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BME 379/385, CHE 379, Spring 2003 (Schmidt)
By the end of this lecture, you should be able to: • Describe the key pros/cons of different materials • Describe different mechanical tests & interpret data • Describe differences between metals, ceramics, polymers • Identify condensation & addition polymerization reactions • Define thermoset & thermoplastic polymers • Calculate average molecular weight of a polymer • Calculate degree of polymerization for a polymer • Discuss the properties that affect polymer degradation • Describe different polymers processing techniques
I. II. III. Introduction & General Classification of Materials Analysis of Material Properties Polymer Basics A. Classification B. Polymerization Reactions C. Copolymers Polymer Properties A. Desired Polymer Properties B. Thermoset & Thermoplastic Behavior C. Elastomer Behavior D. Hydrogels Polymer Degradation & Biodegradable Polymers Polymers Processing for Tissue Engineering
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Introduction & General Classification of Materials
List key pros/cons & common biomedical uses of current materials:
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Ceramics: Hydroxy apatite
LTI pyrolytic carbon
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Polymers: Natural polymers
Synthetic polymers (non-degradable)
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Synthetic polymers (degradable)
II. Analysis of Material Properties
Biomechanics Failure analyses (tensile fracture, compression, shear stress, fatigue, wear,...) Structure & Geometry Imaging techniques (photography, microCT, histology) (not discussed in class) Biocompatibility and Cell Response (discussed in later lectures)
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Biomechanics A common property measured of most materials is tensile strength:
2 1 Stress
To construct this tensile stress-strain plot, a rod or "dog-bone" shaped material specimen is stretched using a mechanical test machine (instron). Force (Newtons) is applied to the specimen, and deformation of the specimen is measured (mm). Stress, σ (N/m2 or Pascals), is calculated as force divided by the original cross-sectional area. Strain, ε (%), is calculated as the change in length divided by the original length. For the plot above: Region A = Region B = Point 1 = Point 2 = Point 3 = Young's modulus (E) or stiffness =
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Example Problem: You are to design a cable that must support an elevator cab that weighs 10,000 lb. The cable is made from the aluminum alloy, whose data is presented in the figure below. Calculate the minimum diameter of the cable required to support the cab without permanent deformation.
Stress-Strain for Alluminum Alloy
45,000 40,000 35,000
35000 30000 Stress (psi) 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 0.001 0.002 Strain (in/in) 0.003 0.004
30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12
Stress-strain curves can also provide information on brittleness vs. ductility….
Which curve above represents the behavior for a brittle material? A ductile material?
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Other biomechanical tests: Compression
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III. Polymer Basics
Polymers can be defined as:
Polymer advantages over metals and ceramics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Polymer disadvantages compared to metals and ceramics: 1. 2. Why are polymers typically used in Tissue Engineering applications?
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Polymers can be classified according to: 1. Polymerization mechanism Condensation polymerization Addition (free radical) polymerization
Polymer structure Linear A' (A)X-2 A"
Branched A' (A)n
Polymer behavior Thermoplastic –
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Polymerization Reactions Condensation Polymerization R-NH2 + R'COOH --> R'CONHR + H20
(amine) (carboxylic acid) (amide)
Most natural polymers (polysaccharides, proteins) are made by condensation polymerization
Addition (Free Radical) Polymerization
H H H H H H
The breaking of a double bond usually occurs using an initiator (e.g., free radical such as benzoyl peroxide). The free radicals (R•) can react with monomers:
H R• + CH2 =CHX ----> RCH2 C• X
This free radical can then react with another monomer in a process called propagation:
R• + M --> RM•
RM• + M --> RMM•
The propagation process can be terminated by combining two free radicals or by transfer.
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Common condensation and free radical polymers:
Degree of polymerization (DP):
M w = (DP) x (M.W. of mer)
DP related to molecular weight: Polydispersity:
M w ∑ (Wi • MWi)/∑ Wi = M n ∑ (Xi• MWi)/∑ Xi
EXAMPLE: Calculate the degree of polymerization if polyethylene (C2H4)n has a molecular weight of 100,000 g/gmol. (How will this change for a condensation polymer?)
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Molecular weight affects polymer properties:
Types of copolymers:
--AABBABAABBBABAABAAABBABA— --ABABABABABABABABABABABAB— --AAAAAA--BBBBBB--AAAAAA--BBBBBB— --AAAAAA--AAAAAA--AAAAAA-B B B B B B B B B
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IV. Polymer Properties
A. Desired Polymer Properties
Some of the properties that should be considered for the selection of a polymer for a particular biomedical use are:
(this is what the medical doctor and engineer would specify)
The macroscopic properties of the biomaterial (above) will depend on the following fundamental characteristics of the polymer:
(this is what the polymer chemist would control)
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Thermoset & Thermoplastic Behavior
Examples of plastics (thermoplastic and thermoset) and elastomers:
Thermoplastics, elastomers & hydrogels (not shown above) are most important in BME. See handout on hydrogels.
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How does MW of a thermoplastic polymer affects its strength & thermal stability?
What are some properties and processing conditions that affect crystallinity?
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Elastomers are highly elastic over a range of temperatures. What provides this elastic property?
Are these materials amorphous or crystalline? What happens at temperatures above Tm? Does the polymer liquefy? Why or why not?
Hydrogels are a unique form of polymers for implantation. Definition:
Hydrogels can be up to 90% water (by weight). Examples: agarose gels, gelatin, collagen gels, ... Pros and Cons:
Example = contact lenses
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V. Polymer Degradation & Biodegradable Polymers
Definition: Biodegradable polymers are also referred to as: Biodegradable polymers are used as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications for many reasons:
Degradation occurs via hydrolysis, enzymatic action, . Possible concerns with degradable polymers (with respect to Tissue Engineering):
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Common Biodegradable Synthetic Polymers: There are several biodegradable polymers that already exist and that are being developed for tissue engineering applications. Two of the more common biodegradable polymers are PGA and PLA. These materials are commercially available and are already FDA-approved for surgical procedures (e.g., biodegradable sutures). Polyesters: Polyglycolic Acid (PGA)
H O C H O C O H O C H C O
Polylactic Acid (PLA)
CH3 O O C H C O CH3 O C H C O
Which polymer is likely more crystalline? Why?
What properties of the above polymers will affect degradation rates?
One can tailor polymer properties (degradation rate) by making copolymers of PGA & PLA --> PLGA or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid). Polyesters commonly used as suture material, adhesives, and in TE applications (breakdown products are natural).
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Degradation of Biodegradable Polymers:
Factors that will affect degradation:
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Degradation (Hydrolysis) of PLGA:
These degradation products, although natural to the body, are acidic -- too fast of a degradation rate can be detrimental to cells (pH ). PLGA tends to degrade by bulk degradation. More hydrophobic polymers, such as polyanhydride, tend to degrade by surface erosion.
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VI. Poymers Processing for Tissue Engineering
Polymer Foams (solvent casting & particulate leaching)
Fiber extrusion and fiber bonding
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Larger device extrusion (e.g., conduits)
Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) and 3-D Printing (see article by Griffith; below is new development by Chen at UT)
Laser Beam Shutter Lens Platform Liquid Polymer and Container XYZ Controller CAD Station
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Simpler Methods for 3-D Polymer Processing
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