entrained gas that can be handled for any specific application is dependent on the phase characteristics of the fluid and should be determined by test. The efficiency of a recessed impeller pump will be less than the efficiency of a traditional centrifugal pump. Efficiency losses result from flow recirculation around the impeller passages, and from the inefficiency of a flow pattern where fluid rotates around the casing numerous times prior to exiting the discharge. Efficiencies in the 40%-50% range are common for recessed impeller pumps. A recessed impeller pump is sometimes promoted for gentle handling, but caution should be the rule before investing. Much of the energy being imparted to the fluid is lost to turbulence and friction, both of which conflict with gentle handling. A better style of pump for gentle handling applications is the screw centrifugal pump described below.

Screw Centrifugal Impeller The screw centrifugal pump impeller is shaped like a tapered Archimedes screw. Originally developed for pumping live fish, the screw centrifugal pump has become popular for many solids handling applications, especially those where gentle handling is an important consideration. Most screw centrifugal impellers have a single helical vane wrapping around an expanding hub from inlet to outlet. The single passage allows for an easy transition of fluid and solids from the pump inlet onto the impeller. Its inducerlike design exhibits good NPSHR characteristics. Liquid entering the impeller is accelerated more gradually along the smoothly expanding hub to the pump outlet than with a traditional impeller design. The screw centrifugal pump is a popular choice for handling delicate products such as food and crystals. Its low shear characteristic reduces emulsification when pumping mixtures. The pump's ability to pass long fibrous materials such as rope without clogging makes it a frequent choice for municipal waste water applications.
PC37 Solids Handling with Centrifugal Pumps October 21, 2009 Page 4 of 5

PumpClinic

…Issue 37

A screw centrifugal pump typically has an operating efficiency of 70% to 85%. It has a relatively steeply rising head/capacity curve shape giving it good flow control capability over its allowable operating range. The relatively large size of the screw impeller is a primary disadvantage of this style pump. The heavy impeller mandates a large shaft and power frame to limit shaft deflection; which increases the unit cost. In addition, the single vane impeller is prone to high side thrust when operating off-design. A 1x rpm vane passing frequency vibration, that sets up as the single vane outlet passes the casing cutwater during each rotation, is not uncommon. Multi-vane screw impellers that provide smoother operation are available. The primary trade-off is solid size capability.

Disc Impellers Disc impellers incorporate two or more parallel discs and do not have traditional impeller vanes. Instead this design relies upon fluid friction and viscosity to generate a pumping action. As liquid enters the disc impeller, friction between the fluid boundary layer and the disc's surface accelerates the boundary layer to about the same speed as the impeller. Resistance to sheer (or viscosity) between the boundary layer and the adjacent fluid layer creates motion in the adjacent layer as well. Each layer in turn is set in motion by the viscous drag from the adjacent layer. Slip, or the difference in speed between the disc and each layer, increases with distance from the impeller. The effectiveness of a disc impeller is related to the spacing of the discs and the viscosity of the fluid. Close disc spacing and higher viscosity produce better performance than low viscosities with wider disc spacing. A disc impeller is well suited for gentle handling of delicate materials. It also performs well in abrasive services as there is little relative motion between the fluid contacting the impeller and the impeller itself. Disc impellers have entrained gas capabilities superior to standard impeller pumps, as gas can enter the impeller and move through the boundary layers without impediment. The efficiency of a disc impeller is less than that of a standard centrifugal pump. The efficiency of a disc impeller pump is commonly in the 35%-50% range. Because it relies on close disc spacing for effective performance, a disc pump is typically not well suited for large diameter solids. Non-Clog Impellers In reality, all impellers are able to be clogged in some way so the term “non-clogging” is, in reality, a misnomer. Non-clog impellers are designed to accommodate large, soft solids and at the same time limiting clogging the pump. The impeller generally has a small number of vanes (maximum of three) and large vane width. The impellers can be either of the closed or semi open type. Leading edges of vanes tend to be rounded so that solids are not caught up and get tangled. As the vane width is large to allow passing of solids, these pumps tend to be applied on applications requiring relatively high flowrates.

Acknowledgment: Lawrence Pump Company

PC37 Solids Handling with Centrifugal Pumps

October 21, 2009

Page 5 of 5

PumpClinic

…Issue 38

IMPROVING CENTRIFUGAL PUMP PERFORMANCE Production facilities often require increased output and consider means of improving the performance of installed equipment. For a pump, this is generally the need for increased flow rate. The applicable concept is the fact that all centrifugal pumps operate at a flow rate that corresponds to the intersection of the pump curve and the system curve. To increase the flow rate from an existing pump, either the pump operating characteristics, or the system resistance characteristics need to change. If other modifications to the pumping system are being considered such as new piping, heat exchangers, etc, a new system curve needs to be developed as a baseline reference before considering any of the following modifications Options for increased flow from an existing pump: Increase the impeller diameter Increase the pump speed Modify the impeller blades Install a different impeller Install a suction inlet splitter vane Decrease the system resistance Impeller diameter/speed change In systems where the primary flow resistance originates from friction (pipe, valves, heat exchangers, etc) flow will increase in direct proportion to a change in impeller diameter or speed (a 10% increase in speed or impeller diameter will yield a 10% change in flow). The pump operating point as a relative percentage of the pump best efficiency point will remain unchanged

In systems where the primary resistance comes from a pressure vessel, any increase in flow will be primarily dependent on the shape of the pump characteristic curve. Flatter curves will experience a higher percentage of flow increase than steep curves. The pump operating point relative to the pump best

PC38 Improving Centrifugal Pump Performance

November 26, 2009

Page 1 of 4

PumpClinic

…Issue 38

efficiency point may change. The only way to predict the performance is to plot the intersection of the pump and system curves.

PC38 Improving Centrifugal Pump Performance

November 26, 2009

Page 2 of 4

PumpClinic

…Issue 38

Impeller blade modifications In some cases flow may be increased through modifications to an existing impeller or volute. Impeller modifications might include blade shape modifications through machining or grinding and typically result in a flattening of the pump curve, resulting in higher head as the pump reaches higher flows. Head increases are usually less than 10% using these methods. Modifications of this type are usually expensive to perform and are unpredictable in their result or repeatability. They are mentioned here by means of acknowledgement - not suggestion

Installation of a different impeller The available head from an impeller is largely a function of peripheral speed which is set by diameter and RPM. The available flow from an impeller operating at a constant peripheral speed is controlled by the blade angles at the impeller inlet, and the volume of the impeller vane passages. Many pump manufacturers offer multiple impeller designs to fit within a single pump body that, along with interchangeable diffusers or volute liners, offer a significant change in flow characteristic for a given TDH.

Installation of a suction splitter vane Installation of one or more stator vanes adjacent to the pump inlet will have an effect similar to that described under impeller blade modifications. The amount of performance increase achievable is dependant on impeller design and operating point, but a 10-15% increase of TDH at BEP is not uncommon. Unlike the impeller modifications, inlet vane installation is often relatively simple and does not require customization of spare parts. The impact on NPSHR should be determined through testing.

PC38 Improving Centrifugal Pump Performance

November 26, 2009

Page 3 of 4

The better means of achieving increased flow are increase speed increase impeller diameter reduce system resistance Other considerations There are a number of associated mechanical and hydraulic issues that should also be evaluated when investigating modifications to increase a pump’s flow rate. power will vary approximately as the cube of the ratio of the change. it is our opinion that the modification of impellers and installation of suction splitter vanes are not really viable. and mechanical seal limitations. The reasons are the uncertainty of the improvement and the repeatability of the process particularly in the case of blade modification. Courtesy of Lawrence Pump Inc PC38 Improving Centrifugal Pump Performance November 26. pressure containment. Power: Increasing flow rate will result in increased power draw unless it is accompanied by an adequate decrease in system head requirements. It is a good idea to consult the OEM’s service department to assist in evaluating the pump requirements. Some of the items are as follows: NPSHR: It is likely that the NPSHR will increase if either flow or pump RPM is increased. base plate dimensions. and electrical components will all require re-evaluation. Summary Although several methods of increasing flow rate have been discussed. replacing heat exchangers. Make sure that there is adequate seal flush pressure to give the required flow rate through the seal. Operating Limits: Changes that move the pump further away from the best efficiency point may decrease pump reliability due to hydraulic instability. 2009 Page 4 of 4 . When changing speed or impeller diameter. The pump will also have a reduced horsepower requirement as compared to the previous methods that increase pump TDH to achieve the desired increase in flow.PumpClinic Decrease system resistance …Issue 38 Upgrading valves. Mechanical: Planned changes to the operating speed should be evaluated with respect to rotor critical speed. Couplings. or modifying piping or other system components to lower the resistance head at any given flow will result in a pump that will operate at an increased flow. Seal flush requirements: The pressure at the seal chamber will increase in proportion to the pump discharge pressure.

Issue 39 Feb 2010 The term peristaltic pump is applied to various ranges known as hose or tube pumps. the terms hose and tube are interchangeable in this article. These move across the hose where it is occluded (squeezed) pushing the fluid. Generally hose pumps have a large wall thickness. The pump consists of three major parts: hose or tubing. polyamide reinforcing layers and are capable of handling differential pressure to 15 bars. Tubing is smaller wall thickness and tube pumps are generally capable of differential pressures to 4 bars. The flow rate is directly proportional to the gearbox speed (rpm). The rotor has a number of "rollers” or "shoes" attached to the external circumference. The hose is placed in the tubing bed between the rotor and the housing. Dry-running pump design Pump Clinic 39 Peristaltic Pumps Principles of Operation Page 1 of 7 .PumpClinic PERISTALTIC PUMPS Principles of Operation ……. even under a wide range of viscosities or density. housing and rotor. The volume moved is consistent. Dry running pumps generally have lower flow and pressure capabilities than lubricated pumps. Liquid is trapped between the rollers specific to the ID of the hose and the geometry of the rotor. Flow rate is determined by multiplying speed (rpm) by the volume of the trapped liquid. This is termed dry-running because rollers that do not operate in a lubricated bath occlude the hose. Dry-Running Design This design incorporates a unique tube bed that always ensures one roller is occluding the hose. Peristaltic pumps are self-priming rotary positive displacement pumps that operate on the peristaltic principle. creating a vacuum and drawing fluid in behind it. Although there are specific differences between hoses and tubing. The hose behind the shoe or roller recovers its shape.

Benefits of Peristaltic Pumps • • • Lubricated-bath pump design Available in 15 different sizes that provide flow rates of 0 to 155 m3/h Will handle fragile fluids with little wear Since only the inside of the hose and hose inserts are in contact with the fluid. This thicker wall. The hoses in a hose pump are typically reinforced. typically use shoes and have casings filled with lubricant to prevent abrasion of the exterior of the pump tube and to aid in the dissipation of heat. FKM Provide high levels of volumetric accuracy for sampling and metering applications Ability to pass solids in the material being pumped. This class of pump is often called a "hose pump". 20% of hose ID Dry-run capability allows tank and line stripping. contamination and wear problems associated with difficult to seal products. Hypalon. Self-priming up to 9. Seal-less design eliminates leaks.8 meters at sea level on water Reversible operation allows pumping in both directions Durable construction of ductile iron and steel construction allows higher discharge pressures up to 15 bars. EPDM. Low maintenance requirements of the hose and shoes • • • • • • • • • Description of Hose versus Tube Pumps Hose Pumps Higher pressure peristaltic hose pumps which can operate at pressures up to 15 bars. with a very thick wall. Pump Clinic 39 Peristaltic Pumps Principles of Operation Page 2 of 7 . NBR. For a given ID the hoses have much bigger OD than tubing for the roller pump.Lubricated Bath Design This design uses two sliding shoes on the rotor to occlude the hose. The rotor and hose operate in a lubricated bath that reduces friction on the hose and provides the long life typical of this type of hose pump design. they can be processed without the devastating damage experienced by other pumping technologies. Hoses are constructed of natural rubber. combined with a stiffer material typically used in the hoses make the forces necessary to occlude the hose much greater than for the tubing. often called "hoses". This results in a bigger pump and motor for a given flow rate with the hose pump than the roller pump resulting in more energy to run. and use reinforced tubes.

on the tubing for a given cumulative flow through that tube. a tubing pump is a better option than a hose pump. but helps overcome the variations in the tube wall thickness over a broader range. This class of pump is sometimes called a "tube pump" or "tubing pump". the wall thickness of the extruded tubes vary enough that the % occlusion can vary with the wall thickness (see above). This design is a bit more elaborate than the fixed occlusion. These pumps employ rollers to squeeze the tube. The major issues that affect hose life are as follows Occlusion/Shimming Philosophy The minimum gap between the roller and the housing determines the maximum squeeze applied on the tubing. Therefore. thereby decreasing the tube life. thereby decreasing the amplitude of pulsing. Pump Clinic 39 Peristaltic Pumps Principles of Operation Page 3 of 7 .The biggest advantage with the hose pumps over the roller pumps is the high operating pressure of up to 15 bars. while less squeezing decreases the pumping efficiency. or occlusions. Typically. life and chemical compatibility.the rollers have a fixed locus as it turns. Irrespective of the variations. as well as the higher flow rate ranges. 2. but within the accepted tolerance. and the motor's ability to overcome the hoop strength of the tubing and the pressure. especially in high pressure pumping. These pumps have a minimum of 2 rollers 180 degrees apart. tubing at the high end of the wall thickness. this amount of squeeze becomes an important design parameter. will have higher % occlusion. thereby reducing the tubing life. Key Design Parameters The key design parameter in hose pumps is hose life. If the high operating pressure is not required. Increasing the number of rollers increases the frequency of the pumped fluid at the outlet. the advantages that hose pumps had over roller pumps are diminishing. increasing the wear on it. This is a simple. yet effective design. making this a constant stress operation. The spring is selected to overcome not only the hoop strength of the tubing. Surveys have shown that 95% of spares value used on peristaltic pumps is on replacement hoses. Fixed occlusion . The downside to increasing number of rollers it that it proportionately increases the number of squeezes.more squeezing decreases the tubing life dramatically. The only downside to this design is that the occlusion as a percent on the tube varies with the variation of the tube wall thickness. There are two kinds of roller design in peristaltic pumps: 1. The amount of squeeze applied to the tubing affects pumping performance and the tube life . the roller imparts the same amount of stress on the tubing that is proportional to the spring constant. The tube wall thickness tolerances today are kept pretty tight so that this is not much of a practical issue. but also the pressure of the pumped fluid.As the name indicates. and may have as many as 8. extruded tubing. With recent advances made in the tubing technology for pressure. Therefore. typically have dry casings and use rollers and use non-reinforced. The operating pressure of these pumps is determined by the tubing. the rollers are mounted on a spring. Spring loaded rollers . or even 12 rollers. Tube pumps Lower pressure peristaltic pumps. keeping the occlusion constant as it squeezes the tube.

Therefore. Therefore. There are a couple of newer pump tubing developments that offer a broad chemical compatibility . The amount of squeeze is influenced by the amount of shimming underneath the shoes. the most critical issues are rubber composition. Some problems have been encountered with dual material hoses with the integrity being compromised due to pin holes in the inside layer and delamination between the two layers. the material has poor fatigue resistance to get meaningful tube life that can be practical. the only compatibility to worry about in a peristaltic pump is the hoses for the fluid being pumped. EPDM+ polypropylene (as in santoprene). polyurethane. An interesting point here is that the inside diameter of the tubing is not an important design parameter for the suitability of the tubing for the pump. Different hose materials have different mechanical flex life. hydrocarbons. O-rings. etc. with a higher occlusion for a softer tube material and a lower occlusion for a harder tube material. Typical elastomers for pump tubing (as distinct from hose) are silicone. Some use full width in the particular material. Chemical Compatibility The pumped fluid contacts only the inside surface of the tubing. additional shimming is required so the squeeze increases. Some manufacturers are currently testing various compositions with the aim of improving fatigue life. as long as the wall thickness remains the same. PVC. There are no other valves. Rubber composition therefore becomes important so that efficiency is maintained without “over squeezing” the hose and affecting hose life. The factors that influence the number of squeezes is the speed of rotation and the number of shoes or rollers. The means the greater the shimming depth.The term "occlusion" is used to measure the amount of squeeze. The most popular hose materials (as distinct from tube) are: • natural rubber • EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) • Buna also known as Nitrile • Hypalon • Viton flouroelatomer Hoses are made in different ways by manufacturers. The occlusion is typically 10 to 20%. Others use a common outside layer of natural rubber with an inside layer of other material selected for superior chemical compatibility. fluorel. PVDF etc. seals or packings to worry about in a peristaltic pump. Fluoroelastomers have been used but have very poor mechanical life that tends to make this material impractical.a lined tubing approach and the use of fluoroelastomer approach. neoprene and a number of proprietary materials. As discharge pressure increases. Extruded fluoroplymer tubes such as FKM (viton. The most common hose material is natural rubber. Pump Clinic 39 Peristaltic Pumps Principles of Operation Page 4 of 7 . it is common for more than one ID be used with a pump. Thus for a given pump. This requirement eliminates a variety of non-elastomeric polymers such as PTFE. Therefore pump speed is a significant factor in hose life. and petroleum fuels. from consideration as material for pump tubing. the amount of shimming and wall thickness. The hose needs to be elastomeric to maintain the circular cross section after millions of cycles of squeezing in the pump. Natural rubber has double the mechanical life of EPDM and three times the life of Buna/Nitrile and Hypalon. However. or as an absolute amount of the wall that is squeezed. Mechanical Capability of Hose Material Mechanical capability is simply a function of the hose material and the number of times the hose is squeezed. the greater the squeeze and the lower the hose life.) have good compatibility with acids. It is either expressed as a percentage of twice the wall thickness.

A 1 to 2 inch sample of the tubing is immersed in the fluid to be pumped for anywhere from 24 to 48 hours and the amount of weight change from before and after the immersion is measured. Possible Results of Hose Failure If a hose ruptures. resulting in premature tube failure. The natural starting point for selection of hose materials is chemical compatibility. the following may occur dependent on where the rupture occurs: • the pump housing fills with the product • product drains from the suction line and suction tank into the pump housing and then leaks from the pump to the floor. While these charts cover a list of commonly encountered fluids.With the lined tubing. then that tube is not compatible with the fluid. the maximum allowable pump speed and therefore flow rate decreases to compensate for the reduction in hose life due to additional “squeeze”. This test is still a one way test. contact the manufacturer. the thin inside liner is made of a chemically resistant material such as poly-olefin and PTFE that form a barrier for the rest of the tubing wall from coming in contact with the pumped fluid. If the weight change is greater than 10% of the initial weight. This decreases hose life. The best selection process is to start with natural rubber and then eliminate it if deemed to be totally unfit chemically. These liners are materials that are not elastomeric therefore the entire tube wall cannot be made with this material for peristaltic pump applications. they may not have all the fluids. in the sense that there is still a remote chance that the tubing that passes this test can still be incompatible for the application since the combination of borderline compatibility and mechanical flexing can push the tube over the edge. This can lead to serious errors as mechanical life is just as important If not more important than chemical compatibility. Normal maximum temperature is 80°C subject to adjustments to either maximum pump speed or maximum discharge pressure. If not. rendering the bulk material again vulnerable to chemical attack. Manufacturer’s selection charts would normally show derating requirements at higher temperatures. Care should be taken when moving pumps between applications to ensure that those design parameters are not exceeded. Natural rubber is also the cheapest material so it is often worth trialling and then eliminating it. has provided the best hose life notwithstanding chemical compatibility charts giving natural rubber a “poor” rating. The correct selection philosophy is to consider both chemical and mechanical implications. If there is a fluid whose compatibility is not listed anywhere. There are many online sites for checking the chemical compatibility of the tubing material with the pumped fluid. these lined tubing offer a good solution.any pin holes in the liner during manufacturing could render the tubing vulnerable to chemical attack. because if its superior mechanical life. There are a few things to keep in mind when using these tubes . For those with need for chemically compatible tubing. then a common test of compatibility is the immersion testing. As discharge pressure increases. The manufacturers of these tubing may also have compatibility charts specific to their tubing. The normal rated temperature for hose pumps is 40°C. with repeated flexing in the peristaltic pump they can develop cracks. In the case of stiff plastic liners like the polyolefins. Discharge Pressure As discharge pressure increases. Liquid Temperature The implications of temperature must be considered. These tubing provide adequate chemical compatibility and life to use them in chemically challenging applications. Pump Clinic 39 Peristaltic Pumps Principles of Operation Page 5 of 7 . additional shimming is required to maintain pump efficiency. This happens particularly with pump selection software linked to chemical compatibility charts. • product drains from the discharge line and discharge tank into the pump housing and then leaks from the pump to the floor. A common issue with all lined tubing is delamination of the liner with repeated flexing that signal the end of that tube life. There have been many examples of where natural rubber. and should not be used in that application. NOTE.

Manufacturers do not provide any guarantee on hose life. resulting in re-vulcanisation The failure will occur over the rotor shoe’s full contact path Pump Clinic 39 Peristaltic Pumps Principles of Operation Page 6 of 7 . This can be instigated after hose life is determined. leading to severe internal friction and a heat build up. It is the customer’s responsibility to prevent pumped liquid loss or any other loss with additional hose rupture detectors and/or non return valves and automatic shut down valves. Various rupture detection devices are available from manufacturers and these include: • float type magnetic reed switch which detects a change in liquid level in the hose housing • conductivity probes however these are limited to use with products that are conductive • pressure transmitters fitted to the hose housing which detect a change in liquid level. This does not mean that rupture detection systems can be forgotten. Recognising Cause of Hose Failure Hose Destruction Areas Normal end of life Over shimming Chemical attack Under shimming Over shimming Over Shimming • • • This failure occurs in the cheek of the hose as the hose starts to re-vulcanise Rubber is built up under the shoe. A hose replacement regime needs to be established so that hoses are changed prior to rupture occurring. The best method of mitigating these losses is by preventative maintenance. product loss or consequential damage due to ruptured hoses.

remove the source of pulsation but do not increase number of shims Shows as very high discharge side impulse loss Pump Clinic 39 Peristaltic Pumps Principles of Operation Page 7 of 7 .Chemical Compatibility • The inner rubber has softened due to chemical action • Parts of the rubber breakaway when they are pulled and may stick together Under Shimming or Pulsation Damage • • • • Damage occurs where the shoe leaves the hose Failure is due to backflow of an abrasive product from severe pulsation Remedy .

A. Pump Clinic 40 Glossary of Pump Terms Page 1 of 10 . some impellers are located on the shaft facing opposite directions. Back Vane: A radial narrow vane located on the back shroud of an impeller and is designed to balance axial thrust. Back pull out pump: A design that allows the wet end of the pump to be left on the piping yet allows the power end and adapter to be removed.3 kPaA. Back to back double seal: Two mechanical seals located in a pump with the rotating seal faces in opposite directions. This is one method of achieving axial thrust balancing. B Back to Back Impellers: In multistage pumps. head and power due to changes in shaft speed.S. Back plate: Used in some centrifugal pumps to position the stuffing box and provide an impeller wear surface. B73. A. Axial Thrust Balancing: Methods by which the axial thrust is balanced to minimize bearing loads.N. Alignment: The centreline of the pump is perfectly aligned with the centreline of the driver (usually an electric motor). Examples are API610.PumpClinic Glossary of Pump Terms ……. atmospheric pressure 101. Adapter (or Support Head): Connects and aligns the power (bearing) end of an ANSI pump to the wet end. Atmospheric pressure: At sea level.1 Standard: American National Standards Institute. API685 etc.N. Axial Thrust: The resultant of all axial forces (i.Issue 40 April 2010 A Absorbed Power: The actual amount of power being consumed by the pump at a specific flow and head. API Standards: Standards produced by the American Petroleum Institute for various pieces of equipment applied in the oil and gas industries. Ambient temperature or pressure: The environmental temperature or pressure in the area where the equipment is located.I. The same laws can be used to estimate changes in capacity.S.e. Air ingestion: Air is coming into the stuffing box because of a negative suction pressure. Affinity laws: They are used to determine changes in capacity. in direction of the pump shaft) acting in the pump rotor. pumps are designed this way. Absolute pressure (normally in kPaA) : Atmospheric pressure added to gauge pressure.I. head and power due to changes in impeller diameter. A set of specifications (envelope dimensions) for centrifugal pumps. Various API codes are applicable for pumps dependent on the type of pump.

Balanced seal: A design in which the seal face closing area is reduced to lower the closing force. Cavitation: Cavities or bubbles form in the fluid low-pressure area and collapse in a higher-pressure area of the pump. support the rotating shaft or break down pressure. Often called a precision or anti friction bearing. API applications and allows thermal expansion to occur in without the necessity of re alignment. Centipoise: One unit for dynamic viscosity of a liquid. thermally isolate a hot liquid. or the pump discharge to a lower pressure point in the system. m3/hr etc. and a series of balls between them. Buna N: Sometimes called Nitrite. C Canned pump: A seal/less pump with the shaft. This is also the point where there is no radial deflection of the shaft cause by unequal hydraulic forces acting on the impeller. Must be used in a pump with impeller clearance adjustments are made.E. Barrier fluid: The high-pressure fluid that is circulated between the two seals in a double mechanical seal. Pump Clinic 40 Glossary of Pump Terms Page 2 of 10 . and both stationary and rotating seal faces. Bypass line: Used to either re-circulate fluid from the pump discharge to the stuffing box. gland. rolling or sliding.P (Best Efficiency Point): The best efficiency point on a pump curve for a specific impeller diameter. This can also be used as a manual means of flow control. litres/sec. Bellows: A component of a mechanical seal that can be manufactured from metal or non-metallic materials to eliminate flexing.g. Could be either sleeve or anti-friction type. Centreline design: The pump is mounted to the base plate by feet attached to the sides of the volute instead of the bottom. A common elastomer used in the sealing of oil or water. Belt Drive: A combination of belts and pulleys that transfers torque from the driver to the pump. Usually needs no installation measurement. It is the point where the power coming out of the pump (water power) is the closest to the power used by the pump (absorbed power) from the driver. causing noise. sleeve. Bearing: Supports the rotating shaft and allows it to turn with a minimum amount of friction. damage and a loss of capacity. and reduce the heat generation between the faces.Balance Holes: Holes in the back shroud of an impeller designed to balance axial thrust. Bushing: A close fitting support device used to restrict flow between two liquids. Buffer fluid: The low pressure fluid that is circulated between the two mechanical seal in a tandem seal. Ball bearing: Consists of an inner race. the stuffing box to the pump suction. Bar: Metric unit for pressure and is equal to 100 kPa. Cartridge seal: A self-contained assembly containing the seal. bearings and rotor contained in a can to prevent product leakage. Centrifugal pump: A pump that imparts energy to a liquid with centrifugal force. Base plate: The pump and motor are mounted on this unit. Centistoke: One unit for the kinematic viscosity of a liquid. B. The fluid should enter the bottom and leave the top to prevent air pockets. an outer race. These are generally limited to pumping clean lubricating liquids. Dynamic viscosity divided by the liquid specific gravity at the same temperature gives kinematic viscosity. These are used in higher temperature pumping applications e. Capacity: Volumetric flow of liquid measured in.

agitation. Corrosion: This is a chemical or electrochemical reaction on material surfaces that changes the profile and/or composition of the surface. liquid to solid. Deflection: Movement or displacement of the shaft in a radial direction. These speeds are called the critical speeds. This is the ratio of the mass of a liquid in a given volume to the magnitude of that volume. Differential pressure is sometimes called the Pump Total Differential Pressure. Cooling jackets can be part of the component casting or separate bolt on items. D D. Concentricity: When the parts share the same centerline they are concentric to each other. Condensate: This defines the change on phase of a vapour to liquid e. solid to vapour. they are used in seal flush lines. It can be a flexible coupling that allows some axial and radial misalignment or rigid which does not allow for any misalignment. Refer to Specific Gravity. minor unbalances will be magnified. Change of state: This defines a change in phase for any material e. In the past the term was used to describe a higher-pressure barrier fluid between dual seals. It transmits torque between the driver and pump.I.N. Discharge Head: The outlet pressure of the pump converted to head of liquid. Pump Clinic 40 Glossary of Pump Terms Page 3 of 10 . Close-coupled: A close-coupled pump is characterised by a common or rigidly-coupled motor and pump shaft. back-to-back double seals or tandem seal. These pumps do not have a flexible coupling. liquid to vapour. Constant Level Oiler: This is used to maintain the oil level in a bearing housing to the correct level as oil is used. Critical speed: Any object made of an elastic material has a natural period of vibration. Cooling jacket: Cooling jackets can be located on the pump casings and /or the stuffing box of the pump to control the temperature of the fluid. Design Duty Point: This is generally defined for a pump as a capacity at a head or pressure of the liquid being pumped. Double suction pump: A pump with an impeller where liquid enters the impeller on both sides.g. Density: Measured in kg/m3 or lb/in 2.Centrifugal separator (or cyclone separator): Equipment that utilises centrifugal force to separate solids out of the fluid. ideally the design duty point on a centrifugal pump as at BEP. Corrosion resistant: An arbitrary term that indicates a corrosion rate of less than 0. The latest terminology is "dual seals". When a pump rotor or shaft rotates at any speed corresponding to its natural frequency. steam to water.05 mm per year. standard: This is a German standard that defines various industrial products. The rotor is generally (but not always) suspended between two bearings. Cryogenic Pumping: This generally refers to pumping liquid gases at very cold temperatures.g. Coupling: This is used to connect the pump to the driver. Cutwater: A part of the pump casing that directs the pumped liquid to the pump discharge. Double seal: An outdated term describing two seals in a pump. Differential Pressure: The difference between the outlet pressure and the inlet pressure. Dilatant liquid: A liquid whose viscosity increases with increased shear rate e. Allowable misalignment is determined by manufacturers of the coupling. These pumps are generally of higher capacities.g. There are no pump bearings and all thrust is carried by the motor bearings. In pumping.

That is power out of the pump divided by power into the pump. Used at the point of the liquid intake to retain liquid in the system. The barrier fluid pressure is always lower than stuffing box pressure. tandem. F Face combination: The materials chosen for the two lapped seal faces. Ductility: The property of a metal that allows a great deal of mechanical deformation without cracking. face to face. This face load is reduced by friction between the sliding elastomer and the shaft or sleeve. Foot Valve: A type of check valve with a built-in strainer. divided by the area of the seal face. Dual Seal: Two seals running in various configurations: back to back. or concentric. Dry running: Operating a pump without liquid in the pump and therefore in the seal area. when compressed and then released will basically return to its original shape in less than five seconds.D. Friction Head: This is the head loss due to friction as liquid flows in pipes and fittings. An example is carbon graphite running on silicon carbide.M or E. hydraulic load and shaft axial thrust. Flush: Putting an outside liquid into the stuffing box of the pump at a pressure higher than stuffing box pressure. Pump Clinic 40 Glossary of Pump Terms Page 4 of 10 . Eye of the impeller: The center of the impeller where the fluid enters. E Efficiency: In centrifugal pumps.P. Elastomer: A rubber-like material that.P. Cannot be used in petroleum products.P. The material has good compatibility with hydrocarbons.Double volute: A centrifugal pump design that incorporates two cut waters to decrease radial loads and minimise shaft deflection when the pump is operating away from the B. Face pressure: The sum of all the loads on the seal face including the spring load. Face lubrication: The fluid or vapor that exists between lapped mechanical seal faces. Face-to-face seals: Two seals running against a common seal face. All of this liquid mixes with and dilutes the pumped fluid. Flooded suction: This refers to a situation where the liquid level on the suction side of a pump is higher than the pump centerline and the liquid flows to the pump by gravity. Free length: The uncompressed axial length of a seal. Lowers the efficiency of the pump and therefore seldom used on smaller size impellers.E.R: Ethylene propylene rubber. Fluorocarbon: This is a genetic term for an elastomer of which Viton (a Dupont product) is a typical example. preventing the loss of prime when the liquid level is below the pump centreline. E. Erosion: This is wear caused by mechanical action of the liquid on the surface of the materials. Electrolysis: A process involving chemical change caused by the passage of an electric current through a liquid. This is a common elastomer used in the sealing of water based and higher pH materials. has high temperature capability but poor mechanical life. It is obviously more prevalent if the liquid contains solids. Flashing: A rapid change in phase from a liquid to a gas. this is the useful power in the liquid to the expended power.

: International Standards Organization.P. Induction motor: The most common type used in industry. Stellite. K Kalrez®: An "elastomer-like" material manufactured by E. It is available in several different grades. Impeller vane: Located between the eye and the discharge side of the impeller. Impeller: The rotating component of a centrifugal pump that imparts energy to the fluid being pumped. Hydrocarbon: A petroleum product consisting of hydrogen and carbon. Ni-resist.: Inside diameter. Sets pump and seal standards for the metric community. The most common materials are silicone carbide. This improvement occurs across a narrow capacity range and the impact can be detrimental outside of this range. ceramic.O. The hard face must be the wider seal face. I I. No base plate or alignment required. Connections are normally on the bottom-half casing to allow removal of the top casing for pump inspection without needing to disconnect pipework. J Jacket: Usually refers to the heating/cooling jacket surrounding the stuffing box on some pumps. Horizontally Split Pump: This is a pump where the casing is split into two sections in the axial plane.G Gasket: This is used between two static surfaces to provide a seal.S. I. semi-open and closed design. Available in open. Inducer: A small axial flow vane that attaches to the impeller of a centrifugal pump that reduces the N. Can be calculated from H (metres)= pressure in kPa/(9. Hastelloy "C” (also known as Alloy C): A nickel-rich.8 x specific gravity). Head: The equivalent height of the liquid that will produce a particular pressure. Hydraulic balance: A method of reducing mechanical seal face loading by reducing the seal face closing area. H Hard face: A seal face either rotating or stationary. Prevents solids from penetrating behind the vanes. Impeller eye: The centre of the impeller or the point where fluid enters the impeller. The normal unit for power in the metric system. This means there is a top and bottom-half casing.D. tungsten carbide. Impeller shroud: The plates located on one or both sides of the impeller vanes. Gland: The part that holds one half of the mechanical seal and attaches to the stuffing box. Directs the flow of the liquid to the outside diameter of the impeller.S. required by a pump. Made from a variety of deformable materials. Dupont that is used to seal most solvents and other aggressive fluids. Inline pump: Mounted in the piping generally between two flanges. Pump Clinic 40 Glossary of Pump Terms Page 5 of 10 . Has a slippage of 2 to 5 percent compared to synchronous motors.H. corrosion-resistant and very hard alloy. Kilowatt: One thousand watts.I.

Moment of inertia: This represents a magnitude of the inertia in respect of the rotation around the axis of the pump and drive rotor.P. The pump manufacturer determines the NPSHR by testing. Utilises a series of pressure drops to reduce the leakage.H. Non Overloading Power: This refers to the maximum power absorbed by a pump with a specific impeller diameter and liquid. Mechanical seal: A positive sealing device used to seal all fluids (liquids and gases).P. The primary seal is a set of lapped seal faces that are installed perpendicular to the shaft.H. Minimum flow: The minimum capacity of a pump to prevent thermal and/or mechanical damage. Newtonian Fluid: A Newtonian liquid is one whose viscosity does not change with increasing shear rate e. it is imperative that NPSHA >NPSHR to prevent cavitation O O. when agitated.friction head loss in the suction piping.D. Mating ring: Another name for the hard face in a mechanical seal. Lantern Ring: A device used to supply lubricant to packing. It can be either rotating or stationary. Generally used in vertical pumps.: Net positive suction head required to prevent cavitation of a pump and is dependent on impeller and pump design.R. L Labyrinth seal: A non-contacting seal utilising a tortured path for the escape of the fluid. N. M Magnetic drive: A type of seal less pump that utilises permanent magnet technology to provide the rotation of the impeller. Line bearings: These position the rotor or shaft radially and are normally of the sleeve type. Pump Clinic 40 Glossary of Pump Terms Page 6 of 10 . In all cases. Motors are generally sized at the next size above this power.A: The net positive suction head available to prevent cavitation of the pump. N Negative pressure: A pressure below atmospheric pressure.S. Multistage Pump: This defines a pump that has more than one impeller on the shaft. It refers to the suction side of a pump installation and is defined as the head acting on top of the liquid + static head vapor pressure head . Usually located in the middle of the packing ring set.: Outside diameter. Metal fatigue: A breakage of the metal caused by the bending and flexing of a metal part beyond its endurance limit. N.Kpa (kilopascals): A metric unit of pressure.g.S. Liquefied Natural Gas LNG: This is liquefied gas from natural sources Liquefied Petroleum Gas LPG: This is liquefied petroleum gas which is a by-product of the refining of crude petroleum oil. Metal bellows: Used in mechanical seal designs to eliminate the need for a dynamic elastomer and springs.

Operating length: This measurement is set by manufacturers to provide the correct closing pressure on the two mechanical seal faces. Q Quench: The introduction of a fluid outside the seal to cool the product.e. Precision bearing: Ball or roller bearing as opposed to a sleeve bearing. Pipe strain: The strain on the pump volute caused by the piping. it generally exceeds the requirement of the design operation. pH: A measure of the acidity or the alkalinity of a fluid. Priming: This refers to the filling of a pump with liquid prior to operation. dilute any leakage across the seal faces or isolate seal faces from atmosphere. When rated operation is specified. a minimum of five rings of packing is required to do this. In an end-suction centrifugal pump it is the bearing located closest to the stuffing box. erosion or cavitation. the liquid being pumped is displaced by a body which periodically increases and decreases the working volume. The scale ranges from 0 (acid) to 14 (alkali) with 7 considered neutral. Pitting: Surface voids caused by corrosion. The bearings are in this part. Generally. The stage casings are radially split. R Radial Bearing: This bearing handles most of the radial loads put on the impeller. Rated Operation: This is the basis of selection of both pump and driver. by forces acting on the impeller when operating at points other than BEP. Power end: The end of the pump that attaches to the power source and is not wetted by the liquid. It can also cause serious misalignment with resultant damage to bearings and couplings. The measurement can be made in a number of ways dependent on manufacturer. One measurement is from the face of the stationary face to the location screws for the rotating part of the seal. at 90 degrees to the centerline of the shaft. Parallel operation: This refers to two or more pumps that are discharging to a common header. Packing must have a small leak because it works on the theory of a series of pressure drops to reduce the stuffing box pressure to the point where the leakage is acceptable. P Packing: The soft rings that a mechanical seal replaces to stop leakage. It will cause excessive mechanical seal movement and can cause contact between rotating and stationary pump and seal components. It is important that the impeller speed and outside diameters are the same or one of the pumps may cause other pumps to operate at shut off. Orifice Plate: A plate with a hole smaller than the pipe diameter in which it is located Over hung impeller: Not supported with bearings on either side of the impeller. Positive Displacement Pumps: This is a collective definition of all pumps that operate according to the positive displacement principle. Ring Section Pumps: These are multistage pumps with several identical stage casings arranged in tandem behind each other. Pump Clinic 40 Glossary of Pump Terms Page 7 of 10 . Radial Thrust: This is the thrust produced in the radial direction i. Pressure gradient: The pressure drop between the seal faces. Radially Split Casing: A pump casing with the casing joint at 90 degrees to the shaft axis. It is possible for the three to occur at the same time. That is.

g. it is higher than one.H. Specific Speed: Specific speed of a pump is determined by the geometry of a pump impeller. teflon. Shut off head: This is the maximum head that the pump can generate with a given impeller outside diameter. Solubility: This defines the ability of a liquid to dissolve with another liquid. Static head: The height of a liquid above a reference point e. Pumps that can self-prime from dry are limited to diaphragm and peristaltic type pumps only (both are positive displacement pumps). For example. A pump will operate where the system resistance curve intersects the pump performance curve. other synthetic bearing materials.Rockwell "C": The scale used to define hardness of materials. Stainless steel: Alloy steels containing a high percentage of chromium and/or nickel. white metal. System head: The head caused by friction in the piping valves and fittings. Pump Clinic 40 Glossary of Pump Terms Page 8 of 10 . pump centerline. If it sinks. Shaft packing: The soft packing located in the stuffing box to provide a shaft seal for pumps. S Saturation Pressure: Same as vapour pressure. Most self-priming pumps need to be filled with liquid (primed) before the initial start. Seal faces: The lapped faces that provide the primary seal in a mechanical seal.0. Stuffing box pressure: The pressure in the stuffing box and generally between suction and discharge pressure but closer to suction pressure. ethanol will fully dissolve in water whereas oil will float on water. Rarely used these days. Submersible pump: A pump/motor pumpset that operates only when totally submersed in the fluid which is being pumped. Series operation: Two or more pumps connected with the discharge of the first pump discharging to the suction of the other etc. It is usually manufactured from carbon. It is normally at zero capacity. brass. System resistance Curve: A graphed representation of how total dynamic head varies with capacity. Sleeve bearing: A non-precision or anti-friction bearing. Stationary face: The seal face that does not rotate with the shaft.S. however their design means that subsequent starts do not require priming. required. Shaft Power: The mechanical power absorbed at the pump shaft. The reference is water at 4 degrees C with an SG of 1. The higher the specific speed the less N. Specific Gravity (SG): This is the ratio of the mass of a liquid for a known volume to the weight of water for the same volume. Suction lift: Pumping application where the liquid level on the suction side of the pump is below the pump centerline.P. Self Priming Pump: These pumps are capable of pumping liquids on a suction lift by being able to remove air from the suction line of its own accord. Slurry: A slurry is a liquid in which solids are present in suspension. Run out: Twice the distance that the centre of the shaft is displaced from the axis of rotation. If the liquid you are questioning will float on water the specific gravity is less than one. Note that this is based on the liquid not being soluble in water. Stuffing box: The portion of the pump that held the packing and now holds the mechanical seal.

Non-drip paint is an example of such a fluid.T Tandem seals: The seals are facing in the same direction with a low-pressure barrier fluid circulating between them. It is important to vent the stuffing box in vertical pumps to prevent the seal faces from running dry. In an end-suction pump. If this happens at the seal faces the seal faces will be blown open. Velocity: A measurement of the speed of the liquid in the system. Thixotropic fluid: The viscosity of the fluid decreases with agitation. U Unbalanced seal: A mechanical seal not designed to balance the closing force between seals. Vapor pressure: Below this pressure. Cobalt and nickel are the two most common types. Vacuum: This is a pressure less than atmospheric. V Variable speed motor: This is used to control flow in a system by varying the frequency of the motor. Thrust bearing: This locates the rotor or shaft axially and is designed to handle any excess axial thrust load. This is a very important factor in the selection of mechanical seal faces. Thrust: In a centrifugal pump it refers to the axial movement of the shaft. A better system than throttling as it reduces power consumption significantly. Thermal conductivity: A measure of the material's ability to conduct heat. Opening the valve results in an increase in flowrate. This is calculated from the formula H = v2/2g. Turbulence: This refers to disturbance of fluid as it enters the suction connection and /or the impeller. Total Dynamic Head: Total dynamic head is equal to total discharge head minus total suction head Total Suction Head: This is equal to the pressure at the pump suction connection converted to head of liquid. This is measured in metres per second. This is often caused by an insufficient length of straight pipe before the pump suction inlet. Vent: This removes air or gas from the system. it is normally located close to the coupling. Refer to Balanced Seal. Vaporisation: The fluid passes from a liquid to a gaseous state. This steepens the system resistance curve with a resultant decrease in flowrate. The thrust can be towards the wet or power end of the pump and at start up it thrusts in both directions. Pump Clinic 40 Glossary of Pump Terms Page 9 of 10 . Tungsten carbide: A common hard face seal material available in several grades depending upon hardness and corrosion resistance. Velocity head: This is part of the total head calculation. Total Discharge Head: This is equal to the pressure at the pump discharge connection converted to head of liquid. Throttling: This means closing of a valve on the discharge side of a pump to increase friction loss. the liquid at this temperature will vaporise. This can cause cavitation problems in a centrifugal pump.

surge chambers. A very low efficiency design. relief valves or other means. Excellent for cryogenic and hot applications. Includes the volute. This may need to be replaced as it wears when the recommended clearance is doubled or when reduction in pump performance can no longer be tolerated. It converts velocity energy to pressure energy. and shaft or sleeve. Water hammer can usually be controlled by regulating the valve closure time. Wear ring: This is used with closed impeller pumps to seal leakage from the high-pressure side of the pump to the low-pressure side. from the floor of a pit or channel in which they are located. but practical in many applications. impeller wear rings. The impeller is recessed into the volute. Welded metal bellows: A seal design used to eliminate the use of elastomers. Wet end: The part of the pump that gets wet from the pumping fluid. Vortecies can form both from the surface of the liquid and in vertical pumps. or the sudden opening or closing of a valve. Vortexing liquid: Creating a "whirlpool affect" that can draw air into the suction of the pump. Pump Clinic 40 Glossary of Pump Terms Page 10 of 10 . change in pump speed. stopping. particularly stringy solids. stuffing box.Viscosity: This is defined as the property of a liquid that offers resistance due to the existence of internal friction between layers within the liquid. This damaging effect is usually the result of sudden starting. Not as effective for hot petroleum applications because of "coking" problems. Vortex Pump: A type of pump used to handle liquids with entrained solids. Watt: A measure of power. Water Power: The calculated power coming on water at an efficiency of 100%. W Water hammer: This occurs in a closed piping system as a result of the pressure being rapidly increased when the liquid velocity is suddenly changed. Volute casing: This derives its name from a spiral-shaped casing surrounding the pump impeller.I. Refer to Fluorocarbon. Dupont Dow manufactured fluorocarbon elastomer widely used in the sealing industry. Viton®: An E.

At a fixed speed the flow is constant irrespective of pressure and therefore NPSHR is constant. The graph on the left shows how centrifugal pump performance reduces markedly as viscosity increases.. In a centrifugal pump the NPSHR varies as a function of flow and flow is determined by the system resistance (total dynamic head). metres 20 40 60 80 Efficiency .2 . with the exception of air operated diaphragm pumps are basically constant volume machines where flowrates are independent of pressure. It also shows that with a positive displacement pump. ……. higher viscosity increases the flowrate.Head The pumps behave very differently when considering mechanical efficiency as well. The fundamental difference is that positive displacement pumps. Viscosity impacts on pump performance in very different ways. Flow is dependent only on speed. The performance chart to the left illustrates this difference. the flow will change and NPSHR will also change as a consequence. By looking at the efficiency chart to the left you can see the impact of pressure changes on the pump’s efficiency. In a PD pump NPSHR varies as a function of flow which is determined by speed. whereas the PD pump has more or less constant flow regardless of pressure.Issue 41 May 2010 When to use a Positive Displacement Pump 20 40 m3/hr 60 The choice between a centrifugal and positive displacement pump is not always apparent and cannot be made without a full understanding of the differences. The volumetric efficiency of positive displacement pumps increases with increased viscosity. If the total head varies for any reason. Changes in pressure have little effect on the PD pump but a dramatic one on the centrifugal. The centrifugal has varying flow depending on pressure or head. The reason for this is that slippage (flow back towards suction because of differential pressure) reduces with increased viscosity.PumpClinic ……. 20 30 40 Metres of Head Another consideration is NPSHR.

The centrifugal was picked at its Best Efficiency Point (BEP) and the PD pump (Internal Gear) selected to match the flow. PD pumps tend to produce higher heads or pressures at a more economical price. Published data is also variable in this area. A PD pump will give near constant flow that makes it possible to match the flow to the process requirements. These curves are presented as an example of the type of performance behaviour between the two different principles. By their nature. We believe that acceptable viscosity limits for centrifugal pumps are as follows. and pressure.e. The data presented in these charts is the actual data for a specific application. This is because the volumetric efficiency is affected by slip.When comparing the two types of pumps. the percentage of slip in relation to volumetric displacement is higher than at high speed. It is common knowledge that a centrifugal becomes very inefficient at even modest viscosity. Radial loads (the load that applies a bending moment to the shaft) increases at all flowrates other than that at best efficiency.e. The flowrate from centrifugal pumps will vary up and down the performance curve which can cause process problems. The most obvious reason to use a PD pump is when you have a high viscosity application. PD pumps may be a more appropriate selection at low flow. Additionally. In fact the volumetric efficiency actually improves at the high speed part of the curve. It is important to contact the manufacturer for specific information on shear rates and application recommendations. At low speed. high head applications. With a PD pump you can operate the pump on any point of the curve. These can be summarised as follows: A simple rule of thumb is that a PD pump should be selected where the smallest available centrifugal pump needs to operate at a flow less than 50% of best efficiency flow. other factors need to be considered. The acceptable viscosity ranges for centrifugal pumps tends to be dependent on pump size. At flowrates other than best efficiency flowrate. there are other reasons to select a PD pump over a centrifugal other than high viscosity. Generally speaking centrifugal pumps tend to shear liquids more as speed is increased and the centrifugal is a high speed pump. For nominal discharge pipe diameters. which is essentially constant regardless of speed. the flowrate at the best efficiency point. many PD pumps are self priming i. ≤ 50mm – up to 100 mm²/s ≤ 150mm – up to 250 mm²/s > 150mm – up to 400 mm²/s However. Shear rates in PD pumps vary by design but they are generally low shear devices. viscosity. This capability can vary from pump to pump so manufacturers’ recommendations must be followed. especially at low speeds. The desire to have constant flow is a reason that a PD pump is normally applied for metering applications. This makes the PD pump better able to handle shear sensitive liquids. will operate on suction lift without the necessity of a foot valve. it is important to understand that a centrifugal pump has an ideal operating flowrate i. Different applications will have different curves and efficiencies. A PD pump would be used on applications that have variable pressure conditions. Pump Clinic 41 When to use a Positive Displacement Pump Page 2 of 2 .

Undoubtedly. 2.Oil and Gas . DEFINITIONS Standards Australia – AS Standards Australia is the nation’s peak non-government Standards organisation. This paper is broken up into the following sections: • • Definitions: This area details the organisations that either prepare or certify pump specifications. Pump Clinic 42 Pump Standards Page 1 of 7 . ensure that it is relevant to the application. For example.g.General Purpose There are many national specifications e. There have been a number of instances where compliance with more than one pump specification is detailed.PumpClinic Pump Standards …….Process . Other associated standards such as those defining test standards are also available however we have not attempted to cover these in this paper. These standards may be national. however the vast majority are based on ISO standards or reference other standards such as API. It is charged by the Commonwealth Government to meet Australia’s need for contemporary. international. specifying ANSI B73. This paper attempts to cover the more commonly used pump specifications within Australia. Japanese. This does not mean that these pumps are not of excellent quality or fit for purpose. The various standards are covered by application as follows: . Many pumps available on the market today do not comply with any documented standard. For example. company specific or project specific. British. specifying API compliance for a building services application does not make any sense. Project specific specifications would generally reference other standards. there are other pump specifications being utilised and the writer would be pleased to hear about them.Fire .1 may disqualify offers of very suitable pumps complying with ISO 5199. This may appear to be a safe process however this often causes confusion for a pump supplier as there may be contradictions between the two standards. 4. 3. The following should be noted 1.Issue 42 June 2010 There are many pump standards used in the pump industry today. If the intention of a buyer is to define compliance with a specific standard. Australian etc. their points of view considered and consensus reached. industry specific. internationally aligned Standards and related services. It leads and promotes a respected and unbiased Standards development process ensuring all competing interests are heard. Any pump specifier should take care that defining compliance with a particular specification does not disqualify other suitable pumps.

and personnel in the United States. processes.NFPA The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is a U. legal. Hydraulics Institute. It has its headquarters in Geneva. The selection of class is determined by the application and the intention is that it is agreed between purchaser and supplier. widely known as ISO. ISO acts as a consortium with strong links to governments. the criteria for class determination may include. systems. The association’s chief functions on behalf of the industry include advocacy and negotiation with governmental. and others. HI members work through a number of technical committees to develop draft standards. . HI standards are developed within guidelines established by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).ANSI The American National Standards Institute or ANSI is a private non-profit organisation that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products. operation. commonly referred to as API. and equipment. toxicological. Founded on 23 February 1947.local ambient conditions It is possible that pumps built in accordance with Classes I. ANSI also accredits organisations that carry out product or personnel certification in accordance with requirements defined in international standards. makes it more powerful than most non-governmental organisations. In practice. and environmental effects. research into economic. training. standards make sure that people who own cameras can find the film they need for that camera anywhere around the globe. Pump Clinic 42 Pump Standards Page 2 of 7 .S trade association for the oil and natural gas industry. companies. The Institute involves pump users and other interested parties to reach consensus on published standards. The Institute plays a leading role in the development of pump standards in North America and worldwide. distribution. however. representing about 400 corporations involved in production.S. While ISO defines itself as a non-governmental organisation. and education outreach. For example.HI The Hydraulic Institute is a non-profit industry (trade) association established in 1917.reliability . the organisation promulgates worldwide proprietary industrial and commercial standards. is the main U. organisation (albeit with some international members) charged with creating and maintaining minimum standards and requirements for fire prevention and suppression activities.operating conditions .ISO The International Organisation for Standardisation. II and III may work beside one another in the same plant.International Organisation for Standardisation . HI and its members are dedicated to excellence in the engineering. The organisation also coordinates U.S. services.environmental conditions . It is impossible to standardise the class of technical requirements. and regulatory agencies. refinement. government agencies. and many other aspects of the petroleum industry. and that products are tested the same way. is an international-standard setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organisations. ANSI accredits standards that are developed by representatives of standards developing organisations. either through treaties or national standards. as well as other life-safety codes and standards. American Petroleum Institute . testing. performance. National Fire Protection Association . API both funds and conducts research related to many aspects of the petroleum industry. its ability to set standards that often become law. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide. II and III with Class I having the most stringent requirements. ISO classifies pumps as Class I. establishment and certification of industry standards. These standards ensure that the characteristics and performance of products are consistent. Switzerland. This includes everything from building codes to the personal protective equipment utilised by firefighters while extinguishing a blaze.API The American Petroleum Institute. installation. and application of pumping equipment.required operating life . HI standards are developed to define pump products. American National Standards Institute. that people use the same definitions and terms. manufacture. and pump life and quality. consumer groups.

S. but also work closely with manufacturers to evaluate new products and develop appropriate standards. storage yards. AS2118 Fire Sprinkler Systems AS2118. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) DIN. discharge. "Standardisation Committee of German Industry"). including power supply arrangements. it is issued the "FM APPROVED" mark to signify it will perform as expected and support property loss prevention. There are currently around thirty thousand DIN Standards covering nearly every field of technology. driver. "FM Global" is the communicative name of the company. fire pump controllers. and auxiliary equipment. whereas the legal name is "Factory Mutual Insurance Company". headquartered in Berlin. and probably the most well-known. When a product or service meets the standards of FM Approvals. One of the earliest. water spray.. Pump Clinic 42 Pump Standards Page 3 of 7 . wharves. installation. In 1926. pump. diesel engine drive and control. panel and also the package assembler. This business approach is centered on the belief that property losses can be prevented or mitigated. marinas and associated moored vessels. and auxiliary equipment. This standard deals with the selection and installation of pumps supplying liquid for private fire protection. It applies to fire hydrant systems installed to protect buildings. "German Standardisation Committee"). Requirements for installation and acceptance testing for electrical and compression-ignition drivers are also included. It approves both fire pump package components e. It was founded in 1917 as the Normenausschuss der deutschen Industrie (NADI. with offices worldwide. and hose reel systems. hydrant. NFPA20 Standard for the Installation of Stationary Fire Pumps for Fire Protection. electric drive and control. AS2419-2005 Fire hydrant installations This Standard sets out requirements for the design. The company employs a non-traditional business model whereby risk and premiums are determined by engineering analysis as opposed to historically based actuarial calculations. to reflect the fact that the organisation now dealt with standardisation issues in many fields. and plant.Pumpset systems This Standard specifies requirements for pumpset systems for use with fixed fire protection installations such as sprinkler. This Standard also applies to street fire hydrants used in lieu of on-site fire hydrants or to supplement the coverage afforded by street fire hydrants. power supplies. FM Global engineering personnel regularly visit insured locations to evaluate hazards and recommend improvements to their property or work practices to reduce physical and financial risks if a loss occurs. Since 1975. the NADI was renamed Deutscher Normenausschuss (DNA. that specialises in loss prevention services primarily to large corporations throughout the world in the Highly Protected Risk (HPR) property insurance market sector. not just for industrial products.-based insurance company.FM Global FM Global is a U. representing German interests at the international and European levels. steam turbine drive and control. suction. is the German national organisation for standardisation and is that country's ISO member body. is DIN 476 — the standard that introduced the A-series paper sizes in 1922 — adopted in 1975 as International Standard ISO 216. This has relevance as fire pump packages regularly include piping and valving. STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATIONS FIRE AS2941 Fixed fire protection installations . viz. and acceptance tests and operation. The scope of this document shall include liquid supplies.g.6-95 (Combined Sprinkler/Hydrants) define the general requirements for automatic sprinkler systems.1-06 (Sprinkler) and AS2118. FM Certification FM Approvals not only evaluates sprinklers and sprinkler system components for compliance with existing standards. It covers water supplies and specific requirements for pumps. structures. drivers. FM provides certification for fire pump sets to be utilized in sprinkler systems. and commissioning of fire hydrant systems to protect properties. This standard has relevance as fire pump packages regularly include piping and valving. the DNA is known as 'DIN' and is recognised by the German government as the official national-standards body. FM Approvals certifies industrial and commercial products and services for companies worldwide.

This Standard is applicable to overhung pumps. if it is not an integral part of the pump. This standard does not apply to rotary positive displacement pumps for fluid power applications. chemical. with any drive and any installation for general application. maintenance and safety for these pumps including baseplate. ISO 13709 Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum. for rotary positive displacement pumps and rotary positive displacement pump units. and gas industries.Class II This International Standard specifies the requirements for Class II centrifugal pumps of single-stage. The selection of the class to be used is made in accordance with the technical requirements for the application for which the pump is intended. It is not applicable to seal/less pumps. ISO 9908:1993 Technical specifications for centrifugal pumps -.g. This International Standard includes design features concerned with installation. coupling and auxiliary piping.Class III Covers class III requirements for centrifugal pumps of single stage. for use in petroleum. are covered by this standard. horizontal or vertical construction (coupled or close-coupled) with any drive and any installation for general application.Rotary This standard covers the minimum requirements for rotary positive displacement process pumps and pump units for use in the petroleum. multistage. API 676 Positive Displacement Pumps . coupling and auxiliary piping but excluding the driver. petrochemical. ISO 5199:2002 Technical Specifications for Centrifugal Pumps . This Standard is not applicable to seal-less pumps. Pumps used in the chemical process industries (e. API 685 Seal-less Centrifugal Pumps This standard covers the minimum requirements for seal-less centrifugal pumps for use in petroleum. Both packed-plunger and diaphragm types are included. petrochemical and gas industry process services. maintenance and safety of such pumps including baseplate. Includes design features concerned with installation.OIL AND GAS API 610 Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Service This International Standard specifies requirements for single and multistage centrifugal pumps. including pumps running in reverse as hydraulic power recovery turbines. This International Standard is applicable to overhung pumps. The class chosen is to be agreed between purchaser and manufacturer/supplier. Includes design features concerned with installation. horizontal or vertical construction. Pump Clinic 42 Pump Standards Page 4 of 7 . heavy duty chemical and gas industry services. ISO 14847:1999 Rotary positive displacement pumps -. between-bearings pumps and vertically suspended pumps. chemical. but it does not specify any requirements for the driver other than those related to its rated power output. Petrochemical and Natural Gas Industries This International Standard specifies requirements for centrifugal pumps.Controlled Volume This standard covers the minimum requirements for controlled volume positive displacement pumps for use in service in the petroleum. Both direct-acting and power-frame types are included. Single stage pumps of two classifications. including baseplate.Technical requirements This standard specifies the technical requirements. for use in petroleum. and gas industries. petrochemical and gas industry process services. PROCESS ISO 9905:1994 Technical specifications for centrifugal pumps -.Reciprocating This standard covers the minimum requirements for reciprocating positive displacement pumps for use in service in the petroleum.Class I The technical requirements refer only to the pump unit. and gas industry services. multistage. other than safety and testing. API 674 Positive Displacement Pumps . those conforming to ISO 2858) are typical of those covered by this International Standard. maintenance and safety of such pumps. magnetic drive pumps (MDP) and canned motor pumps (CMP). API 675 Positive Displacement Pumps . couplings and auxiliary piping. Diaphragm pumps that use direct mechanical actuation are excluded. between-bearings pumps and vertically-suspended pumps . including pumps running in reverse as hydraulic power recovery turbines.

viscosity. size. • Detailed explanation of each rotary pump type including basic operation. design and application. from all sources of supply. and which are mainly used in chemical processes. centreline discharge design. typical applications. nor pumping water. ANSI/ASME B73. ASME B73. explosion protection. The updated standard also includes: • Capability tables in both metric and US customary units providing comparisons of rate of flow. and location of suction and discharge nozzles. input shafts. It is the intent of this Standard that pumps of the same standard dimensional designation from all sources of supply shall be interchangeable with respect to mounting dimensions. It applies to pumps which utilise reciprocating motion derived from crankshafts and camshafts and also direct-acting fluid driven pumps. It includes dimensional interchangeability requirements and certain design features to facilitate installation and maintenance. and defines those items to be agreed upon between the purchaser and manufacturer/supplier.Technical requirements This International Standard specifies the technical requirements. end suction single stage.1-3.ISO 15783:2002 Seal-less centrifugal pumps . It is the intent of this Standard that pumps of the same standard dimension designation from all sources of supply shall be interchangeable with respect to mounting dimensions. centre-line discharge design.5M Specification for Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymer Material Horizontal End Suction Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical Process (not often used in Australia) This Standard covers centrifugal pumps of horizontal. size and location of suction and discharge nozzles. This Standard includes dimensional interchangeability requirements and certain design features to facilitate installation and maintenance. It includes: types and nomenclature. and foundation bolt holes. ISO 5199. baseplates. This Standard does not include lined or non polymer components.1 Specification for Horizontal End Suction Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical Process This standard covers centrifugal pumps of horizontal.5 Rotary Pumps (not often used in Australia) This standard applies to industrial rotary positive displacement pumps. water treatment and petrochemical industries. It is the intent of this Standard that pumps of the same standard dimension designation. where the whole pump is lubricated with the liquid being pumped. input shafts. This International Standard includes design features concerned with installation. Pump Clinic 42 Pump Standards Page 5 of 7 . and foundation bolt holes. and foundation bolt holes ASME B73.2 Specifications for Vertical In-Line Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical Process This Standard covers motor-driven centrifugal pumps of vertical shaft. end suction single stage.3 Specification for Seal-less Horizontal End Suction Metallic Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical Process This Standard covers seal-less centrifugal pumps of horizontal end suction single stage and centre-line discharge design. other than safety and testing. shall be interchangeable with respect to mounting dimensions and size and location of suction and discharge. and location of suction and discharge nozzles. This Standard includes dimensional interchangeability requirements and certain design features to facilitate installation and maintenance. and power range for 11 different types of rotary pumps. Pumps will normally conform to recognised standard specifications (e.Class II – Specification This International Standard specifies the requirements for seal-less centrifugal pumps that are driven with permanent magnet coupling (magnet drive pumps) or with canned motor. reversible rotation. It does not apply to reciprocating positive displacement pumps. input shafts. which components are made of thermoplastic and thermo-set polymer materials either reinforced or non-reinforced.g. electromagnetic compatibility). definitions. pressure. ANSI/ASME B73. solids and abrasive handling. and driver requirements. operation and maintenance. except where special requirements are specified herein. baseplates. maintenance and operational safety of the pumps. • A consolidated range chart providing a comparison of pressure and rate of flow in both metric and US customary units for 11 different rotary pump types. It is the intent of this Standard that pumps of the same standard dimension designation from all sources of supply shall be interchangeable with respect to mounting dimensions. single stage design with suction and discharge nozzles in line. ISO 16330:2003 Reciprocating positive displacement pumps and pump units -. baseplates. ANSI/HI 3. size. design features. for reciprocating positive displacement pumps and pump units. It includes dimensional interchangeability requirements and certain design features to facilitate installation and maintenance.

installation. Plot of efficiency vs. The pump may be designed with a single diaphragm or double diaphragms connected to a reciprocating shaft in which one side of the diaphragm is in contact with the liquid being pumped and the other side is in contact with the compressed gas.5 Air Operated Pumps (to our knowledge the only standard available for this type of pump and to date not seen in Australia) This standard is for air-operated pumps and includes those positive displacement reciprocating pumps used for general fluid transfer.Storage recommendations • Operation and trouble solving ANSI/HI 10. ANSI/HI 4. ANSI/HI 5. which are driven by means of a compressed gas (usually air) from an outside source.Calculating Volumetric Efficiency • Installation .5 Controlled Volume Metering Pumps (not often used in Australia) This Standard applies to Controlled-Volume Metering Pumps.Pump Torque Characteristics . It includes: • Types and Nomenclature • Definitions • Design and Application .1-4.6 Seal-less Centrifugal Pump Standards (not often used in Australia) This standard is for seal/less centrifugal pumps that are driven by canned motors or magnetic couplings. design and application. Revised and expanded list of definitions.Materials of construction . which are reciprocating power pumps used to accurately displace a predetermined volume of liquid within a specified time.Drive Alignment after Piping Installation • Operation and Maintenance ANSI/HI 7. and Maintenance ANSI/HI 12. It contains sections on: • General Description • Types and Nomenclature • Definitions • Application and sizing .1-7. applications and operation addresses a long-standing challenge in the wastewater pump industry for development and acceptance of a test standard written specifically for slurry pumps. rate of flow for different pump types.1-10. Operation.Control methods • Installation . operation/maintenance and testing.6 Seal-less Rotary (not often used in Australia) This standard applies to industrial rotary positive displacement pumps. A completely new section on multiphase pumps for oil and gas applications. The scope of this standard includes: • Slurry pump types • Types of slurries Pump Clinic 42 Pump Standards Page 6 of 7 . The testing section includes: • Hermetic Integrity Test • Mechanical Integrity Test • Winding Integrity Test ANSI/HI 6. installation. operation and maintenance. definitions. Listing of viscosities of common fluids.1-5.1-12. and nomenclature • Definitions • Design and Application • Installation.6 Centrifugal Slurry Pumps (not often used in Australia) This standard for centrifugal slurry pumps for nomenclature.Protection of Pump Against Seepage or Flood .1-6. configurations. definitions.Typical performance curves .• • • • • New and updated cross-sectional illustrations of popular rotary pump designs. It does not include standards on magnetic drives for seal-less pumps. design and application. It includes types and nomenclature. It includes: types and nomenclature. The standard includes the following sections: • Types.Basic Speeds . and test. definitions.5 Reciprocating Power Pump Standard (not often used in Australia) This Standard applies to industrial/commercial reciprocating power pumps.

The majority of DIN 24255 pumps supplied in Australia are manufactured in China.• Slurry limitations • Slurry solids effect on pumps • Pumping of froth. 125 x 100-250. The pump designation consists of three numbers detailing suction and discharge connection sizes and nominal impeller diameter in mm e.Designation. and application The standard provides requirements for wet-end and bearing housing shaft seals. Nominal duty point and Dimensions The standard covers the ISO requirements for general purpose pumps primarily for use with water. GENERAL PURPOSE ISO 2858:1975 End-suction centrifugal pumps (rating 16 bar) -. This is primarily a dimensional standard. pump wear. and provides a data sheet that can be used by purchasers and vendors to exchange information. Pump Clinic 42 Pump Standards Page 7 of 7 . This is primarily a dimensional standard. The table covers flange sizes from 50 mm up to and including 200 mm. establishes allowable nozzle loads.g. DIN 24255 End-suction centrifugal pumps (normal rating 10 bar although some may claim 16 bar) This specification details single stage. end suction overhung impeller centrifugal pumps for general purpose applications design to be used primarily with water up to a maximum of 120 C.

Simply put. Note that mixed flow impellers are more affected than low specific speed.PumpClinic Impeller Trimming ……. More accurate information can be obtained from a complete performance chart with different impeller diameters detailed. "D" describes the diameters of the vanes and shrouds 1. so the head/capacity curve becomes steeper. Impeller trimming means the reduction of the impeller diameter from maximum usually to adjust the pump performance to a required duty point. There is increased turbulence at the vane tips as the impeller is trimmed because the shroud to casing clearance (Gap "A") is increasing. radial vane impellers (high head/low capacity). the greater the impeller reduction and the higher the specific speed of the impeller. This is true only in low specific speed pumps. There are several reasons why this is true: • • • The affinity laws assume the impeller shrouds are parallel. The diagram below will be used throughout this paper.e.Issue 43 July 2010 Performance curves for centrifugal pumps normally detail the performance for a number of impeller diameters between a maximum and minimum allowable diameter. Q1/Q2 = D1/D2 b) Pump head (H) varies with the square of the diameter (D) i. the more the pump efficiency will decrease with impeller trimming.e. The liquid exit angle is changed as the impeller is cut back. Pump Clinic 43 Impeller Trimming Page 1 of 3 . Several things can happen when the impeller vane diameter is reduced. H1/H2 = (D1/D2)² c) Power absorbed varies with the cube of the diameter (D) i.e. P1/P2 = (D1/D2)³ These relationships (not laws) allow adjustment of the H-Q curve but there is a detrimental impact on efficiency especially for impeller reductions greater than 10% of maximum. This is sometimes referred to as "slip". CHANGE IN PUMP PERFORMANCE The change in pump performance with changes in impeller diameter can be predicted similarly to that with speed change utilising the Affinity laws a) Pump flow rate (Q) varies directly with the diameter (D) i. • • • Gap "A" describes the clearance between the impeller shrouds to the volute or casing and Gap "B" describes the clearance between the impeller vanes and the casing or volute.

The interaction of the physical geometry of the pump inlet. inclusive of the casing. increasing the NPSHR. NPSH IMPACTS In general. For applications with Ns values above 30 (1500 US). When trimming impellers on pumps that are of a low specific speed (Ns < 30 SI. This is where volute damage occurs. ii) iii) For impeller diameters up to 355 mm. For low Ns applications. impeller. recirculation between impeller discharge and the impeller inlet start to disrupt the inlet field of flow.2. The bubbles then collapse at the higher pressure just beyond the cutwater. The pulsating forces acting on the impeller can be reduced by 80% to 85% by increasing gap "B" from 1% to 6%. The velocity of the liquid increases as it flows through this small passage. where Q represents flow at the best efficiency point of the pump. lowering the fluid pressure and causing local vaporisation. a NPSH test is recommended to determine the NPSHR for any impeller trim. Gap "B" should be at least 6% of the impeller diameter to prevent this type of cavitation. Beyond the allowable impeller cut range. Suction Specific Speed (S) is calculated using the following equation. and all associated wetted parts within the inlet field of flow determines the NPSHR characteristic of a pump. The value of NPSHR for any centrifugal pump is determined through performance testing. S = rpm x √Q NPSHR¾ In can be seen in the above equation that NPSHR should not change with changes in impeller diameter as long as flow and RPM remain constant. MECHANICAL IMPACTS i) Excessive shroud to casing clearance (Gap "A") and the resultant recirculation to the low pressure side of the pump will produce "eddy flows" around the impeller causing low frequency axial vibrations that can translate to mechanical seal problems. tests have shown that there is little effect on NPSHR within the allowable impeller cut range. as long as the field of flow into the impeller eye is not disrupted by events taking place downstream of the impeller inlet. full diameter NPSH values may be used for estimating NPSHR for cut impeller performance. impeller diameter reductions greater than 5% to 10% of the maximum will increase the NPSHR (net positive suction head required) dependent on impeller specific speed. 3. gap "B" should be at least 4% of the impeller diameter to prevent "Vane passing syndrome cavitation" problems. For impeller diameters above 355 mm. There is no factor in the S equation that relates to impeller diameter. Unless damage Pump Clinic 43 Impeller Trimming Page 2 of 3 . For many years pump people have been machining the vane tips to reduce the vane passing frequency vibrations (Gap "B") while carefully maintaining Gap "A". This type of cavitation damage is caused when the outside diameter of the impeller passes too close to the pump cutwater. for any defined inlet geometry. 1500 US). From NPSH test data. This can be a real concern in large pumps with powers over 200 kW or pumps pumping heads in excess 200 metres. Suction specific speed (S) remains constant.

8 and below produce significantly lower pump noise. refer to figure below. In designing a pump casing. The distance from the shaft centerline to the volute cut water is called the cutwater radius and twice this distance is the cutwater diameter Hydraulic noise becomes a factor when the periphery of the impeller passes too close to the cutwater." Specifying the later statement is safer since the impeller diameter would be even smaller than the desired maximum. From the above. the damage will not extend into the shrouds. a flashlight and mirror will most likely be required to inspect the damage. Some manufacturers recommend an oblique cut that will improve the vane exit flow and add some strength to the shrouds. The damage is limited to the centre of the impeller vane. but 85% of cutwater diameter (0. In designing a pump. but the shrouds should remain untouched. a design engineer first determines the volute scroll (A) necessary to handle the desired volume of water. If it's a closed impeller. many practicing engineers limit the impeller diameter to 85% of its maximum diameter.85 is commonly specified by practicing engineers. NOISE When writing a pump specification. 4. Such a limitation is actually a misunderstanding of a design concept known as "quiet pump operation. the distance between the impeller and the cutwater is a compromise between the pump efficiency and pump noise. With these types of pumps you can reduce the vane diameters.has penetrated to the outside of the volute. Cutwater ratio of 0. The idea here is not that the impeller diameter should be 85% of the maximum published diameter. The volute scroll is drawn around a base circle (D). Square corners are never a good idea.9 and above produce higher noise and cutwater ratios of 0. This volute scroll terminates at the volute cut water (B) at the base of the discharge nozzle (C). it may be understood that a specification should more properly read "impeller diameter not to exceed 85% of the volute cutwater diameter” rather than "impeller diameter shall not exceed 85% of the maximum impeller diameter capable of being installed in the pump casing. cutwater ratios (D/F) of 0. Pump Clinic 43 Impeller Trimming Page 3 of 3 . v) Structural strength is a consideration when deciding how much to reduce the vane diameter in double ended pumps because you could leave too much unsupported shroud. it is not a good idea to do this in double suction designs. In some cases this may force selection a larger pump than necessary. volute-type centrifugal pumps. vi) Machining a radius where the trimmed vane meets the shroud is another good idea to add strength to the assembly." This misunderstanding may force the selection of a larger pump for the application. Typically. thereby realising a minimum reduction in efficiency with a mean reduction in noise level.85 cutwater ratio). To fully understand the quiet pump operation design concept. iv) Although both the vanes and shrouds are often cut in end-suction. which is sufficiently large enough to allow insertion of the impeller.